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Dystan Medical Supply Company Cold Packs and Hot Packs

Linh Dinh, Mica David, Kayla Dean, Vic Anderson March 07, 2013

Introduction Hot packs and cold packs are used to treat minor injuries and are good aids in the healing process. For instance, cold packs can be use to reduce inflammation on a sprained ankle, and hot packs can be use to reduce muscle spasm, soreness, and aches. A typical hot or cold pack consists of water and salt, and when the two mix, a reaction forms from the dissolved salt. The coldness or hotness of the packs depends on the concentration of the salt. Cold packs absorb heat due to the endothermic reaction between the salt and the water, whereas the hot packs releases heat energy due to the exothermic reaction, and the amount of heat depends on the concentration of salt. In this experiment, four different salts, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, ammonium nitrate, and calcium chloride, will be tested in order to determine which salts will be the most cost effective in producing the hot and cold packs for the company. The company wants to determine the mass individually for each salt in order to produce 100mL cold pack at a temperature of 0 C. The company also wants to determine the mass needed to produce 100-ml hot pack at a temperature of at least 65 C, and both the packs can be stored at 25C. The first part of the experiment will be to determine the calorimeter constant by using two Styrofoam cups and a lid. A temperature probe will be put through the hole in the lid, and two trials will be conducted to find the calorimeter constant and averaged. Each trial will have a graph to find the stabilizing temperature from the thermogram. Calculations of the calorimeter constant *C = specific heat of water = 4.184 J/gC qcalorimeter = qwarm water qcool water qcalorimeter = (mwarm water Cwarm water Twarm water) (mcool water Ccool water Tcool water) Ccalorimeter = In the second part of this experiment, the team will measure the enthalpy of the dissolution of each salt using two Styrofoam cups constructing a calorimeter. Two trials will be performed for each salt, and the average molar heat of dissolution will be calculated as the final molar heat for the given salt. A thermogram will be recorded and graphed to find the stabilizing temperature of each salt. From our findings, we will be able to conclude whether the enthalpy is exothermic or endothermic. An exothermic reaction between a salt and water produces a hot pack because the heat released will raise the temperature of the contents. An endothermic reaction will produce a cold pack because the heat will be absorbed thus lower the temperature in the pack. To determine the unit production cost, we will base it on the mass we found in out previous steps in order to determine if the company will make a profit per pack.

Calculations for determining the Hdissolution of each salt Csolution = specific heat of water = 4.184 J/gC Hdissolution = qdissolution = -(msolution Csolution Tsolution) + (Ccalorimeter T calorimeter) moles of substance = mass of solution = mwater + msalt Experimental Procedure 1. Press the On button on the MeasureNet station. a. Press Main Menu, then F2, Temperature, then F1, Temperature vs. Time. b. Half fill a 150-ml beaker with ice and water. Press Calibrate calibrate the temperature probe. When prompted, enter 0.0 C as the actual temperature of the constant. Press Enter. Place the temperature probe in the ice water. Stir temperature probe until the temperature reaches near 0.0 C. Press Enter. c. Remove the temperature probe. d. Press SetUp then Press F1 to set the limits for the graph. Use the arrow keys to move from min to max. The Y-axis is for temperature, so set the min temperature 15-18C. Press Enter. e. Set the max temperature 70-75C. Press Enter. f. The X-axis is for time. Set X axis limits from 0 seconds (min) to 250 seconds (max). (If the experiment is completed before 250 seconds elapses, press Stop at any time to end the experiment). g. When steps e-g are completed, press Display to accept all values. The MeasureNet workstation is now ready to record a thermogram. 2. Determine the Calorimeter Constant a. Obtain two Styrofoam cups and lid to serve as a calorimeter. Nest one cup inside the other to construct the calorimeter. b. Add 45-50 grams of tap water to serve as the cool water. Record the exact mass of cool water to three decimals (0.001g). c. Obtain a magnetic stir bar and place it into the calorimeter. Secure the temperature probe to a ring stand with a utility clamp and insert through the hole in the calorimeter lid. Position the probe so that the tip is approximately 1 cm from the bottom of the calorimeter. d. Add about 60 mL of water to a clean, dry 150-mL or 250-mL beaker. Heat the water and the beaker in a microwave for at least two minutes. Measure the temperature of the water with a thermometer to ensure the water is 45-

60C above room temperature (room temperature = 21C). This will be the hot water. Handle the hot water with caution. Use a towel if necessary. e. Measure the cool and hot water to one decimal place (0.0C). Record in lab report. f. Pour exactly 50.0 mL of the hot water into a graduated cylinder. Determine the mass of the hot water, assuming the density is 1.00 g/L. Record the mass to three significant figures (0.001g). g. Press Start on the MeasureNet workstation to begin recording the thermogram. Turn on the power to the magnetic stirrer to a low to medium speed. Make sure the stir bar does not come into contact with the temperature probe or calorimeter walls. h. After 5-10 seconds, raise the calorimeter lid, and quickly but carefully pour the hot water into the calorimeter. Immediately replace the lid. i. When the temperature has risen and become stable at the final temperature, press Stop. j. Press File Options. Press F3 to save the thermogram. Enter a 3 digit code when prompted. Record the file number. k. Press Display to clear the thermogram. l. Repeat steps a-k to record a second trial. m. From the tab delimited files saved and emailed to partners, create plots of temperature versus time graph using Excel. Save this part for after the lab. n. Using the thermograms, determine the equilibrium temperature. Record in lab report 3. Determine the molar heat of dissolution for each of the sample salts. a. Use the same calorimeter setup in the first part of the experiment. b. Obtain 1.000 grams each of ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride, lithium chloride, and potassium chloride. Record the exact mass of each of the salts to three decimal places (0.001g). c. Obtain 25.0 mL of distilled water. Determine the mass of the distilled water to three significant figure, assuming the density is 1.00 g/L. Record the initial temperature of the water to one decimal place (0.0C). d. Add the water to the calorimeter. Press Start. Wait 5-10 seconds, raise the calorimeter lid and add one of the salts from above. Wait for the final temperature to stabilize. Press Stop. e. Press File Options, then F3 to save the thermogram. Enter a 3 digit code when prompted. Record the file number. f. Press Display to clear the thermogram g. Remove the temperature probe assembly from the mixture. Remove the stir bar with a magnetic rod. Thoroughly rinse the stir bar and temperature probe with distilled water and dry with towel. h. Decant the mixture into the sink and thorough rinse and dry the calorimeter. i. Repeat steps c-h using each salt. j. Perform a second trial, repeating steps c-i. k. Use the thermograms to determine the Hdissolution for each trial and find

the average for each salt. Determine which salt is exothermic or endothermic. Create a Thermogram a. Open an Excel spreadsheet. b. Go to File Open, open a MeasureNet tab delimited file containing temperature versus time data. Click Finish. c. Copy the first two columns (containing time and temperature data) in the tab delimited (text) file, and paste it into columns A (time) and B (temperature) in the Excel worksheet. Close the tab delimited file. d. Click on the Chart Wizard Icon. e. Click on XY scatter plot. Click on the smooth line type. f. Click Next. Then highlight all cells in columns A and B that contain time and temperature data. An XY plot of the data will appear. g. Click Next. Click Titles. Chart Title is the name of the plot. Enter a name for your plot. The x-value box is for labeling the X axis (Time, s), and the y-value box is for labeling the Y axis (Temperature, C) on your plot. h. If you wish to remove the gridlines, Click on Gridlines and click on the axes that are checked to turn off the gridlines. i. Click Next. You can save the plot as a separate sheet, which can then be printed. Alternatively, you can save it as an object in the current worksheet. j. Type/write the T value on your plot.

Results Part A: Determining Calorimeter Constant 1. What is the calorimeter constant? Trial 1 Mass of Water Hot Water Cold Water 50.100 g 48.583 g Initial Temperature 60.10 C 17.62 C Final Temperature 32.34 C 32.34 C

qcal = -((50.100 g)(4.184 J/gC)(32.34 C 60.10 C)) ((48.583 g)(4.184

J/gC)(32.34 C 17.62 C)) = 2827 J Ccal = (2827 J)/ (32.34 C 17.62 C) = 192.00 J/C

2. What is the calorimeter constant? Trial 2 Mass of Water Hot Water Cold Water 60.000 g 50.165 g Initial Temperature 65.00 C 16.99 C Final Temperature 40.82 C 40.82 C

qcal = -((60.000 g)(4.184 J/gC)(40.82 C 65.00 C)) ((50.165 g)(4.184 J/gC)(40.82 C 16.99 C)) = 1068 J

Ccal = (1068 J)/ (40.82 C 16.99 C) = 44.80 J/C

3. What is the average calorimeter constant?

= 118. 4 J/C

Part B: Determining Molar Heat of Dissolution of each Salt



Mass of Water

Initial Temperature 18.85 C 19.59 C 20.19 C 18.71 C 19.09 C 18.72 C 18.78 C 18.51 C

Final Temperature 16.06 C 16.81 C 14.58 C 16.46 C 35.22 C 25.94 C 23.31 C 23.69 C

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2

Ammonium Nitrate

1.345 g 1.070 g

25.000 g 25.035 g 23.389 g 25.026 g 22.583 g 25.030 g 25.000 g 25.018 g

Potassium Chloride

1.378 g 1.023 g

Lithium Chloride

1.061 g 1.034 g

Calcium Chloride

1.031 g 1.030 g

1. Determine the molar heat of the reaction of each salt. Trial 1 Ammonium Nitrate: ( ) ( ) ( ) Mass solution = 25.000 g + 1.345 g = 26.345 g qdissolution = -((26.345 g)(4.184 J/gC)(16.06C 18.85C)) + ((118.4 J/C)(16.06C 18.85C)) = - 22.80 J Moles ( ) ( ) Hdissolution =
( ) ( )

Potassium Chloride: ( ) ( ) ( ) Mass solution = 23.389 g + 1.378 g = 24.767 g qdissolution = -((24.767 g)(4.184 J/gC)(14.46C-20.19C))+((118.4 J/C)( 14.46C20.19C)) = -84.66 J Moles ( ) = ( ) Hdissolution =
( ) ( )

Lithium Chloride: ( ) ( ) ( ) Mass solution = 22.583 g + 1.061 g = 23.644 g qdissolution = -((23.644 g)( 4.184 J/gC)(35.22C-19.09 C))+((118.4 J/C)(35.22C-19.09 C)) = 314.1 J Moles ( ) ( ) Hdissolution =
( ) ( )

Calcium Chloride: ( ) ( ) ( ) Mass solution = 25.000 g + 1.031 g = 26.031 g qdissolution = -((26.031 g)( 4.184 J/gC)(23.31C-18.78C))+((118.4 J/C)(23.31C18.78C)) = 42.97 J Moles ( ) ( ) Hdissolution =
( ) ( )

2. Determine the molar heat of the reaction of each salt. Trial 2 Ammonium Nitrate: ( ) ( ) ( ) Mass solution = 25.035 g + 1.070 g = 26.105 g qdissolution = -((26.105 g)(4.184 J/gC)(16.81 C 19.59 C)) + ((118.4 J/C)( 16.81 C 19.59 C = -25.51 J Moles ( ) ( ) Hdissolution =
( ) ( )

Potassium Chloride: ( ) ( ) ( ) Mass solution = 25.026 g + 1.023 g = 26.049 g qdissolution = -((24.767g)(4.184 J/gC)(18.71 C -20.19C))+((118.4 J/C)( 18.71 C 20.19C)) = -21.87 J Moles ( ) = ( ) Hdissolution =
( ) ( )

Lithium Chloride: ( ) ( ) ( ) Mass solution = 25.030 g + 1.034 g = 26.064 g qdissolution = -((26.064 g)( 4.184 J/gC)(25.94C-18.72 C))+((118.4 J/C)(25.94C-18.72 C)) = 67.49 J Moles ( ) ( ) Hdissolution =
( ) ( )

Calcium Chloride: ( ) ( ) ( ) Mass solution = 25.018 g + 1.030 g = 26.048 g qdissolution = -((26.048 g)( 4.184 J/gC)(23.69C-18.51C))+((118.4 J/C)(23.69C18.51C)) = 48.77 J Moles ( ) ( ) Hdissolution =
( ) ( )

3. What is the average Hdissolution for each salt? Which salt is exothermic and endothermic? Ammonium Nitrate

Hdissolution: Potassium Chloride


Hdissolution: Lithium Chloride


Hdissolution: Calcium Chloride

/mol Exothermic

Hdissolution: /mol Exothermic Part 3: Determining the Price of the Salts 1. mass of salt/ (volume of water* change in temperature) = mass of salt g/mLC 2. (mass of salt g/mLC)(100mL)(25 C- 0.0 C) = mass of salt per bag 3. solve for price per bag: $$/500g = $$ per bag/mass of salt per bag 4. $$ per bag + $1.28(cost of labor) = price per bag total Ammonium Nitrate

Potassium Chloride

Lithium Chloride

Calcium Chloride

Ammonium Potassium Lithium Calcium Nitrate Chloride Chloride Chloride Price per bag $3.56 $3.06 $2.50 $2.62 1. Which salt is the most efficient? Why? For the heating packs, LiCl is the best choice. It will yield the desired results at a cost of $2.50 per bag opposed to $2.62 per bag using CaCl2. Both salts will give the desired exothermic reaction, but LiCl is easier to produce. For the cooling packs, KCl is the best choice. The cost of production for one bag is $3.06; one bag using ammonium nitrate is $3.56. Both salts react in endothermic reactions, creating a cooling effect, but KCl will give the same result for a lower cost. Discussion: The experimental results are used to determine which salts were the most suitable to be used in either a hot or cold pack. Lithium Chloride and Potassium Chloride were found to be the most effective due to the lower change in enthalpy. The results of our trials were accurate and precise, although the second trial in determining the calorimeter constant differed greatly from the first. This may have been due to a number of factors, such as excess water present in the calorimeter before beginning the second trial or incorrect temperature and mass measurements. These errors can be corrected by thoroughly drying the Styrofoam cups used for the calorimeter before beginning the second trial. Also, the temperature of the hot water should be taken after measuring 50mL to be poured into the calorimeter. When calculating the heat of dissolution, if the entire measured mass of salt is not added to the solution, then the calculated heat of reaction will be different from the actual value. Bibliography Stanton, B. ; Zhu, L. ; Atwood, C. H. Experiments in General Chemistry featuring MeasureNet, 2nd ed.; Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning: Belmont, 2006; p 243-251, p 395399