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Original Title: Questions and Answers in Aerodynamics

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- D Viswanath

Contents

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References

1.1 Introduction

(1) What is aerodynamics? Study of the movement of a body in the presence of air is called aerodynamics and this study is vitally important for the design of aircraft, missiles and rockets. (2) How do you distinguish between solids, liquids and gases? Put them in a large closed container, solid will not change i.e., its shape and boundaries will remain the same; whereas the liquid will change its shape to conform to that of the container and will take on the same boundaries as the container up to the maximum depth of the liquid and the gas will completely ll the container, taking on the same boundaries as the container. When a force is applied tangentially to the surface of a solid, the solid will experience a nite deformation, and the tangential force per unit area-the shear stresswill usually be proportional to the amount of deformation. In contrast, when a tangential shear stress is applied to the surface of a uid (liquid or gas), the uid will experience a continuously increasing deformation, and the shear stress will be proportional to the rate change of momentum. The most fundamental distinction is at atom and molecular level i.e., spacing between molecules. In solids, molecules are closely packed while in liquids and gases spacing is large. Hence intermolecular forces are much weaker and motion of molecules occurs freely particular throughout gases. 1

(3) What is hydrodynamics? Study of ow of liquids is called hydrodynamics. (4) What is gas dynamics? Study of ow of gases is called gas dynamics. (5) How do you distinguish between external and internal aerodynamics? The applications in prediction of forces and moments on, and heat transfer to (aerodynamics heating), bodies moving through a uid is called external aerodynamics since they deal with external ows over a body. In contrast, the applications in determination of ows moving internally through ducts, calculation and measurement of ow properties inside rocket and air-breathing engines, engine thrust or ow conditions in test section of wind tunnel is called internal aerodynamics. (6) What are the basic aerodynamic quantities? The four basic aerodynamic quantities are pressure, density, temperature and ow velocity. A fth quantity is streamlines. (7) Dene pressure. Pressure p is the normal force per unit area exerted on a surface due to time rate of change of momentum of the gas molecules impacting or crossing that surface (point property-scalar). (8) Dene density. Density, , is dened as the mass per unit volume (point property-scalar). (9) Dene temperature. The temperature T of a gas is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules of the uid.(point property-scalar) In fact, if KE is the molecular kinetic energy, then temperature is given by 3 KE = kT 2 where k is Boltzmann constant. (10) Dene ow velocity. The principal focus of aerodynamics is uids in motion. Hence, ow velocity is important. The velocity of a owing gas at any xed point B in space can be dened as the velocity of an innitesimally small uid element as it sweeps through 2 (1.1)

B. The ow velocity V has both magnitude and direction and hence is a vector quantity (p, and T are scalar quantities). (11) Dene a streamline. A moving uid element traces out a xed path in space. As long as the ow is steady (no uctuations with time), this path is called a streamline of the ow. Drawing the streamlines of the ow eld is an important way of visualizing the motion of the gas. (12) Describe shear stress in brief. If two streamlines are rubbing at each other, friction plays a role and exerts a force on one of the streamlines acting tangentially in the direction of the force. The shear stress is the limiting form of the magnitude of the frictional force per unit area. In aerodynamic applications, the value of shear stress at a point on a streamline is proportional to the spatial rate of change of velocity of normal to the streamline at that point. (13) What are aerodynamic forces and moments? No matter how complex the body shape may be, the aerodynamic forces and moments on the body are due entirely to only to two basic sources: (a) Pressure distribution, p, over the body surface (force per unit area normal to the surface) (b) Shear stress distribution, , over the body surface (force per unit area tangential to the surface) The net eect of p and distributions integrated over the complete body surface is a resultant aerodynamic force R and moment M on the body. (14) Dene lift and drag in terms of aerodynamic force R. The aerodynamic force R can be split into components L = lift = component perpendicular to the relative wind Vinf (also called free stream velocity) D = drag = component of R parallel to Vinf (15) Dene normal force and axial force in terms of chord. The chord c is the linear distance from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the body. Aerodynamic force R is split into components perpendicular and parallel to the chord and by denition 3

N = Normal force = component of R perpendicular to c A = Axial force = component of R parallel to c. (16) Dene free stream velocity Vinf

(17) Dene angle of attack. The angle of attack is dened as the angle between c and Vinf . It is also the angle between lift component, L, and normal component, N , and between drag component, D , and axial component, A. The geometrical relation between these two sets of components is given by L = Ncos Asin D = Nsin + Acos (18) Dene Center of Pressure. Center of pressure (xcp ) is dened as the location where the resultant of a distributed load eectively acts on the body. If moments were taken about the center of pressure, the integrated eect of the distributed loads would be zero. An alternate denition of the center of pressure is that point on the body about which the aerodynamic moment is zero. (19) What are the criteria for two ows to be similar? The criteria for two ows to be similar are: (a) The bodies and any other solid boundaries are geometrically similar for both ows. (b) The similarity parameters are the same for both ows. Re and Minf are two parameters, which are by far the dominant similarity parameters. If two or more ows are similar, then the force coecients CL , CD , etc., are the same. (20) Dene Reynolds number. (21) Dene Mach number. (21) What are the various Mach number regimes? The various Mach Number Regimes are:4 (1.2) (1.3)

(i) Subsonic Flow M < 0.8 (ii) Transonic Flow 0.8 < M < 1 (iii) Transonic Flow 1 < M < 1.2 (iv) Supersonic Flow M > 1.2 (v) Hypersonic Flow M > 5 (22) Dierentiate between continuum ow and free molecule ow.

(a) The mean distance that a molecule travels between collision with neighboring molecules is dened as Mean free path. (b) If mean free path is orders of magnitude smaller than the size of body, then ow appears to the body as continuous substance. Molecules impact the body surface so frequently that the body cannot distinguish the individual molecular collisions and that surface feels the uid as a continuous medium. Such ow is called Continuum ow. (c) If (a) is on the same order as the body scale, body surface can feel distinctly each molecular impact. Such ow is called Free molecular ow. (d) Space shuttles encounter free molecular ow at the extreme outer edge of the atmosphere where the air density is too low that (a) becomes on the order of the shuttle size. (23) Dierentiate between compressible and incompressible ows. Flow in which the density is constant is called incompressible. Flow where the density is variable is called compressible. Generally low velocity (M < 0.3) ows are incompressible and high velocity ows are compressible. (24) Dierentiate between inviscid and viscous ows. All real ows, which exhibit the eect of transport phenomena are called viscous ow. Velocity and temperature of the uid near to the solid body is changing. This is called no slip condition. Flow adjacent to the body surface is considered to be viscous. This region is called boundary layer. Beyond the boundary layer ow is inviscid.

Flow that is assumed to involve no friction, thermal conduction or diusion (no transport phenomena) is called inviscid ow. Reynolds number is very high. Inviscid ows do not exist in nature. Many practical aerodynamic ows can be assumed as inviscid. Velocity and temperature of the uid near to the solid body is not aected by the presence of the wall. This is called slip condition. (25) Dierentiate between laminar and turbulent ows. If the path lines of various uid elements are smooth and regular, the ow is called as laminar ow. If the motion of uid element is very irregular and tortuous, the ow is called turbulent ow. The average ow velocity near a solid surface is larger for a turbulent ow in comparison with laminar ow. A turbulent ow does not separate from the surface as rapidly as laminar ow because energy of the uid element close to the surface is larger. (26) What is boundary layer?

(29) State Bernoullis equation.What are its applications? Bernoullis equations have several applications like of ow of ducts (velocity measurement in Venturi and low-speed tunnels) and measurement of airspeed using Pitot tube. (30) Explain Navier Stokes equations and Eulers equations.

(32) Explain Laplace equation. Governing Equation for Irrotational, Incompressible Flow : Laplace Equation. 6

Any irrotational, incompressible ow has a velocity potential and stream function for 2-D ow that both satisfy Laplace equation. Conversely, any solution of Laplaces equation represents the velocity potential or stream function (2-D) for an irrotational incompressible ow. (33) Outline the general approach to solve an irrotational, incompressible ow. The general approach to the solution of irrotational, incompressible ows can be summarized as follows: Solve Laplaces equation for or along with proper boundary conditions. Obtain the velocity from V = or u =

y

and v =

. x

Obtain the pressure from Bernoullis equation. (34) What are the basic ow equations used for solving practical aerodynamic problems? Continuity Equation, Momentum Equation, Energy Equation (35) Explain Substantial Derivative

(37) Explain Vorticity. Hint: Twice angular velocity. (38) Explain Circulation. Circulation is a fundamental tool for the calculation of aerodynamic lift. The circulation is simply the negative of the line integral of velocity around a closed curve in the ow. It is kinematic property depending only on the velocity eld and the choice of the curve C. (39) Explain Stream function.

(41) What are the various models of the uid used for solving aerodynamic problems. Finite Control Volume (a) Fixed in space (b) Moving with the uid Innitesimal Fluid Element (c) Fixed in space (d) Moving with the uid (42) What is the physical principle of Continuity Equation? Mass can neither be created nor destroyed. Net mass ow out of control volume through surface S (B)= time rate of decrease of mass inside control volume V. (43) What is the physical principle of Momentum Equation? Physical principle : Force = time rate of change of momentum. F =body forces +Pressure forces +viscous forces G= Net ow of momentum out of CV across surface S H =Time rate of change of momentum due to unsteady uctuations of ow properties inside V . G+H =F (44) What is the physical principle of Energy Equation? Physical principle : Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. it can only change in form. B1= rate of heat added to uid inside CV from surroundings. B2=rate of work done on uid inside CV. B3=rate of change of energy of uid as it ows through CV. B1 + B2 = B3

(45) Distinguish between conservation and non-conservation form. Conservation form: Governing ow equations that are directly obtained from the ow model which is xed in space. Non-conservation form : Governing ow equations that are directly obtained from a ow model which is moving with the ow. (46) Explain gradient of a scalar eld. Hint: Maximum rate of change per unit length. (47) Explain divergence of a vector eld. Hint: The time rate of change of volume per unit volume. (48) Explain strain.

(49) Give the equation of state for a perfect gas. P = RT P V = RT where P =pressure;V =volume;=density;R=proportionality constant. (50) Give the thermodynamic relation for a calorically perfect gas. Internal energy, e = cv T

1.2

Thermodynamics

(1) Dene entropy. (2) Dene enthalpy. (3) State the laws of thermodynamics. (4) Dene adiabatic process. (5) Dene a reversible process. (6) Dene an isentropic process. (7) What is an isocline? (8) Distinguish between internal combustion and external combustion engines. (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) 10

11

1.3

Propulsion

(1) Distinguish between solid, liquid and hybrid propellants. (2) Distinguish between turbojet, ramjet and scram jets. (3) Distinguish between piston engines, turbo-propeller engines and turbojet engines. (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) 12

13

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