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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

In Nature Agni (Fire), Jalam (Water), Vayu (Air) are present. A combination of these three when combined with Prithivi (earth) and Akasa (ether) determines Srishti (Creation), Sthithi (Sustenance) and Samhara (Destruction) of a thing in nature. Agni, Jalam and Vayu are the creators of special qualities while Prithivi and Akasa form the basis. All modifications in this world are governed by this theory. Animals and plants do have Chaithanya (Consciousness). But only Man is endowed with a Mind and the thinking facility. Agni, Jalam and Vayu are all present in the body of Man. But in Man they function as follows: Vayu Vata Agni Pitta Jalam Kapha

Bhoothamayo Dehaha is the adage of Vagbhata 1. (Human body is composed of elements) These support the body and bodily functions. Just as Vayu, Agni and Jalam perform the functions of movement, heat and cold respectively, the same functions are performed in the human body also. There are only two Viryas (potencies) in the world heat and cold. Treatment is maintaining the heat/cold balance. The heat / cold effects of herbs are induced in the human body. Medicine is also part of Nature made up of the five elements. Hence herbs are natural, not

artificial creation. Cold and heat do not function individually. They are inert. For spreading it requires Vayu or Vata. Vata is just movement. It has no form. It derives support from the other bhootas (elements) to

perform its functions. With heat, vata is reduced; with cold, vata is augmented. For modifications, Pitta (Bile) and Kapha (Phlegm) are

required. By themselves vata, pitta and kapha have no function. But in conjunction all three are capable of functioning; without the support of the remaining two, the humors have no role. In Astrology, there is a doctrine that when Sun and Moon, are strong, the Tara grahas also perform their functions well and when the luminaries are weak, the functions are impeded 2. Cold is for creation and heat is for modification. The level of modification is determined by Vata. When a seed is put into the earth, water ensures germination; sunlight (heat) produces modifications in the form of flowers, fruits or leaves. Growth is induced by cold and heat produces changes. Both heat and cold perform their functions deriving support from air (vata). In Jyothisha, sun is for heat and moon is for cold. Sun denotes Atma (soul) and moon denotes mind 3. Sun is chaitanya (consciousness) and moon denotes thoughts. Sun is the ruler of planets supported by moon. The other planets derive support from the sun/moon. Thus

theory-wise there is a link between Ayurveda and Astrology. These subjects can be studied in an inter-disciplinary manner. If there is a heat-prone disease, Jyothisha tells about the dependence on sun. For instance skin diseases are based on sun. Kaphadiseases are based on Moon. Agneya grahas are Sun, Mars

Jala grahas are Moon, Venus and Jupiter These planets are the causes. Budha (or) Prithivi is the basis. It contains both heat and cold. Both Ayurveda and Astrology accept 1) Pancha Bhootha Siddhantha 2) Punar Janma Siddhanta and 3) Karma Siddhanta In plants, the prototype is the same. Because plants have no

thoughts, there is no mind. But in Man there is thought, because mind exists; kama (desire), krodha (anger) etc are in the seed form; the next generation imbibes these qualities and this is known as karma. Since change is characteristic of man, treatment and astrology is dependent on each man (not common to all). Out of the pancha bhootas, which have body, each body has varied proportion of the five elements. Hence the deficiency/excess of the five elements depending on each body will vary. Particularly, Ayurveda accepts vata, pitta and kapha as the three principles. For running the world, water, fire and wind these form part of each body and function. Depending on temperature fluctuations, comfort / discomfort are caused. Man at birth is born with Poorva Janma Karma (deeds of previous births) and his intellect functions as such; wrong thoughts and wrong lifestyles, wrong food habits bring about disease. Ayurveda will tell about onset of disease. Astrology will tell about disease which is likely to occur in future. Ayurveda by analyzing body / mind, tells of disease and the therapy for curing diseases. Jyothisha will tell disease bound to get in after many years in the same body and future thoughts through the medium of Poorva Janma Karma (deeds of previous births) and by rotation of planets. Only Astrology can tell about what disease can appear in future. Wrong food habits cause disease (Ayurveda). By Poorva Janma Karma (deeds of previous births), wrong thoughts arise and create disease (Astrology).

Ayurveda tells cause of disease lifestyle, thoughts and also Poorva Janma Karma and 10 types of reasons include Poorva Janma Karma4. This confirms the Jyothisha view point. Even Poorva Janma Karma can be the cause of disease. This is acceptable even in todays medical world. When diagnosis is uncertain, we mention allergy etc equivalent to Poorva Janma Karma in Jyothisha. But when the same takes place at some point of Time, its quality etc can be inferred from planetary movements. What is invisible can be inferred with the help of planets. Planets affect individuals. Based on Poorva Janma Karma it

gives comforts/sorrow. Karma is inert. When joining the chaitanya of planets it becomes potent. Scent is inert. By air it is carried. So also Poorva Janma Karma. In todays life what happens, indirectly Poorva Janma Karma is the root cause. For determining future life, Jyothisha is essential. Planets tell about Poorva Janma Karma. Planets contain Vata, Pitta and Kapha. Planets through thoughts give joy and grief. Bhottham,

Varthamanam, Bhavishyat (past, present, future) are indicated by planets. From planets we can infer about obstacles and their nature and whether they can be eliminated. Generally planetary rotation is indicated by mathematics/Astronomy. Astronomy gives equal weightage to all living beings. The difference in fruits is due to Poorva Janma Karma of

individuals. Hence, Jyothisha is indicative of the fruits of each man. General results are indicative of all mundane matters. Omens (Nimitta Sastra) is another science which bears close realtionship with Astrology. It is due to planetary rotation. It is also an indicator of future events. Earthquakes, downpour, Excess rainfall (Ativrishti), drought (Anavrishti), revolutions, preparations for war, comets: - these are also indicative of obstacles to the world. This is

common to the world.

But according to culture, nationality etc. it

changes. Jyothisha connected with Ayurveda (comparative study) shows that result is the same. Rtu (season) changes the health conditions. Season is the result of heat, cold and wind. The ups/downs of the above three are the causes of seasons. In an individual, these three function as Vata, Pitta, and Kapha5. The cause of season is sun and moon. In addition, the influence of planets is also responsible. What is mentioned in Ayurveda as Rtu is mentioned as planetary result in astrology. But the basic principle is the same. Existence as seed, creation, growth, modifications, decomposition, death. These are the six states of not only man but also plants, animals and all living beings. Animals bereft of sixth sense undergo these states owing to Nature and the process goes on undisturbed. Man with sixth sense goes against Nature gets into obstacles and is unable to escape the problems arising therefrom. To liberate him, two sciences viz. Jyothisha and Ayurveda are required. Jyothisha with emphasis on Dasa, Apahara and chhidra tells about his thought processes and gives a warning. Modifications in thought, induce changes in food and lifestyle, and bring about disease. To ward off disease, in practice, Swasta Vritta (healthy life or preventive medicine) is advised along with right living. Sins of previous birth when put into practice induce diseases of body and mind and to cure them, Ayurvedic methods are used. Both Ayurveda and Jyothisha complement each other. Changes in thought processes directly and indirectly affect health. Ayurveda tells us that cause of disease is Poorva Janma karma (sins of previous births).

Hence both Ayurveda and Jyothisha go in the same direction ; meaning that rather functioning solo, when they are in fusion , they give best results. Both the sciences are Pratyaksha or that which can be seen. To live a better life, they are useful. Hence these principles are used in Sanskrit literature wherever they find access. In Veda, Sastra, Ithihasas, Purana, kavya, katha, sampradaya we find references to Jyothisha and Ayurveda. They go together and form part of basic

education and since they are useful to laymen, writers have used these sciences to their advantage. Thoughts are causative of mental grief. Work causes bodily grief. Both are inter-linked. Jyothisha tells about Jivapara (soulful) effects. Also about Upabhoga / Upakarma effects (material effects). In Ayurveda also we find that wrong food habits are cause of disease. So also wrong thoughts. One is direct (Jivapara) and the other is indirect or routed through matter (material effects). Disease is synonymous with grief. Instead of studying these sciences separately, fusion will yield greater benefits. A man in Swasta Vritta (or a perfect man with humors equal) gets a disease. This is on account of sins of previous birth, which is explained by Jyothisha. Without cause there appears to be an effect. In such situations, to point out the cause and explain the results of disease, Jyothisha is required. Maharogas (Major diseases) like leprosy, diabetes, asthma etc., are seen even without a proper cause. That which explains the cause is Jyothisha.

Wrong thoughts and wrong food habits are seen in many people who seem to enjoy perfect health. Here what wards off disease is

explained by Jyothisha. When the period is good and the man is destined to enjoy good things, there is no onset of disease. Thus every circumstance is explained by Jyothisha and Ayurveda read together. Jyothisha is a limb of the vedas. For commencing a work, the Time of commencement is left for Jyothisha to suggest. Deed, doer and Time are the causes of results. One of the three, deficient, makes it infructuous. Each of the three are equally significant. Only all the three put together form the cause. Deeds of previous birth form the Poorva Janma Karma. For that to fructify, efforts, Time etc are required. Even dharma sastras require us to perform karma taking into account, Time and place. From that

perspective, fructification of karma is based on Time and place. Lagna is nothing but a point, which is ascertained from Time of birth and place of birth. Poorva Janma Karma prompts us into taking efforts. Jyothisha is prevalent in all matters - mundane or otherwise. Time and place of birth can be ascertained. But what is intangible is

poorvapunya (Merits accrued on account of deeds of earlier births). Poorvapunya is latent but becomes patent to a clear mind after taking into account what is to be accepted and what is to be rejected. After a study of Vedic astrological lore of rishis, what comes to be understood by a clear mind is poorvapunya. One who is (a) conversant with the Hora sastras of rishis; (b) knows pancha siddhanta (Vasishta, lomasa, soura, brahma, paulisa) works; (c) knows what to accept and what to reject by virtue of

knowledge of various rules; (d) knows science of Time, the various rules laid down in the works of rishis: - Such a person, by analyzing with a mind (which has understood the inner meaning of many scriptures), arrives at Truth, by virtue of the faculty of discrimination. A particular karma is now in action. To know that a clear mind is required. This is shown by Siddha Mantra 6. (A mantra which has become potent and wish fulfilling to a person by virtue of practice) Scriptures and Pancha Siddhanta form the basis of knowledge. Discriminative faculty and clear mind are the powers to gain insight. Both are equally important. In Ayurveda also, Time and place of birth, its role, body, mind and its growth factors- based on all these factors,health is determined. Health is determined by the doctor. Hence dharma sastra, Jyothisha and

Ayurveda have same basis. Medicine, remedial measures and Time are all equally important for cure of disease. Jyothisha sastra to establish its science depends on other sastras, vedas, vyakaranas, tarka, mimamsa, nyaya, dharma sastra, sampradaya, codes of conduct. These are also essential for results. Since fruits are based on Time, place and stage of life, Jyothisha will yield different results based on people. Hence Astrology differs owing to conduct etc. and therefore fruits are also different. For a Brahmin, Kalatra dosha, punaboo dosha, vaidavya kosha are taboo as for their dharma it constitutes an obstacle. But for other varnas, for the other types of marriage, horoscopes are to reckoned from a different perspective. The fruits of astrology are not common to all. In, fact they are not intended to be applied as such. Time, place and dharma are the causes of variation. In view of culture, certain variations are to be deciphered.

Mimamsa yields nyaya, tarka yields logic, veda yields culture, dharma yields code of conduct, purana and ithihasa yield character. Only after taking these into account, Jyothisha yields results. Since health, course of thoughts, is common to all, Jyothisha relies mainly on Ayurveda and dharma sastra. Dharma sastras yields chitta shuddhi.

(Clarity of perception). Ayurveda strengthens the body.

More than any other science, Ayurveda is linked to Jyothisha. Ayurveda also relies on the above mentioned concepts. The proof for the validity of Karma siddhanta are diseases in childhood which appear for no specific reason. Proof of Poorva Janma Siddhanta is found in the characteristic traits of people. Poorva Janma Siddhanta explains the modifications in body and mind.

Time has no yardstick. It is measured by analysing the movements of sun and moon. In Jyothisha, sun and moon control other planets and bring about change of seasons.

Jyothisha enables us to know character, disease, future thoughts, extent of grief and happiness and longevity of human beings.

It is Jyothisha, which determines longevity, character, Karma, wealth, education, death etc. Changes in seasons, unpredictable behaviour unnatural behaviour, dreams, change of thoughts, change in behavioural patterns, changes in mundane affairs are brought about by Time. To understand these matters with clarity, knowledge of Jyothisha is required. Thunder, hailstorm, increase of fog and mist, forest fires, drought - all these can be foretold with knowledge of Jyothisha sastra. Jyothisha is

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included in the sixty four arts. Later in Sanskrit literature, ithihasas, particularly Ramayana and Mahabharata contain references to Jyothisha.

In Indian life nitya karma or day-to-day work is intimately connected to Jyothisha. A physician cannot give longevity to a man, which is pre-ordained. If longevity exists, then that can be fulfilled by giving appropriate treatment, which is the job of a physician. What diseases will occur in future cannot be foretold by a physician. It is on account of this that we need to study Jyothisha and Ayurveda under the inter-disciplinary approach.

Jyothisha is Kala Vidana Sastra or the science, which determines Time. It is a vedanga or a limb of vedas. Untimely rain, meteors, storms, preparations for war, volcanoes, earthquakes, movement of troops all these events are connected to Jyothisha. Construction of gardens, digging of wells, tanks, planting of trees etc are all capable of being done perfectly if the Jyothisha rules are obeyed. Jyothisha is used for appointment of heads of mutts.

In

mundane

matters

like

commencement

of

pilgrimage,

commencement of education etc., Jyothisha is important.

Significance Utility of thesis for contemporary society


Two interlinked sciences viz., Jyothisha and Ayurveda help us in many ways. Existence as seed, creation, growth, modifications, decomposition and death are the six states of all living beings including

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man, animals and plants. Animals bereft of sixth sense undergo these states owing to Nature and the process goes on undisturbed. Man with sixth sense goes against Nature gets into obstacles and is unable to escape the problems arising therefrom. To liberate him, two sciences viz., Jyothisha and Ayurveda are required. Both these sciences are useful in our day-to-day life. They help us lead a better life. If we adopt the principles of Jyothisha and Ayurveda in todays life, it would become happier and healthier. Benefits of this research will accrue to society.

Notice of the previous works


Veerasimhavalokam of Veerasimha deals with the role of Jyothisha in disease diagnosis. In his work Astrology and Diagnosis Major S.G.Khot has given an exhaustive coverage of rules for various diseases. Dr. Jagannath Rao has written a book on medical astrology. In the book Message of the stars Max Heindal and Augusta Foss Heindal have emphasised the role of planets in causation of diseases. The present work deals with the fundamental principles underlying Jyothisha and Ayurveda and provides a theoretical framework upon which Medical Astrology can be developed as an integrated science.

Scope and limitation


The principles of Jyothisha and Ayurveda are dealt with in this work to highlight the importance of medical astrology. The present work is restricted to the study of those areas in Jyothisha and Ayurveda where a fusion is possible. We find references to Jyothisha in Ayurvedic literature. Similarly books on Jyothisha contain references to Ayurveda.

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Our attention is confined to these Common areas in order to stress the importance of studying these two sciences in an inter-disciplinary manner.

Methodology adopted in present research


The chief aim of the present work is to bring out the fact that instead of studying Ayurveda or Jyothisha as independent Sciences, it is necessary to study Ayurveda in conjunction with Jyothisha. The methodology followed in this research is analytical and comprehensive. The views expressed in the thesis are in conformity with the views of authors whose books are mentioned in he bibliography of the thesis. The theory sought to be established in this work is supported by concrete examples. The fruits of Jyothisha can be realised only when these two are present. Thus it is best to study Ayurveda in conjunction with Astrology. In this light, the present work may be viewed.

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NOTES AND REFERENCES: 1) Ashtanga Hridayam, Sarirasthana, Ch III Verse 7 8a. 2) Chandrarkow Balayuktow Kujadayaha Prokthamarga Bala hinaaha | Shuba Phaladaste Sarve dasaasu yogeshu Sanchinthyaha || (Horasara, Chap3, Ve 34) 3) Kalatma Dinakrn Manas thuhinagu satwam Kujo jno vaho Jivo Gnanasukha sitascha Madano Duswam Dineshatmajaha Brihat Jataka of Varahamihira Ch II, Ve 1. 4) Papam Karmethi Dasadha (Ashtanga Hrdayam, Sutrasthanam, Ch II, Ve 22) 5) Vayu Pittam Kapaschethi thrayo doshaha Samasataha | (Ashtanga Hrdayam, Ch I, Ve 6) 6) Aneke Hora Tatwajna Pancha Siddhanta Kovidaha | Uhapohapaduhu siddha mantro Janathi Jatakam || (Prasna Marga, Tr B.V.Raman, Ch I, Stanza 18)

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CHAPTER - 2

Unity in Approach
In Jyothisha sastra, there are twelve signs in the Zodiac from Aries to Pisces. From Time of birth, the transit of planets through these Rasis indicates certain events. Bhava, its occupant, aspecting planet are all the causes. To tell about diseases of the head, Mesha is the sign. If the disease causing planet is placed in that house, then diseases of the head become possible. For instance, if the 6th lord is in Vrishaba and the Lagna lord is weak and the lord of 6 and karaka of 6 are in vrishaba rasi and the lord of that house is weak, in the absence of benefic aspect, with presence of malefic yoga /drishti, facial diseases are possible. Likewise, if vrischika rasi, is afflicted by lord of 6, by its aspect and the lord of vrischika is weak and has malefic aspect, then disease of private parts may occur. Moon is fickle minded. Its benefic/malefic association results in the modifications resulting in insanity. Planets are the cause, says Astrology. Ayurveda tells that the decline of dhatus is caused by moon. According to puranas, moon was afflicted by consumption and was suffering. It diminishes and grows. Likewise working of buddhi grows and declines - Ayurveda accepts link between mind and moon. SARVANGA ROGA ANGA ROGA MANASIKA ROGA

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For these three even though Ayurveda and Jyothisha tell independent reasons; for whichever reasons are attributable by Ayurveda, corresponding reasons are there in Jyothisha. Both these sciences,

complement each other. For eg. Manasiga roga causes Sariraga roga and vice versa; one is linked to other. Ayurveda says Mind is the cause and results influence the Mind (Jyothisha). Jyothisha tells of Purvapunya, which is related to the mind in earlier births 1. Mind is the root cause. House 5, Mercury and moon tells of the quality of thoughts. If these are spoiled, deeds are also vitiated. If deeds are spoiled, mind gets afflicted. Fusion of these sciences can enable us to detect and suggest remedy for diseases. It is a superior approach to look at diseases through the Jyothisha glass. In all textbooks of Jyothisha, there is one chapter called Rogadhyaya. Particularly in books dealing with Prasna, there is one chapter known as karma vipaka. It means poorvapunya can lead to diseases. Ayurveda also tells that Poorva Janma Karma can lead to diseases 2. Thus Ayurveda and Jyothisha must first study poorvapunya, making Jyothisha more relevant then Ayurveda. When a disease whose causes is not known occurs, Ayurveda says it is due to Poorva Janma Karma. Jyothisha. Pancha Bhoothas are common to both Jyothisha and Ayurveda. They are treated alike. Causes of disease according to Ayurveda are 3: In this way, Ayurveda accepts

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Wrong food habits and routine. Bad thoughts Time The third point is what is known as Jyothisha science of Time. The second point is bad thoughts. Reason for the same is mind. Mind is represented by the moon. This is again dealt with in Jyothisha. Senses are of two kinds. (1) Jnana Indriya and (2) Karma Indriya. The sankalpa (thoughts or mental will) of mind is known by the Jnana Indriyas and implemented by Karma Indriyas. This manifests itself as wrong food habits and routine. Even in Jyothisha, Time is a supporting factor, which augments or opposes the fundamental qualifications of a person in all his activities. This is similar to Ayurveda where Time is the aggravating factor for the first two points discussed. Jnana Indriyas: Twak(skin), chakshu(eyes), srotra(ears),

jihva(tongue), grana (nose) Karma Indriyas: Vak(speech), Pani(hands), Padam(feet),

Payu(anus), Upastam(Urinary passage) Poorvapunya in Astrology is represented by the 5th house4. (This can be compared to a cup) 9th house is the denominator of the extent of 5th house. (This can be compared to a ladle). The 10th house denotes karma. The 11th house denotes fruition of karma. The Time at which the act bears fruit is denoted by Dasa / Bhukti.

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Time Ayurveda (Season) Jyothisha - (Dasa/bhukthi) Season is that which is present now. Dasa/Bhukthi is Time, which is relatable to Time of birth. Time is denoted by Astronomy. Fruits are denoted by Astrology. Astronomy is the basis for Astrology. Astrology says that Ayurveda is the cause for disease. Thus the fundamental cause for disease is the same. In Upanishads, the course of creation starts from Atma. Atma to Akasa, then Vayu, Agni, Jalam, Prithivi, in that sequence. This is proclaimed by vedas. First of the Pancha Bhoothas created was akasa. Then herbs, living beings, man was created in that sequence. Man is also a product of the five elements. Mans body is made up of five elements. Jyothisha sastra us that the five planets are equivalent to the five elements 5. In the order of creation, after the deluge, Pisces corresponds to akasa (Jupiter). Then Aquarius Scorpio Libra Virgo Vayu (Saturn) Agni (Mars) Jalam (Venus). Prithvi (mercury).

Thus the pancha bhoothas are indicated by planets. In Ayurveda, causes of disease are Vata, Pitta and Kapha. Vata corresponds to air, pitta corresponds to fire, Kapha corresponds to water. Pitta relates to fire whose attribute is heat. Kapha is water (cold). World is made up of heat and cold.

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The heat-cold combination together with air, present in this world when they function inside the human body is known as Vata / Pitta / Kapha. The heat-cold phenomenon is also related to planets. Sun and Mars Moon and Venus Saturn Pitta Kapha Vata

This is how the fusion between Jyothisha and Ayurveda is made. The six seasons denote varying degrees of heat and cold. Uttarayana

(Northern course of sun) and Dakshinayana (Southern course of sun) are the causes of seasons. When there is change of season, to avoid health complications, dietary regimen is prescribed by Ayurveda. If that warning is not heeded, there is room for disease. During seasonal changes, disease is caused when the corresponding planet in an individual horoscope is afflicted. Hence, Jyothisha sastra says in a particular dasa/bhukthi/anthara one can get a particular disease when a particular planet is afflicted. Hence there is a direct link between Ayurveda and Jyothisha. Both the sciences function on natural principles. Two types of disease onset is viewed. Through the medium of planets. Through the medium of Vata / Pitta / Kapha. The three reasons cited by Ayurveda are related to the science of Time (Jyothisha). In the eyes of Jyothisha, telling about a disease has reference to Ayurveda also. According to Charaka, When planets are antagonistic, treatment meets with failure 6.

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This is a Jyothisha doctrine accepted by Charaka. Adhyayana vithi. Adhyapana vithi. Soothika Grha Pravesam. Bala Graha peeda pariharam. Kuti Pradesakam. In these places Ayurveda requires Subha Nakshtra, Vara, Yoga, Karana, Thithi i.e. it requires purity of all five limbs of the zodiac. Thus they expect support from Jyothisha sastra. In Adhyayana vithi, japa and homa are prescribed. Thus Dharma Sastra principles are followed.

Pathya and Apathya vichara, while dealing with Balya, Youwana and koumara show modifications a principle accepted by dharma sastra. In some persons even though Vata, Pitta and Kapha are normal, diseases appear. This is in view of the fact that there is some karma of previous births, afflicting them through the medium of planets. Thus Ayurveda requires Jyothisha to make it a science. Prachina Karma is one of the causes of disease. In Dharma sastra there is a saying, The sins of previous births manifest as diseases 7. The remedy for the same is herbs, gifts, japa and homa. While differentiating various forms of treatment, Ayurveda accepts the performance of japa and homa. The following methods of treatment are found in Ayurveda.

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Daiva Vyapasraya Chikitsa. Yukti Vyapasraya Chikitsa. Sattwava Jayam Japa and Homa are included in Daiva Vyapasraya Chikitsa. Also wearing of gems and chanting of hymns are included in this treatment. For bala graha peeda pariharam, homam is prescribed. In Jyothisha also, homa is prescribed for balarishtam. Two types of disease are there (1) Yapya roga (2) Maha roga (Yapya means chronic disease). According to Ayurveda, apart from

medicine, it is suggested that Daiva Vyapasraya Chikitsa is to be performed. Niyati is Poorva Janma Karma. These concepts are accepted by both Ayurveda and Jyothisha. Niyati works by making modifications in the intellect and on account of that the forces of good and evil function. Niyati is in form of sankalpas of the mind and makes a person act and when the karma is performed good and evil accrue. Niyati is the basis for wrong food habits and wrong thoughts. But Time is that which brings that out and makes it explicit in the form of disease. According to Ayurveda, if Time (season) is favourable, disease is suppressed; if Time is unfavourable, disease is aggravated. In

Jyothisha we say Time in the form of dasa/Bhukti is the cause for aggravation and suppression of diseases. Niyati is common to both

Ayurveda and Jyothisha. Herein lies the unity of the two subjects.

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According to Jyothisha, karma is Upadanakarana and kala is Nimithakarana. For a pot, clay is the (material cause) and the potter is

the Nimithakarana (efficient cause). Without clay, a potter cannot make a pot. Niyati or poorva karma is the material cause and in the absence of material cause, Time cannot bring about changes. That which makes poorva karma explicit is kala (Time). Astrology is the science of Time. The works of present birth are in the form of present efforts. Works of previous births constitute what is called as Niyati. Niyati is efforts of previous births yet to fructify. We are the cause for Niyati. Karma is the efforts now being performed. Niyati is prarabdha karma. Sanchita karma is past karma in a dormant state. It can get activated any Time. Prarabdha karma is past karma activated and now functional in the form of present results. Agami karma is that capable of yielding results at some future date. Agami is also due to present karma which if left unperformed may not yield results at all. This karma theory is accepted by Ayurveda. When vata, pitta and kapha are balanced, then Poorva Janma Karma is said to be the cause for disease. Niyati is the unseen cause. Actions constitute the visible and immediate cause. Ayurveda says (wrong) actions are the immediate or primary cause of disease. Niyati is secondary. Jyothisha says Niyati is the primary cause. Actions are secondary. This is because it is Niyati that which brings about wrong actions. However the Ayurvedic view is that irrespective of Niyati, if the present actions are perfect, then disease can be suppressed. Thus it gives

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prime importance to present actions.

Swabhava is the distinctive

characteristic of each thing we find on earth. Swabhava is on account of the distinctive factors of the five elements. Human beings are made up of the five elements. The three reasons for disease are (1) Upadanakarana (2) Nimithakarana (3) Sahakarikarana. In the potters example, we find that clay is the Upadanakarana, potter is the Nimithakarana and the potters wheel and other instruments are Sahakarikarana. In a hotel, rice is the Upadanakarana, cook is the Nimithakarana and the waiter is the Sahakarikarana. Mind is the Upadanakarana, actions are the Nimithakarana and Time is the Sahakarikarana for disease. This view is common to both Ayurveda and Jyothisha. While mind and actions are common to both sciences, we find that the third cause differs. Ayurveda explains aggravation and suppression of disease as due to changes in seasons. But Jyothisha says that dasa-bhukthi and Gochara are the factors influencing disease. NAVAGRAHA: CONCEPT OF WORKSHIP From Vedic times, navagraha worship has started. Everyday three times, vedavits are continuing this practice, to this day. Water and hymns are the accessories. All the nine planets are worshipped. Vedic hymns are there for all of them.

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The planets are in Gola-rupa. Their forms are imaginary. They are Shabda Pradhana. Through mantras, the forms of planets are conjectured. For this the basis is qualities of planets. Just as sattwa, rajas and tamas are present in creation, protection and destruction, these are determinative of planetary qualities. When worship is there, some basis should be there. These three are Jala, Agni or Brahmin. All things in the world are considered as forms of navagrahas (e.g. stones, trees, gems, clothes, grains, flowers, castes etc). For saguna worship, the divinity of navagrahas is deemed to be present in all worldly things, which are made up of the five elements. As earth and fire are required for all forms, the nine planets which are also made up of these elements are deemed to lend their essence to them.

The navagrahas go around Mount Meru and their qualities are reflected in all forms. Whenever a man wishes to do navagraha puja, he has to identify something which is equivalent to the Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas of planets and then start propitiations. Later Agama sastras,

stressed idol worship; temples also started navagraha worship. They were worshipped in statue form. Till today we believe that their

influences are bringing about modifications in human affairs. Hence for individual benefits, planets are propitiated for which Vedic methods of japa, homa, archana and abhisheka are used. Particularly according to

specific grief and specific need, specific planets are propitiated. To ward off shani, pooja to shani is performed. Chandran (Moon) Aditya (Sun), Angarakan (Mars), budhan (Mercury), brihaspathi (Jupiter), sukran (Venus), shani (Saturn), rahu (Ascending node), ketu (Descending node), poojas for all of them are performed individually.

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What is foreseen in Time is made available through the medium of nine planets. This is linked to Vedic yagas. Darsapoornamasa yaga is an example. This is based on a particular Time. Three ingredients of a karma are 1) doer 2) the effort 3) Time. Time is the cause, which lies at the background. Time is a concept supported by astrology.

Time is useful in both vaidika (Vedic) and lowkika (wordly) matters. Thus Jyothisha percolated from vaidika to lowkika. Why is Time important? Because even though seed and earth are good, in the absence of timely rain it becomes a waste. So also when Time factor is adverse, no amount of work can yield results. Ideas and effort are with us. Time is needed to fulfil - this is the Jyothisha view point. Hence Astrology is compared to a lamp. Jyothisha has two parts. (a) Ganitha or Mathematics (b) Predictive Astrology. Those who expounded predictive astrology are the rishis. It is related to karma. Vedanga Jyothisha is the foundation. It introduced the concept of yugas, nakshatras and the numerical methods and the results thereof (e.g. 27 Stars, Janma, Sampat, Vipat etc.,). This was later used in Muhurtha sastra. Later this was used in matching of horoscopes. Ideas and efforts were there, but matching enabled them to translate them into beneficial results. Ideas / efforts are already existent in karma, so matching cannot create a new seed for new results.Poorva Janma Karma is intangible for it to work, the link with planets is necessary.Poorva Janma Karmais the basis for results. Later on Jyothisha developed on the lines of nimitha, hora and prasna. Hora is divided into two.

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Works of Rishis Works of Astrologers. Prasna is a method of determining results on the basis of present Time 8. The above three are inter-dependent. Vedas, Vedangas, Darsanas, Puranas, Psychology, Culture, Geography, Customs, Traditions In the light of these, it will determine the eventual result. The character of an individual and his growth are based on nationality, Time, environment and parentage. To judge them, these things are relevant. Hence

horoscope is based on individual traits it cannot be generalised. Time is the common factor but the results vary from person to person. To know Time, one must know siddhanta works. To know results, Rishis Hora works are to be read. To know what is to be accepted or rejected, one must have discrimination. Clarity of mind through Mantra Siddhi is required. Only then eventual results can be forecast. Unseen destiny is reflected in clear mind. Books equip us to know destiny before hand.

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NOTES AND REFERENCES: 1) Swargadyanu Bhava Kshina Shishta Prachina Karmanaam | Bhogaya Jananam Nrnaam Moha bhajam Muhurmuhuhu || ( Prasna Marga, Ch I, Ve 33) 2) Bhashanam Samibhuktasya Ragadwesha bhayadicha Karma Pranathi Pathadi dasadha yachcha ninditham (Ashtanga Hrdayam,

Sutrasthanam, Ch XII, Ve 42) 3) Asatmaindriyarthe Samyogaha, Prajna aparadaha parinameschethi Trayastrividha Vikalpa Hetavo Vikaranam Samayoga Yuktastu Prakrti Hetavo Bhavanti (Charaka Samhita, Page 226, Ve 43) 4) Prajna Pratibha Medha Viveka Shakthihi Puratanam Punyam. Mantramatya Tanujaha Panchama bat sowmanasyamapi chintyam ( Prasna Marga, Ch XIV, Stanza 7) 5) Kambvagni Vayvambarajan Gunanscha Nasasyadrk twakchu vananu meyan (Brihat Jataka, Ch VIII, Stanza 21) 6) Graha nakhetracha Janapada Upadvamsyante (Vedartha Parijata, Page 1621) 7) Poorva Janma Krtam Papam Vyadhi rupane badhate ||

(Veerasimhavalokanam, CH I, Page 2) 8) Janma Lagna thaya prasnaLagnam Sankalpya Pandithaha ( Prasna Marga Ch I, Ve 47)

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CHAPTER 3

Role of Karma
Diseases are of two types (1) Nija and (2) Agantu 1. Nija roga is further divided into two types (1) Sariraka and (2) Manasika Diseases of body parts is known as Sariraka roga (e.g) Fever etc. That which affects the mind is known as Manasika roga (e.g), Insanity, Epilepsy etc. By Agantu we mean diseases on account of cuts, wounds etc, caused by instruments, weapons, animals, falling from heights or other types of accidents. Ayurveda suggests three causes 2. (1) Prajna Aparatha (2) Apathya ahara/vihara (3) Parinama The cause for manasika diseases is the mind (Prajna Aparatha). For sariraka diseases, cause is Apathya ahara / Vihara (wrong habits of food and routine). Parinama (Time) is capable of giving rise to both types of diseases manasika and Sariraka. Modifications in thinking give rise to bodily discomforts. By the attacks of animals, also bodily discomforts are caused. Moon is the basis for mind. Soul is represented by the sun. The link with sun makes the thoughts of mind capable of being converted into actions. Mind is only

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collections of thoughts. These thoughts represent accumulated karma of previous births. As thoughts have no life force (Achethana) for its functioning it requries Chaithanya. Once it gets mixed with

Chaithanya, Buddhi, Chitta and Ahamkara, which are the divisions of mind complete the thought sequence and through the Jnana Indriyas give a fiat to the Karma Indriyas .The mind fulfils its thoughts with the help of karma Indriyas. Atma Manasa Samyujyate Mana Indriyena, Indriyam Arthena3 - This dictum of Varahamihira is the basis for this principle. Jyothisha accepts pancha bootha siddhantha, Karma siddhantha and Punar Janma Siddhanta. Karma siddhanta is more significant compared to the other two. Ayuh, Karmacha, Vithamcha, Vidya, Nidanameva cha, Pancha Ethani cha siddhyante Garbhasthasya Eva dehinah 4- This doctrine explains the fundamentals of Karma Siddhanta. The following are determined even when a human being is in the womb longevity, works, wealth or prosperity, Knowledge and death. This doctrine of karma siddhanta is reinforced by Jyothisha. Long Life, Short life amd Middle life are the three life spans explained in Jyothisha text books .So also, Maharogi (Chronic sufferer), healthy man, one who falls sick often, man with mental aberration the Time of appearance of diseases, its intensity and whether it is curable or incurable, is explained by Jyothisha. If a man is destined to die Alpayu, no treatment is required as treatment is expected to be fruitless. If a man is expected to live long, then he also requires no treatment. Thus, only some people require

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treatment - not all - and the entire section of society does not require treatment. Thus how Karma Siddhanta is applicable is explained here. An example is given of a bullock cart manufacturer who gave a warranty of sixty years for a cart, provided a specific weight is loaded and specific distance travelled in a day. A man overloaded the cart and it broke down. In the above example given in Charaka Samhita 5, the inference to be drawn is that if a man is endowed with long life according to karma siddhantha, the present actions in the form of a) Prajna Aparatha and b) Apathya ahara / Vihara can make it into a short life. Thus long life is possible only when the man is destined to live performs suitable actions congenial to long life. If a seed is supposed to germinate with in 60 days, then the following factors should be simultaneously present a) Water, b) Air, c) sunlight, d) Good soil and Manure. Thus the natural propensity of the seed to germinate can be effected only with the support of the abovementioned four factors. So also longevity can be supported only with support from human actions. Thus Jyothisha sastra suggests remedial measures if it comes across obstacles to fulfilment of actions .For Adrada Phala (uncertain destiny) Astrology accepts remedies to ward off evils. That which weakens and makes infructuous Poorva Janma Karma is Parihara (remedy). Those who are practitioners of Karma Siddhanta say that Sanchita karma( Accumulated Karma) can be warded off by remedial Measures.

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Agantu or Karma to be activated in future can be defeated by our present efforts. Prarabdha Karma has to be experienced. For example let us assume that a man performs a karma and dies subsequently without enjoying the fruits. Then in the next birth, the karma of previous births gets transmitted in the form of latent vasanas. When he performs karma in present birth, the accumulated karma also yields results. This is owing to the law of karma. One might be inclined to question, how karma gets attached to the correct person. The answer may be furnished in the form of an example. A calf is able to identify its mother- cow even though there may be hundreds of cows present. This is because there is an internal memory with the calf, which locates the cow correctly and is never misled. This internal link is true of past karma also .Of the various types of karma discussed above, only the experience of prarabdha karma is mandatory. The other two, viz, sanchita and agami may not at Times, yield results. The word Prarabdha means that which has become functional (i.e) karma which has become functional like an arrow which has been released from a bow. Time is that which enables us to know the outline of karma, the good and evil contained therein, the consequences thereof and the exact moment of experience. Agami is a bye product of free will. Sanchita can be stopped even before it becomes operational. Prarabdha Karmanaam Bhogadeva Kshayaha
6

This

means karma is never destroyed prior to experience . This is the rule of dharma sastra. This adage is applicable only to prarabdha karma ( Prakrshtam Arabdham Swa Karya Jananaya Ithi Prarabdham)7. Jyothisha sastra being the science of Time enables one to decipher the

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karma of previous births, which is invisible. It also tells us about the pros and cons, the gain or loss which may accrue to one on account of deeds of previous births. Upadanakarana Nimithakarana is karma (material cause). Jyothisha is

(efficient cause). In the pot example, clay is the

Upadanakarana, potter is the Nimithakarana. For conversion of clay into pot, potter is the cause. So also for frutification of karma, Jyothisha is the cause. So also for frutification of karma, Jyothisha is the cause. Jyothisha converts the latent karma of previous birth into the patent experiences of the present. Karma is lifeless (Achetana). Only when it gets connected to life or consciousness (Chaithanya) it gets activated. So an unborn person cannot experience the results of karma. The dormant karma when linked to the person who is born in this world is ready to experience the fruits of dormant or latent karma. Jyothisha acts as Nimithakarana and makes it functional. In the world, both upadhana and nimitha are associated, in the form of five elements. In Ayurveda, Manasika roga which is on account of Poorva Janma Karma finds expression in course of Time. Vata, Pitta and kapha constitute the Upadanakarana. Seasons form the Nimithakarana. In Ayurveda also it is said that seasons are also responsible for disease. Grief is synonymous with disease. Ayurveda deals with disease. Grief is dealt with by Jyothisha. Rujathi ithi Rogaha (That which yields grief is disease 8). Therein, lies the confluence of Ayurveda and Jyothisha which look at the same subject from two different points of view. Ayurveda deals with the eight maharogas or eight major diseases. These diseases may also occur on account of sins. Thus, sins of earlier

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births also constitute one of the causes for the disease which occur at the present moment. The karma of previous births which is present in the form of Sankalpas (or thoughts) in the mind (or as the mind) finds expression in course of Time on account of wrong thoughts, wrong actions, wrong routine and wrong food habits, gets translated into major diseases and become the cause for grief. The root cause is prarabdha karma. It cannot be stopped. Hence the term Maha roga is applied to certain diseases. Time (Jyothisha) in its course, points out the Time of occurrence, in the form of Dasas (periods) and Bhuktis (Sub Periods). One can make an inference of past karma by taking the movements of planets into consideration. Karma theory says that a major disease can only arise out of past karma. The three types of diseases mentioned in Ayurveda are (1) Sadhya, (2) Asadhya, and (3) Yapya. Sadhya Asadhya Yapya Curable Incurable Curable, if treatment is appropriate.

Jyothisha mentions of three types of karma Drdha Adrdha Definite Indefinite or uncertain partly uncertain

Drdhadrdha

Drdha is that which is certain to take place. Adrdha is that which expects a Nimitha to take place. In the absence of a particular factor, it

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may not take place. Drdhadrdha means that which may be partially fulfilled. Dasa effects are certain. Ashtavarga and Gochara are Adrdha. Yoga refers to Drdhadrdha karma. From differences in Nimitha, one can infer the differences in karma. Drdha karma includes Nimitha, so it is definite. Yoga is common to several persons born on the same day. For example let us consider Gaja Kesari Yoga, which is a highly favourable astrological combination which gives rise to fame, wealth and fortune. This yoga is caused by the square aspect or conjunction or oppostion between Moon and Jupiter. On a particular day there are born several persons and all of them will have the same planetary combination. Thus, this yoga has no nexus with Lagna. Let us assume that one such person has this yoga but from Lagna point of view, there are unfavourable factors. Then, chances are that this yoga may not fructify at all. By this logic we can clearly establish that yoga is an uncertain phenomenon. Let us consider as an example, a horoscope where there are combinations for marriage, children and simultaneously there is a combination for Alpayu (short Life). Suppose the boy dies at the age of fifteen prior to marriage. Then the Vivaha (Marriage) and Santana (Progeny) yogas could be said be rendered infructuos. Thus all yogas could be said to be uncertain. The cause for uncertainty is that yogas are caused by the overall planetary position at one point of time which is unconnected to Lagna,

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thereby meaning it does not take into account, the Poorva Janma Karma of each individual. To give another example, the conjunction of an exalted planet with a debilitated planet gives rise to neehabhanga rajayoga. The conjunction of Sun and Saturn in Aries or Libra, Mars and Jupiter in Cancer or Capricorn, Venus and Mercury in Virgo or Pisces are the examples of the above mentioned yoga. Here again one is not concerned with Lagna. Again it is Astronomy that decides Pancha Maha Purusha Yoga or Nabhasa yoga. These yogas are unrelated to an individuals sanchita or prarabdha Karma. The movements of planets of zodiac follow a pattern which is already explained by astronomy. The nine planets are the main factors in astrology. The Dasas and Bhuktis follow a fixed pattern. Thus the planetary transits, planets and the periods are fixed. What is fixed cannot be the consequences of individual karma which is a variable thing. Thus the overall rules of astrology are not linked to an individuals karma. But the Lagna which is the time of entry of an individual into this world is totally linked to his Poorva Janma Karma. For instance, we know that Mercury and Venus are benefics. This is a general rule of astrology unlinked to individual karma. If that individual were to be born in vrischika (Scorpio) Lagna, then for that person, Mercury and Venus become functional malefics. Lagna is that point in time marking the commencement of functioning of prarabdha karma which has its orgin in karma performed by an individual in his pervious birth, or in all the previous births, taken as a whole. If we say that Saturn is a malefic then that is only a general maxim. The portfolio of Saturn is subject to modification when

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we take the Lagna as starting point. A malefic Saturn in general parlance may even turn out to be a functional benefic for an individual. Thus Jyothisha indicates the specific quality of a planet when reckoned from an individuals standpoint. The characteristics of each planet cannot be applied to an individual on a general basis or rather it would be pertinent to say, that a broad generalisation on the application of planetary characteristics cannot be applied to an individual. The Lagna or ascendent is the basis for a. Kendras or Quadrants b. Trikonas or trines. c. Badhaka houses: By this we mean the 11th house for movable signs, 9th house for fixed signs and 7th house for common signs. d. Upachaya houses: This refers to houses 3,6,10 and 11. e. Anupachaya houses: This refers to houses other than 3,6,10, and11. The general effects of planets have to be applied to individual horoscopes by applying the aforesaid five factors and thereby coming to certain broad conclusions. The planets do not yield results directly to an individual by their inherent qualities. They attain modification on account of Rasi, Nakshatra etc and this modified result is what an individual has to experience. For instance, we attribute certain results to sun in astronomy but the sun may turn out to be either a benefic or a malefic for individual. The planetary strengths (based on shadvargas) are applicable to an individual, they are not the general features of a planet. The strength of a planet for doing some specific good or bad is directly attributable to its

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strength in the six-fold division of the zodiac. This has no relevance to astronomy. It is directly concerned with astrology. Astronomy has nothing to do with an individual`s experiences. However astronomy forms the basis for the predictions made through astrology. Astronomy is the science, which deals with the motion of celestial bodies. Astrology is the science, which deals with effect of astronomy in terrestrial matters. The experiences of an individual are based on Dasa Bhukti. This Dasa Bhukti is based on a fixed pattern that is directly linked to the nakshatra prevailing at the Time of birth. This nakshatra, which is linked to Time of births is also linked to an individual`s Poorva Janma Karma. Thus it is through astrology an individual`s future can be predicted. Astronomy, which deals with the movements of planets, has nothing to do with an individuals Poorva Janma Karma. Nakshatra is based on the position of the moon. The moon represents the mind, which is nothing but a bundle of sankalpas (or rather, wishes or thoughts). These thoughts are direct consequences of Poorva Janma Karma, which explains the Dasa Bhukti sequence. The Lagna is directly linked to place of birth and Time of birth. This can be found out through the medium of astronomy. Nakshatra enables us to know Poorva Punya. Thus based on Dasa/Bhukti the results vary from person to person. Upadanakarana is Astrology and Nimithakarana is Astronomy. This is our Conclusion.

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NOTES AND REFERENCES: 1) NijaAgantu Vibhagena Tatra Rogaa dwida smrtaha ( Ashtanga Hrdayam, Sutrasthanam, Ch I, Ve 20) 2) Asatmaindriyarthe Samyogaha, Prajna aparadaha parinameschethi Trayastrividha Vikalpa Hetavo Vikaranam Samayoga Yuktastu Prakrti Hetavo Bhavanti (Charaka Samhita, Page 226, Ve 43) 3) Atma Manasa Samyujyate Mana Indriyena, Indriyam Arthena (Varahamihira Horasastram, Page 100) 4) Ayuh, Karmacha, Vithamcha, Vidya, Nidanameva cha, Pancha Ethani cha siddhyante Garbhasthasya Eva dehinah (Panchatantram 2.85, Subhashita Ratna Bhandakaram 162/428) 5) Charaka Samhita, Vimanasthanam, Page 964. 6) Prarabdha Karmanaam Bhogadeva Kshayaha (Sanatana Dharma Page 74) 7) Prakrshtam Arabdham Swa Karya Jananaya Ithi Prarabdham ( Shabda Kalpadruma, Vol III, Page 364) 8) Rujathi ithi Rogaha (Ashtanga Hridayam, Page 1)

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CHAPTER 4

Present view of ancient concepts


Karma Vipaka Shanti Ratnakara Purushartha Chinthamani These books deal with remedial measures in vedas for diseases, which have their origin in malefic planetary positions. They deal with propitiation of devas for cure of diseases. They deal with the method by which (1) diseases that have their origin in Poorva Janma Karma can be warded off and (2), which seek a cure for the ills of present birth. In Atharvana Veda, for diseases, Mani (gems), Mantra (Sacred hymns or Incantations), oushada (Medicinal herbs) are the basis for treatment. Treatment through mantras, Tantras, herbs and wearing of gems are the four methods by which treatment can be given. In Atharvana Veda, both curative and preventive forms of medicine are dealt with. Bali (Sacrifice), devata Aradhana (Pooja of Devas), for cure of diseases, pacification of planets to ward off obstacles due to planets in malefic places; mantras addressed to devas, have to be adopted for physical happiness (Atharvana Veda). In Athavana Veda, manyu shamanam, unmatha nasanam, duswapna nasanam, Manidharanam, are the rules prescribed. Charaka, Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Kashyapa Samhita, Harita Samhita, Chakradutta, Astanga Hridayam, Rasa Ratna Sumuchayam, Yoga Ratnakaram, Bhela samhita, Madhava Nidanam are the Ayurveda books

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which give remedies in the form of gems, mantras and herbs for cure. Ramayana, Mahabharata and Bhagavata give reasons for mental diseases and their cure. In Kavyas and Natakas also, causes for manoroga and treatment for the same is given. In Sanskrit literature, these have their origin in Vedas, Jyothisha and Ayurveda or rather they are examples for these rules. In Yuddha Khanda of Ramayana, Lakshmana`s vishalyee karanam, Vishapanam of Pandavas in Mahabharata, Dundukharee`s preta vimochanam in Bhagavata are the examples. Rama`s exile in Ramayana, Yudhistira`s game of dice, Syamantaka Mani episode involving Lord Krishna are examples of planetary transits resulting in untoward incidents. The cause for separation of Nala and Damayanti as due to Saturn is explained in that story itself. Thus this episode has its origin in Jyothisha sastra and illustrates the fact that in the periods and subperiods of Saturn one becomes prone to sorrow. The exploits of mahatmas (Mahatma Sahasa Karma Karanam) are due to their merits of previous births. Examples of miracles found in puranas are given below: (1) Lord Krishna killing the demoness putana even as a child. (2) Dhruva performing tapas at the age of five. (3) The curse of sage Durvasa instilling fear amidst one and all (4) Sage Kapila opening his eye and destroying 60,000 people in the episode involving Bhageeratha and the Ganges. (5) Sage Vasishta preventing missiles from coming near him in his tryst with King Vishwamitra

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In Jyothisha the planets, through the science of astrology indicate the manner in which a person has to undergo the effects of Poorva Janma Karma, while the motion of planets is indicated by astronomy. The evil karma of past births is said to exist in a dormant form when in a persons horoscope the Lagna is tenanted by a malefic in conjunction with Guliga. A malefic in a particular Bhava, indicates the sorrow that a person is bound to face in his life through the propensity of that Bhava; the presence of benefics in a Bhava indicates that the person will get fulfilment of wishes through the propensity of that Bhava. Just as heat and cold are present alternatively in the world, Poorva Janma Karma is also found to exist in the form of sins (papa) and merits (Punya). Poorva Janma Karma is not patent but is inferred from the location of planets in a given horoscope. We, at times, infer the cause from the result. In this case, the cause is supposed to give rise to certain results. For example, the presence of smoke may be inferred as due to fire. So also cold is supposed to emanate from water, movements from Vayu, etc. Likewise the presence of certain planets in certain positions enables us to ascertain Poorva Janma Karma. In a given horoscope, the 5th house determines a persons thoughts. If a natural malefic or a functional malefic or a malefic by virtue of conjunction or aspect or a weak malefic or a planet with the above qualities were to occupy the 5th, it can be inferred that the thoughts of the person will eventually lead to grief and despair. A natural benefic or a strong benefic or a planet with similar qualities in the 5th house will eventually lead to happiness. This is indicative of merits earned in previous birth.

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A solitary Bhava in astrology is never indicative of results. It gives results only in tandem with the remaining eleven Bhavas. To measure the propensity of a planet one has to judge the Sixteen Vargas (ShodasaVargas). The Sixteen Vargas enable us to judge the link between twelve Bhavas, thus providing the answer 1. For Mesha (Aries), the

house link is with Mars (Kshetra). The Hora link is with Sun and Moon. The Drekkana link is with lords of 1,5,9 viz; Mars, Sun, and Jupiter and the navamsa link is with the lords of nine houses. In Dwadasamsa the link with twelve houses is provided. In trimsamsa, the link between the planets is provided. When these Vargas are analysed, we come to know the interlinking of all the twelve Bhavas. The human body functions through all its organs; similarly astrology functions with the planets and Bhavas in toto. A single organ in the human body cannot function independently; so also a single Bhava without the influence of another Bhava cannot be said to be indicative of results. This is an important underlying principle in astrology. The Zodiac can be compared to the human body 2. The houses can be compared to the human organs. A man must exist for an organ to function, so also the link with houses must exist for a planet to give results. The word Rasi itself exists to underline this fact.

Agneyair vidavastha rasi Sahithai misraihi punarbhoo bhavet3 This verse shows that three malefics in the seventh house will confer widowhood. However if they were to be conjunct a benefic, then the results are modified and the lady becomes a remarried widow. The

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independent results of a benefic (happy conjugal life) and the independent results of a malefic (widowhood) are both negated and a third new result surfaces viz; a widow remarried (punarbhoo).

Astrology is that science which pronounces results in the backdrop of culture and tradition. Independent of culture and tradition one should never indulge in predictive astrology.

For instance, if a person born in China, Britain or Russia were to inquire about results in astrology, then suitable to his civilisation, values and his rules and regulations of life one has to study the planetary positions and furnish appropriate answers. Let us now see a few concepts, which have now undergone a transformation.

1. FOREIGN TRAVEL (VIDESA GAMANAM)

Voyage to foreign countries was prohibited in ancient times. This was associated with grief and misery. People performed remedial measures to ward off the evil effects of planets which were responsible for making persons go into exile. But today foreign travel is eagerly looked forward to by many persons. Today foreign travel is related to worldly happiness. Hence people today want to go abroad in order to lead a life of comfort and affluence.

2. VAIDHAVYAM (WIDOWHOOD)

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Widowhood was considered a source of grief and misery in olden Times. One loses a guardian or the bread winner and also loses social status in widowhood. But today as a result of reforms relating to widow remarriage, there is no grief associated with widowhood as was the case in ancient civilisation.

3. DIVORCE

This was considered a great source of grief in ancient times. But today the concept has undergone a change and the rigour associated with separation no longer exists today.

4. BIRTH CONTROL

Brunahati (killing of foetus) was considered as major sin in ancient Times but today people are happy to practice the same in the name of birth control.

5. VAMSA VICHHEDA (TERMINATION OF FAMILY TREE)

This was considered as a sin in ancient times. A large family with numerous children was considered a good augury in ancient times but today couples consider a small family as a blessing which enables them to lead a life of ease and comfort. Birth of grand children nowadays is seldom looked forward to whereas in olden times people were anxious to see their grand children.

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The advice of rishis is applicable only to certain people and should not be construed as a guideline for one and all. Hence the ten agreements in astrology (Dasa Porutham) is applied differently for different classes of people.

Dina porutham is applicable to mainly Brahmins. Gana porutham is mainly to vaisyas.

Similarly Vastu sastra does not give a general advice to one and all. Keeping the background of each man it prescribes different types of houses for different categories of people.

The dharma sastras, traditions and culture play a major role in modifying the results of predictive astrology.

The science of astrology, has its roots in kala (Time) desa (place) and vyakthi (individual). Kala refers to the Time, which is responsible for modification seen in the individual who is born in some place, which is called the place of birth. The place is the basis. The swabhava (characteristic) refers to the individual. Kala (Time) is the Nimithakarana (efficient cause) for swabhava vikara (modifications). Time has no beginning or end and is related to all things found on earth. Time is explained by astronomy. The science relating to swabhava vikara is astrology. Astrology explains the swabhava vikara in things giving rise to grief and happiness through Time as Nimithakarana. Astrology was created for an individual with a mission who conducted his life in accordance with a set of rules and regulations and the aforesaid qualities of joy and grief are to be inferred from the standpoint of such an individual.

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The whole of astrology is the word of rishis. It is applicable only for certain culture. When a new culture sets in, the science will lose its relevance. Adultery results in grief This adage is applicable to one who has culture. But to a person who seldom discriminates between good and evil these words have no meaning.

Astrology tells that servitude is sin for a Brahmin. But in an alien culture, servitude is never associated with grief. One culture says that Himsa or violence is grief. But an alien culture will say that himsa is happiness.

The concept of horoscope matching is intended for a person who has faith in Grihasthashramadharma. Horoscope matching does not benefit one who has no such goal. One who feels that happiness arises out of sense organs will find no utility in horoscope matching. Mind is ever seeking new pastures for certain persons who have no goal in life. Horoscope matching will not benefit such persons.

One who has a fixed goal in life and who has certain fixed rules and regulations in life will find astrology a sagacious advisor to ward off obstacles in life.

Ayurveda says that one must live with a fixed aim in life. One must live with certain dietary regulations. One who lives in such a way remains free of disease. Ayurveda tells of treatment in conformity with the Vedic teachings. All the teachings of Vedas show the means to happiness and for elimination or mitigation of sorrow.

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Vedas provide the means for healthy upkeep of mind and its thoughts. Ayurveda provides for healthy upkeep of body thereby regulating the mind. Thus the two operate at two different levels and their fields are also different, though the aim is one and the same.

The aim of Samskaras is to suppress the mischief created by evil thoughts and to augment good thoughts thereby benefiting both the individual and society. The aim of Ayurveda is to strengthen the good things, which can be induced only by intake of good food and inflow of good thoughts.

Time is invisible and indeterminate. It has no beginning or end. Concepts like Anno Domini (A.D) or before Christ (B.C) are man-made. Time is the basis of astrology. When the sun shines, it produces modification in all things in the world. This modification requires a certain period. This period is referred to as Time. This Time is measured by keeping the motion of the sun, itself as a yardstick. All things in the world are capable of being created or destroyed. But Time can neither be created nor be destroyed. Whether this Time will bring about sorrow or happiness, is told to us in advance by Jyothisha sastra. Just as a lamp enables us to know an object, which is hidden by darkness, the fruits of Poorva Janma Karma and the Time of fructification, is explained by Astrology.

In the backdrop of Vedas, both Ayurveda and Jyothisha, substantiate their viewpoints. Over a period of time, what is manifested is the intrinsic quality of the seed. Time has no qualities. Hence it does not add any new quality to the seed. Thus, it is important to realise the fact that only when a fixed set of rules and regulations are followed by a

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person, the rules of astrology can be correctly spelt out; else it would be an exercise in futility. For achievement of the goal whether Time is favourable or adverse is explained by astrology. It will tell whether the mind, under the influence of Time, will give rise to favourable thoughts. Thus a man with a definite aim in life requires the support of astrology. Poorva Janma Karma can bring out modifications. But Astrology will tell us only about such modifications, which occur in relation to Time. This is backed by the authority of the Vedas.

Jyothisha refers to sun, moon, and stars. Thus this Vedic view informs us that for measuring Time one has to consider only the sun, the moon and the stars.

For a day to be measured, we look at the sun. By looking at the moon transits, we judge the length of the season. Time in association in sun, brings about modifications. Hence astrology refers to the sun as the king of solar system. It is also referred to as the soul of the universe. The Vedas proclaim the sun as the Atma of the universe.

By way of conclusion, it may be said that Ayurveda tells us about the onset of disease. Astrology tells us about the Time of onset of disease. This inter-relationship between Ayurveda and Astrology is essential for understanding the cause of diseases. For Pitta rogas, the relationships with Sun, for Kapha rogas the relationship with moon, for vata rogas the relationship with Saturn is mentioned in Astrology. Hence for diseases on account of Vata, Pitta and Kapha there is a link with planets. For modification in mind and body, these three (in Ayurveda) constitute the cause. Sun, Moon and Saturn (in Astrology) constitute the

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cause. The Qualities of Vata, Pitta, and Kapha are attributable to the Qualities of the related planets.

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Notes and References 1) Varahamihiras Brihat jataka - Notes on ch I , St 6 Page 43 - Tr B.S.Rao 2) Kalagni varangamana namuro Hrtkrodavaso Brto Vastir Vyanjana Murujanu yugale Jange tatongridwayam Meshaswi Pratama Navarksha Charanaagcha krasthitha rasayo Rasi kshetra grharksha bani Bhavanam chaikartha sampratyayaha || (Brihat Jataka Ch-I, stanza 4) 3) Agneyair vidavastha rasi Sahithai misraihi punarbhoo bhavet (Brihat Jataka, Ch-24, Stanza 9)

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CHAPTER 5

Role of stage of life


There is a description of both sun and the moon in Yajur Veda, where in it is stated that the sun travels on a mythological chariot drawn by seven horses. The horses denote the rays of the sun. Of the seven rays, one is permanent and the other six are responsible for all modifications, for which they are the root cause. The moon is a watery planet. Only in combination with cold, heat can perform its work in making modifications (Vikara). This cold is activated when the suns rays fall on the moon. The moon, in turn, is responsible for inducing the six seasons. This is the fundamental principle underlying Astronomy.

By taking the qualities of the planet into consideration and how they produce modifications, the planets and their transits along with effects are described in Astrology.

The motion of celestial bodies affects the heat cold balance in an individual and when his mind is affected his actions undergo a consequential change, which bring about disease.

Astronomy is the science, which helps to determine Time. But Astrology is that science, which deals with the onset of joy or sorrow in an individual corresponding to the motion of celestial bodies and their impact on an individuals mind and body.

The human body is made up of the five elements. An individuals thinking brings about joy or sorrow. When there is harmony in thinking,

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the five elements function in tandem, bring about joy. When the thinking faculty gets vitiated the balance of the five elements gets disturbed resulting in sorrow. This is the Ayurvedic view.

According to Jyothisha, the motion of celestial bodies creates good or evil in a mans mind. This in turn augments or disturbs the stability of the elements and thereby the individual experiences joy or sorrow.

In creation, starting from sky, until man, the sequence is as follows (1) Ether (2) Air (3) Fire (4) Water (5) Earth (6) Herbs or food (7) Man.

In Ayurveda, this is indicated by vata, kapha and pitta. This is contained in the three planets sun, moon and saturn. In other words they indicate heat, cold and air. The planets have the following elements as corresponding to their nature 1.

Jupiter Saturn Mars Venus Mercury

Ether Air Fire Water Earth

Cold produces germination, heat produces modifications and air may cause disintegration. In creation, for man to function cold, heat and air are required.

Mans thinking influences the course of events. Thinking is based on poorva punya. Thus poorva punya by influencing the course of thoughts indirectly influences the course of events. The nature of planets

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as indicated above enables us to know the nature of thoughts thereby enabling us to know the future course of events.

The general indications of a planet cannot be applied in toto in respect of a mans horoscope. When we judge an individuals horoscope, we have to go by the specific indications of a mans horoscope.

If the planetary position is indicative of evil in respect of poorva punya, then the mans past karma is supposed to be bad. The evil past karma gives rise to an evil planetary position, which forebodes evil. It should not be misconstrued to imply that the planets forebode evil. It is the evil past karma that results in the evil of the present and future. The planets are merely the indicators of past karma. For instance, the thermometer is merely an indicator of rise in temperature but does not cause fever. Similarly the planets indicate the evil in past karma but are not responsible for that karma. The nine planets are made up of the five elements 2. The human body is also made up of the five elements. Thus the planets and the human body have a direct link. Thus the transit of planets is capable of influencing human destiny. Water possesses the power of cooling. It is capable of putting out fire. But when water is boiled, fire enters water and produces heating effects. When boiled water is poured over a person, the person gets scars on the body. So water which is cooling produces opposite effects when heated. However water or boiled water when

thrown over fire puts it out. There the effects remain unchanged in spite of boiling. This is the comparative result of water and boiled water which is the result of interaction between fire and water. In Astrology,

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depending upon past karma, one has to interpret conjunctions of two planets.

In puranas we have instances like Kamsas father who was a king who was incarcerated and Salivahana who was in jail, who became a king.

If Poorva Janma Karma has both good and evil, one does not cancel the other. Both are experienced separately.

Arundhati, consort of safe Vasishta came from humble beginnings. She rose to a high level of stature by getting married to Vasishta.

Dasaratha, in spite of marrying thrice, had a good name.

Sri

Krishna had a good name, though he had 16008 wives and also attempted to marry Jambavati and succeeded in his mission. But Indra lost his name while trying to approach Ahalya with an amorous mind. This is due to Poorva Janma Karma.

The action of a person gets recognition in one place. The same action is censured in another place. How can the same action be censured in one place and praised in another? The obvious answer would be that the persons past karma gives rise to this anomaly. Some examples of this anomaly are given below: Educated men behaving like fools. A chaste woman steeped in sorrow. A woman of evil ways experiencing happiness.

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We sometimes ask: How is this person, of good nature, suffering so much? How is this evil-minded person blessed with so much joy? The invisible cause is karma. Since planets are the indicators of poorva

punya, judgment of poorva punya is one of the main goals of astrology.

We sometimes find a person continuously experiencing happiness suffering in between. The converse is also true. A person continuously suffering has intermittent spells of joy.

There is a Malayalam commentary on Brihat parasara Hora Sastra that gives an interesting viewpoint. The conjunction of two planets having contrary indications can give contrary results. For instance Rama married Sita. This was due to poorva punya. Subsequently both had to go into exile. Then both experienced great sorrow. Fate, in the form of prarabdha karma was such that the sins of previous births were immediately activated when both of them got married.

In transits we sometimes find Saturn in the eighth and Jupiter in the ninth. These are times when prarabdha karma gets activated to give joy and sorrow, both at the same time.

In Ayurveda, we find that all things in the world have got both gunas and doshas. Thus life is an admixture of good and evil.

In horoscopes, Dasa, Bhukti, Anthara etc., benefics and malefics and their strenghths and their position in Gochara have to be analyzed. If we find two powerful planets in action, one benefic and the other malefic then both the effects are experienced at the same time.

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If one planet is strong and the other weak, in the above example and both are contrary in giving results, then the opposite results accrue, one strong and the other weak.

A small cause in Dasa, Bhukti or chhidra can sometimes yield great results. If the Antara lord is highly favouable, then it can over come even the adverse Dasa/Bhukti lords and if Gochara is favourable, then great results are obtained beneficially, provided the person is destined for that experience.

Strength or weakness of the Dasalord is established by two major factors (1) Its strength in Shadvargas (2) Its strength in occupying a favourable house from Lagna. If the Dasalord occupies a weak house in a majority of the divisional charts its power to do good is reduced. So also if the Dasalord occupies a house of evil like 6,8, 12, then also its benefic propensity is reduced. The same principle applies to Bhukti and Chhidra lords also. The position of these lords in Gochara is also important for judging events.

For instance, let us assume that a strong Jupiter is placed in the 10th. It is in conjunction with an evil lord, say lord of 6,8 or 12. Then let us further assume that both these planets are equally strong. Then, one planets effect does not cancel the other. Both the effects are perceived. If Jupiter is stronger, then the person gains in occupation. If the malefic is stronger, then, a fall in position can be expected. If Dasa lord or Bhukti lord or chhidra lord is the lord of the 3rd, 5th or 7th star, then the evil effects have to be predicted even though they may have other benefic propensities.

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An example needs to be cited here. Let us assume that the Dasalord is Jupiter as lord of 5th house. He is both a natural and functional benefic. He owns the adverse 5th star. Then he has propensity for little amount of evil. When the Bhukti or chhidra lord is evil, then the Dasalord allows the evil Bhukti or chhidra lord to perform evil without any interference. This is how lordship over 3,5, or 7 stars works in giving results in Dasas and Bhuktis.

The lords of Bhukti / chhidra are sub-ordinate to Dasalord. They cannot give independent results by - passing the Dasalord. Whatever results are caused are due to the Bhukti and chhidra lords interacting with Dasalords.

These planets are supposed to give rise to two types of effects (1) Material (2) Spiritual. These effects are to be forecast depending upon the state of a persons mind as also his stage in life like infancy, middle age and old age. If a boy, who is eight years old, is asked to go on a pilgrimage, then one can say that the effects of pilgrimage will not directly benefit him, as he is too young to realise the benefits of spiritualism. If the boy runs a Dasa of a planet, which can give conjugal happiness, even then one should not predict such results, as they are inappropriate for his age. If a planet is capable of giving rise in

employment, then such effects should not be predicted in the case of an old man.

Moreover planets influence the mind, which gives rise to thoughts which dictate future course of events. Man is a thinking animal. Hence planets influence man. A cow gives birth to a calf and in certain cases, the calf may be running the Dasa of a yogakaraka. But one should not

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predict that the animal would become a king in such times, because astrology never applies to animals in the same manner it applies to man.

Influx of wealth and position should be related to job, education and stature. Let us assume that a person get a favourable venus dasa. If that person is a priest he may get a Dampati Pooja as engagement leading to sudden influx of income. A politician in the above case

becomes a minister. By looking into a priests horoscope one should not say Venus Dasa will make him a minister. Ones age, stature, education and employment acts as a ceiling and provides the limit for the benefits accruing to one in a favourable dasa.

Thus stage of life is an integral part of the principles governing predictive astrology.

What is the Ayurvedic viewpoint of stage of life?

We say that a newborn child should not be given solid food. It is fed on a liquid diet. As it grows, the food intake gets augmented and finally reaches saturation point. When old age sets in, once again the trend gets reversed and food intake is gradually reduced. Thus stage of life is an integral part of Ayurvedic food regimen.

In Astrology we find that Balarishta (infantile suffering) will not apply to an old man, conjugal happiness and spiritualism will not apply to an infant. Planets give results appropriate to stage of life. For instance, Mars is in the 7th. Then we have to predict an evil result in respect of married life. For that particular person, Mars may be a

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yogakaraka. He may also represent valour and adventurism. But he will start giving results denoted by the 7th house in tune with his intrinsic qualities. Here, in the above case, Mars in the 7th will give a spouse who is short-tempered, easily irritated and impulsive. Again in the above case, Mars will have ownership of two Bhavas and may also be indicative of several other Bhavas. But in preference to all those qualities, it will give the results of his occupation of the 7th Bhava. This is true of all planets.

The Dasas and Bhuktis have to be applied in conformity with stage of life. It is the stage of life, which determines the probable effects of planets. The planets never determine the stage of life. The effects of Dasas and Bhuktis undergo suitable modification in accordance with stage of life.

Animals live is tune with Nature. When they feel hungry, they eat something. Everything they do is by sheer instinct. Their deeds are neither benevolent nor malevolent in a karmic sense. Their deeds yield neither merit nor sin. The law of karma giving effects to poorva punya is not applicable to inanimate things or animals since their acts are purely guided by Nature and nothing else. A mans actions are the logical consequence of his thoughts. These thoughts originate from his past karma. This process is facilitated by the rotation of planets. But in the animal kingdom, "thought process is non-existent and therefore Jyothisha never applies to them.

Planets do not give effects based on their own volition. having Balarishta and Neechabhanga Rajayoga 3.

An

example could be cited here. Let us for instance, think of a horoscope Initially it is the

Balarishta effect which is felt .To be precise, when the child is born, then

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the prarabdha karma of the child gets activated and gives effects of Balarishta. This evil effect is felt prior to the other rajayogas present in the horoscope. Balarishta gains precedence over the Rajayogas. But no individual can have a Rajayoga activated and subsequently feel effects of Balarishta.
4 a

Thus prarabdha karma is the basis of effects felt during Dasas and Bhuktis
4 b

. But Dasas and Bhuktis never override the effects of

prarabdha karma.

We say that Balarishta is felt in infancy, Rajayogas in middle age and Tattwa - Jnana or spiritual knowledge in old age. If planets are capable of giving rise to balarishta, or rajayoga, then are they not capable of giving at any point of life of a person? The answer is in the negative.

To enjoy Rajayoga, a person must have fully developed sense organs, which can never be the case with an infant. One should have experienced all worldly affairs to gain Atma Jnana and tattwa Jnana, which is possible only in an aged person. Hence stage of life is essential for certain peculiar planetary effects.

Karma is of two types: Pariharyam measures. Apariharyam measures. that which cannot be nullified by remedial or that which can be nullified by remedial

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Devakopa (or Divine anger) is remediable. Manushya kopa (or human anger) is irremediable. There are certain types of Karma, which will take effect only if possibility exists.

Apariharya belongs to the category of Drdha Karma (definite results). Pariharya belongs to the Adrdha (indefinite) category. There may be a case where a person may have Alpayu or short life but Raja yogas may be present. In such cases the Raja yogas belongs to that category of Karma which will yield result wherever the possibility exists (Drdhadrdha Karma). If longevity is there Raja Yoga will occur. If Alpayu prevails Raja yoga will fail.

Planets will yield results only acccording to Avasta (Stage of Life). This is because it is Time which causes stage of life. In prasna, we are advised to predict results by looking at the planetary position and also the omens prevailing at that time. The omens are comparable to stage of life. If planets foretell good and auspicious omens are seen, good will occur. Likewise if the planetary periods are good and stage of life (Avasta) is suitable, beneficial results are to be predicted.

In literature also we find one word, giving rise to two meanings. The word Saindhava means salt and also horse. When the guest sits for lunch, the query about Saindhava refer to salt, but when the guest is about to leave that refers to horse. Thus Avasta determines the implications.

In a running bus, the whistle sound makes it stop. The same whistle when blown again causes the bus to run. So, in daily parlance also we

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find that based on Avastas, the same sound can denote two different implications.

If Jupiter is lord of 7 in own house, lot of benefits can be obtained in middle age
5 a

. But the same in old age becomes a maraka or killer

planet. Here again Avasta becomes important 5 b.

Dasa has to be judged in such a way that whatever be the fruits applicable to that Dasalord in that particular stage of life have to be inferred.

Dasabhuktis cannot yield results independent of planetary transits. If they were independent there wont be any necessity for consulting an almanac for looking at transits. Transits dont yield results independent of position of planets in the natal chart. If transits were to yield results, then all people born in a particular Rasi all over the world will experience the very same joys and sufferings. The Dasabhuktis and position of planets in Gochara yield results while working in tandem and when they are in harmony with each other. In other words, neither of them yields results of their own accord. So also the Dasa sequence will not yield independent results. They will yield results based on Lagna. For instance a planet in 11 and a planet in 12 in two different horoscopes may yield different results. Suppose that planet were to be sun, then sun in 11 will yield good results whereas sun in 12 will yield bad results. Thus the Dasa is dependent on Lagna for yielding results in acccordance with poorva punya. Hence poorva Karma is the basis of all results. The Dasa sequence will yield the results. The Time is indicated by Gochara. The horoscope shows the extent to which he will reap the consequences of Karma.

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NOTES AND REFERENCES: 1) Viyat kshomi tejaha pavana paya sameva patayaha Suracharya jnara dyumani suta devari sachivaha (Jataka parijatham, Ch II, Ve 27 latter half) 2) Dyumanir amaramantri bhusutaha soma sowmyow Gururina tanayarow bhargavo Bhanu putraha (Jataka Parijatham, Ch II, Ve 51, first Half) 3) Neechasthitho janmani yo grahaha syat tad rasi natho api tad ucha nataha sa chandra Lagnadyadi kendravarthi rajabhaved dharmika Chakravarti (Phaladeepika, Ch VII, Ve 26) 4) a) Agneyaditara pathayo Ravi chandra bhowa sarpa maredyasani chandraja ketu sukraha Tena nadaha saNijaya chadu danya sowmyasthane nakha nigadithaha saradastu tesham (Reckoning from krittika divide the 27 nakshatras in groups of nine. The sun, moon, mars, rahu, jupiter, saturn, mercury, ketu, and venus give 6, 10, 7, 18, 16, 19, 17, 7, 20 year respectively as ruling years in their Dasas) (Phaladeepika, Ch 19, Ve 2) 4) b) Pakeshabdahata daseswarasama Netranka bhaktaha samaha shishta rupahata Naranga vihrtha masa nagirvasaraha Multiply the years of planets mahaDasaby the years of the planet whose Bhukti is sought. Divide this product by 120. The quotient will denote the ruling years of each Bhukti (Phaladeepika, Ch 21, Ve 2) 5) a) Sapatni sutavanmade Atisubhagastha tadudaro adiko dino jivati sevaya kalusha bhagdirgayurijgesh tame. (Phaladeepika, Ch 8, Ve 15) 5) b) Dwavartha kamaviha Marakayow Tadiswarastatra gatho baladyaha (Phaladeepika, Ch 20, Ve 40)

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CHAPTER 6

Cause of disease
Ayurveda tells of Prachina Karma ( Past Deeds ) as the Cause of disease . Papam Karmethi Dasada 1 is the ayurvedic maxim. This implies evil Karma is the seed of diseases. The causes of diseases are 2 Apathya Ahara Viharam : wrong food Habits and Wrong routine. Prajna Aparatham : wrong thoughts spoil the mind. When mind is perverted, evil deeds accrue. Parinamam : Change of Seasons.

One of the three factors mentioned supra is the cause for almost all diseases. If a disease is seen in the absence of the three factors mentioned above, then the definite cause is Prachina Karma. The Vedas proclaim Poorvajanma Karma as the cause of disease. This is the source for the knowledge of the above belief.

The maxim is Poorva Janma Krtam Papam Vyadhi roopena Badhate 3. For an effect there ought to be cause. Where there is some effect for which the cause is not known then it implies that the cause is not discernible to the mind but does not imply that the cause is non existent. This is known as Adhrishta (unknown cause). This view of Dharma Sastras has been followed by the founders of Ayurveda.

Adrishtam or Daivam loosely translated as fortune or destiny really refers to Poorva Janma Karma. The efforts of the present birth is termed as Prayatnam or Purusha Karam in Ayurveda.Astrologer is

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referred to as Daivajna (one who knows destiny). This in fact refers to Poorva Janma Karma. In Ayurveda there is no method by which Poorva Janma Karma can be inferred. By the medium of planets, Jyothisha refers to Poorva Janma Karma.

This explains why Ayurveda should be studied in an interdisciplinary manner with Jyothisha. One complements the other. This thought originally occurs in Atharvana Veda.

Atharvana Veda talks of shantikam and Poushtikam. Shantikam refers to remedial measures for warding off evils while Poushtikam refers to nurturing our growth. In Jyothisha, we find that what is referred to, as Shantikam is in practice the daily worship of Navagrahas done by people. How is it a remedy for troubles? It purifies the mind. The mind becomes clear. A clear mind desists from wrong actions, which could possibly lead to future problems.Poushtikam refers to the Karmas which actually strenghten the mind and body. This means doing karma like Navagraha Homam and meditation on the nine planets (Navagraha Upasana).

Remedial Measures are undertaken using a combination of: Gems, Herbs and, Hymns or Incantations (Mantras)

Gems have their origin in astrology. Herbs are prescribed in Ayurveda. Mantras are found in vedas. When these three are combined, what we really do is to fuse the principles of Jyothisha, Ayurveda and the

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vedas. Each one complements the other two disciplines. Hence the need for fusion of these three disciplines.

To nullify the effects of Poorva Janma Karma, in the present birth we perform the Homam, to ward off the invisible cause, while the intake of herbs in the Ayurvedic viewpoint nullifies the visible cause that is at the root of every disease.

In Atharva Veda, Ayurveda and Jyothisha are the two sciences, which is supposed to be blended along with the vedas as the remedy for human grief. Hence the vedas recommended a fusion which is taken up as the present dissertation.

In conclusion, it may be said that the success of this dissertation lies in the fact that though Ayurveda and Jyothisha exist as two independent sciences for study, we derive the total benefit of their existence only when they are read in tandem. Honey and Ghee are separate products. They work in unison and nurture the human body. This example may not be out of place, to mention at this juncture.

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NOTES AND REFERENCES: 1) Papam karmethi dasadha (Ashtanga hrdayam, Sustrasthanam, Ch II, Ve 22) 2) Asatmaindriyarthe Samyogaha, Prajna aparadaha parinameschethi Trayastrividha Vikalpa Hetavo Vikaranam Samayoga Yuktastu Prakrti Hetavo Bhavanti (Charaka Samhita, Page 226, Ve 43) 3) Poorva Janma Krtam papam Vyadhi roopena Badhate (Veerasimhavalokanam, Ch I, page 2)

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CHAPTER - 7

Astronomy and Astrology


Stars have a major role to play in Jyothisha sastra. There are twenty-seven stars in Jyothisha this is known from vedas. For each star there is a corresponding devata. There is a particular yoga associated with each star. The qualities of stars are also explained by vedas. In each of the four-vedanga Jyothishas - Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva- the divisions and numbers of Stars is mentioned. Janma, sampat, vipat, Kshema, Pratyaram, Sadhako, Vada, Maitra, Paramamaitra are the nine stars counted from a persons Janma Nakshatra (Birth star) 1. This counting system was later on developed in textbooks on Muhurtha and adopted for matching of horoscopes.

There are countless numbers of stars in the universe. But in the four vedas - more paricularly Atharvana veda- only twenty-seven are taken into reckoning for the remedial measures to be undertaken by an individual. This is an astronomical principle, which later on came to be applied in astrology. These twenty-seven stars are divided into three categories. First category starts from Janma and ends with Parama Maitra. The second and third start with Anujanma and Trijanma respectively. This is the point of intersection betweeen astronomy and astrology.

Atharvana Veda deals mainly with remedial measures for an individual man - not for the world as a whole. The stars have a direct link with the deity taken up for propitiation. The stars have a major role in astrology. Thus astrology imbibed these principles from Atharvana Veda.

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In this world we come across several natural events. Some of them are given here as follows: Excess rainfall Drought Sankramika roga - (Ativrishti) - (Anavrishti) - (Epidemic)

Trouble from Mooshikas - (Plague) Trouble from pests Earth quake Volcanoes Thunder High tides - (Salaba Peeda) - (Bookambam) - (Agni Parvatam) - (Asani Padam) - (Samudra Kopam)

These phenomena trouble all living beings in our planets - not merely man. Kala vidanam or astronomy brings all these about. The source for the above is the transits of planets.

For living beings other than man, the impact of these changes need not be mentioned as they live in harmony with Nature, since they do not have sixth sense. But man does not live in harmony with Nature. He functions sometimes against the trend of Nature. Thus Rishis did not bother to explain the impact of astronomy on living beings other than man. But Rishis discussed the impact of planetary movements on Man and his future elaborately. This science came to be known as Astrology.

Living beings, other than Man, undergo birth, modifications and death. Thus their lives are largely governed by nature. They have no intelligence. Hence they never go against Nature. Hence their entire life is dictated by nature according to a pre - determined plan. These beings live and die according to the dictates of Nature.

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But Man, in general, attempts to change Nature according to his plan of life. The plan of Nature at times goes against his nature, which is dictated by his mind. Mans mind gives him ideas .He attempts to implement his ideas even at the cost of going against Nature. Drought is a natural phenomenon. This is known as "Anavarishti". It is on account of certain planetary movements. This is explained in Astronomy. Vedas prescribe "Kariraishti" as a remedy for drought. This is as example of the link between astronomy and vedas.

We find certain couples who are childless. The vedas prescribe "Putra Kameshti Yaga" as a remedy for childlessness. If this ritual is prescribed for a couple who have crossed the age of fifty, then by that time both of them would have become incapable of giving birth to children. This ritual will then become an exercise in futility. To discover that couples would have difficulty in conception, we need astrology. This is an example of the link between astrology and the vedas.

There is a limit to the feelings of animals. When they do not find water, they migrate to places where there is water. Similarly we find birds that migrate to countries more favourable to their survival. The instinct of birds is governed by Nature. Thus Astronomy controls the lives of animals and birds. They are not relatable to Astrology.

The functioning of man is such that he does not hesitate to destroy dharma for his selfish purposes. To cure this rishis propagated Astrology.

To ward off disease and death, it is necessary to know the time of advent of these events before hand. For this astrology is required.

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Astrology is subservient to culture and environment. Thus Indian Astrology will apply to other countries subject to certain modifications. Concepts like vaidavyam and Kalatra Dosham are familiar to India. But in countries where these concepts are non-existent, the principles of astrology ought to be applied, keeping in mind the modifications required

The Phalabhaga (Fruits of astrology) deal with the results of planetary positions and these are works of Rishis. It is a bye - product of Vedic thought. The day - to - day lives of Bharatiyas (Indians) have their foundation in Vedic thought. The thoughts of man lead to either joy or sorrow. The thoughts of individuals were in harmony with Vedic thought. The end of human thought is either joy or sorrow. What Rishis proclaimed in Phalabhaga is what is perceived as joy or sorrow from an individuals perspective.

Widowhood, Marital doshas, inter- caste marriage, childlessness, santhana Arishta, Atma Vidya Prapti, Pravrajya Yoga, roga samprapti, Asalipatha Maranam (Death due to lighting strikes), visha prayogam, Atma Hatya, Daridryam, Chowryam (theft), Manusha vikrayam, Matr Pitr thyagam, Brunahatya are some examples of good and evil concepts which have their origin in vedic thought.

The chathurvidha Purusharthas (four ends of life) are Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. This concept is peculiar to vedas. The Bharatiyas lead their life in accordance with this dictum. The obstacles to the attainment of these four objects can be found out through astrology and also the way of removal. Hence, astrology applies in toto to the Bharatiyas.

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Again the following categories of people, will not be able to experience the results of astrology.

Athiest One has adandoned Karma One who has no rules or regulations in life. One who has only, Artha and Kama as the objectives of life. One who lives in animal instincts. One who does not accept the views of vedas, shastras Puranas and Ithihasas.

The above groups of people do not derive any benefit out of astrology. Astrology is beneficial only to those people who have firm belief in the rules and regulations of life. The job of astrology is inference of future. To think in pursuit of potential good things to occur in future and to avoid the pitfalls of future is the prime benefit of astrological principles. In that way it is highly useful to a person who leads a principled life.

Longevity and modifications on account of growth are determined by astronomy. The joys and sorrows on account of an individuals thought are determined by astrology.

Ayurveda deals with two types of diseases viz. physical and mental. "Roga" means disease, which is synonymous with grief. "Roga nivrirti" or cure of disease is synonymous with happiness. Indigenous herbs and indigenous food regimen are capable of curing diseases better than alien food regimen. People of south India are comfortable with rice while people of north India are comfortable with wheat. Similarly

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mustard oil is conductive to health and used in North India extensively, while the same is formative of disease in south India. Thus, Ayurveda has to be applied using the principle of "Desasadhyam" (conducive to a particular place) and "Desacharam"(habits of people of particular place). Thus geography is relevant to both Ayurveda and astrology.

Both Jyothisha and Ayurveda are subject to the four principal objects of life viz. Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. Both these sciences prescribe Sattwic mode of life. Both Ayurveda and Jyothisha have a common aim - to promote happiness and to prevent sorrow.

An important area where Ayurveda supports astrology is with regard to birth of children. Santana Arishta, Santana Abhava and birth of handicapped children can be foretold by astrology. If the remedies suggested by Ayurveda are faithfully implemented, then the evil forecast by Astrology can be successfully warded off. For every modification there must be a cause. For every result forecast in astrology, there must be a Nimithakarana. When that Nimithakarana is absent there would be no adverse results. Even in astronomy Nimithakaranas absence can foil the result. There may be heavy clouds. But in the absence of wind there will be no rain at a particular place. Cause leads to effect. Samavayakarana (direct cause), Asamavayakarana (indirect cause) and Nimithakarana (efficient cause) are all needed to produce results. Even when Samavaya and Asamavayakarana are present, absence of Nimithakarana foils the result. For instance, seed is the Samavayakarana, earth is the Asamavayakarana and rain is the Nimithakarana. Thus widow hood cannot result in a woman if the husband has longevity according to his horoscope, which is a Nimithakarana for widowhood.

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There may be combinations for progeny in both the horoscopes but performance of sexual intercourse is the Nimithakarana. Dhana Yoga may be present in a horoscope but will not fructify in the absence of suitable efforts. A horoscope may show that a person will get a high post and thereby become famous but here again the pre- requsite for the attainment of this objective is hard work and untiring efforts. In a kitchen, there may be vegetables and all other materials required for cooking but if the cook is absent, the food will never get ready.

There is power that is required to activate things (chaithanya) and it is that which we are now discussing it under the banner of "Nimithakarana" and its absence will ensure work undone even if all other things required for that work are available.

If a person is destined to be childless, then that person will function in such a way that he will avoid getting a child. A man destined to go to jail will commit an offence. The deed produces the effect. For the performance of a deed the seed is thought. If that thought, could be neutralized then the resultant effects could be nullified. This art of performing remedial measures for neutralizing the potential evil is known as "Pariharas". When the Pariharas are performed the mans intelligence undergoes a transformation. Thus he either performs or abstains from performance, certain actions .He performs desirable deeds and abstains from performing undesirable deeds. This is the science behind remedial measures. The "Nimithakarana" which eventually leads to the effect is either created or avoided to yield the final result. This is an instance of free will modifying the effects of destiny.

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In Jyothisha the Upadanakarana is poorvapunya. Time or astronomy is the Sahakari Karana. Nimitha Karana is purusha prayatna (human efforts). If one of the above factors is absent, the object will not be achieved.

The most important factor discussed above is human effort, which constitutes Nimitha Karana. Between destiny and free will, the stronger of the two will decide the course of events. The invisible destiny, if both evil as well as weak in nature, can be overcome by a strong effort. In Puranas we find an example of this principle. Savithri was able to overcome the fate of her husband Satyavan by performance of vows. Markandeya was destined to die at the age of sixteen. By devotion to Lord Siva, he was able to overcome an adverse weak destiny.

Where destiny is powerful and adverse, it will prevail irrespective of whether efforts are strong or weak. Despite Rama asking Lakshmana to stand security for Sita, Ravana abducted her. In Srimad Bhagvata, we find that Parikshit made great efforts but finally failed to overcome death. Viswamitra tried to create to another Indra but failed.

Dasaratha got four children through the performance of Putra Kameshti Yaga. This is an example of a powerful human effort overcoming destiny.

Where human effort is powerful but destiny is very powerful and also more powerful than human effort, then destiny will prevail. Kamsa imprisoned Devaki and also wanted to kill her child even when born, but still Sri Krishna was born and was also able to defeat the nefarious plan of Kamsa.

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When a man performs his Karma diligently, then the planets, which are capable of doing evil, become incapacitated. Thus human efforts can overcome destiny which is adverse to him. We find an instance in Puranas of wrong efforts inducing evil. King Nala did not wash his feet properly and Lord Saturn was able to enter his body an accoount of this defect. Since the deed was defective, adverse destiny gained access.

Hence one need not know about fate or destiny and should always take maximum efforts. Efforts are always capable of subduing and nullifying the effects of an adverse destiny. But the existence of adverse destiny need not demoralise a man and on this account, he should not desist from performing actions.

Lord Krishna gives the following advice in Bhagwad Gita

You have a right to perform your prescribed duty but you are not entitled to the fruits of action. Never consider yourself the cause of the results of activities and never be attached to not doing your duty (Bhagwad Gita, Chapter 2 Verse 47)

The advice given is to take all efforts without bothering to know whether it will be fruitful or not. The Time of birth of a child is reckoned in the following ways 2: Adhana Kala Chit Pravesa : : Time when the sperm unites with the egg. Time when the soul pervades the child in the womb.

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Jala sravam

Time when there is secretion of water prior to delivery.

Siro Darshanam Bhoo Sparsam

: :

Appearance of the head. Time when the child touches the earth.

The Lagna can be fixed in keeping with the time of any one of the above stages of birth.

Ayuh Karmacha vithamcha vidya Nidanameva Cha Pancha etani cha Sidhyante Garbasthasyeiva Dehinaha 3 Longevity, Karma, wealth, Education and death are decided even in the womb.

A tree bears flowers and fruits. But the substance required for all these is contained in the seed. Simililarly what the abovementioned verse explains to us is that features like a mans future knowledge, wealth, work, death are all pre- determined even when that person is at a formative stage in the foetus.

What is latent as the seed is made patent after that person is born and starts growing up. It is only when a person is born that he gets influenced by the planets. Thus Bhoosparsam is reckoned as Time of birth. When in the womb, the child is no different from its mother. For its physical and mental growth, the cause is the mother. It gets nourishment only through the mother. The child gets separated from its mother when the umbilical cord gets snapped.

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An effect of astrology can be predicted only when a person gets connected to Time. The unborn child is not related to the planets in any way. When a child is born it gets into contact with earth .It automatically gets connected with the five elements. Thus Bhoosparsam is the Time denoting the Lagna of an individual.

When we compute the sistha Dasa (Dasa remaining at the Time of birth) we ignore the portion of Dasa which has expired when the child is in the womb. What is taken up for analysis is the unexpired Dasa at the time of birth. This shows that astrology has no relevance for an unborn child.

A persons birth star is the star at the time of Bhoosparsam. The other four stages of birth may have occurred at the time of different stars. But these are not considered. There is a sequence of planets governing the embryo from conception till birth. But this sequence is changed at the time of birth and from then on the person gets into Vimshottari dasa.

It is the karma of previous births that determines the planetary position at the time of birth reflected in the horoscope. But the horoscope does not influence your past karma. The planets are common to one and all. But the individual horoscope is unique to that individual.

Astronomy is a science. It is common in application to the whole world. We always have drought in one place like Rajasthan whereas in a place like Cherrapunji in Assam, there is excess rainfull. varying from place to place, the Lagna differs. Like this

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By reading the horoscope one can forecast the individuals future. Thus it is with reference to an individuals horoscope, the influence is inferred, not with reference to astronomy, which applies to the world as a whole.

There may be number of persons born in the months of April and May. All of them will have Sun in the Aries in exaltation. When we look at astronomy, we find the sun similarly placed. But when we look at astrology we fnd that the persons would have been born in twelve different Lagnas. Hence effects vary from person to person.

Time is important since the seed is able to manifest its potential only in conjunction with Time. This is the work of Dasas and Bhuktis. To describe the effects of Dasas and Bhuktis, we have to reckon how the planets are placed in an individual horoscope along with how planets are placed in transit.

Thus all horoscopes deal only with an individuals destiny. The planets influence a mans intelligence, which in turn influences his thoughts and actions, which lead to the future course of events.

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. Again the next day it rises in the east. This is proof that planets travel in the same orbit again and again. The planets are nine in number. They travel in the respective orbits. Time is reckoned only with reference to the nine planets. There cannot be a tenth planet. Only the nine planets in the respective spheres can occupy the space in orbit. A new planet cannot come into being through creation.

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All the nine planets have a role to play in shaping a mans intelligence. Planets have no individual effects. Only the planets indicate the fruits of karmas.

A planet in a particular Bhava gives the effects of that Bhava in accordance with the poorva Karma of that man and the propensity of that planet. The attributes of planets should not be applied in an individuals horoscope without appropriate modifications. Jupiter, who can give marital bliss, can also cause death of spouse in certain places. The giver of grief, Saturn can also confer great happiness.

The individual qualifications of planets are mentioned in textbooks. They differ while differences in Lagna come into force. It is on account of the differences in Lagna, planets behave differently. Planets are disqualified from giving effect to their individual qualities. They give the effect based on their position in an individuals horoscope. For an experience to occur, we require astronomy, astrology and the individual. Reasons like Sahakarikarana and Nimithakarana are also required.

Textbooks on astrology talk about whether a planet in its Dasa will be a benefic or a malefic. But to what extent an individual will experience the effects will vary from one horoscope to other. When it will be experienced can be judged from Gochara and the extent from the analysis of Shadvargas.

In conclusion astrology is a subject which deals with a individuals destiny and is different from astronomy which is common to all living beings on earth.

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Astrology is the work of Rishis, who by the their intelligence taught the world, the effects of motion of celestial bodies, which is found in astronomy. The effects of planets are not uniform to all people, but varies on account of Poorva punya. The laws of astrology cannot transgress the law of Karma. When the body and mind are kept healthy, the effects of adverse planetary transits can be overcome. Astrology is the science that helps us in that direction. The remedial measures prescribed in Dharma Sastras also help us in this task. When the remedial measures are performed the mind and intelligence undergo a change for the better and the adverse results are mitigated.

Astrology has its origin in vedas. What Rishis have done is to make the Science clear to laymen by their teachings. Upadanakarana for Jyothisha Sastra are Grahas, Nakshatras, Poorva Punya of individual, time of occurrence. Astronomy in the form of Gochara (transits of planets) is Nimithakarana. .

From the above discussion it becomes clear that the past Karma of individuals which may be good or evil, manifest themselves as the effects of planetary positions in a given horoscope and astrology is the science, promulgated by Rishis, which deal with the effects of planets and determine the Time of occurrence of events and the impact they have on an individual.

Let us consider the example of a student who wishes to pursue education. His intelligence is the Upadanakarana. The school textbooks and other accessories constitute Sahakarikarana. The Guru is the Nimithakarana.

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If a person is endowed with Poorva punya then we may say that the Upadanakarana is in good condition. But if the Sahakarikarana (Dasa and Gochara) and Nimithakarana (efforts) are weak or deficient, then the effects will undergo a modification and the results may not be fully manifested.

As efforts constitute Nimithakarana, what is potentially evil can be mitigated and what is indicative of good can be agumented. Remedial measures ensure that we either avoid evil, which is likely to occur in future and augment good events to occur in future.

Prajna Aparatha is cause of disease (wrong thoughts can create disease). Wrong thoughts are caused by wrong (Past) Karma. To change the courses of thoughts, one has to change the food habits and attitude. Thus the reformed mind and diet help us to avoid future problems.

Body and mind are the field for disease. Thoughts occur in mind as a consequence of past Karma. Ahara and Vihara are the Nimithakarana. Environment and Time are the Sahakarikarana. When Nimithakarana is favourably altered by our efforts, the Upadanakarana is forcibly rendered non-functional. Human effort is common to both Ayurveda and Jyothisha.

Ayurveda and Jyothisha are linked to each other and therefore an interdisciplinary study would be fruitful. A comparative study of Jyothisha and Ayurveda is feasible, as the outlook and goal of both sciences are similar to each other.

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NOTES AND REFERENCES: 1) Janma Sampat vipat kshebaya pratvaraha sadhakasthatha | Naidano Mitra vargascha paramo maitra eva cha || (Bharatiya Jyothisha Sastra, Page 99) 2) Adhane Janmaniva Prasnaiva Dwadasamsake Chandraha Yasmin Avastithasyat lagnam Va Tatsamam satwam ( Saravali, Ch 8, Ve 3) 3) Ayuh karmacha vithamcha vidya nidanamava cha Pancha etani cha sidhyante Garbasthasyeiva Dehinaha ( Pancha tantram, 2.85, Subhashita Ratna Bhandakaram, 162/428)

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CHAPTER 8

Effects of Time
Ayurveda is not a creation of Man 1. It already exists in Nature. For all modifications we find in Nature, heat, cold and wind form the cause. Depending on geography and natural causes, seasons may be four, five or six in number.

In continents like North America there are only four seasons. In continents like Asia there are six seasons. The number of seasons varies with average temperature of that place. In some countries of Asia, like China and Mongolia there are five seasons. In summer there is extreme heat. In rainy season there is extreme cold. The other seasons are combinations of heat and cold.

The world is functioning on account of the change of seasons. Creation, sustenance and destruction are going on ceaselessly in Nature. Insects are created on account of extreme humidity. For creation, water is needed. For further modifications, heat is required.

Wind assists both heat and cold and enables that to perform its task. It helps to spread the potency of that element. Heat spreads on

account of wind. So also, cold spreads on account of wind. Thus wind is required for creation, sustenance and destruction.

The five elements are earth, fire, wind, water and ether. The earth is the basis for creation. Fire is required for modifications. Water is required for creation. Space is required for these to take place. Space is

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represented by the element, ether. Wind is required for spreading or circulating the other elements. For instance, fire spreads on account of wind.

Water already existed in nature. The five elements are known as pancha bhootas. They constitute the root cause for all things that we see in this world. The things in the world are all combinations of the five elements.

Every living being has within itself heat, cold and wind. Even if one of the three is absent, then it dies. Thus heat, cold and wind as Agni, Jala and Vayu run the cosmos. Whatever is seen in Brahmanda (cosmos) is also seen in pindanda (individual body). The three elements Agni, Jala and Vayu are present in human body as Pitta, Kapha and Vata respectively.

Treatment in Ayurveda involves adding the humor that is deficient and expelling the humor, which is in excess.

Disease is a condition in which there is disequilibrium of the three humors.

Some herbs have more of chillness within them while others are hot in potency. To offset the inequilibrium, treatment is given with the use of herbs.

Good health is a state when vata, pitta and kapha are in a state of equilibrium.

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Treatment is required to restore vata, pitta and kapha to their normal conditions. Excess treatment is therefore harmful. What is in excess alone should be expelled. What is deficient should be compensated to that extent. If the treatment is in excess of that requirement then treatment becomes harmful.

Leprosy or eczema is the disease. Skin disfiguration and itch is the resultant condition. Rheumatism is the disease. The difficulty in joint movements is the condition. Excess of pitta is the disease. Mouth ulcer is the resultant condition. Excess kapha is the disease. Running nose is the resultant condition. Sometimes we mistake the condition for the disease.

Thus equilibrium of humors is health and disequilibrium is disease. Wrong food habits result in disequilibrium of humors. So also wrong actions. When mind gets corrupted it induces wrong actions and allows intake of wrong food items.

Prajna refers to working of mans intelligence. Aparatha refers to error of perception. When the thought that arises in mind functions through the intellect, an error of perception that occurs is known as prajna aparatha. It is the basis of all sufferring. Mind is the cause of bondage and liberation 2. So goes the vedantic maxim. This view is accepted by all the darsanas, excepting atheism. The different schools of thought use different terms to explain this view. In Astrology, before we look into a persons horoscope, we should know certain concepts. The karaka of mind is moon. Moon, when not related to other planets, is neither exclusively good nor evil. It waxes and wanes. It is inert. It has no light of its own. It is related to water. Mind functions but has no

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consciousness of its own .So also Moon functions but on its own, is inert. This is the reason for the similarity between moon and mind. Manas thuhinagu is the astrological dictum.

The karaka of the soul is sun. Atma has chaithanya but is nonfunctional. This view is accepted by all schools of thought. Atma Dinakrit 3-is the Jyothisha view point (sun is Atma). While discussing the actions of man, Varahamihira says that Atma functions through the mind, mind through the sense organs, the sense organs through the objects 4 and thus mind perceives joy and grief.

Only in places where sun has relationship with moon, we can say that the mind functions. Bereft of harmonious relationship with sun and moon, the planets cannot yield any benefit to man. The good and evil that planets do to man, and the extent, is determined by its relationship with sun and moon.

In Astronomy, seasons are determined by the influence of sun and moon. Rajanow Ravi Shitagu 5 ("sun and moon are the kings among planets) is the Jyothisha viewpoint. Since a unique position is given to sun and moon in astronomy, a similar position is given to them in astrology also. Hora is an astrological term where sun and moon are the only planets given lordship.

In Ayurveda also we say that sense organs cannot function when mind and soul are absent.

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Mars, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn function only when they are related to sun and moon. Uttarayana and Dakshinayana are formed only because of the Sun-Moon relationship. The relationship between Atma and Manas is the basis for the function of sense organs. Just as sense organs cannot function when the mind - soul basis is absent, the Tara grahas cannot function when the sun-moon basis is absent. This is the reason for the opinion expressed by Prithuyasas in Hora Sara wherein he states that the effects of planets are felt when they are in harmony with the sun and moon and the effects are not felt when that link is absent.

For all joys and sorrows, to be experienced by an individual, chandra bala or strength of the moon is important. Tara bala (strength of star) and chandra bala (strength of moon) are recommendatory for all our activities. So also vidya bala refers to poorva punya and daiva bala is a Sahakarikarana and support of these two are necessary for all our activities.

For health and karma, sun and moon are essential. Astronomy has a wider field compared to Astrology or Dharma sastras. Astrology and Dharma Sastras restrict their field to human activity. But astronomy extends its field to the entire cosmos.

Karma cannot be understood by scientific analysis. astrology is Poorva Janma Karma. poorvapunya.

Basis of

This karma gives rise to The

This poorvapunya can be inferred by astrology.

science of astrology is expounded by the rishis. Thus, Poorva Janma Karma cannot be explained through any science other than astrology. Today, research is going on in astronomy. This has led to several

findings, which are new to that science. However, no original research

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can be done on astrology, because today there is no human being endowed with an intellect on a par with the Rishis. Thus a research giving rise to a new theory cannot be done in astrology.

Astrology accepts Karma theory. Likewise Ayurveda accepts Karma theory. This Karma theory cannot be understood by science. Astronomy is the basis. Explanation of a mans karma on that basis is astrology.

Medical astrology is therefore a justifiable doctrine and a comparative study is both desirable as well as feasible.

The motion of sun and moon induces several changes in objects in the course of terrestrial life. Living beings exhibit different behavioural patterns as a result of the influences of sun and moon. The Rishis

observed that these changes correspond to the differences in individual tendencies. Thus it is the individual tendency that determines the nature of changes. In man, the changes correspond to his Karma. This is the basis of astrology. For any change to be made in astrology there has to be a corresponding change in astronomy. Hence, the change of house

effected by planets like Jupiter or Saturn induces change in an individual's life, which is explained by astrology. Planet induces change; extent of change is due to individual karma. Karma is the basis of astrology.

Ayurveda is the science of Nature. Heat and cold are renamed as vata, Pitta and kapha but the subject matter is the same.

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Time influences the motion of planets. This is the science of astronomy. Time influences the health of human beings. This gives rise to disease as well as health of human beings. This is the science of Ayurveda. Time influences the mind of human beings leading to joy and grief. This is the science of Astrology.

Time is the Nimithakarana not an Upadanakarana for all the three sciences.

Time gives expression to the health of human beings. This is Ayurveda. Time gives expression to the qualities of human beings,

depending upon his Poorva Janma Karma, Poorva Punya and other basic qualities. This is Astrology. Thus Time does not induce any change in the individual. In that sense, it is not an Upadanakarana. By bringing about modifications, it acts as a Nimithakarana. Time does not create anything. All things created are fusion of the five elements. But it brings about modifications based on individual qualities. individuals are influence by Time. The qualities of

The three causes of disease according to Ayurveda are wrong food habits, (Apathya Ahara Vihara), aberration of mind (Prajna Aparadha) and Time (Kala). For the functioning of the world, Time is the cause.

Kala Srijathi Bhoothani Kala Samharathe Prajaha Kala Supthesha Jagrati Kalothi Durathikramaha 6 is the maxim. This verse is also found in Surya Siddhanta.

Time creates beings, It is also responsible for destruction; It is awake when others sleep;

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It is all powerful;

Jyothisha (Astrology) is kala vidana sastra (the science which explains Time). According to Prasna Marga,

Yadupachitham Anya Janmani Karmanaha Shubhasubam Pakthim Vyanchayathi Sastram Etat Tamasi Dravyani Deepam Eva 7

The Time of fructification of karma of previous births - good and evil is explained by Jyothisha Sastra like a lamp which enables us to see the existence of objects in darkness.

Thus it is clear that Time is only a Nimithakarana. It cannot give fruits of its own accord. Based on the nature of an individuals Poorva Janma Karma it gives effects. Time is not independent. It is dependent on Poorva Janma Karma for giving rise to modifications.

Thus the transits of Jupiter or Saturn do not give effects of their own. Jupiter in a good sign is a symptom of some good to take place for an individual. An individual may face difficulties if Saturn transits an evil sign according to his horoscope. However, both these events are based on the individual's karma.

In conclusion, it may be said that Ayurveda, Astrology and Astronomy look at Time from a similar perspective.

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NOTES AND REFERENCES: 1) Brahma smrtva ayusho vedam prajapati majigrahat (Ashtanga hridayam, Ch I, Ve 2) 2) Manasa Kalpyathe bandho Mokshasthenaiva Kalpyathe ( Viveka Cudamani, Ve 172) 3) Kala atma Dinakrit (Brihat Jataka, Ch II, Ve 1) 4) Atma Manasa Samyujyate Mana Indriyena, Indriyam Arthena ( Varahamihira Horasastram, page 100) 5) Rajanow Ravi Shitagu (Brihat Jataka, Ch II, Ve 1) 6) Kala Srijathi Bhoothani Kala Samharate prajaha Kala Supteshu Jagrati Kalothi Durathikramaha (Vridda Trayi, Page 391) 7) Yadupachitham Anya Janmani Shubasubam tasya Karmanaha Pakthim vyanchayathi sastram etat tamasi dravyani dipa eva (Prasna marga, Ch I, Ve 36)

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CHAPTER 9

Need for Multidisciplinary Approach


Both Ayurveda and Jyothisha are independent sciences, which have their origin in different schools of thought and do not depend upon another science for their fulfilment. They have established rules in their own respective fields. Though they have Dharma, Artha, Karma and Moksha as their four ends, these sciences are useful in day-to-day life, more than any other science. It also helps other disciplines and augments their potential. (Purva mimamsa, Uttara Mimamsa, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkya, Yoga are the six disciplines which are benefited by Jyothisha and Ayurveda; Uttara Mimamsa is also termed as Vedanta). These six disciplines are known as shad darsanas. Ayurveda and Jyothisa are sciences that are capable of being proved by empirical evidence. In other words they are capable of being verified by studies .We see the sun and moon with our own eyes. So also the treatments suggested by Ayurveda offer instant remedies for our ills.

Siksha Vyakaranam Chandaho Niruktam Jyothisham Tatha Kalpascha Ithi Shadangani.Vedas yahur manishinaha 1 The above verse suggests that Jyothisha is a limb of the Vedas.

Angani Vedaha Chatvarah Mimamsa Nyaya Vistaraha Puranam Dharma Sastramcha Vidyahi Ethaha Chathurdasha 2 Ayurvedamcha Gandarvam Dhanurvedam Atharthikam Ithi Ashtadasha Vidyasthanam

The sciences are eighteen in number. They are

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1. Siksha 2. Vyakarana 3. Chandas 4. Niruktam 5. Kalpas 6. Jyothisha 7. Rig Veda 8. Yajur Veda 9. Sama Veda 10. Atharva Veda 11. Mimamsa 12. Nyaya 13. Dharma Sastras 14. Puranas 15. Ayurveda 16. Gandharvam 17. Dhanur Veda 18. Artha Sastra

From the above verses, one can infer the independence of astrology and Ayurveda. Each of the above mentioned eighteen disciplines are independent and have the vedas their source. These sciences derive their fundamentals from Vedic truths. Though these sciences have vedas as their origin, they are products of human intellect. In that sense, these sciences are different from vedas. But they do not express any concept contrary to the message of the vedas.

During the course of Avani Avittam, we say Puranam Tharpayami, Ithihasam Thapayami etc. By Ithihasas we dont mean Ramayana or

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Mahabharata. By puranas we do not mean the eighteen puranas we actually mean those puranas and ithihasas found in the vedas.

Concepts like varsha, masa, vara, nakshatra, thithi yoga and karana, which are in reality measurements of Time, have their origin in Vedas.

Vedas prescribe remedies for drought as well as for floods. These are all intended for the upliftment of man. Thus Astrology came into focus. By recommending, the dos and dont for our diet regimen, vedas constitute the base for Ayurveda. In Rudram Chamakam, we find a list of items like rice, wheat, black gram, green gram which are suggested as edible items.

In the history of Sanskrit literature, we find copious references to Ayurveda and Jyothisha. In the weddings and coronations referred to in puranas and ithihasas we find glimpses of muhurtha sastra. Similarly we find Asva Vaidya (treatment of elephants) and Ayurvedic references in the description of battles in ancient Sanskrit lore.

Charaka is considered as the exponent of Ayurveda. For treatment of horses, Nakula (one of the 5 pandavas) is considered as the best. So also, Palakapya rishi is the exponent of Hasti Ayurveda (treatment of elephants) Sahadeva, one of the five pandavas, is considered as an exponent of astrology.

For journeys, hunting expeditions and preparations for warfare, nimitha sastra or the science of omens was useful. In Ramayana, as Rama prepares to go into exile, there was mild drizzle. perceived as a good omen, indicating his future success. This was

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In kavyas like Katha Sarit sagara and Brihat katha manjari, there are several instances of such omens. These epics have used astrology and Ayurveda, wherever there is a need for them.

In conclusion it may be said that these two sciences, Ayurveda and Jyothisha, have been used in Sanskrit literature in a widespread manner.

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NOTES AND REFERENCES: 1) Siksha Vyakaranam Chandaho Niruktam Jyothisham Tatha Kalpascha Ithi Shadangani.Vedas yahur manishinaha (Shabda Kalpadruma, Vol 4, Page 501) 2) Angani Vedaha Chatvarah Mimamsa Nyaya Vistaraha Puranam Dharma Sastramcha Vidyahi Ethaha Chathurdasha ( Vriddha Trayi, Page 242)

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CHAPTER 10

Effects of Heat and Cold


Astronomy is the science of Time. It tells us about the motions of celestial bodies. Ganitha, Hora and Nimitha are three different concepts. Ganitha is mathematics. Hora refers to horoscope and nimitha plays a supporting role to both ganitha and hora. Ganitha explains the transits of planets. For an individual when we cast the horoscope, the different planets show varied distances from Lagna and consequently the effects they show are different. Time is common to all living beings on earth. But what links Time in the form of planets, to an individual, is the Lagna. With this there is no further link with the Time. All else is decided in astrology on account of Poorva Janma Karma of the individual. Thus Astrology is that science which takes into account the motion of the celestial bodies for determination of the Poorva Janma Karma of the individual. Sameepya (Proximity) and Asameepya (Lack of proximity) and the degree occupied by a planet in a particular sign of the Zodiac are the factors influencing the results. The strength and weakness of planets and their individual characteristics are the key to inference of destiny. Just as the change of seasons influence behaviour of living beings as a whole, the age factor combined with planetary influence decide patterns of human behaviour. Change of seasons combined with individual characteristics decides behaviour modifications. Fruits are decided through inference not empirical evidence. Inference has Time as its basis. Rishis have the power to comprehend what is not realisable to an ordinary man. Rishis through their works have explained how poorva punya works and how it is to be interpreted from the motion of celestial bodies.

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Let us take the example of a crop that is ready for harvest in 60 days. Here we make the assumption that there will be no hindrance on account of rains. If there were to be rains not all crops will be suitable for harvest. This is in view of the fact that the portion of rain received by each seed differs. If there are plants on a raised land, the water will flow down and there will be no residual water. Crops on a lower place will receive more water. Like wise the extent of planetary influence gives rise to different results. The planetary influence at the Time of birth, the influences of planets at the Time of growth, based on proximity of planets modifies the ultimate result.

A newborn child is indifferent to pleasure and pain. Middle age makes one sensitive to sensual experiences. The changes in the mind body phenomenon in tandem with planetary influences is responsible for the results. Thus the individual experiences differ in the backdrop of their own past karma, which we term as poorva punya. The avasta or stage of life of a man is important for judging his experience on the basis of planetary influences. We cannot explain the impact of planetary influence without taking into account the stage of life of a person. An example of this principle is Balarishtam. This applies only to children in their infancy. It ceases to have any impact once the child grows up. This concept called Balarishtam is directly linked to stage of life. Even the concepts like Janma, Sampat, Vipat, Kshema are all linked to stage of life. If the first Dasa of a man's life (Janma Dasa) belongs to the 7th lord, still it will not give him marriage. On the other hand, when the boy attains marriageable age, the period of a planet, which is most conducive to

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marriage, will get him married. Thus stage of life determines the effect of planetary influences.

The Dasa sequence is not based on Lagna. It is based on the star occupied by moon at the Time of birth. Thus astronomy does not influence astrology. It is the individual's birth Time that influences his destiny in the form of Dasa sequence.

It is not the Bhava lord, which gives him the effects. It is the Dasa sequence, which has its origin in a persons Time of birth that determines the course of lifes experiences.

Diseases are capable of being experienced from birth till death. Similarly grief or happiness can be experienced once a person becomes a little boy until his death. Thus stage of life has no application for these concepts. However marriage, birth of children and employment are linked to stage of life. A new born child cannot marry or have children. Similarly an old man cannot be employed.

The human body is made up of the five elements. Out of these five elements, fire and water are responsible for all modifications. Air and ether are responsible for spreading and space respectively. Prithivi or earth is the basis for all the above actions to take place. Thus it is the basic quality of a thing that is responsible for modifications. Hence it is only appropriate that stage of life determines extent of planetary influences.

Great heat destroys tall trees. Excess of rain destroys small planets. Thus heat or cold is destructive depending upon the age of the plant. So

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also Dasas of planets influence man based on the Avasta of individuals, which is again based on poorva punya which varies from person to person. Avasta is based on evolutionary sequence. Thus it is not dasa, Bhukti or Anthara which is the basis of all events. It is the Avasta of a person that decides occurrence of events. When the Avasta favours an event, dasa/ Bhukti or Anthara activates and performs it.

In some cases a person with all qualifications does not get a job. Another person with no qualifications gets a job. A man with good qualities does not get married despite all efforts. Another man with no efforts gets married. So also we find wealth coming to some people with no effort. Some people get married twice while some live as bachelors. Some people frequently meet with accidents but dont die. Some people with safe mode of living die. These are all due to poorva punya. Such occurrences cannot be due to Time alone. It is the karma of the individual that is responsible but it is activated by Time.

In the evolutionary sequence the sense organs get activated at different times. Only during such times, the planetary influences appropriate to the stage of life step in and do their job.

In Jyothisha there are 3 points to the taken into account. (1) Astrology, (2) Astronomy, (3) Application of concepts. Astronomy is an independent science conferring uniform results for all living beings. Astrology is applicable to individuals and linked to time of birth and the planetary influences prevailing at that time which is reflected in analysis from Lagna view point, shadvarga strengths of planets and is intimately connected to his life. It is also independent but is delimited by the individuals life in the form of Lagna. Zodiac has only twelve signs and

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therefore twleve Lagnas and is delimited by the nine planets and from the relationships obtained therefrom all results are also discussed by this science. The state of mind, body and thought sequence will decide the outcome of these planetary influences and so we conclude that these planetary influences are incapable of yielding results in an individual independent of the mind body situation. The effects of planetary influences are discussed by the Rishis in accordance with the individuals destiny and Karma.

If a disease related to semen (sukrasmari) were to come to a individual owing to a particular planet whose Dasa or Bhukti is in operation and if it is a small child, then that disease will not come when the child is yet to reach that age, where the possibility of that disease exists. Similarly if a two-year old female child were to run a period capable of giving marriage, then the results will not fructify. So also an old man may not get results pertaining to Dhana Sampadhana yoga (wealth conferring yoga) or vivaha yoga (Yoga for marriage) as these are not suitable to stage of life.

Poorva punya leads to thoughts and these thoughts in association with planetary position may lead to results. Thus poorva punya is the prime cause of all events. Time or astrology is not independent. So also, Ayurveda has three disease factors:

(1) Wrong food habits (2) Wrong thoughts (3) Time The first two factors pertain to an individual. More than Time in the form of seasons, the first two factors are powerful. They owe their

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presence to poorva punya. Thus poorva punya is common to Astrology and Ayurveda. Since we find a fusion of principles in both these sciences, Medical Astrology is a science fit to be comprehended by intellectuals.

Agni refers to heat. Soma refers to cold. Both Agni and Soma are devatas in Hindu teachings. In Ayurveda, health is based on the

equilibrium of vata, pitta and kapha. Pitta and Kapha refers to heat and cold respectively.

Time is for performance of Vedic rites. This is the Vedic view point. Time is Iswara (God) according to Astrology. According to Ayurveda, Time is representative of modifications (Parinama). Thus Time is looked at from different angles by these three doctrines.

TIME |-----------------------------------|-------------------------------------| Relate to Vedic rites Astronomy Causes the six (Supporting Factor) | Vedic View (Sanatana dharma) | | Related to Astrology seasons | Influences Vata, Pitta andKapha | Related to Ayurveda

Ayurveda and Jyothisha have Time as Nimithakarana. In other words, these doctrines require Time for making it a complete science. In Astrology, we find that sun is strong in the waning phase (Krishna Paksha) of the moon, while the moon progresses in strength in its waxing

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phase (Sukla Paksha). The moon nourishes the herbs 1. This is on account of the fact that the water in the moon is vitalised by the rays of the sun and that water is capable of nourishing the herbs. The sun provides the chaithanya by providing its rays to the moon and the moon in turn influences these beings. Thus the Sun indirectly influences these beings.

Lagna is a direct bye-product of time of sunrise. Thus it is related to sun. Chandra Lagna is related to the position of the moon in a particular sign of the Zodiac.

The pre-eminence of the sun and moon can be understood from the following doctrines:

1. If a particular Bhava from Lagna (which is based on Time of sunrise) is weak and that Bhava reckoned from moon is strong, then that Bhava is supposed to exist. In other words, the stronger of the two, will prevail. 2. In Hora (a divisional chart) sun and moon own all houses. 3. The moon has dominion over all Bhavas from Aquarius to Cancer. The sun has dominion over all Bhavas from Capricorn to Leo, counted anti clockwise. All planets have one house related to the sun and another house related to moon.

Saturn | Aquarius | Capricorn

Jupiter | Pisces | Saggittarius

Mars | Aries | Scorpio

Venus | Taurus | Libra

Mercury | Gemini | Virgo

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All planets under the first sequence of houses are related to the moon and under the second sequence are related to the sun.

4. In Astrology, sun is pitr-Karaka (Karaka or representative of Father) and moon is matr-karaka (Karaka of Mother). Thus they are both related. 5. The soul is represented by the sun and the mind is represented by the moon.2

From the above discussion it becomes clear to us that Ayurveda and Jyothisha are related sciences.

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NOTES AND REFERENCES: 1) Gam Avisya ca Bhutani dharayamy aham ojasa pusnami causadhih saravah somo bhutva rasatmakah (Bhagwad Gita, Ch 15, Ve 13) 2) Kalatma Dinakrit Manas Thuhinaguhu (Brihat Jataka, Chap II, Ve 1)

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CHAPTER 11

Link between Jyothisha, Ayurveda and Karma Kanda


In Ayurveda to be healthy or otherwise, two factors are considered. A healthy person is one who has (1) Equilibrium of vata, Pitta and Kapha and (2) Equilibrium (of mind) in the form of Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas.

If the above qualities are maintained, that person is considered as healthy. If the planets in a horoscope are harmoniously placed, then they are indicative of the equilibrium that exists between Vata, Pitta and Kapha in the body and Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas in the mind.

For diseases of the mind, disturbances of the gunas, sattwa, rajas and tamas is the causative factor (Ayurveda). Jyothisha also supports the view that disturbances of the mind occur due to certain planetary positions and this is causative of diseases. According to Jyothisha sastra, Poorva Janma Karma is the cause for persons gunas. By gunas, we mean the character of a person, which is due to the existence of Sattwa, Rajas and Tamo gunas in a certain proportion. This character determines his behaviour. Ayurveda proclaims that the imbalance of Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas is the cause of disease. Some of the diseases, which cannot be cured, are said to be Maharogas (Great diseases) Papam Karmethi dasada1 Sin is the cause of disease is the view expressed by

Vagbhata in Ashtanga Hridayam.

Drishta

Apacharajaha,

Adrishta

Apacharajaha,
2

Ubaya

Apacharajaha, are the three causes of diseases

with Known Cause,

Unknown Cause and Partly Known Cause. Known cause comprises

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of wrong food habits and thoughts. Unknown cause is deemed to be on account of sin. The third category comprises both the above-mentioned factors.

When disease is due to a Known cause, intake of medicines will effect the cure. Remedial measures can cure diseases of unknown origin. A combination of both medicine intake and remedial measures (Pariharas) will cure diseases of Ubaya Apacharajaha category. This is more comprehensively dealt with by Veerasimha in his treatise Known as Veerasimhavalokanam. This book takes the principles of Ayurveda into account for finding out the cause of diseases of unknown origin.

Boothavidya, is a doctrine adopted as a remedial measure. Boothavidya refers to remedial measures prescribed by Karma Kanda for psycho-somatic diseases.

Both Jyothisha and Ayurveda are complementary subjects with one helping the other and each one expecting some help from the other to make it complete.

For instance, when we perform Ayushya Homam on a persons birthday we do the Homam on the basis of rules and regulations prescribed by vedas. The homam is performed on the day when the persons janma masa and janma nakshatra are in operation. This establishes the Jyothisha link. The intake of Havis (Consecrated food) at the end of the function is one form of medicine. This is the Ayurvedic link. Thus Karma Kanda, Jyothisha and Ayurveda are linked to our dayto-day life.

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NOTES AND REFERENCES: 1) Papam Karamethi dasada (Ashtanga hrdayam, Ch II, Ve 22) 2) Drishtapacharajaha Kaschit Kaschit purvaparadajaha | Tat Sankarad Bhavat Anyo Vyadi revam Tridha Smrthaha (Ashtanga hrdayam, Ch XII, Ve 57)

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CHAPTER 12

Role of Dharma Sastra


Jyothisha or Astrology has three divisions. All the studies about the science of Time are general in outlook and independent in character. The studies relating to a mans relationship with Time of birth is also independent. The works of Rishis which explain the effects of planetary portions in a persons horoscope is also independent. The fruits are dependent on the man and Time of birth. The fruits of planetary position constitute the works of Rishis and are dependent on other factors rather it is not independent, we might as well say. The Phala Pravachana (results of horoscopic studies) should not run contrary to Dharma Sastras. The Rishis never proclaim anything that is contrary to the message of Dharma Sastras. It is in conformity with Indian culture and in stark contrast to alien cultures. Widowhood (vaidhavya) is considered as a

Dosha as it impedes Dharma. Santhana Abhava (barrenness) is considered as a defect because it is an obstacle to pitr karma (works relating to propitiation of manes). Longevity, Income, Occupation,

worldly ties, friendship and enmity, lending or borrowing, alliances, thoughts, dealings and such other things are common to all people all over the world. Horoscope matching, widowhood (vaidhavya), adultery (para sthri/purusha gamanam), Punarbhoo dosha (widow remarriage), Kanya dhanam (wedding of a maiden), Dwitiya Vivaham (second marriage, Santhana Arishtam (doshas relating to children), Datta Putra Yogam (Adoption), Sannyasa Yogam (Asceticism), Niyoga (Insemination with the help of a Rishi) are all concepts familiar to Bharatiyas (people of India) and alien to all other cultures and civilisations. The mission of a person born in India is to attain the Chathur Vidha purusharthas-

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dharma, artha, kama and moksha (four ends of life viz dharma, wealth, happiness and liberation). Dharma relates to his duties. Artha relates to income not contrary to Dharma, Karma refers to means of pleasure or happiness not contrary to Dharma, Moksha relates to attainment of unity with the cosmic soul by the Jeevatma or Individual soul. Kalam (Time), Desam (country), Avasta (stage of life), Dharma, thoughts, lifestyle, history all these influence the fruits of planetary positions.

In books dealing with Dharma sastra, Nitya Karma, Naimittika Karma and kamya karma are explained and the Time of performance is explained by Jyothisha Sastra. Likewise, in mundane matters, the digging of wells, tanks, installation of deity, Bhoomi Sangrahana (choosing a plot), determination of residence, determination of Time of cooking new rice (Navanna Prasanam), vastra alankara dharanam (wearing of new clothes/ornaments, Kshoura karma (shaving), prayanam (journeys), Bandu darsanam (meeting of friends), Noothana patra upayogam (using new vessels), lending and borrowing money are all matters where Jyothisha sastra is used. It becomes clear that Astrology is applied by us in all matters pertaining to our day-to-day life. Yagadi Kala Nirnayam (Time of performance of yagas), Sandhya Vandanadi nitya kala nirnayam (Time of performance of daily rites), Garbhadanadi Naimittika Kala nirnayam (Time for nuptials), putra kameshtiyadi Kamya Karma Kala Nirnayam (Time for putra kameshti yaga), Naimittika punya kala nirnayam (Time for certain special occasions like punya kala), vrtadi kamya karma nirnayam (Time for vows). Utpadadi kalam (Time of earthquakes, cyclones etc.) are all based on Jyothisha sastra. This shows the dependence of Dharma Sastra on Astrology.

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CHAPTER - 13

HOROSCOPES PRACTICAL EXAMPLES BIRTH OF ADI SANKARACHARYA:

Kaliyuga started in 3102 B.C. Yudhistira's coronation took place 37 years prior to that year. Yudhistira Vijaya was celebrated in that year. Saka varsha started (B.C.3139) in that year. In Yudhistirasaka 2631 (2593 kali varsha) i.e., 509 B.C, Sankara Bhagavatpada was born in Nandana Varsha, Vaisaka month, sukla paksha, panchami thithi, Sunday, punarvasu star, noon , abhijit Muhurtha, kataka Lagna,in cycle no.31, in the nandana varsha in the 60 year cycle (Abhijin => Divide day into 2 => junction of purvardha and Uttarardha is called sandhi => Abhijit Muhurtha).

Guru, Sani, Kuja, Ravi, Sukra are all exalted in the horoscope of Adi Sankaracharya

Features of Sankaras horoscope:

* Budha with Ravi * Chandra in kendra (punarvasu 4th pada) * All planets in kendras (sukra in pisces). Lagna aspected by benefic.

Thus "Sankara Vijaya" fulfils the rules of Jyothisha Sastra. (Vide Sri Sankara Vijaya Makaranda, compiled by Vaidya

S.V.Radhakrishna Sastri, 1978, Sri Vani Vilas Press, Sriangam, Trichy-6) The horoscope of Sankara tallies with his achievements.

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Effects of planets in Sankara's horoscope:

Birth in Nandana year

The person born in Nandana year will delight everybody, enjoys the favour of kings and will be conversant with the meaning of sacred hymns in scripture.

Punarvasu Star:

A person born in punarvasu star will be learned and also famous.

Effects of exalted planets:

Sun Mars Mercury

: Will possess wealth and command an army. : Will be valiant. : Will raise the status of family, will be talented, will win over enemies and will live in happiness.

Jupiter

: Will be the founder of a long enduring family, will possess moral worth, will be learned and in royal favour.

Venus Saturn

: Will be fond of music. : Will have jurisdiction over some region.

We find many points described above applicable to Sankara's horoscope.

(The nodes are ignored by those astrologers who go by the Sapta-graha Siddhantha.)

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Horoscope of Sri Rama

Sri Rama was born in cancer Lagna, Punarvasu star, Navami thithi, with five planets in exaltation in the month of chaithra 1.

The above deals with the planetary positions as dealt with in astronomy at the Time of Sri Rama's birth. Rishis like Parasara while dealing with Phalabhaga (fruits of astrology), have dealt with strength of Lagna, rasi, exaltation, Bhava, star, pada of stars, etc; The results of planetary positions as discussed in astrology are found to be correct when we compare them with the life of Sri Rama as described in Ramayana. Five planets in exaltation indicate birth of a divine being 2.

In the two illustrative horoscopes (of Sri Rama and Sri Adi Sankaracharya) the cancer Lagna has conjunction of Moon and Jupiter and sun is exalted. This is a Mahapurusha Yoga.

When the Bhava lord (Moon) with Pakshabala occupies his own Bhava in conjunction with the benefic Jupiter it renders the Lagna strong and in a flourishing condition. The Lagna karaka, sun is in a quadrant from Lagna and moon is indicative of strength of Lagna.

According to Horasara (of Prithuyashas) when sun and moon are strong, all the other planets derive strength and those Bhavas which they own are all rendered strong 3. The converse is also true. When sun and moon are weak, the remaining planets, even though they be endowed with strength, will be deprived of their strength and those Bhavas which they own, will fail to give good results. Moon derives strength mainly through pakshabala, more than sthanabala.

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Thus, when we analyse their characters we find that they were spiritual stalwarts. By his qualities, Rama was a king. Sankara was a

king among ascetics. Thus both of them had royal qualities. They were Mahasattwa purusha (pure), dayalu (compassionate), gambhira (having aristocratic qualities).

Features of Ravanas horoscope

* Sani, Kuja, Ravi, Sukra, Guru are all exalted * Budha Neecha or debilitated * Revati - Nakshatra * Thula - Lagna

The presence of the lord of 9 (which denotes divine grace) in an evil house eventually brought about the downfall of Ravana.

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NOTES AND REFERENCES: 1) Birth of Sri Rama Dwadase mase Chaithre navamike thithow Nakshatre Aditi Daivatye sochcha samstheshu panchasu graheshu karakada Lagne vakapatha vinduna saha prochcha mane jagannatham sarvaloka namaskrtam kausalya janayadramam divya lakshana samyutham. (Valmiki Ramayanam, Balakandam, 18. 8. 9) 2) Atha param Divyaha ( Varahamihira Horasastram, Page 59) 3) Chandrarkow balayuktuw kujadayaha prokta marga balahinaha | Shuba phala daste sarve Dasasu yogeshu sanchintyaha || (Horasara, Ch III, Ve 34)

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CHAPTER-14

Role of Jyothisha in the lives of Avatara Purushas


Astrology has six limbs (1) Jataka (2) Gola (3) Nimitha (4) Prasna (5) Muhurtha (6) Ganitha. literature. These references are widely found in

References in Jataka pertain to the works of Rishis like

Parasara. Studies pertaining to natural phenomena like eclipses are dealt with in Dharma Sastra. Studies of eclipses are also found in epics like Mahabharata and in dramas lika Mudrarakshasa of Visakadutta.

Example: The eclipse caused by ketu is prevented on account of the conjunction with Budha (Mercury). (Visakadutta in Mudrarakshasa) 1.

In Dharma sastras, the effect of eclipses from Dhanu to Mesha are dealt with in fourteen verses. Likewise commencement, middle and

conclusion of eclipse and related studies, sparsam, (touch) unmilinam (eclipse), Nimilanam (opening), Mukti (conclusion of eclipse) are all dealt with.

At the beginning of eclipse one should take bath. In the middle one should perform Homa. At the Time of Nimilana one should give gifts. At the Time of Mukti one should take bath 2.

Any study of medical astrology would be incomplete without a study of human mind. The mind is a powerful determinant of events pertaining to the mundane world. The mind is the storehouse of impressions generated by Poorva Janma Karma. All Sankalpas

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(thoughts) are on account of Poorva Janma Karma. Thoughts blossom in the mind. The nature of thoughts dictates the future course of events. Thoughts get converted into ideas. Ideas get converted into actions. Actions are performed by the Karmendriyas (organs of action). The mind gives an order to the intellect, which readily conveys the message to the organs of action, and the idea gets implemented. Both Ayurveda and astrology attach great deal of importance to human mind.

Once there was a conflict between mind and speech. Both went to Prajapati. By "Swaha" being uttered, speech said that it was having an independent rule in yagas. But Prajapati said that speech is sub-ordinate to mind. Speech said that in view of Prajapati's adverse judgement, in future no one should speak while yaga is done for prajapati. Hence we simply meditate on prajapati while doing yaga. The word "Swaha" is not uttered.

In purchase and sale of commodities, in wars and in marital relationships between husband and wife, mind is utmost importance.

Both pravritti (involvement) and Nivritti (lack of involvement) is based on mind. Friendship, Enmity, desire, family relationships, anger, business transactions are all based on mind.

Knowledge of the world and knowledge of individual are required to understand the tenets of Ayurveda. knowledge of several sciences is required. To understand one science,

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Mere knowledge of one science will not enable you to understand that science. Hence one should study many sciences. This is the view of Charaka.

Purification of the mind is accepted by different schools of thought. Karma is performed for the sake of mind To perform karma correctly, knowledge of the sciences and knowledge of the world are required.

All things in Brahmanda (macrocasm) have a parallel with Pindanda (Microcasm). The sun and the moon dictate all things in nature. So also the soul and mind are important for all events in a man's life.

According to Ayurveda, malfunctioning of mind gives rise to wrong thoughts, which lead to diseases. Poorva Janma Karma influences this mind. According to Jyothisha, mind is responsible for the future course of events. Both the sciences admit that Poorva Janma Karma is responsible for the functioning of mind. elaborate reasoning for Both the sciences contain this proposition.

establishing

Drishtabacharacham, Adrishtabacharacham, ubayabacharacham are the doctrines in Ayurveda which support this view. The verse quoted by us ("Yadupachit Anya Janma Karmani ...3") proves the view right from a Jyothisha viewpoint. The view of Ashtanga Hridayam ("Papam Karmethi dasada 4) which states that sin is cause of disease and listing the eight major diseases (Maha Rogas) is proof of this ideology. The chapter dealing with Bhootha Vidya discusses this concept.

The relationship of soul with body is the essence of human birth. Why is a person born? It is to experience the fruits of Poorva Janma Karma. An individual experiences both joy and sorrow due to his Poorva

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Janma Karma. It is not someone else who created their experience. It is one's own past karma that results in birth and cause for the attendant joys and sorrows is with the individual and the result is also experienced by the individual. Cause is hidden, it cannot be seen; it is not visible. It can be understood only by inference (Anumana). "Buddhi Karmanu sarini" is the dictum of seers. This means, "one's intellect functions in the manner dictated by one past karma". The functioning of the intellect (Buddhi) is not pratyaksha. The result of actions, whose root cause is Buddhi, is pratyaksha. These results are foretold by the planetary The planets do not indicate how the

positions at the time of birth.

intellect will function. But they indicate what will be the results of actions which have their origin in the functioning of Buddhi (intellect). The planetary positions in a given horoscope enable us to infer Poorva Janma Karma. Birth and death constitute an endless cycle. It is

applicable to mankind only. The births of Avatara purushas, who take birth on account of their own will, (voluntary birth) is not consistent with the rules of astrology. Avatara purshas have no necessities. Their births have nothing to do with karma. How can one attribute karma phala to a person's birth, which has nothing to do with karma? Hence the study of horoscopes is not correct in the case of such births. In a drama there are persons acting as Rama, Ravana, Krishna or Mandodari. These dramas are staged everyday. The actor has no real sense of identification with the characters he seeks to portray. Hence they face no joy or sorrow in a drama, which is attributable to their roles in the drama. Similarly Avatara purushas have no sense of identifiation with the roles they play in real life. Hence the study of astrology is inappropriate in their cases. Hence Varahamihira uses the phrase, "Athaparam Divyaha"
5

to describe

Avataras as people from the "deva plane"(inferred from the presence of five planets in exaltation.) Thus what is applicable to man is not

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applicable to devas. Thus, when Vishnu incarnated as Rama, His consort Lakshmi incarnated as Sita. This is a case of voluntary birth taken by Vishnu and Lakshmi together. But in the case of men, wife in one birth need not be born in a similar way or one's spouse may differ in subsequent births. Horoscopes describe past births, present births and future births. But this is not true of devas. Thus sastras say that at the time of birth, the planets arrange themselves in such a way that they are placed in the best possible houses. For instance, at the time of Sri Rama's birth, five planets are in exaltation. The Avataras are Swatantra

(independent) in outlook and in their cases the planets are para tantra (dependent). In the case of human births, man is para tantra (dependent) and the planets are Swatantra (independent). Human beings are born out of the contact between the sperm and the ovum. Sri Rama was born out of the payasam (pudding) which arose out of the putra kameshti yaga performed by sage Rishyasringa. Hence Adhana Lagna can never be fixed for Sri Ramas birth. Astrology is meant for one who is liable to birth and birth is for one who suffers the consequences of karma. As devas are not liable to birth and death, karma siddhanta is not applicable to them. However horoscopes of Avatara purushas arise on account of their relationship with Time and to elucidate the rules of astrology, these are described.

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NOTES AND REFERENCES: 1) Rakshatyenam tu budhayogaha (Mudrarakshesa, Ch I, Prastavana, Vidhushaka vachanam) 2) Purushartha Chinthamani, Page 433) 3) Yadupachitham Anya Janmani Shubasubam tasya Karmanaha Pakthim vyanchayathi sastram etat tamasi dravyani dipa eva (Prasna marga, Ch I, Ve 36) 4) Papam karamethi dasada (Asthanga Hrdayam, Sutrasthanam, Ch II, Ve 22) 5) Athaparam divyaha (Varahamihira Horasastram, Page 59)

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CHAPTER 15

Daily regimen and seasonal regimen

Muhurtha sastra is applicable not only for deciding the time of samskaras but for all mundane masters.

Nitya Karma, (routine work) and Rtucharya (seasonal regimen) when correctly performed lead to good health.

The Ayurvedic texts explain the modifications in a man's body and mind at each stage of life (boyhood, youth, old age etc.) keeping in mind, the impact of nature on his body and mind. Since the intake of medicines ought to be done at a certain prescribed time at a certain age, it becomes clear that Ayurveda is intimately connected to astrology. For instance Jatakarma, prescribes administration of ghee and honey to a new born child. Time for Jatakarma is suggested by astrology. What is suggested above is to preserve the physical health of an individual.

These sciences also deal with preservation of mental health. Ayurveda prescribes Dinacharya (daily regimen) and Rtucharya (seasonal regimen). Thus Ayurveda describes what ought to be done and what ought not to be done. Astrology describes all those actions which we ordinarily perform in our day-to-day life and when to perform them. The science of Ayurveda is, both for preserving health and for curing diseases. It does not prescribe Time of its own accord but works in tandem with Jyothisha, by adopting the latter's rules and regulations. Thus Ayurveda does not exist as an isolated science. It requires

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Astrology to complement its views and thereby achieve fulfilment. For instance, Dharma Sastras proclaim that food ought not to be taken at night on a full moon day. But when does the full moon day occur? Jyothisha provides this information. The above is an example of the inter-dependence of Jyothisha and Dharma Sastras.

Dina charya or daily regimen explains to us what should be done in the course of a day. Rtucharya tell us what should be our seasonal behaviour. The sun causes Dina or day. Rtu or season caused by the Moon. The sun and the moon play a pivotal role in astrology. This is yet another link between Ayurveda and Jyothisha.

Thus medical astrology has time as a common factor which blends the two sciences into one.

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CHAPTER 16

Impact of Sun and Moon in different Schools of Thought

Astrology is the science of Time. The causes of disease in Ayurveda are mainly wrong food habits and wrong thoughts. But without knowledge of the season in which the diseases occur it would not be possible to administer the proper medicine. Seasons are nothing but a manifestation of changing times. In Astrology the root cause of all events is past karma. These get activated and yield fruits at the appropriate time. Again to judge the future course of events one should be conversant with astrology which is nothing but the science of Time. Time is the common factor, which blends the two sciences viz., Ayurveda and Jyothisha.

Wrong food habits pertain to the experiences of sense organs. These belong to the domain of worldly matters. Wrong thoughts belong to the mind. Thus material objects and the mind are the causes of joy or sorrow in Ayurveda. In Jyothisha sastra, two types of experiences are described - one belongs to the domain of experiences, which have their origin in sense objects. The other is relatable to the mind. In this context we find another line of similarity between the two sciences.

When the power of the soul (Atmabala) and the power of the mind (Manobala) start functioning in a man, he will be able to persist in his work and attain his objective even if the remaining planets are weak. The person who has a strong sun and moon will be able to persist with his work until the goal is reached on account of his single-minded effort.

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In Ayurveda, the mind in responsible for thoughts. Cold generates thoughts and heat translates the thoughts into action. Moon represents cold and sun represents heat. Kapha is indicative of cold and pitta is representative of heat. Both kapha and pitta are able to co-exist in

equilibrium depending upon the onset of seasons and our own suitable adjustments. Here again, we find Time in the form of sun and moon influences the two sciences. Here again we find that underlying unity behind the two sciences. The sun and moon give effect to the fruits of astrology. In astrology we find one rule which states that three fiery (agneya) planets in seventh house will give rise to widowhood, but if benefics join them, the lady becomes a widow remarried. Thus heat and cold influence the results that we find in astrology.

In Ayurveda both diseases and medicines involve the interaction between heat and cold. Thus heat-cold principle is essential to Ayurveda. This is another common principle behind Jyothisha and Ayurveda, which we now understand is suitable for an inter-disciplinary study.

In Ayurveda, we find that there are heating herbs and cooling herbs. The herbs alter the heat-cold balance in the body. In Astrology remedial measures involve alteration of the state of mind and soul. In both sciences, all remedies involve influencing the heat-cold balance.

Soul represents consciousness. It represents heat. Mind is the cause of all thoughts. It represents cold. All actions require heat. So the mind which is cold gives rise to ideas. This is a parallel idea to the Ayurvedic theory of growth. Heat converts the ideas into actions. This is similar to the Ayurvedic concept of modifications. These concepts are not creations. They already exist in Nature. Both sciences derive this

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concept from Nature. This concept is common to both Ayurveda and Jyothisha.

For fulfilment of the science, both Ayurveda and Jyothisha take into account the modifications, which occur in nature. They both become complete in one sense only after incorporating the rules of Nature.

To maintain good health till the last breath and to show the path for attainment for Mukti, which is the fourth and final purushartha of life are the aims of Ayurveda. Jyothisha gives us Kalaswaroopa gnana

(knowledge of the science of Time) and through this knowledge, man attains Moksha. While dealing with the fruits of knowledge, all the exponents of various darsanas accept the fact that the ultimate aim of life is attainment of Moksha. This is equally true of Ayurveda and Jyothisha. The impact of sun and moon is felt in all schools of thought: Jyothisha: This describes two phases of moon-suklapaksha where moon is predominant and krishnapaksha where sun is predominant. Ayurveda: This describes Adhanakala and visarga kala. Adhana kala refers to the period where sun draws water from earth and visarga kala is that cooling period where the moon helps bring water back to the earth through rainfall.

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Mimamsa: This describes Darsapoorna masa yaga. Darsa and Poorna Masa refer to the relative positions of sun and moon. Tantra Sastra: This describes the Shodashakshari which refers to Goddess Parvati compared to the moon whose sixteen kalas are the phases giving rise to the two pakshas. Yoga Sastra: This describes "Chitta Vritti Nirodha" 1. This is possible

through pranayama. The breathing though right nose is associated with the sun and the left nose is associated with the moon. breathing is heating and left nose breathing is cooling. Advaita: According to Advaita, Moksha Prapti (Attainment of Moksha) involves passing through Suryaloka and Chandraloka. Sahitya: All descriptions in Sanskrit literature involving valour involve sun and about fame involve the moon. All worldly matters take plane in time, which is ultimately based on the positions of moon and sun. Agama Sastra: Right nose

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All festivals in temples are based on days, which again are related to position of sun and moon. For instance ekadasi refers to the eleventh day from pournami or amavasya. Pujas and Vows: These involve workship of deities. For Vishnu sun and the moon are the two eyes. For Lord Siva, moon adorns the head. Ganesa is referred to pala chandra or one whose forehead is adorned by moon. Moon adorns the head of Devi.

Herbs derive their potency through their interaction with sun and moon. Somalata or Guduci is a medicinal herb. The word "Somalatha" shows that the cooling effect is produced by moon. Fire is produced through certain plants (eg. Karunkali in Tamil, Vahni tree - Botanical name Acacia Sundra).

Heat and cold are found simultaneously in the human body. This heat does not dispel the cold. The cold does not displace the heat. Both heat and cold coexist. If they do not coexist, then life will be put out. Likewise the world functions on account of the coexistence of sun and moon. References to this effect are found in vedas.

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NOTES AND REFERENCES: 1) Yogaschitta Vritti Nirodha (Patanjali Yoga sutras, Ch I, Ve 2)

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CHAPTER-17

Role of Computer
People who pursue the Indian way of life look at certain events as constituting joy and certain events as sorrowful and have their own concepts about, the means and ends of life. Keeping this in mind, the rishis have written about the "phalabhaga" or fruits of astrology.

People in their boyhood pursue education, wordly pleasures in youth and Atma vidya in old age in India. Marriage, progeny, acquisition of wealth, domestic well-being, relationships, unity, inheritance, karma, vamsa parampara (hereditary relationship) are all concepts dealt with in an unique fashion in India. Those who fashion their lives on the basis of Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha, acquire fulfilment through this mindset. Adultery, lack of issues, death of spouse, death of children, parental curse, Disharmony at home, poverty, notoriety, punishment, atheism, grief are all deplorable concepts to an Indian mind.

The first group discussed above is conducive to dharma and second group is conducive to spread of Adharma.

The Indian mind wishes to spread dharma and annihilate adharma. With this in mind, the phalabhaga of Rishis have to be studied to know beforehand, the potential of a horoscope. The gains and losses can be known beforehand from an individual's horoscope.

Vedic astrology is common to the whole world. But it gives prime importance to the Indian mindset of establishing dharma and elimination

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of Adharma.There are two categories of results in astrology. Some things are acquired with effort like fame, goodwill and education. Some things like inheritance of wealth accrue without any effort on our part. These events are also indicated by astrology.

To impart meaning to the planetary positions, mere mathematical knowledge is insufficient. It requires a broad perspective of all shastras. Thus a computer cannot interpret a horoscope. Planets do not pinpoint poorva punya. Poorva punya has to be understood from a man's

horoscope by understanding the various branches of knowledge.

The present age is yet to see a device, which is capable of understanding and determining an abstract concept like Poorvapunya. Astrology combines predictive portion with Gochara and omens. It is difficult to feed omens into a computer, especially when we do not know what are the omens we are likely to encounter in future. Moreover it is difficult to mix Dasa/ Bhukti results with Gochara into the computer and derive the results. Moreover concepts like foreign travel are looked at from different angles and a computer cannot probe into its merits and demerits. Concepts like acquisition of wealth and acquisition of peace of mind or happiness are not identical and these cannot be determined by the computer. If the mind of a Rishi can be imported into a computer, it will certainly become an all-knowing device but this is certainly a utopian concept as of today.

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CHAPTER 18

An overview of Jyothisha
In his introductory note to the book SRI RUDRA GHANAM, the Author Sri.K.Suresh has given his views on astrology. These views are briefly summarized in this chapter.

Astronomy (Science of Stars and Planets) is very helpful to determine the Time for performing any rituals or functions and further, to predict the future of any person. The Time was calculated as 1. Pararddhakalam (life of Brahma), 2. Manvantaram, 3. Yuga, 4. Year, 5. Ayana, 6. Rtu, 7. Month, 8. Paksha (Fortnight), 9. Week, 10. Day, 11. Muhurtham, 12. Nazhigai (24 Minutes), and 13. Seconds.

Jyothisa could be classifed as 1. Mathematics, 2. Jataka (Horoscopes) and, 3. Samhita (Details).

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In Jyotisha, Mathematics is very important. Even in krsna Yajur Veda, (in 5th and 7th kanda) the maths table from 1 to 10 was explained in ashwameda recitals.

Time could be determined as manusyamanam, devamanam manvantaram, and Life of Brahma. Our 12 months (1year) is equivalent to 1 day for Devas. Hence our 360 years equals to 1 year for Devas.

When we want to calculate the Yuga in years:

Yuga Krta/satya Yuga Treta Yuga Dvapara Yuga Kali Yuga Total

Man years 17,28,000 12,96,000 8,64,000 4,32,000 43,20,000

Deva years 4,800 3,600 2,400 1,200 12,000

Hence catur yuga or maha yuga (4 Yugas) equals to 43,20,000 years of ours. At the end of a maha yuga (after 43,20,000 years) there will a universal disaster, where everything will be destroyed by the cosmic fire. Then, new krta/satya yuga will emerge out of the old kali yuga. The ratios between the Yugas are 4:3:2:1 in terms of duration. With the beginning of a new satya yuga, the original state of purity is restored, and the cycle begins again with full righteousness, which decreases by one-fourth in treta yuga, by one-half in dvapara yuga and by three-fourth in the kali yuga.

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Hindu concept of Time is cyclical and is reckoned as the continuum of the day and night of Brahma, the creator; the day is kalpa (creation) and the night is pralaya (deluge). One day (kalpa) of brahma is further subdivided into 1000 maha yugas or 14 manvantaras (or the periods of Manu), and each manvantara comprises 71 maha yagas.

One Kalpa coincides with one Day of Brahma's life, and when the night comes, the Universe will be reabsorbed (Pralaya) in his divine sleep for equal period (another kalpa). At that Time, all the Veda Mantras (Sound) will go back to the Universe and hidden.

Every Kalpa has 1000 cycles of the four Yuga (maha yuga). 43,20,000 X 1,000 = 4,320,000,000 years Like this, 71 catur yugas (maha yuga) makes 1 Manvantara. 14 Manvantaras makes 1 Kalpa (one day or one night) for brahma. 43,20,000 X 71 X 14 = 4,29,40,80,000 years The last six (1000-71x14) catur yugas (maha yuga) are necessary to make a kalpa (to have 1000 maha yuga) are distributed among the different Manvantara. Now we attempt to calculate the age of brahma: (all figures are human years)

Catur yuga

4320000 X 71

Manvantaram

306720000 X14 4294080000

Add: 6 catur yugas Kalpam (day)

25,920,000 4,320,000,000

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Add: Kalpam (Night) Full Day

4,320,000,000 8,640,000,000 x360

One Year

3,110,400,000,000 x100

Age years)

of

Brahma

(100

311,040,000,000,000

The present kali yuga started 3102 years before the birth of Christ on February 20th at 14hrs 27 minutes and 30 seconds. At that period also all the planets were housed in one zodiac sign. Europe's famous astronomer Belly observes this: In this connection

"According to astronomical calculations of the Hindus, the present period of the world, Kaliyuga, commenced 3102 years before the Christ on 20th February, at 2 hours 27 minutes and 30 seconds. They say

conjunction of planets took place and their table show this conjunction. It was natural to say that a conjunction of planets then took place. This calculation of Vedas Pundits is so exactly confirmed by our own astronomical tables that nothing but actual observation could have given so correspondent a result." (Theology of Hindus by Count Bjornstjerna, page 32).

Note that the 'Kali Yuga', although taken to have an aeonic impact upon people's way of life, is nevertheless a fiction used for astrological computation. At the beginning of the Kali epoch the mean places of the 7 planets are assumed to be at the beginning of the sidereal sphere at 0 degrees Aries. By calculating from this epoch the mean positions of Sun, Moon and planets are obtained.

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Diurnal motion - daily rising/setting of Sun, Moon, planets stars; due to daily rotation of Earth from west to east. Movement of Sun eastward by 1 per day relative to background stars, i.e., seasonal change of constellations; due to annual revolution of Earth about Sun;

In surya siddhanta, Bhaskaraccarya calculates the Time taken for the earth to orbit the sun to 9 decimal places. 365.258756484 days. Modern accepted Bhaskaraccarya =

Astronomer W.M. Smart = 365.2564 days. 365.2596 days. Between

measurement

bhaskaraccaryas ancient measurement 1500years ago and the modern measurement the difference is only 0.00085days. (only 0.0002%) Source: http://nimbus.temple.edu/-svargh01/science.html

In a catur yugas (maha yuga) the revolutions of the Sun are 4,320,000, of the Moon 57,753,336, of the Earth eastward 1,582,237,500, of Saturn 146,564, of Jupiter 364,224, of Mars 2,296,824 etc. This is an extremely accurate ratio (1,582,237,500 / 57,753,336 = 27,3964693572) of Moon revolution about the Earth from the following table:

ASTRONOMIC AUTHORITY

Aryabhata

Surya

(from Clarke and Siddanta Kay)

Years in Yuga Rotations Days Lunar Orbits Synodic Months Mercury

4,320,000 1,582,237,500 1,577,917,5001 57,753,336* 53,433,33653 17,937,920

4,320,000 1,582,237,828 577,917,828 57,753,336 433,336 17,937,060

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Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn

7,022,388 2,296,824 364,224 146,564

7,022,376 2,296,832 364,220 146,568

* Shri.Kay notes 57,753,339 lunar orbits rather than 57,753,336 per Shri.Clarke.

In addition to the reckoning of Time by yugas, we have in use two eras used to reckon historical periods; Vikrama Era starting in 57 BCE; It is on this day 1924 years ago, King Salivahana of Ujjaini after killing the invading Saka tribe beyond the river Sindhu, returned successfully to Ujjaini (by early morning hours). Hence the Salivahana Era (not saka Era). The Vikrama Era (also called Malava Era) begins on Kaarthika Shukla prathama (around October-November). It was started by King Salivahana's grandfather King Vikramaditya who too defeated the invading saka tribe 2058 years ago and returned to his capital in Time for the Deepaavali celebrations. Alamanac or Panchanga. We can see these particulars in our

"In surya siddhanta all the calculations are in terms of positive integers. The unit of angle, its smallest unit used in this integer

environment, is one minute of an are of which there are 21,600 in a full circle. If a Time frame of 21,600 years is selected, then the accuracy of the mean motion of the planets, could be one minute of an arc per year if the period of rotation is specified in terms of the number of rotations made in a Time frame.

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Relating our own body to cosmology, the earth, our physical or planetary body, is sustained by food, our emotional center (Soul) is sustained by breath and our intellectual center (Moon) is sustained by impressions. A respiration consists of two halves, an inhalation and an exhalation. Speech is breath modulated by the physical organism in various ways (depth of breathing, muscle tension, shape of mouth, shape of mental impressions.) The Indian measure is that 10 long syllables make 1 breath. There are smaller subdivisions of Time ending with the paramanu (this is related to the Time taken to sense an impression). Consistent with this view is the concept that people are, like the real solar system, subject to fluctuations, perturbations and inequalities. periods are based on the numbers 27,108,360 and 21600. The

Breath: 21600 breaths per full day (24 hours) 10800 = solar(day), 10800 = lunar(night) hence, 1 breath = 4 seconds (86400 seconds per day/21600 breaths per day = 4 seconds per breath)

Time: 1 nazhigai equals to 24 minutes = 1440 seconds = 360 breaths. 1 solar year = 360 days = 8640 hours. 60 nazhigai = 1 day.

In a horoscope, the placement of Planets, Yoga, Kendra or Square, Trine or Triangle and other issues are derived on this basis, could be established from the following table:

Porportion

Arc Degrees sectors Mintues

Aspect/ Division Navamsha Nakshatra

21600/108 21600/27

200 3d 20m 800 13d 20m

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21600/12 21600/4 21600/3 21600/2 21600/1

1200 30d 5400 90d 7200 120d 10800 180d 21600 360d

Raasi Square Triangle Opposition Conjunction

Futher, Books written 1. By Sri varahamihira like 'brhadjatakam, parasarahora sastram, daivajna vallabha, 2. By gargaccariya, 'garga hora' 3. By mantresvara, 'phalatipika', 4. By venkatesa daivankar, 'sarvartta sintamani', 5. By satya carya, 'satya jatakam', 6. By sukar rasi 'sukar nadi', 7. By kaliDasa'utra kalamrtam, jataka cantrikai', 8. By maha rasi Jaimini's 'Jaimini sutra', 9. Vaidyanata diksatar, 'jataka parijatam', 10. By mahadeva, 'jataka tatvam', 11. By accudar native of Kerala 'Deva Keralam known as candra kala nadi, 12, by kumara svami Dev' kumara svamyam, 13. By Sapta rasies namely, atri, agastiya, jaimini, konginar, narada, vasistha, visvamitra, - 'sapta rasi nadi', 14. Dr.B.V.Raman's various books, 15. Rasi 'pulippani's various books, 17. The Discoverer of krsnamurtti Paddhadi Sri.K.S.krsnamurtti's various books, 18. Sri.C.G. rajan's various books, 19. Parasara rasi's, books like 'hora, Samhita and many other books will help us to enhance our knowledge in the field of mathematics and astrology. There is no doubt about this.

Veda vyasa explains Arithmetic (Ganita) such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, fractions, squares, cubes and roots as enumerated in the Narada Visnu purana. The sulba sutras of Bodhayana and Apastamba sutras explains the geometric knowledge (rekha-ganita) which describe the techniques for the construction of ritual altars in use during various prayoga (the yajna.)

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Philosophical formulations concerning sunya - i.e. emptiness facilitated by introducing the concept of zero. While the zero (bindu) in the place-value numeral system appears much earlier, algebraic definitions of the zero and it's relationship to mathematical functions appear in the mathematical treatises of Brahmagupta during 7th Century.

In the Western world, the cumbersome Roman numeral system posed as a major obstacle, and in China the pictorial script posed as a hindrance. But in India, almost everything was in vogue including

decimal numbers.

Virtually every Indian state produced great mathematicians who wrote commentaries on the works of other mathematicians (who may have lived and worked in a different part of India many centuries earlier). Sanskrit served as the common medium of scientific communication.

One of the greatest scientists of the Gupta period - Aryabhatta (born in 476 AD, Kusumpura, Bihar) correctly posited the axial rotation of the earth, and inferred correctly that the orbits of the planets were ellipses. He also correctly deduced that the moon and the planets shined by reflected sunlight and provided a valid explanation for the solar and lunar eclipses which was appreciated by Bhaskara I (born Saurashtra, 6th Century, and the follower of the Asmaka school of science, Nizamabad, Andhra). In the course of developing a precise mapping of the lunar eclipse, Aryabhatta was obliged to introduce the concept of infinitesimals - i.e. tatkalika gati to designate the infinitesimal, or near instantaneous motion of the moon, and express it in the form of a basic differential equation, Aryabhatta's equations were elaborated on by Manjula (10th

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Century) and Bhaskaraccarya (12th Century) who derived the differential of the sine function.

Mathematics played a vital role in Aryabhatta's revolutionary understanding of the solar system. His calculations on pi, (or 22/7) the circumference of the earth (62832 miles) and the length of the solar year were remarkable. In making such calculations, he had to solve several mathematical problems that had not been addressed before including problems in algebra (bijganita) and trigonometry (trikonmiti).

Bhaskara I expanded on the trigonometric equations and pi (or 22/7) provided by Aryabhatta, and contributed 1, the important formula for calculating the sine function 2. Work on indeterminate equations and 3 quadrilaterals with all the four sides unequal and none of the opposite sides parallel.

Another important astronomer/mathematician was Varahamihira (6th Century, Ujjaini) who compiled previously written texts on astronomy and made important addition to Aryabhatta's trigonometric formula. His works on permutation and combinations complemented what had been previously achieved by Jain mathematicians and provided a method of calculation of nCr that closely resembles the much more recent Pascal's Triangle.

Developments also took place in applied mathematics such as in creation of trigonometric tables and measurement units. Yativrsabha's (6th Century) work Tiloyapannatti gives various units for measuring distances and Time and also describes the system of infinite Time measures.

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In the 9th Century, Mahaviraccarya (Mysore) wrote Ganita sarasan graha, where he described the currently used method of calculating the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of given numbers. He also derived formulae to calculate the area of an ellipse and a quadrilateral inscribed within a circle (something that had also been looked at by Brahmagupta)

The leading light of 12th Century Indian mathematics was Bhaskaraccarya who was the head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjaini. He left several important mathematical texts including the

lilavati, Bijaganita and the siddhanta siromani, (an astronomical text). He was the first to recognize that certain types of quadratic equations could have two solutions. His Chakrawaat method of solving indeterminate solutions preceded European solutions by several centuries, and in his siddhanta siromani he postulated that the Earth and gravitational force, and mentioned for the first Time the fields of infinitesimal calculation and integration. In the second part of this treatise, there are several chapters relating to the study of the sphere and its properties and applications to geography, planetary mean motion, eccentric epicyclical model of the planets, first visibility of the planets, the seasons, the lunar crescent etc. He also discussed astronomical instruments and spherical trigonometry and also explains his trigonometric equations: sin (a+b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b; sin (a-b) = sin a cos b - cos a sin b;

Now, we can understand, the above mathematical knowledge is necessary to produce an Almanac (Panchanga) which we are using now or to cast a Horoscope.

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To render/do the remedy (Pariharam), and to worship the Deity, Planets, Stars to get our desire, Veda, jyotisa provide details on everything (like Deity, Planets, Stones). Even in taittiriya Samhita, 4th, Prasna, 10th anuvaka gives particulars about Stars and its respective Deities and 11th anuvaka gives particulars about Month, ratu etc. (explained in the Table given below)

Stars Aswini

Star's Deity Aswini

Planet Ketu

Planet's Deity Ganesha

Stones Lapis Lazuli

Bharani Kritika Rohini Mragasira Arudra Punarvasu

Yama Agni Prajapati Soma Rudra Adhiti

Venus Sun Moon Mars Rahu Jupiter

Lakshmi,indra Shiva Paarvati Subramanya Durga, Kali

Diamond Carbuncle Pearl Coral Sardonyx

Dakshinamoorti, Topaz Brahma

Pushya Aslesha Magha

Brahaspati Snake(Sarpa) Fore

Saturn Mercury

Sasta, Yama Vishnu Ganesha

Sapphire Emerlad Lapis Lazuli

fathers Ketu

(Pitru`s) Poorvaphalguni Aryama Uthtara Hastha Chithira Swathi Visakha Bhaga Savita Indra Vayu Indra, agni Venus Sun Moon Mars Rahu Jupiter Lakshmi,Indra Shiva Paarvati Subramanya Durga,Kali

Diamond Carbuncle Pearl Coral Sardonyx

Dakshinamoorti, Topaz

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Brahma Anuradha Jyestha Moola Mitra Indra Fore Saturn Mercury fathers Ketu Sasta, Yama Vishnu Ganesha Sapphire Emerald Lapis Lazuli Venus sun Lakshmi,Indra Shiva Diamond Carbuncle

( Pitru`s) Poorvashadha Uthrdashadha Abhijit * Sravana Dhanishta Sathabishak Poorvabhadra Varuna Vishveeda Brahma Vishnu Vasu Indra Moon Mars Rahu Paarvati Subramanya Durga, Kali

Pearl Coral Sardonyx

One foot goat Jupiter

Dakshinamoorti, Topaz Brahma

Utrabhadra Revati

Adisesham Poosha

Saturn Mercury

Sasta Yama Vishnu

Sapphire Emerald

* Abhijit Star is mentioned in Veda, but not practised in Astrology.

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CHAPTER 19

Role of Muhurtha Sastra


The following are some of the muhurthas, which merit a discussion in astrology.

1) a) Uttaraphalguni b) Rohini or Moola c) Kritika or Magha d) Abhijit e) Poorvashada or Moola f) Rohini or Magha g) Ardra or Ashlesha Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

Auspicious deeds should not be performed in the above muhurthas. 2) The presence of a planet in any one of the following pairs of nakshatras give rise to vedha in the other Rohini Bharani Uttarashada Sravana Hasta Swati Moola Abhijit Anuradha Mrigashirsha Magha Uttarabhadrapadha Satabisha Punarvasu

Uttaraphalguni Revati

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Celebration of marriage is auspicious in the nakshatras of mrigashirsha, Hasta, Moola, Anuradha, Magha, Rohini, Revati, Uttarapahalguni, Uttarashada, Uttarashada, Uttarabhadrapada, Swati. It should be performed on Thithis other than Riktha Thithis and auspicious days (i.e) Monday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday.

3) The married woman gets different effects according to the planet by which the nakshatra of marriage has been subjected to vedha. This is mentioned in the book entitled Vivaha Patala. Sun Mars will be widowed Grief due to death of son

Mercury Sterility Jupiter Venus Saturn will become a saint only female issues. will become a maidservant.

The vedha dosha, according to Varahamihira is considered only in vindhya region. The vedha nakshatra is rendered insignificant in the combinations. 1. The Lagna or Ascendant at the marriage Time is occupied by some benefic planet. 2. The ascendant lord is in the 11th house and is in conjunction with or aspected by benefics. 3. The marriage is in the Kala hora of a benefic planet. 4. The moon is endowed with strength.

4) Latta dosha Planet Affected Star (Counted backwards) (i) (ii) Mercury Rahu 7 9

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(iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

Full moon Venus Sun Saturn

22 5 12 8 6 3

(vii) Jupiter (viii) Mars

The effect of the Latta dosha is given below.

Caused by sun Caused by Moon Caused by Mars Caused by Mercury Caused by Jupiter Caused by Venus Caused by Saturn Caused by Rahu 5) PAATA DOSHA 1:

Loss of Money Total destruction death destruction Destruction of relatives Loss of work Destruction of family Death.

The nakshatra at the Time of marriage which is there at the end of the yogas of Harshana, Vaidriti, Sadhya, Vyatipata, Ganda and Shoola is affected by Paata dosha.

6) MAHA PAATA DOSHA : The sun and the moon should not occupy the following pairs of houses. Leo Taurus Libra Virgo Aries Capricorn Aquarius Pisces

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Cancer Sagittarius

Scorpio Gemini

7) EKARGALA DOSHA 2: This dosha is caused when moon is in an odd numbered star from sun provided the yoga belongs to Vyaghaata, Ganda, Vyatipaata, Shoola, Vishkamba, Vaidhriti, Vajra, Parigha or Atiganda. 8) UPAGRAHA DOSHA 3: The upagraha dosha is caused when moon is situated in the following numbered nakshatra from sun. 5, 8, 10, 14, 7, 19, 15, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25.

9) Only that quarter of a nakshtra which suffers from patta, Upagraha and Latta Doshas should be rejected. 10) The following Muhurthas are known as Kulika Muhurthas which

are to be rejected.

DAY

NIGHT

ARDHA YAMAS

SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY

14 12 10 8 6 4 2

13 11 9 7 5 3 1,15

4 7 2 5 8 3 6

The Ardha Yamas are also considered inauspicious.

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11)

Dagdha thithi is considered as an inauspicious thithi 4.

SUN IS IN SAGG / PISCES TAU / AQUARIUS CANCER / ARIES VIRGO / GEMINI LEO / SCORPIO

THITHI No. 2 4 6 8 10

CAPRICORN / LIBRA 12 Marriage is not auspicious when there is jamitra dosha 5. if in the 7th sign from Lagna or moon there is some planet or if a planet is situated in the 55th navamsa from Lagna, this dosha is caused. 13) If the sun and the moon are strongly placed in the ascendant, the

12) (i) (ii)

doshas due to Ekargala, Upagraha, Paata, Latta, Jamitra, etc are destroyed. SURYA SANKRANTI DOSHAS 6: The day prior to Sankranti, the sankranti day and the next daysthese three days for Mesha, Thula, Makara and Kataka Sankrantis and (ii) The 16 ghatis before and the 16 ghatis after the sanakranti are considered inauspicious.

14) (i)

Note : The movement of planet from one sign to another is referred to as the sankranti (ingress) of that planet. When a planet moves from

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one sign into another, the ghatis before and the ghatis after this movement, both together have been referred to as the sankranti ghatis of that planet.

The sankranti ghatis of each planet are as follows: Planet SUN MOON MARS MERCURY JUPITER VENUS SATURN No.of.Ghatis 33 2 9 6 88 9 160

The sankranti of the sun is more inauspicious than other planets.

15)

GODHULI LAGNA :

In the godhuli Lagna, no special dosha of nakshatra, thithi, Karana, Lagna, day, navamsa, Muhurtha, yoga and the stituation of planets in 8th house, jamitra etc is to be considered. It is recommended for all auspicious deeds. a) On Thursday Godhuli Lagna is auspicious only after sunset. On Saturday, Godhuli Lagna is auspicious before sunset 7. b) Moon in Lagna 6 or 8 causes death of bride even in Godhuli Lagna. Mars in 1, 7, or 8 causes death of bridegroom. Moon in 2,3 or 11 is conducive of happiness to the couple 8.

16) a) On shasti oiling of hair is prohibited. However oiling of hair may be done if shasti falls on a Saturday 9.

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b) With the exception of Durgashtami (which falls on the ashtami in the month of Ashwina), flesh eating is prohibited on Ashtami day10. c) Shaving is prohibited on chaturdasi thithi. However places of pilgrimage are exempt from this rule 11. d) Sexual intercourse with ones wife should not be performed on Amavasya. However this rule need not be followed on the Amavasya of Deepavali 12. Consideration of Venus 13:

17)

When longitude of Venus is more than that of sun, then Venus rises in the morning in the east. In this Time, journey towards east and north is prohibited. When Venus is behind the sun, journey to south and west is prohibited during the Time Venus rises. Consideration of Shoola 14: Direction Vaar Shoola EAST Monday Saturday Nakshatra Shoola Jyeshta Poorva Bhadra Pada SOUTH Thursday WEST NORTH

18)

Sunday Tuesday Friday Rohini Wednesday Uttaraphalguni

The work Shoola means intense pain. Therefore journeys on Shoola days are prohibited in the directions specified in the table seen above. However in Times of emergency, after taking the following items, one may commence the journey Sunday Monday ghee Milk

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Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday 19)

Jaggery Til or Molasses Curd Barley Urad (a pulse grain)

In the nakshatras of Anuradha, Hasta, Pushya and Ashwini

journeys in all directions are auspicious. The day of a retrograde planet and the presence of retrograde planets in quadrants are prohibited 15. The 10th thithi of Sukla paksha in the month of Ashwina is known

20)

as Vijayadasami. This Vijayadasami is the giver of success in all matters and becomes extremely auspicious when Vijayadasami falls on Shravana nakshatra 16. Trinavami Dosha: One should not return home on the 9th thithi, 9th

21)

nakshatra or 9th day after a journey 17.

22)

Auspicious Time for commencement of house construction Day Thursday Planetary placement Jupiter in Pushya, Uttara,

Uttarashada, Mrgashika, Poorvashada Friday

uttaraphalguni, Sharvana, Ashlesha,

Venus in Vishaka, Ashwini, chitra Dhanishta, Satabhisha, Ardra

Wednesday

Mercury

in

Rohini,

Ashwini,

Uttaraphalguni, Chitra or Hasta.

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23)

The following constellations are held to be inauspicious for the

first feeding of an infant. They are Bharani, Kritika, Ardra, Ashlesha, Makha, Pubba, Visakha, Jyeshta, Moola, and Poorvashada 18. Gandanthas are inauspicious periods 19.

24)

Aswini, Makha and Moola Ist Pada or Quarter Ashlesha, Revati, Jyeshta Last Quarter

25)

Dosha due to USHNA arises for the following periods. STAR Ashwini, Rohini, GHATHIKAS Punarvasu, 71/2 to 15

Makha and Hasta Baharani, Mrgashirsha, 55 to 60

Pushyami, Pubba,Chitra Krittika, Ardra, Ashlesha, 21 to 30

Uttara, and Swati Visaka, Moola, Sravana and 1 to 8 Poorvabhadrapada Anuradha, poorvashada, 52 to 60

Dhanishta, Uttarabhadra Jyeshta, Uttarashada, Satabisha 20 to 30 and Revati

26)

Visha Dosha :

Four ghatis from certain limits (given below) for each of the 27 stars gives rise to visha dosha.

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50,24,30,4,14, 11, 30, 20, 32, 30, 20, 18, 22, 20, 14, 14, 10, 14, 20, 24, 20, 20, 10, 10, 18, 16, 24, 30, for e.g., the 3rd star is Krittika. In the above table, the third number is 30. Four ghatis from 30, i.e) 30-34 ghatis of Krittika suffers from visha 20. Rikta thithis, Viz. 4,8,9 and 14 are considered inauspicious 21. Vishti and Sthira are considered as inauspicious Karanas 22. The sandhis or junctional points are considered as inauspicious 23.

27)

28)

29)

a) The first and last ghati (24 minutes) of a lunar day and nakshatra. b) The first and last five Vighatis (2 minutes) of sign. c) The first and last Vighatika (2 seconds) of each navamsa.

30)

Gulikodaya kala is considered as inauspicious. This is the Time

when the tertiary planet, Gulika rises. DAY Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday 26 22 18 14 10 6 2 NIGHT 10 6 2 26 22 18 14

From the above table, we can see one example.

On Monday, gulika rises 22 ghatis after sunrise. These ghatis hold good provided the diurnal or nocturnal duration is 30 ghatis.

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Appropriate alterations may be made for either an increase or decrease in the diurnal/nocturnal duration.

31)

Vyathipatha is an evil yoga prohibited for all auspicious works.

Vyathipatha falls in the following Asterisms (roughly) in the corresponding months 24.

Aries / libra Taurus/ Scorpio

: Makha and Satabhisha : Sravana and Pushyani

Gemini / Saggittarius : Poorvashadra and Ardra Cancer / Capricorn Leo / Aquarius Virgo / Pisces : Rohini and Jyeshta : Bharani and Swati : Revati and Hasta

32)

The latter half of Vyathipatha is known as Sarpasiras, an

inauspicious period 25.

33)

Three days from the Time of commencement of an eclipse is an

evil period 26.

34)

When the ascendant sign is occupied by Sun, Mars, Saturn or

Rahu, the period is held to be inauspicious 27.

35)

The period of dusk i.e. just before and immediately after sunset is

known as pradosha. This period is not auspicious for certain activities. Similarly the Time of midnight, Nishi is held to be inauspicious 28.

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NOTES AND REFERENCES: 1) Harshana Vaidrithi sadhya Vyatipathaka ganda shoola yoganam | Ante yannakshatram patena nipathitham tatsyat || (Muhurtha Chintamani, Ch 6, Ve 60) 2) Vyaghata ganda vyatipata poorva shoolanthya vajre parigathi gande | Ekargalakye hyabijitsameto doshaha sasi ched visha markshago arkat|| (Ibid, Ch 6, Ve 62) 3) sarashtadikchaka nagatidrtya sthithir dritischa Prakrtescha pancha | Upagrahaaha suryabathabja taraha shubana dese kurubahrilakanam || (Ibid, Ch 6, Ve 63) 4) Bhasa dagdancha tityo madya deshe vivarjithaha (G.C.Sharmas translation and Commentry on Muhurtha chintamani page 201) 5) Jamitram syadashubha karmidam Muhurtha Chintamani, Ch 6, Ve 67 6) Vishuvayaneshu tarasamkrameshu | Gadikastu shodasha shubakriya vidow paratopi poorvamapi santyajet budhaha | (Ibid, Ch 6, Ve 79) 7) G.C.Sharma Translation and commentary on Muhurtha Chintamani Page 220 8) Meshadige arka ashtasara Nagakshaaha Sapteshavaha saptasara Gajakashaaha | Gokshaaha khatarkaha kurasa kutarkaha kwangani shashtir nava pancha Bhuktihi || (Muhurtha Chintamani ,Ch 6, Ve 102) 9) Shasti sanasischare tailam mahashtamyam palani cha | (G.C.Sharma Translation and Commentary on Muhurtha parapoorva madhyaman divasamstyejedi

Chintamani, Page 9) 10) Ibid, Page 9

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11)

Theertha Kshowram Chattur dasyam dipamalyam Cha Maithunam. (G.C.Sharma, Translation and Commentary on Muhurtha

Chintamani, Page 9) 12) 13) 14) 15) Ibid, page 10 Ibid page 228 Ibid page 241 Maitrarka pushyaswina bhair nirukta yatra shuba sarva dhishasu Tajnaihi | Vakri Grahaha kendra gato asya vargo Lagna dinam chasya game nishiddam || (Muhurtha Chintamani, Ch 11, Ve 38) 16) Ishamasi Sita dasami vijaya shubakarmasu siddhikari Kathitha | Sravanarksha jayasandikari || (Ibid, Ch 11, Ve 77) 17) Praveshanthirgamam tasmat pravesham navame thithow | Nakshatre cha thatta vare naiva kuryat kadachana || (Ibid, Ch 11, Ve 82) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) B.V.Ramam Commentary on prasna marga page 41 Note I Ibid Page 41 Note II Ibid Page 42 Note IV Ibid Page 42 Note V Ibid Page 42 Note VI Ibid Page 42 Note VII Ibid Page 43 Note IX Ibid Page 43 Note XI Ibid Page 43 Note X Ibid Page 44 Note XIV Ibid Page 44 Note XVI yutha sutaram shubada nrupatesthu game

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CHAPTER 20

Conclusion
Astronomy and Ayurveda are sciences that exist in nature. Diseases in Ayurveda are of two types (1) Sannihrashta (External or immediate Cause), (2) Viprahrashta (Distant Cause). For instance, a person consumes some food, which is unsuitable and thereby develops a stomach problem. The immediate cause for the ailment is the food. The distant cause is the chronic stomach ailment of the patient. Similarly in Jyothisha, dasa- Bhukti is sannihrashta karana and Prarabhadha karana is Viprahrashta karana.

Similarly another way of classifying diseases in Ayurveda is to divide them into two broad categories (1) Nija or internal (2) Agantu or External. For instance prameha (Diabetes) is a Nija yoga or internal disease. Conjuntivitis, Malaria, typhoid are all examples of infections, which have their origin in external causes (Agantu yoga). In Jyothisha also we find people suffering from two types of problems

(1) Internal : When a person suffers from a problem, for which, he himself is the cause, it falls into this category.

(2) External : In this Category, will fall problems arising to person from an external source like wife, children, etc.,

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Food habits and thoughts result in either happiness or sorrow. This is the Ayurvedic view. Poorva Janma Karma is the cause of happiness and sorrow. This is the view of Jyothisha.

Happiness or sorrow at the mental level is discussed in Ayurveda (Manasiga). It discusses the same at the physical (Sariraga) level. Thus Ayurveda discusses happiness or sorrow at the two levels viz., physical and Mental. Jyothisha refers to two aspects for each Bhava viz, Jivapara (Pertaining to soul) and Vastupara (pertaining to matter or rather material benefits).

Heat and Cold are the causes of growth and modifications in human body. In Ayurveda, this is brought about by pitta and Kapha. Pitta represents heat and kapha represents cold. In Jyothisha all planets are divided into two categories Agneya (Fiery) and Sowmya (Cold). The Fiery planets represent Agni (fire). The Cold planets are representative of Soma (Moon or Water). In Astronomy also we find that the earth functions on account of the movements of sun and moon.

For all modifications, in Ayurveda the cause is the onset of seasons, which comprise of heat and cold in varying degrees. In Jyothisha also the conjunctions and interactions of Agneya and Sowmya Planets give rise to varied results. In Astronomy also the traid of Soma SuryaAnila (Moon- Sun- Wind) is responsible for all celestial influences. When there is a formation of depression in the ocean, if heat is more, the depression weakens and if heat is reduced, the depression intensifies and becomes a cyclonic storm. The imbalance of heat and cold is responsible for tornadoes, gales and Cyclones. In Ayurveda, these three (Moon, Sun and Wind) function as Kapha, pitta and Vata. For all pschosomatic

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diseases, the root cause lies in the malfunctioning of the three Gunas, Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas. This is the Ayurvedic Viewpoint.

In Jyothisha Sattwa, Rajas and Tamogunas are attributed to the planets 1. The mind functions under the influences of planets.

Sattwa Sun, Moon, Jupiter. Rajas Mercury, Venus. Tamas Saturn, Mars.

Some planets contain a mixture of gunas. Jupiter has more of Sattwa and less of Rajas. Venus has more of Rajas and less of Sattwa.

Mars has more of Rajas and less of Tamas. Saturn has more of Tamas and less of Rajas.

Both in theory and practice (Siddhanta and Prakriya), Ayurveda and Jyothisha have the same goal. These are two sciences, which are wedded to Nature.

On a perusal of the various sciences, we find that these two sciences, Jyothisha and Ayurveda adopt a practical approach to life and its problems and give us immediate solutions.

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NOTES AND REFERENCES: 1) Chandrarkajiva jnasitow kujarki yatakramam sattwarajas tamamsi || (Brihat Jataka, Ch II, Ve 7) CHAPTER 18
The following are some of the muhurthas, which merit a discussion in astrology.

1) h) Uttaraphalguni Sunday i) Rohini or Moola Monday j) Kritika or Magha Tuesday k) Abhijit Wednesday l) Poorvashada or Moola Thursday m) Rohini or Magha Friday n) Ardra or Ashlesha Saturday

Auspicious deeds should not be performed in the above muhurthas. 36) The presence of a planet in any one of the following pairs of nakshatras give rise to vedha in the other Rohini Abhijit Bharani Anuradha Uttarashada Mrigashirsha Sravana Magha Hasta Uttarabhadrapadha Swati Satabisha Moola Punarvasu Uttaraphalguni Revati Celebration of marriage is auspicious in the nakshatras of mrigashirsha, Hasta, Moola, Anuradha, Magha, Rohini, Revati, Uttarapahalguni, Uttarashada, Uttarashada, Uttarabhadrapada, Swati. It should be performed on Thithis other than Riktha Thithis and auspicious days (i.e) Monday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday.

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37) The married woman gets different effects according to the planet by which the nakshatra of marriage has been subjected to vedha. This is mentioned in the book entitled Vivaha Patala. Sun will be widowed Mars Grief due to death of son Mercury Sterlity Jupiter will become a saint Venus only female issues. Saturn will become a maid servant. The vedha dosha , according to Varahamihira is considered only in vindhya region. The vedha nakshatra is rendered insignificant in the combinations. 5. The lagna or Ascendant at the marriage time is occupied by some benefic planet. 6. The ascendant lord is in the 11th house and is in conjunction with or aspected by benefics. 7. The marriage is in the Kala hora of a benefic planet. 8. The moon is endowed with strength.

38) Latta dosha Planet (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) Mercury Rahu Full moon Venus Affected Star( Counted backwards) 7 9 22 5 12 8 6 3

(xiii) Sun (xiv) (xv) (xvi) Saturn Jupiter Mars

The effect of the Latta dosha is given below.

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Caused by sun Loss of Money Caused by Moon Total destruction Caused by Mars death Caused by Mercury destruction Caused by Jupiter Destruction of relatives Caused by Venus Loss of work Caused by Saturn Destruction of family Caused by Rahu Death.

39) PAATA DOSHA : The nakshatra at the time of marriage which is there at the end of the yogas of Harshara, Vaidriti, Sadhya, Vyatipata, Ganda and Shoola is affected by Paata dosha.

40) MAHA PAATA DOSHA : The sun and the moon should not occupy the following pairs of houses. Leo Aries Taurus Capricorn Libra Aquarius Virgo Pisces Cancer Scorpio Sagittarius Gemini

41) EKARGALA DOSHA: This dosha is caused when moon is in an odd numbered star from sun provided the yoga belongs to Vyaghaata, Ganda, Vyatipaata, Shoola, Vishkamba, Vaidhriti, Vajra, Parigha or Atiganda.

42) UPAGRAHA DOSHA: The upagraha dosha is caused when moon is situated in the following numbered nakshatra from sun. 5, 8, 10, 14, 7, 19, 15, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25. 43) Only that quarter of a nakshtra which suffers from patta, Upagraha and Latta Doshas should be rejected.

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44) The following muhurtas are known as Kulika Muhurtas which are to be rejected. DAY SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY 14 12 10 NIGHT 13 11 9 7 5 3 1,15 ARDHA YAMAS 4 7 2 5 8 3 6

WEDNESDAY 8 THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY 6 4 2

The Ardha Yamas are also considered inauspicious.

45) Dagdha thithi is considered as an inauspicious thithi. SUN IS IN SAGG / PISCES TAU / AQUARIUS CANCER / ARIES VIRGO / GEMINI LEO / SCORPIO CAPRICORN / LIBRA THITHI No. 2 4 6 8 10 12

46) Marriage is not auspicious when there is jamitra dosha. (iii) (iv) if in the 7th sign from lagna or moon there is some planet or if a planet is situated in the 55th navamsa from lagna,

this dosha is caused.

47) If the sun and the moon are strongly placed in the ascendant, the doshas due to Ekargala, Upagraha, Paata, Latta, Jamitra, etc are destroyed.

48) SURYA SANKRANTI DOSHAS : (iii) The day prior to Sankaranti, the sankaranti day & the next days- these three days for Mesha, Thula, Makara and Kataka sankarantis and

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(iv)

The 16 ghatis before & the 16 ghatis after the sanakaranti are considered inauspicious.

Note : The movement of planet from one sign to another is referred to as the sankaranti (ingress) of that planet. When a planet moves from one sign into another, the ghatis before and the ghatis after this movement, both together have been ghatis of that planet. The sankaranti ghatis of each planet are as follows: Planet SUN MOON MARS MERCURY JUPITER VENUS SATURN No.of.Ghatis 33 2 9 6 88 9 160

The sankaranti of the sun is more inauspicious than other planets.

49) GODHULI LAGNA : In the godhuli Lagna, no special dosha of nakshatra, thithi, Karana, Lagna, day, navamsa, muhurta, yoga and the stituation of planets in 8th house, jamitra etc is to be considered. It is recommended for all auspicious deeds. c) On Thursday Godhuli lagna is auspicious only after sunset. On Saturday, Godhuli lagna is auspicious before sunset. d) Moon in lagna 6 or 8 causes death of bride even in Godhuli lagna. Mars in 1, 7, or 8 causes death of bridegroom. Moon in 2,3 or 11 is conducive of happiness to the couple.

50) e) On shasti oiling of hair is prohibited. However oiling of hair may be done if shasti falls on a Saturday. f) With the exception of Durgashtami ( which falls on the ashtami in the month of Ashwina), flesh eating is prohibited on Ashtami day.

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g) Shaving is prohibited on chaturdasi thithi. However places of pilgrimage are exempt from this rule. h) Sexual intercourse with ones wife should not be performed on Amavasya. However this rule need not be followed this rule need not be followed on the Amavasya of Deepavali.

51) Consideration of Venus: When longitude of Venus is more than that of sun, then Venus rises in the morning in the east. In this time, journey towards east & north is prohibited . When Venus is behind the sun, journey to south & west is prohibited during the time Venus rises.

52) Consideration of Shoola: Direction Vaar Shoola EAST Monday Saturday Nakshatra Shoola Jyeshta Poorva Bhadra Pada SOUTH Thursday WEST Sunday Friday Rohini NORTH Tuesday Wednesday Uttaraphalguni

The work Shoola means intense pain. Therefore journeys on Shoola days are prohibited in the table seen above. However in times of emergency, after taking the following items, one may commence the journey Sunday- Ghee Monday Milk Tuesday Jaggery Wednesday Til or Molasses Thursday Curd Friday Barley Saturday Vrad ( a pulse grain)

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53) In the nakshatras of Anuradha, Hasta, Pushya & Ashwini journeys in all directions are auspicious. The day of a retrograde planet and the presence of retrograde planets in quadrants are prohibited. 54) The 10th thithi of Sukla paksha in the month of Ashwina is known as Vijayadasami. This Vijayadasami is the giver of success in all matters and becomes extremely auspicious when Vijayadasami falls on Shravana nakshatra. 55) Trinavami Dosha : One should not return home on the 9th thithi, 9th nakshatra or 9th day after a journey.

56) Auspicious time for commencement of house construction Day Thursday Planetary placement Jupiter in Pushya, Uttara, Uttarashada, uttaraphalyuni, Mrgashika, Sharvana,

Ashlesha, Poorvashada Friday Venus in Vishaka, Ashwini, chitram

Dhanishta, Satabhisha, Ardra Wednesday Mercury in Rohini, Ashwini,

Uttaraphalyuni, Chitra or Hasta.

57) The following constellations are held to be inauspicious for the first feeding of an infant. They are Bharani, Kritika, Ardra, Ashlesha, Makha, Pubba, Visakha, Jyeshta, Moola, & Poorvashada.

58) Gandanthas are inauspicious periods. Aswini, Makha & Moola Ist Pada or Quarter Ashlesha, Revati, Jyeshta Last Quarter

59) Dosha due to USHNA arises for the following periods. STAR GHATHIKAS

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Ashwini, Rohini, Punarvasu, Makha 71/2 to 15 & Hasta Baharani, Mrgashirsha, Pushyami, 55 to 60 Pubba,Chitra Krittika, Ardra, Ashlesha, Uttara, & 21 to 30 Swati Visaka, Moola, Sravana & 1 to 8

Poorvabhadrapada Anuradha, poorvashada, Dhanishta, 52 to 60 Uttarabhadra Jyeshta, Uttarashada, Satabisha & 20 to 30 Revati

60) Visha Dosha: Four ghatis from certain limits ( given below) for each of the 27 stars gives rise to visha dosha.

50,24,30,4,14, 11, 30, 20, 32, 30, 20, 18, 22, 20, 14, 14, 10, 14, 20, 24, 20, 20, 10, 10, 18, 16, 24, 30, for e.g., the 3rd star is Krittika. In the above table, the third number is 30. Four ghatis from 30, i.e) 30-34 ghatis of Krittika suffers from visha.

61) Rikta thithis, Viz. 4,8,9 & 14 are considered inauspicious.

62) Vishti & Sthira are considered as inauspicious Karanas.

63) The sandhis or junctional points are considered as inauspicious. d) The first & last ghati (24 minutes) of a lunar day and nakshatra. e) The first & last five Vighatis ( 2 minutes) of sign. f) The first & last Vighatika (2 seconds) of each navamsa.

64) Gulikodaya kala is considered as inauspicious. This is the time when the tertiary planet, Gulika rises.

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DAY Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday 26 22 18 14 10 6 2

NIGHT 10 6 2 26 22 18 14

From the above table, we can see one example. On Monday,gulika rises 22 ghatis after sunrise. These ghatis hold good provided the diurnal or nocturnal duration is 30 ghatis. Appropriate alterations may be made for either an increase or decrease in the diurnal/nocturnal duration.

65) Vyathipatha is an evil yoga prohibited for all auspicious works. Vyathipatha falls in the following Asterisms (roughly) in the corresponding months. Aries / libra Taurus/ Scorpio Gemini / Saggittarius Cancer / Capricorn Leo / Aquarius Virgo / Pisces : Makha & Satabhisha : Sravana & Pushyani : Poorvashadra & Ardra : Rohini & Jyeshta : Bharani & Swati : Revati & Hasta

66) The latter half of Vyathipatha is Known as Sarpasiras, an inauspicious period.

67) Three days from the time of commencement of an eclipse is an evil period.

68) When the ascendant sign is occupied by Sun, Mars, Saturn or Rahu, the period is held to be inauspicious.

69) The period of dusk i.e. just before & immediately after sunset is known as pradosha. This period is not auspicious for certain activities. Similarly the time of midnight, Nishi is held to be inauspicious.

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CONCLUSION Astronomy & Ayurveda are sciences that exist in nature. Diseases in ayurveda are of two types (1) Sannihrashta (External or immediate Cause), (2) Viprahrashta (Distant Cause). For instance, a person consumes some food, which is unsuitable and thereby develops a stomach problem. The immediate cause for the ailment is the food.The distant cause is the chronic stomach ailment of the patient. Similarly in Jyothisha, dasa- bhukti is sannihrashta karana and Prarabhadha karana is Viprahrashta karana. Similarly another way of classifying diseases in Ayurveda is to divide them into two broad categories (1) Nija or internal (2) Agantu or External. For instance prameha ( Diabetes) is a Nija yoga or internal disease. Conjuntivitis, Malaria, typhoid are all examples of infections which have their origin in external causes ( Agantu yoga). In Jyothisha also we find people suffering from two types of problems

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(3) Internal

: When a person suffers from a problem, for which, he himself is the

cause, it falls into this category. (4) External : In this Category, will fall problems arising to person from an external

source like wife, children, etc.,

Food habits and thoughts result in either happiness or sorrow. This is the Ayurvedic view. Poorva Janma Karma is the cause of happiness & sorrow. This is the view of Jyothisha. Happiness or sorrow at the mental level is discussed in Ayurveda ( Manasiga). It discusses the same at the physical ( Sariraga) level. Thus Ayurveda discusses happiness or sorrow at the two level viz., physical & Mental. Jyothisha refers to two aspects for each bhava viz, Jivapara ( Pertaining to soul) and Vastupara (pertaining to matter or rather material benefits) Heat & Cold are the causes of growth & modifications in human body. In Ayurveda, this is brought about by pitta & Kapha .Pitta represents heat and kapha represents cold. In Jyothisha all planets are divided into two categories Agneya ( Fiery) and Sowmya ( Cold). The Fiery planets represent Agni (fire). The Cold planets are representative of Soma ( Moon or Water). In Astronomy also we find that the earth functions on account of the movements of sun and moon.

For all modifications, in Ayurveda the cause is the onset of seasons, which comprise of heat & cold in varying degrees. In Jyothisha also the conjunctions & interactions of Agneya & Sowmya Planets give rise to varied results. In Astronomy also the traid of Soma Surya- Anila (Moon- Sun- Wind) is responsible for all celestial influences. When there is a formation of depression in the ocean, if heat is more, the depression weakens and if heat is reduced, the depression intensifies and becomes a cyclonic storm. The imbalance of heat & cold is responsible for tornadoes, gales & Cyclones. In Ayurveda, these three ( Moon, Sun & Wind) function as Kapha, pitta & Vata. For all Pschosomatic diseases, the root cause lies in the malfunctioning of the three Gunas, Sattwa, Rajas & Tamas. This is the Ayurvedic Viewpoint. In Jyothisha Sattwa, Rajas & Tamogunas are attributed to the planets . The mind functions under the influences of planets. Sattwa Sun, Moon, Jupiter. Rajas Mars, Mercury, Venus.

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Tamas Rahu, Ketu, Saturn Some planets contain a mixture of gunas. Jupiter has more of sattwa & less of Rajas. Venus has more of Rajas & less of Sattwa. Mars has more of Rajas & less of Tamas. Saturn has more of Tamas & less of Rajas.

Prithuyashas makes the following observation in his treatise Horasara. Pratyaksham Jyothisham Sastram Chandrarkow yatra Sakshinow Jyothisha is a visible science. The sun & moon bear witness to this truth. In other words, as we are able to see the sun & moon with our eyes and as these two planets play a major role in Jyothisha, we are able to understand the existence of Jyothisha.

Both in theory & practice ( Siddhanta & Prakriya), Ayurveda & Jyothisha have the same goal. These are two sciences, which are wedded to Nature. On a perusal of the various sciences, we find that these two sciences, Jyothisha & Ayurveda adopt a practical Approach to life and its problems and gives us immediate solutions.