Sie sind auf Seite 1von 25

ESSAY WRITING

L. I{aruatizte EssaY
Narrative essaysmay describe real or fictional events and can be rendered in the
'we)
first person (I / ot itt th" third person (he/she/1h"y). It must be exciting,
strange or fuotty in order to stir the interest of the reader and be successful. Both
f"girfrit"rgr and ends are important parts as the former stimulate the interest of the
reader and the latter satisfy i'ris curiosity and expectations. Keep in mind that a bor-
ing or even too predictable ending can spoil a good story'
In narratives we use a wide range of pist tensesas well as both direct and report-
ed speech.Descriptiors of people and places can also be included in narrative essays.

STRUCTURE
Introduction:
. paraqraph 1 - You set the scene (describe the time, place weather, atmos-
- irnu.E, people involved, possible feelings)
Body:
. paragraph 2 - before the main events >incidents leading to the main,event
. iru.u[ruirn 3 - the main event (s): describe the events, the people involved in,
give details
Conclusion:
. firrul paragraph - end the story referring t9 the resolution of the conflict,
moodi, consequences,people's reactions, feelings etc'

LINK WORDS
o to show time:when,then,after,before, during,meanwhile, assoonas,nou)that,the
momentthat, as,no'sooner... thor-,hardly... when, immediately, since,while,until,
by thetime,aslongas
. to order or list e'ients /points: firstly,first of aII,in thefirst place,to startwith, to
beginwith, secondly, thirdly,finally
. t;d more points, whatii more,moreoaer, furthermore,apartfrom this,in addition
to this,besides,not only...butalso
. to conclude:finally, all in ati,on thewhole,takingeaerything intoaccount,all things
considered,to sumuP,in conclusion
EXAMPLES OF NARRATIVE ESSAYS

Example L.
Experience'' . ., .,'
Narrate a scaring event: 'A Dreadful :
Finicd, graduate'student of 'Mihai Viteazul' National
Essav bv SAnziana
College, int-ensive English class'
(Introduction)
was surprised to find the gailery so
Mr. soames woke up with a start and
him, on the wall, there was a forgotten
quiet and almost Jark.'just in front of
he looked at it, he suddenly remembered
painting uy ,o*" orJ',Muster. As
over him all at once: he had been
where he was. rt dreadful realisation came
locked uP in the museum!
tuoutit
mind the purpose of his being-there:
,n that realisation it also came into his
thenewspaperhadsenthimtoinvestigateaseriesofincidentsthathadbeen now in the
disturbing th" p";";f the town for sJme time. He was standing
the mysterious perpekator
middle of the .oltia- trying to figure out where
in front of him reprejented an old warlock
could have been-hiilg T'heiaintinlg atten-
that was g.i*irfl""iiirt ry rt"* t"eninahis crystaiglole. Mr. soames'
to comeio life, steP by step.,whiie
tion was drawn to the painting that aPPealed
i""o'^a"a the room; 'Thy' thy' deus' baladeus'
a strange *1tirpl,i"g'sot"td
bring me to life''
Mr.SoameswasVeryaf'raid,hehadbeenofthedarkandthesupernaturalall
hislife,butbeingarePorterwa.:llswayofdealing-.withthisproblem.Sohe
,recoiding,'button of his tape'recorder as the-incantation grew loud-
pressed the
from my prison' d1u1'!alad:":-}::I"t
er. Come, Master of ba*n, free me
to glow-as mist was covering it. Cold sweat was runnlng
of the painting ,iui just
"a starting rislng..He screamed:'No!',
down Mr. Soames,spine and his pulse
to fignt it, and" {1k1e9s'
ashe felt u r,u"iio,iJi.rg his shoulder,he bJgan Eart"h'in themiddle of the
oi *u!"t wokehim up, dotin to
Soonafter, b;J
"
main hall of the museum
at him'
There was a grouP of tourists staring
(Conclusion)
ItwasnowmorningandMr'soameshadsleptthroug-Lth:niSh1-ll|+e
reached the newspaper office he saw that
gladly left the ,r,*"rr1rtl when he
thebatteriesofhistaperecorderwerelow;hechu'.gedthemandplayedthe
'whoosi'. In the end, just as he
tape. There *u, ,rottiir.rgbut a continuous
hadgivenuphope,Mr.Soamescouldhearafadingbackground...,deus,
baladeus'...

ExamPle 2.
Act''
Narrate about a heroic deed: 'A Heroic
F Intensive English class
Essay by Diana Jdranu' 12th
(Introduction)
The cool of the August morning gave way to unbearableheat as the sun rose
higher and began to beat down relentlessly.David and his older brother, Steven,
headed to the kitchen to ask their mother if they could go play by the riverside.
she let them. go, but not before making them promisJttrey wouldn,t go any-
where near the water. Even if the river didn't seem wild at ihe surfa.", ih" bot-
tom was stirred by strong currents, which had claimed the lives of many over
the years.
(Body)
The boys,had hardly reached the soothing shadow of the trees along the
river when Steven took off his clothes and headed for the river. He had"just
turned 11,but he seemedolder and was stronger than the other children his age.
David tried to stop him from going in deeper than up to his knees,but his broih-
er ignored him. Not even being reminded by the promise he had made could
stop Steven from distancing himself from shore. But j:rst iE he was calling out
for his brother to join him, a powerful current swept his feet and began Jut y-
ing him downstream.
No matter how hard he tried, he just couldn't regain his balance and main-
tain himself afloat,so his head would come out of the water and then disappear
again for a matter of seconds.David was now running along the shore, desper-
ately calling for help. No one seemed to hear, until a tall, well-built man sud-
denly.appeared and without a second thought plunged into the fast-moving
river. After a few moment! of-desperatestruggle wltn ine unbelievable strengtf,
of the current he managed to bring steven to iurface and then to shore.
The man laid the boy's body on the soft grass and turned him on his side.
This made Steven cough and spit out all the water he had swallowed. As he
slowly
lugutl recovering from the shock of being so close to drowning, hE
brother found out that the man who had saved his Steven'slife was just strSlling
along the riverside when he heard the cries for help. He was almoit fiftv. but i-t
had been only a few months since he hacl retired from the police and he hadn,t
lost his strength and physical shape.
(Conclusion)
As soon as he cameback to his senses,Steventhanked the man and the three
of them made their way back to the boys' home. After the incident, Steven
never found the courage to bathe in the river again although he became a very
good swimmer.

Example 3.
Imagine a fantastic story: 'Late night's story'.
Essayby Alexandra B6leanu, l-1thgrade intensive English class
(Introduction)
It was a fine, calm winter nighl, though very cold. while I was enjoying the
smell of burning woods drifting from the chimney, the moon, pale is a ci"oud,
was.sendinguP a blue smoke over the empty streetsof our city. Although I tried
hard to fight the tiredness,my eyes slowly closed as I was ruidi.,g a n6vel, but
I was not asleep for a long time.

10
(Body)
When I woke up, apparently not after a long sle-ep'everything 3ro.11d
,""*ua prt u tittffii different. At first I was intrigued as I could not find the
my feeblemindedness,
end of the blanket. I knew it must have been becauie of
f"l fn" piece of fabric covering me didn't look like the blanket I used to put
I didn't have much
over. It looked more like a paiiof trousers... my trous-ers!
g-uide4y fgTd rnyself slip-
time to understanJwhat was happening becauset
ping through a never-endingchannel.when I finally reachedthe tloor, wnlcn
And
";;r%;;;;lt *ur*, rt"uhz# t had been travelling through my own pants'
this was just the beginning of my adventure!
cold' And the
No sJor.e. diJiiand"on the cold parquet, I started to feel
back
.orlffi-" t t*d ieft some moments Uifote was too high for me to climb
*u, that the clothes I used to wear before had become
io-'fuiy problem
ioo ru".g",so I had
^o*
to find something else to put on. But what could fit a 5 cen-
a safety pin would
timetres tall creature?Maybe a hanikerchiei grasped with
across my cousin's
;;k" lhe perfect outfit f-or me. Luckily for me, I came
with great difficu-l-
dolls, which were lying on the .utp"t, b"uutifully dressed'
ties I'manag"a to orr" of them, and put on-its pink blouse and purple
pants. I felt"ridiculous in these vivid colours, but there was not time for com-
"'"Jr""r,
;i;i;* i;;Ji;l*d the way to talk to someone who could get me out of this
terrible situation.
someone would
I headed fo, *y room, which seemed miles away' hgging
key turning nolsl-
run into me. As soon as I arrived in the hallway,Iheard the
draught came from
ly and th" fror*-doorlrddenly openeclwhile a harsh, winter
the house, but they
outside almost flo*i.rg *". Th"t-t, my parents_entered
notice me' Little things
seemedtoo absorbedUi their cor,rretsuiiot and did not
to the kitchen' what
are never important! I couldn't give up, so I followed them
minutes of sustained
before seemed some stePs away,now^took me a couple o{
parents. were
effort to reach. when i finally arrived at the destination, {Y
I tried to talk to them, but the plastic bag's rustle was
.rr,puckir,gtt rmffig.
"
louder than mY voice.
about me. I felt so
suddenly i r"rt u great sadnessbecausenobody cared
me from the dan-
alone in tnis enormou"sworld. There was nobody to protect
was now a threat. I
g",s t was facirrg. Euch u'-'d single thing in my own house
by mistake' How can a
lould easily get"stepped on by-the cat, or thrown out
I had no more energy'
poor little .r"itor" fui" u giant when he is so vulnerable?
the floor was cold, I
I leaned on a piece of furiiture, but as I was barefoot and
started shivering'
,tt"tt#*:l',
*ou" a voicewaster]ingme:.,sweeti":.rlvdon,tyougoto bed?
"n,
It,s late and look alyou, you must be iold!' I was still drowsy,tut
when I saw
It was *"
her, I started to glanie ardund and I could not believe my eyes. lqu.t"!
No more pink c"l'othes, no more dangers'.no more never-"iq1"q
l?:-:L:y:.:-:1"
Haven't youever felt
kitchen. But that little world definiteiy existsin our minds'
beauty of a mountain or helpless in
miserable compared with the outstanding
yolr qualities and strength and
this enormous world? The secret is to tiust
never give uP'

11
Example 4.
Remember one of your birthday parties: 'The mysterious gift'.
Essayby Teodora Beleagd
(Introduction)
The morningafter,I woke up and there it was: shinning as if the suns rays
were reflecting themselves of the surface of a lake. It was the most precious gift
I've ever received and it was all minel It's still fresh in my mind the felling that
I had the other day when I got it.
(Body)
My family and I were preparing the celebration of my eighteenth birthday. I
was helping my mother in the kitchen while my father was out shopping for the
event that was about to take place that night. Out of the blue, mom rushed out
of the kitchen as if she suddenly remembered to check something eise. I fol-
lowed, only to find her secretly hiding something in the drawer. I was very
intrigued, thinking that was a present for me. However, when she tumed and
faced me she gave me that look as if everything was just in my mind.
The party began at 9 o'clock p.m. All was perfect! Everything from the music,
that everyone enjoyed even though the DJ was a bit young, to the balloons that
were in place, with the big jumbo balloon ready to gush out confetti and other
little balloons. After the cake, it was the time for opening presents. I was so
excited! I got everything a girl could ever dream of, but still there was no gift
from my parents which let me to believe that everything was just in my mind.
However, I couldn't be more wrong! My mother took me aside and told me a
short fascinating story about this gift I was about to receive on their behalf. I was
blown away! After the party, it was hard for me to'sleep that night, constantly
thinking about what a precious gift I have been given.
(Conclusion)
And now it's morning! I find myself looking at it, still mesmerized by both
its beauty and the story behind it. Something priceless,that has been passed
down from generation to generation, linking the past with the present and the
future, still looking as if it were brand new. It's the most beautiful ring that I've
ever seen!

2. Descriptizte Essay
STRUCTURE
Introduction:
. paragraph 1- give general information about the person / place saying when,
where you saw them for the first time, reasons for the choice
Body:
. paragraph 2-4: you describe the physical appearance, qualities,
hobbies/interest, character, behal'iour; you start a new paragraph for each
new topic. When you describe a place, you should mention what you can see
and do there, buildings details, historical facts etc.

12
Conclusion:
. paragraph 5 - includes your comments/feelings about the person / place.

EXAMPLES OF DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY

Example 1-.
Describe a place you visited or you would like to: 'A Spot of Heaven'.
Essay by Alexandra vlaicu, 12t1a E, intensive English class, 'Mihai viteazul'
National College
(Introduction)
This was IT. Her perfect place, where no one ever disturbed her peace,where
she could relax and have a good time ever since she discovered it years before
while she was still a child going on holidays at her grands'.
(Body)
The meadow was sprinkled with beautiful multi-coloured flowers whose
petals felt so soft and friendly against the skin. There was white, and red, and
yellow, in the trees and on the ground as well. The grass went halfway up to her
knees, gently stroking her feet as she walked. She could feel the welioming
scent in the air, the smell of flowers and trees and birds and fresh air combined-.
Further away there were trees full of fruit: apples, plums, cherries. She
always smelt the jam that was to be made of the round, luscious, ripe fruit in
front of her. The trees were old and strong - she could relax in their big wood-
en arms, where she she felt safe and loved.
(Conclusion)
And finally, the birds - beautifully coloured birds with light wings. Their
songs were sweet, enchanting, spell-like, and that was, undoubtedly the best
thing about that heavenly place that almost bewitched her and made her float
in the world of dreams.

Example 2. Narrative-descriptive essay


Describe a characterof a book/story you have read: 'Deceiving Appearance'
(the portrait of the killer in'Tell-Thle Heart'by E.A. Poe).
Essayby Alexandra Ioan, 12thgrade intensive English class
(Introduction)
Thick fog was covering the still town which looked almost frightening in the
dim light of the cold moon. It was getting really quiet, as if life had ceasedto
visit the streets and houses of this place, as if it refused to submit to the deep,
cruel night that settled in.
(Body)
Suddenly, the ripple of a puddle broke the deaf silence. More confident, loud
steps followed and a tall man appeared in the shivering light of a tired street
lamp. He was holding a small suitcasein one hand and had a whitish piece of
paper in the other. Wearing a long, brown raincoat which matched the beige
suit, made his slender figure stand out. His face was covered in darkness,most-
ly because of the khaki hat on his head. He lifted his round chin looking around

13
and let his angelic face be caressedby the shy light. His short, straight, chestnut
hair outlined the round, clean shaven face,contrasting with his fairiompiexion.
A snubby nose unveiled a well-shaped mouth settled in a gentle smile. But
maybe his most dominant feature were his big, round eyes. Their strong hazel
colour made the depth of his stern look give you chills.
The young man crossed the street calmly, with no rush, looking carefully
around. He was a person built for details, you could seewith how much intei-
est he measured everything he encountered.Paying attention, being in a con-
stant state of tension, he was secureand confident. His appearancebetraved his
organized style, the order he was used to, maybe even tire obsessionfor it.
He knocked on one of the old wooden doors and an old man let him in. It
was obvious from their reactionsand gesturesthey didn't know each other and
surprisin-glyenough, the old man allowed him to come in quickly. The mystery
surrounding the young man was dominant, making you wonder who he wai,
where he was coming from and most of all what was he planning to do while
living in this empty, dull town.
(Conclusion)
still, the whoie perfection he was showing was making you wonder if
maybe, justmaybe, there was more about this person. His certiinty was intrigu-
ing especially since he was a stranger.Those eyes,that sharp, deep gazecould-
n't have been all pure and innocent, behind the hazel vale there waJsomething
more/ something that nobody could name precisely... was it possible that hii
appearancewas meant only to hide something, to deceive?

Example 3.
_ Make the portrait of an imaginary characterintegrated in a story: 'The tod-
dler and her apprentice'.
Essayby Oana Andreescu, lltL grade intensive English class
(Introduction)
{n lhe foggy, damp weather her small onix eyeswere like two twinkling coals
in the hectic city street.I had only seenher for a secondthat I already knew that
those eyes were there to tell a story.
(Body)
She was a tiny creatureof half a metre lost in the midst of the passing crowd.
11h9r dingy blue clothes she resembled a big unsteady bubble. Coming out of
the far too long sleeves,fingers with a desperatedesire to clutch the air held on
to the unseen. Surprisingly enough, her eyes were not dim with tears but
enlightened by a somehow inexplicable ray of hope: she was hobbling on her
own towards the end of the grey alley. Her brown hair with tight curls framed
the joyful expressionof her face as she hobbled on the grey pavement. she was
2 years old and was now learning how to walk, ail on her own in the middle of
the street. She knew no helping hand nor relied on anyone's encouragements:
she was all aione and needed no support in tackling life's first tasks.

After a fen'seconds of staggering she, all of a sudden, coilapsed;some man


had given her a slight push. Already unsteady, she found herself lying on the

T4
"Up! Get
pavement. Somewhere in the crowd a husky voice could be heard:
uD!".
' Orr." again the little girl rose on her 2 feet, in the middle of the city, agarn
I

ready to rnake other steps on the same road'


(Conclusion)
I have never met her since.But the toddler passed on more than just a sim-
ple story of bravery-her attempts of rgalkin$ Siye more.advic" t\1n any other
teacher.One shouli alwaysbe ieady to stand againstthe tempestall on his own'
Life itself is harsh and most of the times there is no one there to hold your hand:
by
Lr.u .nutg" and lead your own way. And that is the knowledge i gained
being aZi,ear old girl'i apprentice. And, trust me, this is one of the most impor-
tantlessonsyou should learn in order to survive'

Example 4.
Describe an event, celebration,festival etc': 'Fireworks''
Essayby Oana Andreescu
(Introduction)
The colour bornb exploded. Now the darkened skyline is overp-oweredby
in the
*yriuat of flashing, differently hued rays of light. It truly is a holiday
piich dark outskirts of the dormant city'
(Body)
"
The sky is invaded. It is all about the turmoil of firecrackers, the flabbergast-
ing mix of rackets,the deafenilg.luTlu of the rockets.Light overcomesdarkness
un? it is, once again,day.Day full of blasung colours: scarlet and bright orange/
ftooay red and"yellow iatch fire on the widely.spread prairies of the closeastro-
logic rlniverr". 81.r" and red turn into a wild lily mauve that spreads its tenta-
ignite
cles over the twinkling stars. Everywhere some mind boggling crackers
of seconds. Then they fade and turn by and
leaps.
every second.Just for i couple
The light and sound show turns the stronghold of
bounds toward.s the ground.
the aquamarine vauf above the rotten, sloping roofs into a fireplace.

The performance is stunning, mind twisting. Children stare from skylights


turn
and doimers, fascinated.ThosJwho were arguing stop. Enchanted, they
and take in the excitement of the Lovers' kiss'
from their petty arguments iiqlt,
Tonight they cio not have the moon as a guardian but the plethora ot roanng
celestialflames.
(Conclusion)
time'
As the last fading flames embrace the silent houses,night gives in to
but
And so do the firewirks. It ends here. Maybe another time it will carry on
tonight it's over. Dawn slowly approaches'

Example 5.
'Mind's
Build the portrait of an imaginary character integrated into a story:
maze'
Essavbv Alexandra Baleanu 11thgrade intensive English class

15
(Introduction)
One indelible memory of that cold, harsh, winter day stiil lingers in my
mind! I had been asked, together with another officer, to make a short visit
to that house and check whether or not everything was all right.' There had
been snow some hours before, lying not particularly deep, but frozen. We
walked down the tranquil, narrow street in the suburbs of London as the
brisk wind was biting it my face. The place we had to reach was the old
housri in the corner of the street, with gables and lattice-windows. I knocked
gently at the door and a slender woman, apparently scarcely past girlhood,
opened. We explained to her that what we had come for and she asked us to
come ln.
(Body)
I was impressed by her appearance,which looked even more delicate in the
comforting glow spread around the living room by the wooden lamps.,Shewore
a long green dress and a low, black, silk frock, with short sleeves. She had an
admirable form and the most exquisite little face that I had ever had the pleas-
ure of beholding. Moreover, her countenance was absorbing due to the perma-
nent smile playing on her lips. On the other hand, what struck rne was her
small, piercing eyes, and thin, hawk-like nose, which gave her an aura of alert-
ness and decision. Even her chin had a square-like prominence that made her a
woman of distinction.
From the moment we entered the house she proved to be a very welcoming,
qentle-pqzpu.with a very considerate way of treating us. She was charming, not
only because of her pleasant look,,but also because of her soft voice and her
polite manners. In the beginning,I was delighted to have had the opportunity
to meet such a brave,young woman.I even appreciated her for the courageous-
, ness she displayed while staying home alone during the' old man's absence.
.After having conversed with her, she also proved to be a sensible person. Only
later did I realize that she had started to feel nervous and was no longer relaxed,
as if a strong and penetrating.imaginary force was haunting her, causing her to
burst out and confess her crime.
(Conclusion)
. I used to think that a person's character could be known by his conversa-
tions, but that experience made me realize that there is an enormous discrepan-
cy between reality and appearance.'Theangelic look of that'murderer didn't
reveal the true demon she was inside. I was shocked to seesomuch cruelty hid-
denbehind her immaculate look.

Example 6.
Describe a place you liked very much: 'Spain'.
Essay by Ioana Niculescu, 12ft grade intensive English class
(Introduction)
I went to Spain in the summer of 2005 and since then, all kind of memo-
ries corne flashing back, reminding me of the wonderftrl experience that I,
together with my parents, have lived. Like the Arabs wisely said, it was heav-
en on earth.

T6
(Body)
we landed in Barcelona, capital of the region of Cataluniar !9re, people
always seem to be in a rush. From old men and women, to little children, every-
body'has something to do. Nonetheless, its beauty resides in these ever busy
streets, with memoiable Ettractions, most of them art of Antonio Gaudi' Both
Barcelona and Valencia sebm to attract more and more people, mainly because
of the ideal position next to the Mediterranean Sea. But the breeze is best in
Palma de Millorca. Here there's always enough inspiration for everyone, like
the artists and writers of the past have all found out'
As we headed south we hoticed quite a few changes in temperature and
atmosphere.In this area, also known as the province.of Andalucia, people tend
to be more communicative and polite towards tourists. Moreover, Pe-oPle9l1
find themselves following the same road as Christopher Columbus did in1492.
First comes Granada, at'to=ther of history's most successful piece of art. The gar-
dens of Alhambra rise frombehind the hills, offering a splendid view, quite sim-
ilar to the one in "1001 Arabian nights". Second on my list of favourite places
comes the city of Tarifa, in the extreme south of Spain..Situated next to the
Gibraltar Strait, the area reunites both Spanish and North-African influences,
mainly because of the Moroccan shore only a few kilometres away.
Tuining north, Castilla-la Mancha welcomes its viewers with large hills cov-
in this area' Going
ered in riind-mills, one of the biggest -of enelgy resources
through Toledo, the religious centre the country, we finally reached the capi-
tal, M;drid. It is famouifor its old neighbourhoods and the perfect blue of the
sky. It hosts speakers of all languag!9, so you Tugt not be afraid of not being
understood h6re, even if you speak Chinese or Turkish'
Once we got out of itsiively air, we turned our eyes_towardswhat historians
call "the 8s ionder of the *oild", the EscorialPalace,30km from Madrid' Built
by phillip II, the palace also includes large inner courts, _calle d 11!onj\, while the
east and'south wing offer a great panorimic view over Madrid. With over l'600
paintings, it keeps i"tssimpliiity and makes you want to stay forever and never
fly back home again.
(Conclusion)
All in all. it was one great trip I won't forget in the near future. Be sure there
is a person out there wf,o is *itting to shar-ewith you-his own experience of
spain. And it sure is a place where you want to be 365 days per year.

Example 7.
Describe a character of a book you've recently read or a movie you've seen:
'Jean
- Valjean (LesMiserablesby Victor Hugo)''
Essayby Ioana Nicolae, 12tt'grade intensive English class
(Introduction)
One of the most remarkable characters ever to leave a writer's Pen/- an
impressive person of great moral virtue ull u personality which has marked
geierations'of readers-and other writers alike and will continue to do s9 {9_.u
iong time still to come, is JeanValjean, the main character of Victo-r !18o's "Les
Miserables". From the point of view of both an accurate portrayal of the French

17
out that Valjean does not participate in the battle, but instead helps those who
have fallen, culminating in his rescue of Marius. Valjean does not have the arro-
gance to participate in a fight, which would involve the imposition of his will
upon others. In the end, unknown and soon forgotten, stepping for a brief
moment into the light, and then quickly withdrawing back into the shadows
from where he came,like a Specter of divine forces, he is the sole hero of the bat-
tle at the barricades, controversial, yet sublime, disputed at first, but indebted in
the end, one that is beyond being mere human, but still who thinks, feels and
suffers just like a mere human.
The tragedy is that Valjean does not appear to recognize the merit of his
own actions, or at least that they do not compensate for what he "nearly"
became. He is driven by the guilt he felt on stealing from the Bishop and the
chimney sweep. He is ashamed not so much of the 19 years he spent in prison,
but rather that on his release he was willing to prey upon those who were
weaker than him in order to survive. He works endlessly to compensate for
his "misdeeds" and shows himself little of the sympathy and understanding
he is willing to bestow on others. While he recognizes that the structure of
society was partly responsible, he has learned the importance of humility and
accepting responsibility for one's actions, learning from it, and then setting
about rectifying the situation.
At the end of his life Valjean tells Cosette and Marius that the only thing that
really matters is love. It is tragic, then, that Valjean appears to have found love
and forgiveness in his heart for nearly everyone except himself.
More than a tragic romantic hero, ]ean Valjean stands throughout the book
as a symbol - a symbol of salvation, of one's ability to liberate one's soul
through the sheer power of one's will and of the innei strength that is in each
man to choose the path that he will walk and overcome all hardship that he is
faced with, so that in the end, he can look back on his life and know that he has
made the best of himself that he could.
(Conclusion)
In conclusion, I can affirm that ]ean Valjean was the voice and means of what
Victor Hugo once stated: "I condemn slavery, I banish poverty, I teach igno-
rance/ I treat disease, I lighten the night, and I hate hatred. That is what I am,
and that is why I have written LesMiserables."
3 . Argurnentatio e EssaY
This type of essay are also called 'for and against' essays as you are to discuss
the advaniages and disadvantages of a specific topic. They should be written in for-
mal style, therefore you should avoid using strong language (I know, I am sure),
colloquial or idiomatic expressions,

STRUCTURE
Introduction:
. paragraph 1.-you present the topic, making a general remark about it without
giving your opinion about it.
Body:
. pa-ragraph2 &3 - the number of paragraphs in the body depends on the word
limlt and on how many arguments for/against you may find to bring; each argu-
ment or counter argument has to be supported by examples or justifications.
Conclusion:
. paragraph 4 - includes your opinion or a balanced summary of the topic.

LINK WORDS
. to generalise: thnt,it isafactthat,it is con-
lcnowledge
saythat,it is common
people
sideredthat
. to list points:y'rsf ly, to beginwith, secondly,last but not least
. to ad more points: what is more,moreoTJer, in addition to that, besides,
furthermore
r to show cause / effect:As,becat$e,since,therefore,thus, subsequently
. to give examples:/or example,for instance,suchas like, especially
o to show contrast: hozaeaer, but, although,on the other hand, in contradictionto
. to conclude: to sum up, to conclude,all in all, aII things considered

EXAMPLES OF ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY


Example 1.
Give arguments for and against the statement: 'Fame - A Blessing or a
Curse?'
Adapted after Virginia Evens & ]enny Dooly
(Introduction)
At some point in their lives most people have daydreamed about the joy of
being famous. One must wonder, however, if being famous is an achievement
o, uirrrre - as Fred Allan said, 'A celebrity is somebne who works hard all his
life to become known, then wears dark glassesto avoid being recognised '.
(Body)
On one hand fame tends to go hand in hand with being rich, and despite the
clich6 that money cannot buy happiness, famous people can, at least be miser-
able in comfort.
Moreover, fame also brings adoration, meaning that famous people will
always be surrounded by people who want to be with and be seen with them.

21.
This means that they are welcomed wherever they go, surrounded by the best
things in life and protected from the bad.
However, there are drawbacks to being famous, the most obvious being a
complete lack of privacy. Nowadays, celebrities are followed ever5rwhere they
go by photographers, paparazzi, and their lives are scrutinised in detail by
newspapers and magazines. Furthermore, a famous person can never be sure
whether people like him/her for the persons they are rather than their fame.
Consequently, this can lead to a sensebf isolation.-
(Conclusion)
All Jhings qonsidered. as appealing as fame, wealth and adoration may
seem, the cost that one has to pay is too great and also involves the people they
love.

Example 2.
Give arguments for and against the statement: 'Work can be fun'.
'Work and Entertainment'
Essay by Alexandra loan, 12thF intensive English class
(Introduction)
Work and entertainment have always been the two combined aspects of
one's activity,yetthe 21,"tcentury man is being forced to choosebetween the two
time and time again. While some individuals prefer relaxing and derive pleas-
ure from simply taking a long walk, others might choose threading on the pres-
sure the job brings.
(Body)
To begin with. work generates a senseof achievement and fulfilment which
motivates one to keep on developing, both on a personal level and on a
professional one. This eagernessto become more accurate in the field leads to
an immense satisfaction when succeeding. For instance. Bill Gates is one of the
few businessmen who have managed to remain on the market permanently. Not
only is windows the most widely used system of operation, but it is also
improved regularly introducing revolutionary technology.
secondly. one's employment involves a great deal of imagination most of
the times, if not for the job itself, at least for tackling problems that might occur.
Unexpected situations occur all the time and these are what keep employees on
the edge. A good example of innovation might be Madonna, an artist who
keeps,reinventing herself in the most unpredictable ways. This is what makes
her go on and what makes fans ask for more.
However, from a psychological standpoint, people also need some time-off
in order to avoid exhaustion. As much as they enjoy their professional ventures,
everything has a limit. This was the case of Celine Dion, another well-known
singer who decided to have a two-year break from show business so that she
could rejoice among her family and friends whom she has missed over the
years.
Furthermore, one cannot objectively compare the amount of energy and
involvement invested in the profession to the time spent in off-work
environments. As rewarding as the job might be, one must not overlook the fact

22
that it is equally stressful, whereas free time activities are not. For example,
Macaulay Culkin is much more in the public eye at the moment due to his
eccentric lifestyle rather than to his on-screen performances and he seems to
persevere in indulging himself.
(Conclusion)
All in all, job-related activities cannot make up or replace the free time one
justifiably needs and vice-versa. Although fun and work may appear as serving
two different purposes, the known fact is that one cannot separate them entirely,
nor can one simply disregard one of them. Each individual has the possibility
though to establish his or her own limits and decide where the work ends and
where the fun begins.

Example 3.
Give arguments for and against Romania's joining the NATO group.
'Romania-NATO Relationship'
Essay by Alina Cirstescu, l"1th F intensive English class, member of the
Romanian team in NAIO competition 2006
(Introduction)
The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) embodies the transatlantic
link that binds Europe and North America in a unique defence and security
alliance. NATO's essential and enduring purpose, set out in the Washington
Tieaty, is to safeguard the freedom and security of all its members by political
and military means. To this end, NATO has provided for the collective defence
of its members since its foundation in 7949.1t has also acted as an essential
forum for consultation on security issues of interest to its members, and as an
essential pillar of peace and stability in the Euro-Atlantic area.
(Body)
Romania joined the Alliance on March 29,2004,following the decision taken
during the Prague Summit, in November 2002. For Romania, this has
represented a major step forward, with decisive influence on the foreign and
domestic policy of the counky. Euro-Atlantic integration has represented an
objective of the Romanian foreign policy, which has been pursued steadily by all
the governments succeeding as of 1990. In order to become a NATO member
state-,Romania joined the Pirtnership for Peace (a programme aimed at Euro-
Atlantic co-operation on security matters, with a major role in the process
of including new members of NATO), drafted its own national annual Plan for
preparation of accession(PNA) and cooperated with other candidate states for
accession.
An outstanding element of the integration was the series of accelerated
reforms that Romania has undergone in the following aspects:
Firstly. the political and economicaspects:Romania continued the fight against
corruption, ensuring the sufficient administrative capacity to sustain reforms.
The pbfiUcal aspect focused on taking measures to solve community issues and
also on ensuring that public opinion is sufficiently well informed and
supportive of NATO membership and the Objectives of the Alliance;

23
Secondly, the military and defenseissueszRomania has undergone military
reform and restructuring, improving the interoperability of the Romanian forces
participating in NATO or coalition-led operations.
Furthermore, resourcesiRomania ensured a constant percentage (2. 38%) ot
the GDP for defence until 2007 and is also committed to and interested in
contributing and participating in the NATO Investment Security Program
(NSIP)
Moreovel, security of information: Romania focused on making operational a
specialised institution managing NAIO classified information
Last but not least. the legalaspects:Romania adopted by referendum the Law
on revising the Constitution
The successful integration of Romania in NATO was facilitated by aCalendar
for finalization of reforms.
Another aspect of the topic is representedby the BENEFITS FOR ROMANIA
To begin with. NATO membership represents the guarantee for security and
external stability, which is vital for ensuring the prosperous development of the
country;
Secondly. it confirms the place of the Romanian state within the westem family;
Thirdly. it ensures the Romanian access to the process of reaching major
decision on European and Euro-Atlantic security;
Moreover. it gives Romania the opportunity to demonstrate the capacity of
coping with the demands required by the member status and to contribute to
promoting the values and the objectives of the Alliance by both participating in
theoperationsand missionsof the Alliance and involving in lfs conceptualinitiatiaes
and eoolutions;
Furthermore, NAIO membership represents an exercise of democratic
values;
Last but not least. NATO membership also represents an economic boast as
it contributes to the development of the Romanian inJrastructure and to the
progress and advancement in the technological field.

The last aspect that must be mentioned are BENEFITS FOR THE WORLD
Firstly. The guarantee for national security also represents the guarantee for
the security of the neighbouring countries and therefore stability in the world;
Seco4dly, Romania, due to its geographical position and improved
capabilities plays a major role in establishing stability at the Eastern borders of
Europe contributing to the world's security;
Thirdly. NATO membership represents sharing common values,
cooperation and joint future plans;
Moreover. Romanian prosperity, as a NATO member, may contribute to the
prosperity of the neighbouring countries;
Furthermore, NATO membership contributes to the spread of democratic
values.
(Conclusion)
Tir sum up. I believe that at the beginning of the 21"tcentury, Romania is part
of an Alliance that sustains the fundamental mission of collective defence,
permanently improving its capabilities in order to face the new threats of the

24
security environment. Being a member of the Alliance representsthe guarantee
of security and external stability, in a world where national security is backed
by cooperation, common values and active involvement. NATO membership
representsa major step forward considering the complex reform process that
Romania has undergone and also an important role on the Euro-Atlantic
political scene. Romania, due to its geographical position and improved
iapabilities plays a major role in establishingstability at the Easternborders of
Europe contributing to the world's security.

Example 4.
Comment about the statement: 'If this world is full of beauty - bad, or ugly
the man himself will make it so.' (William Saroyan) - give arguments
for/against.
Essayby Georgia Ciobdnescu,7/th $
(Introduction)
We can comment upon William Saroyan's quotation by observing the
relations between man and nature and among people.
(Body)
First of all lhe man has changed nsture in a bad way causing the
disappearance of some species of plants and animals and putting others_in
danger of extinction. Specieshave become extinct or endangered for a-number
of reasons:the destruition of the habitat (ex.: cutting and clearing of forests,
especiallyin the Tropics),urbanization and subr.rrbanization.Another reason is
the humln actions: the commercial exploitation of animals for food and other
products (ex.; the slaughter of great whales for oil and meat, the African
ihinoceros, killed for their horns are in danger of extinction; the great auk
became extinct in the lgtL century becauseof over huniing).
Nevertheless, man has also tried to keep the beauty of nature by the naming
national parks and nature reserves.Theseare areasselectedby governments or
private organizations for special protection against damage or degradation.
They are ihosen for their butstanding natural beauty, as areas of scientific
inteiest, or as forming part of a country's cultural heritage, and often also to
provide facilities for public recreation.In addition to the original purp.osesof
iandscapeconservationand public recreationmany parks have been established
to protect endangered species of animals or plants and to promote scierrtific
research.Hunting and other disruptive activities are limited or banned and
public accessis oiten strictly controlled or even forbidden. Ex.: Kanha National
i'ark, northern India, in Amazon the National Park, Brazil, Retezat Park in
Romania.
Secondly man transformed the world into a negative way by polluting it.
Pollutionis the contamination of air, water, or soil by materials that interfere
with human health, the quality of life, or the natural functioning of ecosystems.
For examole air Pollution is the contamination of the atmosphere by
gaseous, liquid, or solid wastes. Each year industrially developed countries
generatebi[lions of tons of pollutants. Sourcesof major air pollutants inciude
individual actions, such as driving a car, and industrial activities, such as

25
manufacturing products or generating electricity. The major effect of air
pollutants are, tlie acid rain (becauseof it the entire fish populations have been
destroyed in different lakes from Britain in Norway and Sweden) and
"greenhouse effect" (which allows solar energy to enter the atmosphere but
reduces the reemission of infrared radiation from the earth).
Water Pollution is the contamination of water by substancessuch as micro-
organisms, chemicals,industrial or other wastes, or sewage.Notable effects of
witer pollution include those involved in human health. Chemical polluting
elementsin drinking water or food can causediseasesthat sometimesresults in
death. Inorganic substanceshave also a harmful impact on human health and
nature. Lakes are especially vulnerable to pollution (when lake water becomes
artificially enriched with nutrients, causing abnormal plant growth).
Another causeof pollution is the nuclear energy.The principal issue is not so
much the present danger as the danger to generationsfar in the future. Many
nuclear wistes remain radioactive for thousands of years, beyond the span of
any human institution. (Chernobyl)
Solid wastes also affect human life and nature. They may be classified as
follows: garbage, rubbish, ashes, dead animals, sewage-treatment solids,
industrial wastes,mining wastes and agricultural wastes.
Thirdly regarding the relationshipsbetween peoples another negative thing
except pollution would be the conflicts. The most dramatic conflict is the war
(arrned-conflict between two or more governments or states). Wars can be
unleashedfrom a various number of reasons:political, religious, civil, etc. When
such conflicts expand to global proportions, they are known as world wars:
World War I (1914-1918)and War world lI (7939-7945).Except the people from
the army, civilians had also suffered.Civilians in the vast war zonesbecamePart
of the fighting fronts, and suffered from disease,malnutrition, and often actual
starvation, destruction of their towns and cities, and appalling injuries and
death.
Furthermore, good things for people made by people are the rewards and
prizes granted bylaw for their performance. These are giving people-trust and
make them huppy and more determined to persevere in their work. Ex.: an
important re*Lid is the Nobel prize. Noble prizes are the awards granted
annually to people or institutions for outstanding contributions during the
previou! year in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine,
iiterature,- international peace, and economic sciences. (Alfred Bernhard
Nobel-1901).
]V[ore.@, another noble attitude of some people is the philanthropy, spirit
of goodwill towards humanity, usually expressed in activities that promote.
huian welfare. In this spirit there has been founded an elaborate network of
almshouses,hospitals, and orphanages for supporting and aiding the infirm,
the poor, and the disadvantaged. Also there have been established different
institutions like International Red Cross and Red CrescentMovement. In time
of war these are alleviating the sufferings of wounded soldiers, civilians, and
prisoners of war and in time of peacethey are rendering medical aid and other
irelp to people afflicted by major disasters such as floods, earthquakes,
epidemici, and famines, and performs other public service functions. Another

26
institution is the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO).
(Conclusion)
All thing! considered.even though at the beginning man did a positive thing
- him by
for the induskialization he didn't thinl aboit effects that this woulX
causeso it ended in alegative way. But now he has realized and is finally taking
care to maintain a balancebetween human life and nature.

Example 5.
Talk about the advantagesand disadvantagesof being A prime Minister.
Essayby Ioana Niculescu, 12thgrade intenJive Englisi class
(Introduction)
Studying politics offers people the chance to understand the mechanism
around and behind the powerful leaders of a country and one day even become
one of them. But do we-really feel up to it? Is it realiy worth trying to apply for
a job such as the Prime Minister?
(Body)
Tq begin with. the best advantage of being a Prime Minister is the financial
one. No more unpaid bills or parking tickets. You can afford buying a new car
from your first salary and even face with major help requests froniall of your
neighbours.
Furthermore, the Prime Minister automatically means that you are
!9i.g
known to the public and to major institutions
Therefore, it can deprive ylu o! "sticky" situations, such as waiting fir line
or entering restricted areas. Also, the connections you establish are seitled for
life and come in handy whenever you need to have something done before
somebody else.
However, the feeling of. being on_top of everybody else can have negative
repercussionson a person's state of mind. Power attracts even more power,
which often leads to^insanityor a society full of chaosand anarchy.The opposite
Tgnt happen too. Some might back off and resign, due to lack bf contrbi over
the situation.
(Conclusion)
Tb conclude, being a Prime Minister takes a lot of talent and leadership,
combined with confidence in one's own actions, health of mind and bodv and
the will to stay on track no matter what.
\
4. Opinion Essays
They are a variant of the argumentativeonesin which you can apProachthe
topic fiom a personal (not general)angle,being allowed to use from the start
thnt,my opinionis,asfor myse,If,
expressionslike: I think,I cansider,lstrohglybelieae
fro* *V point of ttiew etc.Your atguments can incline towards the 'for' or the
''againsi''side
as long as they are suPportedby examplesor justifications.It's a
personalargumentationof a statement.
JJ
EXAMPLES OF OPINION ESSAYS

Example 1.
fTpt"l-r your opinion about the staternent:'Things go wrong becausepeople
-build walls instead of bridses'.
Essayby GeorgiaCiobinescu. 12thB grade
(Introduction)
we can comment upon this
,quotation by observing the diplomatic
relationships between countries and personal relationships b"etweenpeople.
(Body)
Firstly, I conside{ that the diplomatic relationships are among presidents of
various countries, between governments, ministers, senatori or different
members of parliaments. These are important for all peoples becausethey are
influencing their future in different ways from standard of life to a man
freedom.
or jhe.wly that dipiomatic relationships affected people
lives is Beriin wall. The Berlin Wall was a between and East Germanv.^which
closed the border between and West Berlin for 28 years.It was built during the
post- period of . The purpose was to stop the drain of labor and econ6mic
output associatedwith the daily migration of huge numbers of professionals
and skilled workers from East to West Berlin, and the attendant, *hi"h hurt the
economically and politically.It decreasedemigration. By the end of 20tLcentury
Germany was reunited and the wall was pulled down.
9eeonaty, another reason I believe people had to suffer from was the
difference made by the leaders who believed that their races, their religions,
their ethnic differencesare the most important factors. For example in Arierica
until the l$th 6gnls1y black people were considered inferior 6"curs" of the
colour of their skin.'They were disadvantaged,they had no and they were hold
against their will. Also they had no individual freedom and they weie exploited
for their labor. In the end, slaverv in the United Stateswas ab'olishedaiter the
at a cost of millions of lives. Also another discrimination in the past was made
especially by the Germans. They thought that |ewish people were inferior to
them becauseof their race. The Holocaust is the most ho.iifylr,g event which
ended with the deliberate murder of millions of ]ewish men, women, and
children.
I am slrgngllr coqvincg-dthat,If peopie weren't so selfish,proud and ignorant
.
they would realizethat all theseactionshave negative effectson themseivesand
on their habit. Ali this things make people to suifer frorn diseases,malnutrition,
and often actual starvation, destruction of their towns and cities, and appalling
injuriesand death.
Thudly, as Joseph F. Newton said "People are lonely because they build
walls instead of bridges." Eor exatnplg if somlone is demanding, criticaljneedy,
ungratefui, boastful, nosy, hurtful, spiteful, stingy, and selfish,Is it any wonder
that he hasn't friends? oftgn people blame pbverty, lack of educaiion, age,
illness, and other whims of fate for their lack oi friends. From m)' point of vilw
this is a false charge.Regardlessof one's disadvantagesand handicaps, th;re are

34
always others that are worse off, yet successful. So, it is not people
circumstances,but their attitude that decidestheir fate. And it is always within
their power, rich or poor, young or old to change their attitude. If you are good
and do good than you will feel good. And feeling good is just a way towards
happiness and self-contentment.For exampie volunteering is a wonderful way
to end loneliness.There are a lot of lonely people in hospitals and old age homes
that would be delighted to spend time with someone. Besides offering the
opportunity of making new friends and learning new things, volunteering
makes you feel good about yourself.
(Conclusion)
All things considered I can' but agree with the wise saying the English
Mathematician and Physicist Isaac Newton who said that "We build too mantl
walls and not enough bridges."

Example 2 on the same topic.


'Things go wrong becausepeople tend to build walls instead of bridges'.
Essayby Cristina Coman, 12tLgrade intensive English class
(Introduction)
Ever since the world began, people have been living together, sharing both
huppy and sad moments with each other, laying bridges, setting up walls,
constructing shelters or houses, establishing family ties and building their
future together. Man was created as a social being that can only evolve by
coexisting with the others and basing all his actions on relating to his
neighbours.
(Body)
First of all. the key to every success man has ever achieved is
communication. Magnificent and grand things are carried out with talent and
team work. It is the law of nature that made man start building bridges and
reach out for help. It is the same common sensethat made others hold his hand
and respond to his calling by offering their help. Moreover, we all know that a
good and healthy social life is based on our own connections with the world
outside and that is why people lay bridges in their surroundings - becausethe
only way they can reach successis by building their own ways towards it.
Second of all. we can see for ourselves that problems tend to occur when,
instead of building bridges, people keep back behind high walls and have the
wrong belief that isolation can be the answer to whatever is bothering them. By
hiding of our problems we hide of ourselves, by building walls we
automatically break every single foot bridge that can be built to save us. The
higher is the wall, the harder it can be climbed and the thicker is its structure the
harder it can be pulled down. Besides,we must remember that people are often
selfish when it comes to critical conditions and, just like an innocent child may
have an egotistic conduct that can be improved by means of educafiorl, *urlts
native selfishnesscan be held under control by interacting with other people
and leaming the value of sharing. You can set up a wall by yourself, while
building a bridge is a bilateral agreement:it implies piecework and also other
person's assenting,

35
]Ioweve.t, we should take into consideration the fact that walking on a
bridge can be done both ways: if you are too willing to help others and reachfor
their hands, they might just invade your privacy. Peoplebuild bridges, but they
don't necessarily walk on their owns... Another aspect is that thin or weak
bridges can be easily flooded by angry waters, that is why our projects and
plans involving the future should be as strong as we can make them, especially
if there are also other people depending on our help.
(Conclusion)
In conclusion. building bridges or walls is a free choice for every single one
of us. As moral individuals, we are supposed to look for a certain social stability,
we are supposed to combine our forces and build these bridges in order fo
establish a better communication among us. what should we do if we are
already surrounded by walls?... Some of them may be very difficult to be dealt
"But
with; we can't always start laying bridges above them. we do have the
opportunity to build some door ways for these walls...

Example 3.
Thinking of cultural stereotypes.which, in your opinion, would be three
stereotypical features attributed to the Romanians? Give reasons.
Essayby Piha Zoia Alexandra, 12tLS
(Introduction)
During the time, Romanians have created different images among the other
nations. Nowadays, at the path between an ex-communist country toa member
of European Union, Romania has collectedboth positive and negative opinions
regarding us.
(Body)
First of all, it is important to reveal the approach of foreigners on the process
of emigration from Romania to West-European countries or USA. This process
causedby the poverty in our country involved incidents and crimes, especially
theft. These crimes took place in several countries- like France or Italy- and
certain categoriesof people stained this way the image of Romanians. In some
newspapers Romanians are even called "thieves".
Moreover. a newspaper from italy had an article in October 2006 which
presented Romanians like "the most violent and dangerous race, capable of
mrrrdering for a handful of change". Romanians monopolize even the cloning
of credit cards, among other crimes. In France were also registered a few
incidents which causeda negative image: Romanians are again called "thieves".
But major parts of the thefts were made by gipsy-people from Romania who
were identified with Romanians. Therefore. despite of the fact that Romanian
people stole too, I consider there shouldn't exist this bad image at such a big
level. Unfortunately, this stereotypical feature exists.
On the other hand, Romanians are consideredintelligentpeople. Romanians
are known for their abilities in informatics and also for their great results at
international contests in general. Not only at this level is the intelligence of our
people known, but also the intelligence of our people known, but also in jobs of
the ones who emigrated in West and are living and working there, where their

36
work is rewarded properly. The ability in informatics is used both in a positive
and negative way. Some of the most known hackers are Romanians. For
example, in February 2006 some hackers -who were proved to be from
Romania- got into all Apple Macintosh computers from Arizona University, and
this is just one small example. But 2006 is also the 4th year when a team of
Romanian students wins 1't prize at a NASA project-contest.
Moreover, Romanians who emigrate in West of Europe are quickly
promoted in important jobs also for their intelligence and perseverance.
Therefore,I can say this is another important feature attributed to Romanians
and mostly a positive one.
Last but not least, Romanians are known for their hospitality. Each year,
tourists come in Romania being attracted to the beauties of our country.
Although in some hotels, motels and houses there is rough accommodation,
tourists are happy about the hospitality and kindness of Romanians. They
always said we are friendly and warm people.
(Conclusion)
To sum up, in my opinion, there are three major stereotypical features
attributed to Romanians:on one hand, theft - regarding people from the lower
lairs of society, and, on the other hand, intelligence and hospitality. But, it
depends on each of us the way we prove our affiliation or not to this features,
which are just stereotypicalones.

Example 4.
Expressyour opinion on juvenile delinquency.
Essayby Adrian Baciu, llth p infsnsive English class
(Introduction)
Juvenile delinquency is a massive and growing problem all over the world.
A multitude of factors exist thai contribute to the understanding of what leads
someoneto engagein delinquent behaviour. While biological and psychological
factors hold their own merit when explaining crime and delinquency, perhaps
social factors can best explain juvenile delinquency.
(Body)
To begin with, most adolescentdelinquents are extremely dependent upon
their peer groups, primarily becausethey have no functioning families, effective
parenting, nurturing, or positive adult role models to rely on. These young
people come from all ethnic backgrounds and live in middle- and upper-class
neighbourhoods as well as in ghettos. We hear most about black, gipsies, and
homelesspeople running drugs, stealing,and mugging; but there are also white
gangs, such as neo-Nazis and skin-heads, that for adults may take on the
functions of survivalist or paramilitary groups, political parties or lobbying
organizations, while still maintaining their essential character and intent.
Unfortunately, police alone cannot solve these problems because crime is not
their real cause and becausepolice under increasing stress or frustration may
contribute to crime with racism and excessiveviolence.
Moreover, very little is yet known about biological causes of delinquent
behaviour, such as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). How many young people
'a
currently in detention camps, being processed through juvenile courts, or
serving time for crimes of violence are actually suffering the results of fetal
alcohol syndrome? No one knows. But FAS may be one explanationfor the high
incidence of seemingly {'senseless" delinquent behaviour in affluent
neighbourhoods; for a pregnant woman in a wealthy suburb can be just as
addicted to alcohol as her sister in the slums or working in an office.
Furthermore, running away from home is sometimes considered delinquent
behaviour in children, but "throwing away" children (not permitting them to
live at home while they're still underage) is not considered delinquent
behaviour in parent adults. No reparation to the children is required from the
parents and no shelter is provided for them by authorities unless they resort to
committing crimes in order to support themselves.
Last but not least, media, although thought to have a positive effect on...
everything, in this case it somehow encourages it by showing more and more
violent movies, news related to his subject and so on.
(Conclusion)
To sum up,I firmly consider that juvenile delinquency has powerfully taken
its toll upon today's society especiallybecauseof the social factors such as lack
of effective parenting. Dealing with this kind of felonies it shouldn't be only
policemen's problem but ours too.

Example 5.
Express your opinion about the statement: 'Violence in the media increases
violence in society'.
Essayby Ciurescu Sergiu, 12fl'F intensive English class
(Introduction)
The subject of media influencing people has always been a topic for debate.
However, no other topic is as controversial as the one trying to establish
whether violence in the media leads to the increaseof violence in society.It is
my opinion that media violence does indeed increase violence in society for
three strong reasons.
(Body)
First of all, broadcasting real violence has an emphasising effect to violence
in society.People who witness a lot of violence have developed a form of mass
paranoia, thinking the world is a much more dangerous place than it really is.
This statement is backed up by George Gerbner, whose research shows that
people exposed to violence becomemore anxious and fearful. This leads to a lot
of people buying weapons for self-defence.Thesevery weapons are the means
through which the violence they feared will be increased.
Moreover, people become used to violence. Studies in the I970's showed that
people exposed to media vioience were less disturbed when wihressing'real
violence and had lesssympathy for victims. Although violence is part of our world,
seeing it as common is an undesirable effect. Along with the fear of violence, this
indifference leads to passiveness,which implicitly encouragesviolence.
fuey.g, the most unwanted effect is rendered by fictional violence
exposedby the media. People often identify themselveswith main charactersin

3B
movies, the same characters that use violence as a solution for every problern.
Fo'r.instance, a research conducted on the inhabitants of an African village told
that after children saw a show in which a character joined a gang, students of
the local school split into two rival gangs which fought each other. Violence is
often presented as a funny way to get what you want, without consequences.
What should worry us most is that the most susceptible to this aspect are
children who sometimes begin watching television before they can walk, and
long befoie they can build aiet of persoial values to filter the.information they
receive. A relevant example would be the widely known Tom & ]erry series
and a study that showed4l% of the violence in cartoons'is accompanied by
humour.
(Concldsion)
AII thines considered,I believetherecanbe no doubt that media violenceIeads
to m" itriGilr" of uioience in society.Perhapsa more suitable topic for debate is not
whether this effect exists,but how it can be stopped or at least reduced.

j_