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3D Display Methods :

In this section, we focus on a subgoals of realistic picture we have to first setup a coordinate
reference for camera. This co-ordinate reference defines the position and orientation for the plane
of the camera, as shown in Fig.4.3. 1.
This plane must be used to display a view of the object; its description has to transferred to the
camera reference co-ordinates and projected onto the selected display plane. Then we can display
object in wire frame form or we can apply lighting and surface rendering techniques to shade the
visible surfaces.

1.1 Parallel Projection

In parallel projection, z co-ordinate is discarded and parallel ,lines from each vertex on
the object are extended until they intersect the view plane. The point of intersection is the
projection of the vertex. We connect the projected vertices by line segments which correspond to
connections on the original object.
As shown in Figure a parallel projection preserves relative proportions of objects but
does not produce the realistic views.
1.2 Perspective Projection

The perspective projection, on the other hand, produces realistic views but does not preserve
relative proportions. In perspective projection, the lines of projection are not parallel. Instead,
they all converge at a single point called the `center of projection' or `projection reference point'.
The object positions are transformed to the view plane along these converged projection lines
and the projected view of an object is determined by calculating the interaction of the converged
projection lines with the view plane, as shown in Figure.
1.3 Depth Cueing

To create realistic image, the depth information is important so that we can easily identify, for a
particular viewing direction, which is the front and which is the back of displayed objects. The
depth of an object can be represented by the intensity of the image. The parts of the objects
closest to the viewing position are displayed with the highest intensities and objects farther away
are displayed with decreasing intensities. This effect is known as `depth cueing'.
1.4 Visible Line Identification

It is possible to clarify the depth relationships in a wire frame display by identifying visible lines.
The visible line can be displayed by dashed lines or not display at all. This is illustrated in
1.5 Visible Surface Identification:

The visible surface identification can be done with visible surface algorithms. They establish
visibility pixel by pixel across the viewing plane or determine surfaces for object as a whole.
Once the visible, surfaces are identified we can apply surface rendering techniques on
them to obscure the hidden surfaces.

1.6 Surface Rendering

Surface rendering involves setting the surface intensity of objects according to the lighting
conditions in the scene and according to assigned surface characteristics. The lighting conditions
specify the intensity and positions of light sources and the general background illumination
required for a scene. On the other hand the surface characteristics of objects specify the degree of
transparency and smoothness or roughness of the surface; usually the surface rendering methods
are combined with perspective and visible-surface identification to generate a high degree of
realism in a displayed scene.

1.7 Stereoscopic Views

Another method for adding a sense of realism is to display objects using stereoscopic views.
Stereoscopic devices present 2 views of scene:
• One for left eye.
• Other for right eye.

1.8 Material Properties

Realism is further enhanced if the material properties of each object are taken into account when
its shading is determined. Some materials are dull and disperse reflected light about equally in all
direction, like a piece of chalk. On the other hand, some materials are shiny and reflect light only
in certain directions relative to the viewer and light source, like a mirror.

1.9 Shadows

We can introduce realism by reproducing shadows cast by objects on one another. Shadows
enhance realism and provide additional depth cues