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AVEVA Plant (12.

1) PDMS Foundations

TM-1001

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TRAINING GUIDE

AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations TM-1001

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations TM-1001

Revision Log
Date 02/08/2011 31/08/2011 05/09/2011 02/12/2011 28/02/2012 02/03/2012 06/03/2012 Revision 0.1 0.2 1.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 3.0 Description of Revision Issued for Review PDMS 12.1 Reviewed Approved for Training PDMS 12.1 Issued with latest copyright footer Issued for Review PDMS 12.1 SP2 Reviewed Approved for Training PDMS 12.1.SP2 Author NG NG NG CF KB KB KB Reviewed KB KB Approved

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Disclaimer
1.1 AVEVA does not warrant that the use of the AVEVA software will be uninterrupted, error-free or free from viruses. AVEVA shall not be liable for: loss of profits; loss of business; depletion of goodwill and/or similar losses; loss of anticipated savings; loss of goods; loss of contract; loss of use; loss or corruption of data or information; any special, indirect, consequential or pure economic loss, costs, damages, charges or expenses which may be suffered by the user, including any loss suffered by the user resulting from the inaccuracy or invalidity of any data created by the AVEVA software, irrespective of whether such losses are suffered directly or indirectly, or arise in contract, tort (including negligence) or otherwise. AVEVA's total liability in contract, tort (including negligence), or otherwise, arising in connection with the performance of the AVEVA software shall be limited to 100% of the licence fees paid in the year in which the user's claim is brought. Clauses 1.1 to 1.3 shall apply to the fullest extent permissible at law. In the event of any conflict between the above clauses and the analogous clauses in the software licence under which the AVEVA software was purchased, the clauses in the software licence shall take precedence.

1.2

1.3

1.4 1.5

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations TM-1001

Copyright
Copyright and all other intellectual property rights in this manual and the associated software, and every part of it (including source code, object code, any data contained in it, the manual and any other documentation supplied with it) belongs to, or is validly licensed by, AVEVA Solutions Limited or its subsidiaries. All rights are reserved to AVEVA Solutions Limited and its subsidiaries. The information contained in this document is commercially sensitive, and shall not be copied, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted without the prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions Limited. Where such permission is granted, it expressly requires that this copyright notice, and the above disclaimer, is prominently displayed at the beginning of every copy that is made. The manual and associated documentation may not be adapted, reproduced, or copied, in any material or electronic form, without the prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions Limited. The user may not reverse engineer, decompile, copy, or adapt the software. Neither the whole, nor part of the software described in this publication may be incorporated into any third-party software, product, machine, or system without the prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions Limited, save as permitted by law. Any such unauthorised action is strictly prohibited, and may give rise to civil liabilities and criminal prosecution. The AVEVA software described in this guide is to be installed and operated strictly in accordance with the terms and conditions of the respective software licences, and in accordance with the relevant User Documentation. Unauthorised or unlicensed use of the software is strictly prohibited. Copyright 1974 to current year. AVEVA Solutions Limited and its subsidiaries. All rights reserved. AVEVA shall not be liable for any breach or infringement of a third party's intellectual property rights where such breach results from a user's modification of the AVEVA software or associated documentation. AVEVA Solutions Limited, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HB, United Kingdom

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AVEVA and Tribon are registered trademarks of AVEVA Solutions Limited or its subsidiaries. Unauthorised use of the AVEVA or Tribon trademarks is strictly forbidden. AVEVA product/software names are trademarks or registered trademarks of AVEVA Solutions Limited or its subsidiaries, registered in the UK, Europe and other countries (worldwide). The copyright, trademark rights, or other intellectual property rights in any other product or software, its name or logo belongs to its respective owner.

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Contents
1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 9 1.1 Aim..................................................................................................................................................... 9 1.2 Objectives ......................................................................................................................................... 9 1.3 Prerequisites .................................................................................................................................... 9 1.4 Course Structure .............................................................................................................................. 9 1.5 Using this guide ............................................................................................................................... 9 2 AVEVA PDMS Fundamentals ................................................................................................................ 11 2.4.6 Primitives .................................................................................................................................. 19 3 User Interface Basics ............................................................................................................................ 23 3.2 Default Screen Layout ................................................................................................................... 27 3.3 Using the Mouse ............................................................................................................................ 27 3.4 Using Menus ................................................................................................................................... 28 3.4.1 Pull-Down Menus ..................................................................................................................... 28 3.4.2 Sub-menus ............................................................................................................................... 29 3.4.3 Pop-up or Right click menus .................................................................................................... 29 3.5 Using Forms ................................................................................................................................... 30 3.5.1 Tabs ......................................................................................................................................... 31 3.5.2 Radio Buttons ........................................................................................................................... 31 3.5.3 Checkboxes.............................................................................................................................. 31 3.5.4 Text Boxes ............................................................................................................................... 31 3.5.5 Options List .............................................................................................................................. 31 3.5.6 Buttons ..................................................................................................................................... 32 3.5.7 Link Labels ............................................................................................................................... 32 3.5.8 Fold-up Panels ......................................................................................................................... 32 3.5.9 Grids ......................................................................................................................................... 32 3.5.10 Form Menus ............................................................................................................................. 33 3.5.11 Actioning Form Inputs .............................................................................................................. 33 3.5.12 Alert Forms ............................................................................................................................... 33 3.5.13 Dockable Forms ....................................................................................................................... 34 3.6 Using Toolbars ............................................................................................................................... 37 3.7 Command Window ......................................................................................................................... 37 3.7.1 Entering Command Syntax ...................................................................................................... 37 3.7.2 Command Window Pop-up Menu ............................................................................................ 38 3.8 Navigating the Databases ............................................................................................................. 39 3.8.1 Design Explorer ........................................................................................................................ 39 3.8.2 History Toolbar ......................................................................................................................... 42 3.9 Deleting Elements from the Databases ....................................................................................... 43 3.9.1 Deleting using Design Explorer ................................................................................................ 44 3.9.2 Deleting using the Main Menu .................................................................................................. 44 3.9.3 Deleting using the Default Toolbar ........................................................................................... 45 3.9.4 Deleting using the Command Window ..................................................................................... 45 3.10 Saving Changes to the Databases Save Work......................................................................... 45 3.11 Updating Databases to Show Other Changes Get Work ........................................................ 46 3.12 Undo and Redo ............................................................................................................................... 46 3.13 Leaving PDMS ................................................................................................................................ 46 3.14 Documentation and Help ............................................................................................................... 47 Exercise 1 ....................................................................................................................................................... 50 4 Displaying Modelled Elements ............................................................................................................. 55 4.1 Building the Drawlist ..................................................................................................................... 55 4.1.1 Populating the Drawlist Form ................................................................................................... 55 4.1.2 Using the Drawlist Form ........................................................................................................... 57 4.1.3 Additional Drawlist Functions ................................................................................................... 62 4.2 Setting the View Limits .................................................................................................................. 63 4.2.1 Using the View Control Buttons ............................................................................................... 64 4.2.2 Using the View Menu ............................................................................................................... 65 4.2.3 Using the 3D View Pop-up Menu ............................................................................................. 65 4.2.4 Using the Element Pop-up Menu ............................................................................................. 65 4.3 Setting the View Direction ............................................................................................................. 66 www.aveva.com 4.3.1 Using the View Menu ............................................................................................................... 66 5 Copyright 1974 to current year.
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AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations TM-1001

4.3.2 Using the 3D View Pop-up Menu ............................................................................................. 67 Exercise 2 ....................................................................................................................................................... 68 5 Working with 3D Views.......................................................................................................................... 71 5.1 Modes of Operation in 3D Views .................................................................................................. 71 5.2 Graphical Selections...................................................................................................................... 71 5.2.1 Selecting Items Individually ...................................................................................................... 71 5.2.2 Fence Selection........................................................................................................................ 72 5.2.3 Clearing the Graphical Selection .............................................................................................. 72 5.2.4 Reinstating the Previous Graphical Selection .......................................................................... 72 5.3 Navigate to Element Button .......................................................................................................... 73 5.4 Multiple, Local and Clone Views .................................................................................................. 73 5.4.1 Multiple Views .......................................................................................................................... 73 5.4.2 Local Views .............................................................................................................................. 75 5.4.3 Clone Views ............................................................................................................................. 75 5.5 View Projection Mode .................................................................................................................... 76 5.6 Zoom, Pan, Rotate and Walk ......................................................................................................... 77 5.6.1 Setting the Middle Mouse Button Options ................................................................................ 77 5.6.2 Zoom ........................................................................................................................................ 78 5.6.3 Pan ........................................................................................................................................... 78 5.6.4 Rotate ....................................................................................................................................... 78 5.6.5 Walk ......................................................................................................................................... 79 5.6.6 Controlling Speed of Operation ................................................................................................ 79 5.7 Setting the View Centre ................................................................................................................. 80 5.8 Clipping ........................................................................................................................................... 80 5.9 Additional View Menu Options ..................................................................................................... 83 5.10 Graphics Settings .......................................................................................................................... 84 5.10.1 Graphics Settings 3D Views Tab .......................................................................................... 84 5.10.2 Graphics Settings - Colour Tab ................................................................................................ 84 5.10.3 Graphics Settings Representation Tab ................................................................................. 85 5.10.4 Graphics Settings Steelwork Tab .......................................................................................... 87 5.10.5 Graphics Settings - Cabling Tab .............................................................................................. 87 5.10.6 Graphics Settings Plines and Ppoints Tab ............................................................................ 87 Exercise 3 ....................................................................................................................................................... 89 6 Attributes, Positioning and Orientation............................................................................................... 95 6.1 Element Attributes ......................................................................................................................... 95 6.1.1 Pseudo Attributes ..................................................................................................................... 96 6.1.2 User Defined Attributes ............................................................................................................ 96 6.1.3 Querying and Displaying Attributes .......................................................................................... 97 6.1.4 Modifying Attributes ................................................................................................................ 100 6.2 Positioning .................................................................................................................................... 100 6.2.1 The Positioning Control Toolbar............................................................................................. 101 6.2.2 Positioning Explicitly ............................................................................................................... 103 6.2.3 Positioning Relatively ............................................................................................................. 105 6.3 Orientation .................................................................................................................................... 106 6.3.1 Display Axes on CE................................................................................................................ 107 6.3.2 Displaying World Axes ........................................................................................................... 107 6.3.3 Setting Orientation using Axes ............................................................................................... 108 6.3.4 Setting Orientation using Rotate ............................................................................................ 108 Exercise 4 ..................................................................................................................................................... 111 7 General Utilities.................................................................................................................................... 115 7.1 Lists ............................................................................................................................................... 115 7.2 My Data ......................................................................................................................................... 117 7.3 Measuring ..................................................................................................................................... 119 7.3.1 Measure Distance .................................................................................................................. 119 7.3.2 Measure Angle ....................................................................................................................... 121 7.4 Saving and Restoring Views ....................................................................................................... 123 7.4.1 Saving Views .......................................................................................................................... 123 7.4.2 Restoring Saved Views .......................................................................................................... 123 7.4.3 Deleting Saved Views ............................................................................................................ 124 7.5 Claimlists in Multiwrite Databases ............................................................................................. 124 www.aveva.com Exercise 5 ..................................................................................................................................................... 127
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AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations TM-1001

Introduction to Model Editor ............................................................................................................... 129 8.1 Model Editor Mode ....................................................................................................................... 129 8.1.1 The Locator Handle ................................................................................................................ 129 8.2 Overview of Model Editor Operations ........................................................................................ 130 8.2.1 Movement............................................................................................................................... 130 8.2.2 Rotation .................................................................................................................................. 130 8.2.3 Alignment ............................................................................................................................... 131 8.2.4 Locator Handle as a Frame of Reference .............................................................................. 131 8.2.5 Feedback ................................................................................................................................ 131 8.2.6 Unconstrained Positioning ..................................................................................................... 131 8.2.7 Undo and Redo ...................................................................................................................... 131 8.2.8 Performance ........................................................................................................................... 132 8.3 The Selection Menu ..................................................................................................................... 132 8.4 Positioning and Orientation using the Locator Handle ........................................................... 133 8.4.1 Aligning the Graphical Selection with points or lines on other displayed items ..................... 133 8.4.2 Automatic Scrolling................................................................................................................. 133 8.4.3 Linear Movement Handles ..................................................................................................... 133 8.4.4 Planar Movement Handles ..................................................................................................... 135 8.4.5 Rotation Handles .................................................................................................................... 137 8.4.6 Dragging the Locator Handle Independently of the Graphical Selection ............................... 139 8.5 Positioning and Orientation Using the Edit Menu .................................................................... 139 Exercise 6 ..................................................................................................................................................... 141 APPENDIX A AVEVA Primitives .............................................................................................................. 147 Box (BOX) ................................................................................................................................................. 147 Cylinder (CYLI) ......................................................................................................................................... 147 Cone (CONE) ............................................................................................................................................ 148 Snout (SNOU) ........................................................................................................................................... 148 Pyramid (PYRA) ....................................................................................................................................... 149 Circular Torus (CTOR)............................................................................................................................. 149 Rectangular Torus (RTOR) ..................................................................................................................... 150 Dish (DISH) ............................................................................................................................................... 150 Sloped Cylinder (SLCY) .......................................................................................................................... 151 Extrusion (EXTR) ..................................................................................................................................... 151 Solid of Revolution (REVO) .................................................................................................................... 152 Nozzle (NOZZ) .......................................................................................................................................... 153

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations TM-1001

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CHAPTER 1

Introduction

AVEVA PDMS is a complex program with different applications that enables discipline designers to create a 3D model of a plant. These applications use common features within the Design module that designers need to be familiar with before embarking on discipline specific application training.

1.1

Aim

The aim of this training module is to provide the basic knowledge of the common features that provide the foundations for PDMS Design.

1.2

Objectives

Explain how PDMS can assist in Plant design. Familiarise trainees with the basics of the User Interface. Explain how to manipulate the 3D model. Explain Element Attributes, Positioning and Orientation of Elements. Introduce the Model Editor for graphical model manipulation.

1.3

Prerequisites

Keyboard Skills. Familiarisation with Microsoft Windows. Knowledge of Plant Design.

1.4

Course Structure

Training will consist of oral and visual presentations, demonstrations and set exercises. Each workstation will have a training project, populated with model objects. This will be used by the trainees to practice their methods, and complete the set exercises.

1.5

Using this guide

Certain text styles are used to indicate special situations throughout this document, here is a summary; Menu pull downs and button press actions are indicated by bold dark turquoise text. Information the user has to key-in will be in bold red text. Where additional information is presented, or reference is made to other documentation the following annotation will be used:

Additional information Refer to other documentation System prompts will be bold, italicised, and presented in inverted commas i.e. 'Choose function'. Example files or inputs will be in the courier new font.
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AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations TM-1001

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10

CHAPTER 2

AVEVA PDMS Fundamentals

The AVEVA Plant Design Management System (PDMS) is a multi-discipline 3D modelling system that allows users to simulate a detailed, full size model of all the significant parts of a process plant. PDMS enables users to see a full colour shaded representation of the plant model as the design progresses, adding an unprecedented level of realism to design office techniques.

2.1

How PDMS can help you

The model can store an extremely large amount of data referring to position, size, part numbers and geometric relationships for the various parts of the plant. This model becomes a single source of engineering data for all of the sections and disciplines involved in a plant design project. The engineering data is stored in databases. There are different output channels from the databases through which information can be disseminated, including textual reports, fully annotated and dimensioned arrangement and detailed drawings, piping and HVAC isometrics as well as interfaces to a variety of stressing, analysis, detailing and visualisation products.

Different types of output from PDMS All the data in a PDMS design model would be of little value without the ability to ensure the quality of the design information. Indeed, it would be pointless to develop such a large software system if it could not improve on existing techniques. PDMS contributes to the quality of the design in the following ways: Ensures consistent and reliable component data In a conventional design environment, using 2D drawing techniques, the size of each fitting must be decided before it can be drawn. This is a time consuming process that often leads to expensive errors, which are only found during the erection stage of the project. With PDMS, all piping component sizes and geometry are predefined and stored in a catalogue, which cannot be changed by the designer. This ensures that all items are true to size and are consistent throughout the design, no matter how many users there are on the project.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations TM-1001

Adheres to definable engineering specifications Piping specifications and steelwork catalogues stating precisely the components to be used are compiled for the purpose of ensuring consistent, safe and economic design. Design applications for piping, HVAC, cable trays and steelwork all use specifications to control component selection.

Ensures correct geometry and connectivity There are many different ways of making design errors, such as incorrect fitting lengths, incompatible flange ratings, or simple alignment errors. PDMS can check all of these using data consistency procedures built into the system to check all or individual parts of the design model.

Avoids component interferences Despite a wealth of skill and experience in plant design, traditional design office techniques are still subject to human error. Laying out complex pipe runs, and general arrangements in confined areas using conventional 2D methods, inevitably leads to clashes between elements, which are trying to share the same physical space. PDMS enables the user to avoid such problems in two ways: 1. By viewing the design interactively during the design process, allowing visual checks on the model from different viewpoints and resolves any potential problems as they arise. 2. By using the powerful clash checking facility within PDMS, which will detect clashes anywhere in the plant, this can be done interactively or retrospectively.

Annotation and dimensions obtained directly from the Design database Extracted information from the PDMS database, such as arrangement drawings, piping isometrics and reports, will always be the latest available as it is stored only in one source. Through the course of a project, information is constantly changing and drawings need to be reissued. When this happens, drawings, reports etc can be updated and reissued with the minimum of effort.

2.2

How PDMS is Structured

PDMS is divided into a number of functional modules which access the databases for a different purposes. The main modules and their purpose are listed below. Design Draft Isodraft Admin Paragon Propcon Lexicon 3D Model Design. 2D Drawing Production. Isometric Drawing Production. Project/User Administration. Catalogue and Specification Construction. Properties Construction. User Defined Attributes, User Defined Element Type, Status Definition and Database View creation.

2.2.1

Design

Design is the graphically driven data input module for the 3D model in PDMS. In this module the plant model is built and the data stored in one or more databases. The databases contain a three-dimensional description of all items in the plant. Component selection is provided through specifications that dictate which catalogue components can be used. The main features are: Creation of new design elements. Modification of existing design elements. Viewing of the design model interactively by graphical manipulation.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations TM-1001

Creation of reports, e.g. MTO, weight, C of G, project pricing, project timing, etc. Clash detection to find interferences between design elements.

The Design module has a number of discipline applications and sub-applications to assist discipline designers in building models efficiently. These applications are: General Equipment Pipework Cable Trays HVAC Designer Structures Cabling System

Additional Design applications are available if they have been installed, e.g. Multi Discipline Supports and Nuclear. These applications are separately licensed.

2.2.2

Draft

Draft is used to create annotated, dimensioned, arrangement and detail drawings. The annotation can be in the form of labels attached to design elements or 2D annotation such as drawing notes, drawing frames, tables, lines, etc. Annotation attached to a design data element on the drawing will move if the 3D position of the element changes. Dimensions are projected distances between connecting points (P-Point) in the 3D design. The dimension itself is calculated automatically and is recalculated every time the drawing is updated. The design database can be interrogated through the drawing database, but it cannot be changed from within the Draft module.

Example DRAFT output

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations TM-1001

2.2.3

Isodraft

Isodraft produces dimensioned symbolic piping and HVAC isometrics for construction and erection purposes in various formats. Isodraft facilities include: Full material lists. Automatic spool identification. Automatic splitting of complex drawings. User-defined drawing sheets.

Example ISODRAFT output

2.2.4

Admin

Large plants designed using PDMS are usually broken down into individual areas (either physical areas or design areas), depending on the size, complexity and configuration of the plant. On a large project, the System Administrator will first agree with Project and Design Management the breakdown of the PDMS project into sections which: Are relevant to the needs of project reporting and control. Form reasonable design subdivisions with sensible match-lines and design content. Enable enough designers to work in parallel with simultaneous access to carry out their design tasks. In much the same way as in a design office (with its section leader, draftspeople, etc.), PDMS has Teams, the members of which are called Users. These Teams can consist of any number of Users and can be organised by discipline or physical work areas. The main features of the Admin module include: Access Control (Teams and Users) Databases (DBs) Multiple Databases (MDBs) Database management functionality
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AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations TM-1001

2.2.5

Paragon

Paragon is used to create and modify the component catalogue and specifications stored in a Catalogue database. The catalogues in PDMS serve a similar purpose to the manufacturers catalogues, which a user would refer to when using conventional design methods. The PDMS component catalogue is used to specify the geometry, connection information, obstruction and detailing data of piping, structural, HVAC and cable tray components. Paragon is used to construct the component catalogue just as Design is used to construct the design data. It should be noted that, whereas the design data is specific to a particular design, catalogues and specifications may be specific to a company but general to a number of projects in that company. For example, the same catalogue component may also appear in other designs proceeding at the same time.

2.2.6

Propcon

Propcon is used to input and edit data within the Properties database. The database contains data for materials, e.g. density, Youngs Modulus, expansion coefficients, etc, as well as component data, e.g. component weight, corrosion allowance, wall thickness, etc.

2.2.7

Lexicon

Lexicon enables the definition of User Definable Attributes (UDA) that may be assigned to PDMS elements so that additional information may be stored in the databases and extracted into drawings and reports. Lexicon also enables the definition of User Defined Element Types (UDET) that may be defined to enhance the engineering terminology in the project and differentiate between types of the base element. For example, an EQUI element may be designated as an element type of, say, :PUMP or :EXCHANGER. In addition, Lexicon enables the definition of Status elements for use with Status Controller and Database Views for use with Report Designer.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations TM-1001

2.3

PDMS Databases

The heart of PDMS consists of a set of hierarchical databases that store the model data. The database system is called Dabacon and is exclusive to AVEVA. There are several different database types, structured specifically for plant design data storage and each type of database stores different data. Generally, multi-discipline projects are executed using discipline specific designers who will use specific applications in PDMS to construct the model components for their specific discipline. A project, therefore, may consist of a number of Design databases for each discipline. When constructing the model, references are made to catalogue; property and user defined attribute data that is held in different types of databases. As this data is common to all users of each discipline, each user will refer to a common set of data for the project. These databases are called Reference databases. In order that each user can see the required design components modelled by other users and refer to the common catalogue, property and user defined attribute data, the Design and Reference databases are grouped together into a Multiple Database (MDB).

There may be several MDBs for a project, each defining specific groups of databases, for users with different tasks to perform. Databases can be of two types, i.e. Update or Multiwrite and an MDB may contain each type. Update databases allow only one user at a time to work in the database, creating or modifying data held within it. This set-up is easy to administer but on a large project will require a large number of databases. In addition, as only one user at a time can modify the data this may cause a bottleneck on busy project schedules.

Simplified scenario using Update databases Multiwrite databases allow any number of users to work in the database simultaneously, creating and modifying data within it. In order to control the modification of the data, a claim list concept is used to avoid

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations TM-1001

a last saved scenario for element modification t o occur. Claim lists are discussed in more detail later in the Training Guide.

Simplified scenario using Multiwrite databases

2.4

How data is stored in PDMS

Each hierarchical database is a tree like structure similar to the hierarchy of directories and sub -directories used to contain the files on a computer. The topmost data level in all databases is called the WORLD, below which all other data exists.

The PDMS Design Database Hierarchy Each identifiable item of data is known as a PDMS element. Each element has a number of associated www.aveva.com pieces of information that, together, completely define its properties. These are known as attributes.
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AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations TM-1001

In this hierarchical structure all elements are owned by other elements, with the exception of the WORLD. Elements that are owned by another element, e.g. a ZONE is owned by a SITE, are said to be members of the owning element, e.g. The ZONE is a member of the SITE. The vertical link between two elements on adjacent levels of the database hierarchy is defined as an ownermember relationship. The element on the upper level is the owner of those elements directly below it. The lower level elements are members of their owning element, e.g. a SITE is the owner of a ZONE and the ZONE is a member of a SITE. Each element can have many members, but it can only have one owner. All elements are owned by another element with the exception of the WORLD. Each element may only exist in its correct position in the hierarchy, e.g. a ZONE may not be directly owned by the WORLD, it must be owned by a site. Every element is identified within the database structure by an automatically allocated reference number and, optionally, by a user-specified name. The following sections give descriptions of the main element types in a PDMS Design database. Most of the element types are abbreviated, usually to the first four letters of the full name, when they are displayed in the user interface. The abbreviations are shown in parenthesis.

2.4.1

World (WORL)

When the database is first built, it is empty except for a single element named the WORLD. Each database has its own WORLD element as the first element in the hierarchy. The World cannot be deleted or renamed.

2.4.2

Site (SITE)

Below the WORLD, the second level of the hierarchy is SITE. A SITE may be considered as a significant collection of plant, whose size is not necessarily determined by physical area, but by practical considerations. It may, for example be the whole project, or one part of a large project. There can be as many SITEs within a PDMS project as required for data organisation.

2.4.3

Zone (ZONE)

The next level below a SITE is a ZONE. As with a SITE, a ZONE is not necessarily used to define a physical area, it is more likely to store similar types of items for easy reference, such as a piping system in one ZONE, related equipment in another, and so on. There can be as many ZONEs owned by a site as required for data organisation. SITE and ZONE elements are common to all disciplines. Below ZONE level the hierarchy is discipline dependent, i.e. the elements depend on which discipline the user is modelling.

2.4.4

Equipment (EQUI)

Equipment items are built up in PDMS using elements known as primitives. Each piece of equipment can comprise any number of primitive shapes positioned in space to represent the equipment item. The primitives may be owned directly by the EQUI element or by a Sub-Equipment element.

2.4.5

Sub-Equipment (SUBE)

A SUBE is an optional element to sub-divide an EQUI. The SUBE can own primitive elements.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations TM-1001

2.4.6

Primitives

Primitives are the basic building blocks of PDMS. They are used by other disciplines to create catalogue components. There are many types of primitives; each with its own features which when combined with other primitives can represent complex shapes. Examples of primitives are nozzle (NOZZ), box (BOX), cylinder (CYLI), pyramid (PYRA), cone (CONE) and dish (DISH).

2.4.7

Volume Model (VOLM)

A VOLM is a simplified version of an EQUI element. This allows volumes to be modelled without them being called Equipment items. A VOLM may directly own any primitive except a NOZZ.

2.4.8

Sub-Volume Model (SVOLM)

A SVOLM is an optional element, similar to a SUBE, to sub-divide a VOLM. A SVOLM may own any primitive except a NOZZ.

2.4.9

Structure (STRU)

STRU elements are administrative elements, i.e. they exist to own FRAMEWORK elements, and allow the plant structures to be sub-divided for ease of modelling and reporting.

2.4.10 Framework (FRMW)


FRMW elements are used to store structural components in the model. A complex structure can be divided into logical frameworks. Dividing the structure in this way allows structural modelling, and also reporting, to be done more efficiently, e.g. by copying a complete FRMW.

2.4.11 Sub-Framework (SBFR)


A SBFR is an optional element that can own structural components. They are used to further sub-divide complex projects or for modelling sub-assemblies within a framework.

2.4.12 Structural Components


Structural profiles are represented in PDMS by section (SCTN) elements. Profile sizes are selected using a section specification that references standard catalogue data for section sizes complying with various national standards or company standards. Plate elements are represented by Panel (PANE) elements and curved profiles are modelled using a Generic Section (GENSEC) component.

2.4.13 Pipe (PIPE)


Pipes may be considered like lines on a flow sheet. They may run between several end connection points and are usually grouped by a common specification and process.

2.4.14 Branch (BRAN)


Branch elements are sections of a pipe, which have known start and finish points. In PDMS the start and finish points are called the Head and Tail. Heads and tails may be connected to Nozzles, Tees or other Heads and Tails, depending on the configuration of the pipe, or left open ended.

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2.4.15 Piping Components


A Branch may own a wide variety of components such as Gaskets (GASK), Flanges (FLAN), Elbow (ELBO), Tees (TEE), Valves (VALV), etc. These form the shape and geometry of the Branch and ultimately the Pipe itself. Piping components are selected using Piping Specifications that reference standard catalogue data. For example, each time a user wants to use a 100mm bore elbow, PDMS always accesses the data for it from the component catalogue. The data for these elements remains constant no matter how many 100mm bore elbows are used in the design.

2.5

Element Names in PDMS

Any element in a PDMS database may be given an explicit name. Names enable the user to identify elements and to produce meaningful reports from the database. Which elements are named is a matter of choice, however, in general significant elements, e.g. SITE, ZONE, EQUI, SUBE, PIPE, BRAN, STRU, FRMW, SBFR, etc. would be named. It is not usual for primitives to be named. The WORLD is named /* and cannot be renamed. Element names in PDMS must comply with the following rules: Element names begin with a forward slash, e.g. /MY_MODEL. Generally, most design items give the user the opportunity to name them from the element creation form. The user does not have to enter the forward slash on such forms as it is added automatically when the Return (Enter) key is pressed. Element names must be unique across all databases in the MDB. Element names are case sensitive, e.g. /P1001A, /P1001a, /p1001A and /p1001a are all valid, and different, names. Element names must not contain spaces. Any character such as forward slash (/), Underscore (_), hyphen (-), asterisk (*), etc. may be used as separators. Element names must be no longer than 50 characters. If an element is not explicitly named it receives a system name, e.g. CYLI 2 of EQUI 1 of ZONE 2 of SITE /MY-MODEL. Internally PDMS does not use names to identify elements but a unique database reference number so that an element may be re-named at any time. These reference numbers are never re-used if an element is deleted and are, therefore, remain unique throughout the life of the project. On some forms the reference number is used in place of the system name and will look something like =23584/2152.

2.6

Units

Internally PDMS stores values in standard SI units, i.e. millimetres, kilogrammes, degrees centigrade, pascals, etc. However, the current session units may be set, where applicable, to various metric or imperial units for data input and output but this does not change the database storage units. The database storage values are converted to suit the current session units for input and output. The input and output display units may be changed at any time during the session.

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2.7

Axes System
PDMS uses the right hand rule to express the co-ordinate system and rotation: In Design, the WORLD has a world co-ordinate system whose origin is at X 0, Y 0 and Z 0. PDMS assigns cardinal directions to the X, Y and Z axes, i.e. X is East Y is North Z is Up

Many elements in PDMS have position and rotation attributes. Such elements have there own axes system, conforming to the right hand rule, and the position and orientation are expressed with respect to their owner. Refer to Chapter 6, Attributes, Positioning and Orientation, for information on the Position and Orientation attributes.

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CHAPTER 3

User Interface Basics

This chapter describes the basics of the user interface including accessing the Design environment, the use of the mouse, menus, forms and toolbars and the Design Explorer.

3.1

Accessing the Design Environment

PDMS Design may be started by using the Start menu icons or the Desktop icons, providing both options were selected on installation.

3.1.1

Using the Start Menu Icons

Selecting Start>All Programs>AVEVA Plant from the task bar displays four further options: Help, Design, Engineer and Manage

Selecting the Design option displays the PDMS version folder, i.e. PDMS 12.1.

Opening the PDMS 12.1 option displays a list of shortcuts to PDMS modules and utilities that may be initiated from this menu. The PDMS Design module may be accessed by clicking the Design shortcut or by clicking the Monitor shortcut.

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3.1.2

Using the Desktop Icons

The Desktop contains three icons that correspond to the Design, Engineer and Manage Start menu icons described previously.

Clicking the PDMS Design 12.1 Desktop icon opens a window containing the same list of shortcuts to PDMS modules and utilities described previously. The PDMS Design module may be accessed by clicking the Design shortcut or by clicking the Monitor shortcut.

3.1.3

Entering Design Directly

Clicking the Design shortcut from the Start menu icon or Desktop icon displays the Design login form. The available entries for Username and MDB are determined by the Project selected. The Project, Username and MDB may be selected from a list displayed by selecting the down arrow adjacent top each textbox.

Alternatively, for Username and MDB an appropriate name may be entered directly in to the appropriate textbox.

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When a Password is entered is entered the Login button becomes active. Providing the Password is valid, clicking the Login button enters the PDMS Design module in the selected project and using the selected MDB. Clicking the Cancel button aborts the login.

If the Password is invalid, an error message is displayed. Clicking the Cancel button aborts the login attempt. Clicking the Retry button returns to the login form so that the details may be checked and re-entered as required. The Options frame of the Design login form contains the following three checkbox options: Integrate Engineering and Schematics if checked, this option enables 2D and 3D data to be used together.

This option is outside of the scope of this training guide.


Open Read Only if checked, this option opens the project in read only mode such that no modification to the model may be performed. Restore Views if checked, this option restores the view contents and multiple views, if used.

3.1.4

Entering Design via Monitor

Clicking the Monitor shortcut from the Start menu icon or Desktop icon displays the Monitor login form. The Project, Username and MDB are selected and the Password entered as described previously for the direct login.

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However, the required Module may be selected from the module list list displayed by selecting the down arrow adjacent top the textbox. The Module name may also be entered in the textbox.

Selecting the Design module and clicking the Login button enters the PDMS Design module in the selected project and using the selected MDB. Clicking the Cancel button aborts the login.

The Options frame of the monitor login form has the same options as the Design login form with the addition of the following options: Change Password if checked, this option enables the user to change the Password for the login. When the Login button is clicked the Change Password form is displayed: A new Password must be entered in the New Password textbox and then confirmed in the Confirm New Password textbox. Clicking the OK button changes the Password. Clicking the Cancel button aborts the Password change. If the entered Password and confirmation Password are not the same, an error message is displayed. Clicking the Cancel button aborts the attempst to change the Password and logs the user into PDMS using the old Password. Clicking the Retry button returns to the Change Password form where the entries may be made again. Restore Default Layout if checked, this option restores the PDMS screen layout to the default screen layout.

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3.2

Default Screen Layout

The default screen layout for PDMS Design module is:

This default layout may be modified to suit individual preferences, e.g. additional forms may displayed in the layout, forms may be moved and docked and forms may be pinned/unpinned as required. Toolbars may be moved or docked around the edges of the screen. Some of these features are described later in this chapter. After exiting PDMS or changing to a different module, a subsequent return to the Design module will restore the screen layout as it was left in the previous session.

3.3

Using the Mouse

The mouse guides the graphics pointer around the screen and is also used to select or pick items by using the mouse buttons. The buttons perform different tasks depending on the type of window, and the position of the mouse pointer in the window. The appearance of the pointer will change according to the type of display item that is underneath it.

A three button mouse, preferably with a scroll wheel middle button, is required for PDMS.

There are two techniques used when operating the mouse buttons, Clicking and Dragging. Clicking - the pointer is positioned over a specific point on the screen. Clicking and releasing a mouse button picks whatever is displayed at that point on the screen. This technique is generally used for selecting items in graphical views, operating gadgets on forms and for selecting lines in scrollable lists. Dragging - the pointer is positioned over a specific point on the screen, the mouse button is clicked and held down whilst dragging the pointer to another position on the screen. To complete the operation the button is released at the second position. This technique is mainly used for manipulating the design model in graphical views, moving forms/toolbars around the screen and for operating sub-menus.
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The functions of each of the three mouse buttons are described below: Left Mouse Button - The left mouse button is the main button for selecting items. On a graphical view clicking the left mouse button with the pointer over a design element selects the element. In a sequence of menus, dragging with the left mouse button activates the command represented by the highlighted menu option when the button is released. On a form, the effect depends on the type of selections that are being made, e.g. buttons, radio buttons, check boxes, scrollable lists, fold-up panels, etc. Middle Mouse Button - The principal use of the middle mouse button in the Design module is to manipulate the model in the 3D graphical view. Right Mouse Button - Clicking the right mouse button displays context pop-up menus, where available. See Chapter 4, Displaying Modelled Elements, for details of using the mouse to manipulate the model in graphical views.

3.4

Using Menus

There are three types of menu in PDMS, Pull-down menus, Sub-menus and Pop-up or Right click menus.

3.4.1

Pull-Down Menus

Clicking an item on the menu bar with the left mouse button displays the pull-down menu items:

As the pointer is passed over the menu items they are highlighted in turn. Each menu item has one of three options that result in different actions when the option is selected: Options followed by a triangular pointer: Placing the cursor over this type of menu entry displays a sub-menu. Option followed by three dots: When this type of option is highlighted, clicking the left mouse button will require some user input, i.e. selecting an item, entering data in a form, confirming a message, etc. Option shown as plain text: When this type of option is highlighted, clicking the left mouse button will directly perform the action described in the menu item.

If, after displaying a pull-down menu, no menu item is required, clicking the left mouse button in a 3D View will dismiss the pull-down menu.

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Some plain text menu items are toggles, i.e. they turn the selection On or Off. If such a menu option is turned on, a subsequent opening of the menu will display a checkmark next to the item. The checkmark is not displayed if the menu option is Off. Some toggles also have separate buttons on a toolbar which are pressed when the menu option is selected:

3.4.2

Sub-menus
Highlighting a menu item that is followed by a triangular pointer displays a sub-menu. Sub-menus may contain any of the three menu options described above, e.g. it is possible to have a Sub-menu of a Sub-menu. If none of the menu items are required, highlighting another option on the pull-down menu will dismiss the Sub-menu. Alternatively, clicking the left mouse button in a 3D View will dismiss the Pull-down as well as the Sub-menu.

3.4.3

Pop-up or Right click menus

Pop-up menus are context sensitive and are accessed by clicking the right mouse button. The menu options depend on where the pointer is located at the time of the mouse click. Pop-up menus are available from 3D Views, Explorers and forms.

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3.5

Using Forms

Forms are used to display information, enter data and to modify data. Forms typically comprise an arrangement of Tabs, Buttons, Text Boxes, Radio Buttons, Checkboxes, Scrollable Lists, Link Labels, Grids and Fold-up Panels, sometimes collectively referred to as gadgets.

Input to a form is usually via a combination of mouse and keyboard, the mouse being used to select the appropriate controls and the keyboard to enter the data. When a form is displayed, settings may be changed, reset to initial values, accepted or cancelled without applying any changes, depending on the design of the form.
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3.5.1

Tabs

Tabs are used to change to a new page of the form. The current tab is highlighted in a different colour to the other tabs, e.g. in the example shown the current tab is white whilst the rest are grey. A tab is selected by placing the pointer over the tab and clicking the left mouse button.

3.5.2

Radio Buttons

Radio buttons are combined in groups and only permit one selection of the group to be set ON, i.e. the radio button with the filled dot in the centre. To set a radio button ON move the pointer over the radio button or associated text and click the left mouse button. Turning a radio button on will automatically turn the other radio button(s) in the group OFF.

3.5.3

Checkboxes

A checkbox may be either ON, i.e. a checkmark (tick) is displayed in the box, or OFF, i.e. the box has no checkmark displayed. Checkboxes are not mutually exclusive so any combination of check boxes on a form may be ON or OFF. To change the status of a check box, i.e. to set it ON or OFF, move the pointer over the check box or associated text and click the left mouse button.

3.5.4

Text Boxes

Text boxes enable alphanumeric data, e.g. names, dimensions, values, etc, to be entered. A text box will generally have a label describing, or qualifying, the data required adjacent to it. To enter data into a text box, move the pointer into the box and click the left mouse button. Key in the required data using the keyboard or edit any existing entry as necessary. The Backspace key will clear the box of any content. When complete, acceptance of the input is confirmed the by pressing the Return (or Enter) key. When first displaying a form containing text boxes, the first text box on the form will be current and a text pointer (a vertical bar) will be displayed in the box. A text box often contains a default entry when first displayed. Some text boxes will accept only text or only numeric data, and entries with the wrong type of data will not be accepted.

3.5.5

Options List
An Options list, sometimes called a scrollable list, displays a vertical list of options within a form. If required for the length of the list, a vertical scroll bar is displayed on the right hand side of the list. A horizontal scroll bar may also be displayed along the bottom of the list.

To select an option from an options list, click with the left mouse button on the list or the down arrow to display the list items. Moving the pointer up and down the list highlights each list item in turn. To select a list item click the required selection with the left mouse button. Some option lists allow only a single selection, i.e. selecting any option deselects all others automatically. Other lists allow multiple selections, with all selected options highlighted simultaneously. Multiple

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selections, where applicable, are made using standard Windows selection functionality, i.e. the Ctrl and Shift keys. To de-select a highlighted option on a multi-item list, click on it again. Repeated clicks toggle a selection on and off.

3.5.6

Buttons

Buttons may be any size and have either a text label, a sketch (picture) or a solid colour (swatch) within it that conveys the purpose of the button. Each button usually carries a Tooltip to describe the purpose of the button. The button may take direct action when activated, display a form or toggle a setting. When a toggle button is ON it is shown as pressed. How this is shown depends on the Appearance settings of the Windows Display Properties. Buttons are used by moving the pointer over the button and clicking the left mouse button.

3.5.7

Link Labels
Link Labels are text that links one form to another. Link Labels may be active, i.e. the text is underlined when the pointer is moved over the label, or inactive, i.e. the text is not underlined when the pointer is moved over the label. Link labels are used by moving the pointer over an active label and clicking the left mouse button.

3.5.8

Fold-up Panels
Fold-up Panels are used to extend large forms, i.e. reveal more options. When a Fold-up Panel is hidden it displays a circle button with two down arrows on the right hand side of the panel header. Clicking the button opens the panel to reveal the options contained within it. These options may be any of the other gadgets. Once unfolded the circle button on the panel header changes to show two up arrows. Clicking the button will fold-up the panel, hiding its contents.

3.5.9

Grids

Grid gadgets appear on forms where data is displayed in rows and columns, similar to a spreadsheet. The grid gadget has the capability of column grouping, column sorting and column filtering; however, the functionality differs between forms that contain these gadgets. The functionality will be explained in detail when encountered in this training guide.

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3.5.10 Form Menus

Some forms contain a menu across the top of the form. Form menus have the same functionality and options as described previously for pull-down menus.

3.5.11 Actioning Form Inputs


Most forms include at least one control button which is used to either: Enter the command option represented by the current form setting. Cancel any changes made to the form since initially opened. Close the form. The OK and Apply buttons enter the current form settings as command inputs, however, the OK button also closes the form whereas the Apply button leaves the form displayed for further input. The Cancel and Reset buttons cancel any changes made to the settings of the form. Cancel also closes the form. The Dismiss button simply closes the form. Some forms contain more specific types of control buttons, which carry out particular command options (extensions of the Apply concept); e.g. the Goto, Add and Remove buttons. Where a form does not contain a Dismiss button a Control form menu item is usually provided. This pulldown menu will contain a close option which dismisses the form. Where neither a Dismiss button or Control pull-down menu are provided the form may be dismissed by clicking the Close button on the top right hand side of the form with the left mouse button. This should only be done where no other options to dismiss the form are provided.

3.5.12 Alert Forms

An Alert form is used to display information such as error messages, prompts and requests for confirmation of changes. The form will usually have to be acknowledged by clicking the OK button before proceeding.

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3.5.13 Dockable Forms


Some forms are dockable, i.e. they can be fixed in a particular place on the display. When dockable forms are initially displayed they will dock at their default position. This position may be changed by dragging the forms banner with the left mouse button. As the form is moved, docking icons are displayed to aid the docking process.

When the form is dragged over one of the docking aids, the docking tool previews the docking position using a shaded area of the display.

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Once the required docking position has been achieved, releasing the left mouse button will dock the form in the selected position.

If a dockable form is dragged over a previously docked form, additional docking aids for docking the new form over the previous form are displayed. The additional docking aids work in the same way as previously described.

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If the central Tab button of the docking aids is used, the form being docked will form a tabbed form with the form(s) it is being dragged over. To separate the forms, the tabbed group must be undocked first and then separated by dragging the tab away from the group.

Once a dockable form has been docked, it may also be pinned and unpinned, i.e. hidden or displayed:

Clicking the Pin (tooltip Auto Hide) button on the form header hides the form under the tab in the adjacent edge of the display.

Passing the cursor over the tab displays the form which may be used in the normal way. Clicking the Pin button removes the tab and displays the form. If the screen layout has been modified selecting Settings>Reset Windows Layout from the main menu will restore the screen to the previous layout in that session.

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3.6

Using Toolbars

Toolbars group together gadgets, e.g. buttons, scrollable list and text boxes, for a particular set of commands or commands related to common functionality. The gadgets on the toolbars operate in the same way as described previously for forms. Some toolbars, usually those containing common functionality, are displayed by default, whilst others, usually containing more specialised functionality, are displayed as and when required. Toolbars may be selected for display by clicking the right mouse button in the blank area adjacent to the main menu to display a list of the available toolbars. The currently displayed toolbars are indicated by the checkbox icon adjacent to the toolbar name. Selecting a toolbar from this list will toggle its display on or off, i.e. add or remove the checkbox icon. Toolbars such as the Equipment Toolbar, Pipework Toolbar, HVAC Designer Toolbar, etc, are displayed when the appropriate application is entered. These toolbars may be displayed at other times but the gadgets contained in them will be inactive. Toolbars such as the Positioning Control toolbar, which is common to all applications, is displayed only when an operation that may use this functionality is selected. All toolbars may be moved by dragging with the left mouse button as per standard Windows functionality. The toolbars may be docked around any edge of the main window and in any configuration. Most toolbars may be dragged from the main window border into another area of the screen layout to form a standalone toolbar. In this mode, the shape and configuration of the toolbar may be modified by dragging its edges.

3.7

Toolbars may be customised and new toolbars created, however, this functionality is outside the scope of this training guide.

Command Window

The Command Window enables the user to directly interact with the database(s) by entering valid command syntax to manipulate, create, modify and query any database element. Reports may also be output to the Command Window. The Command Window is a dockable form and is displayed/undisplayed by selecting Display > Command Window from the main menu.

3.7.1

Entering Command Syntax

After clicking in the Command Window with the left mouse button, valid command line syntax may be entered on to the active line. Command line syntax is executed by pressing the Return (Enter) key. There is no definitive list of command line syntax, however, the Design Reference Manuals, supplied with PDMS, is a useful reference for Command Syntax. Previously entered commands may be recalled to the active line by double-clicking the left mouse button on the required line in the Command Window or by using the up and down arrow cursor keys to step through previous syntax entries until the appropriate line is found. The active line may be edited before executing the command(s). Command line syntax is not case sensitive, except for element names.

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3.7.2

Command Window Pop-up Menu

Clicking the right mouse button in the Command Window displays a pop-up menu with the following options: Copy this option allows a single highlighted line or multiple highlighted lines to be copied from the Command Window to the clipboard.

Paste this option enables single or multiple lines of text, which has been copied to the clipboard from any source, to be submitted for processing in the Command Window. This option will execute each line of the text as a separate command, as if they had been typed into the Command Window. The last line will not be executed but becomes the active line and must be executed manually by pressing the Return key. Paste as Macro this option first creates a temporary file containing the copied macro commands and executes this as a macro. This option enables macro syntax, such as error handling to be used. For a large number of commands this option gives better performance, e.g. graphics will only be updated at the end of the macro rather than after each command. Font Size this option has a sub-menu that allows the font size in the Command Window to be set to Small, Medium or Large:

Clear this option clears the Command Window of all text.

Care should be taken when using the Command Window as all commands entered act directly on the database elements. Some operations available from the forms and menus cannot be replicated in the Command Window. Conversely, some operations in PDMS can only be performed via the Command Window.

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3.8

Navigating the Databases

Being able to navigate around the databases and the database hierarchy is an essential part of successfully working with PDMS. The user interface provides an Explorer to facilitate navigation.

3.8.1

Design Explorer

The Design Explorer is a dockable form that provides a tree view of the database elements in the current MDB. Each elements type is shown, i.e. SITE, ZONE, EQUI, etc, together with its name. Where elements have been explicitly named the name is displayed without the leading forward slash. Elements that have not been explicitly named, e.g. primitives, are displayed with their system generated name. The tree can be expanded and collapsed by using the and icons adjacent to the database elements. The icons are only displayed where the elements own other elements. One element in the Design Explorer will always be highlighted. This is referred to as the Current Element, often abbreviated to CE in forms, menus and documentation. There can only be one Current Element at any one time and most commands, either via the forms and menus or the Command Window act on the CE. Functionality for commands to act on more than one element at a time is explained later in this training guide. Elements that have been created or modified in a Multiwrite database with an explicit claim, or elements that are explicitly claimed, are displayed in bold text in Design Explorer until they are unclaimed.

Elements in Update databases are not displayed in bold text. See Section 7.5 Claimlists in Multiwrite Databases for further information on claim lists.

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3.8.1.1 Design Explorer Filtering


As the databases in the current MDB may contain many thousands of elements, the Design Explorer has a filter that, when activated, restricts the display of elements for other disciplines. For example, the current user may be a Piping Designer routing and modelling pipes. By selecting the Piping option from the pull-down at the top of the Design Explorer and activating the filter by checking the Filter checkbox, the Piping elements are left unaffected; however, other discipline elements are restricted.

The Equipment elements only display the Nozzle (NOZZ) primitives that they own (if any), as the pipe may need to connect to these elements. All other primitives owned by the equipment are not displayed. For Structural elements, no elements below the Framework (FRMW) level are displayed. The other filter options, e.g. Hangers&Supports, Equipment and Structural function in a similar way. The filters cannot be extended or edited.

3.8.1.2 Design Explorer Pop-up Menu


Clicking any element in the Design Explorer with the right mouse button displays a pop-up menu with the following options: 3D View - this option has a sub-menu and enables elements to be displayed or removed from the 3D View. This functionality is explained in Chapter 4, Displaying Modelled Elements. Attributes this option displays the Attribute form for the Current Element. See Chapter 6 for details of querying and modifying attributes.

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Rename this option displays the Rename form. The element name may be modified by entering a new name in the Name text box and clicking the Apply button. The pull-down menu options are: Only renames only the CE. Re-name all renames the CE members, if any, that have derivative names of the CE. Un-name un-names the CE so that its Name attribute is unset. Delete this option deletes the Current Element. A confirmation message is displayed before deletion. Clicking the Yes button permanently deletes the CE from the database. Clicking the No button retains the CE. Add To My Data This option adds the Current Element to a My Data collection. Refer to Chapter 7 General Utilities, for details of the My Data functionality. New Explorer This option creates a new Explorer for the Current Element and below, i.e. all elements owned by the Current Element.

The New Explorer option has a context sensitive sub-menu, i.e. its options depend on the element type of the current element. The CE and its owner will always be two of the options, however, significant www.aveva.com attributes will also be available, depending on the element.
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Copy this option copies the Current Element to the clipboard. Paste this option copies a valid element from the clipboard to the current location in the Design Explorer, providing it is within the same database, i.e. elements cannot be copied across databases using this functionality. If the element is named, the pasted element is named Copy-of-nnnn, where nnnn is the name of the Current Element. Where more than one copy of a named element is pasted the second and subsequent elements will contain a sequential copy number, e.g. Copy-(2)-of-nnnn, Copy-(3)-of-nnnn, etc. If the element is unnamed, the pasted element is allocated a system name.

It is possible to copy and paste an element in Design Explorer using Drag & Drop functionality.
Holding down the Ctrl key and the left mouse button on the CE and moving the pointer, a line is displayed showing the potential location of the copy. Releasing the left mouse button creates a copy of the CE. The same naming conventions apply as described above.

3.8.1.3 Explorer Settings


Selecting Settings>Explorer from the main menu displays the Explorer Settings form. The form contain check boxes that toggle the following settings: Auto Collapse Tree If selected, whenever the user changes CE, any expanded node not containing the selected CE is automatically collapsed. This applies to all active explorers. This option is disabled if Expand to CE is not selected. Expand to CE If selected, this option automatically expands the tree when the CE changes (if not already expanded). Hide non-user System Data If selected, this option hides all System Data elements in the MDB, e.g. ASDFWL, ASSOWL, APPLDW, TPWL, to which the user does not have write access. Show TUBI/ROD If selected, this option displays all TUBI and ROD elements in Design Explorer.

TUBI and ROD elements are Piping and Cable Tray


components respectively. These elements are discussed in the appropriate discipline training guide. The Draft Explorer section of the Explorer Settings form is outside the scope of this training guide. See TM-1002 Drawing Production (Basic) training guide for details of these options.

3.8.2

History Toolbar

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This History Toolbar keeps a list of recently visited elements names and is persistent from session to session. The options list displays the CE, however, an element name may be entered into the options list. As soon as keyboard entry starts the options list opens and displays progressively filtered element names from the entire MDB, depending on the characters entered. An element name may be selected at any time from the displayed list to become the CE.

Subsequent opening of the pull-down will show the element names previously selected by this method. These element names from the pull-down may be selected to become the CE. The left and right arrow buttons adjacent to the pull-down enable backwards (left arrow) and forwards (right arrow) browsing through an historical list the have been the Current Elements. Each arrow button contains a control that opens an options list that holds part of the historical list. The Back button list consists of those elements that were Current Elements before the CE and the Forward button consists of elements that were Current Elements after the Current Element. The maximum number of lines in either list is 15. Any element name may be selected from the lists to become the CE.

3.9

Deleting Elements from the Databases

Elements may be deleted from the databases in several ways. It is important that deleting a database element will also delete all of the elements in the hierarchy owned by the element. For example, if a SITE is deleted, all of the ZONEs owned by it will be deleted and any elements, such as EQUI, STRU, PIPE, etc. owned by the ZONE will also be deleted. Whichever method is used to delete database elements, except the Command Window, PDMS will always issue a confirmation message requiring a positive response from the user before deleting the element(s). If the elements are visible in the 3D View they will be highlighted.

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3.9.1

Deleting using Design Explorer


Clicking the right mouse button in the Design Explorer displays the pop-up menu that contains a Delete option. Choosing this option displays a confirmation message naming the CE to be deleted. Clicking the Yes button deletes the element.

3.9.2

Deleting using the Main Menu

The main menu Delete pull-down has the following options:

CE this option deletes the current element and displays a confirmation message as described above. Identified this option deletes elements identified in the 3D View. An element is identified by clicking on it with the left mouse button, which highlights the element in the current highlight colour. Pressing the Esc key terminates the selection process and displays a confirmation message:

List this option deletes all the elements in the current list. A confirmation message is displayed naming the list to be deleted. If displayed in the 3D View the elements are highlighted.

For an explanation of Lists and their use, see Chapter 4, Displaying Modelled Elements.

Name - this option displays the Delete form: The name of a database element may be entered in the Name text box. Clicking the Apply button displays a confirmation message giving the element name.

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Members this option has a sub-menu: Selecting the All option from the sub-menu deletes all the members of the current element but does not delete the current element itself. A confirmation message is displayed naming the current element whose members will be deleted.

Selecting the Selection option from the sub-menu displays the Delete Selection form. The form displays the current element members which may be selected for deletion by clicking them with the left mouse button. Selected members are highlighted. Standard Windows use of the Ctrl and Shift keys enables more than one element to be selected. Clicking the OK button displays a confirmation message naming the element to be deleted. If more than one element is selected a series of confirmation messages, one for each element selected, is displayed.

3.9.3

Deleting using the Default Toolbar

The Default toolbar contains a Delete CE button . Clicking the button with left mouse button deletes the current element. A confirmation message is displayed, as described in section 3.9.2.

3.9.4

Deleting using the Command Window

The current element may be deleted using the Command Window using the syntax DELETE <element type> where <element type> is the element type of the current element, e.g. DELETE ZONE, DELETE EQUI, DELETE CYLI, etc. If elements are deleted using this method, no confirmation message is displayed.

3.10 Saving Changes to the Databases Save Work


When changes are made to the design model during a PDMS session, the effects of the changes are applied only to a copy of the design data until the databases are updated. There is no auto-save in PDMS and, therefore, the databases must be updated explicitly by the user. It is advisable to save work regularly to avoid losing design changes in the event of an unforeseen problem. Updating the databases to incorporate the current design changes may be achieved by: Clicking the Save Work button on the Default toolbar Selecting Design > Save Work from the main menu. .

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In either case a confirmation message is displayed. Clicking the Yes button saves the database changes. Database changes may also be saved by entering SAVEWORK in the Command Window. In this case no confirmation message is displayed.

3.11 Updating Databases to Show Other Changes Get Work


Design changes made by the user are shown immediately in the working copies of the databases. Design changes made by other users during your current PDMS session will not be shown in your working copies unless they are updated explicitly. Updating these databases may be achieved by: Clicking the Get Work button on the Default Toolbar Selecting Design > Get Work from the main menu. Entering GETWORK in the Command Window. .

All databases to which the user has Read access will be updated by the Get Work operation, whereas the Save Work operation affects only those databases to which the user has Write access.

3.12 Undo and Redo


Undo and Redo commands are available from the Edit menu on the main menu or from buttons on the Model Editor toolbar. It is important to understand that these buttons will only undo or redo database changes, unless in Model Editor Mode, i.e. if a position or orientation of an element is modified or an element is added or deleted, these are database changes, whereas, changing the display colour of an element is not a database change. There is no limit to the undo or redo within a Design session, however, any Save Work or Get Work commands issued will clear the undo and redo stacks, i.e. it is not possible to undo beyond the last Save Work. Refer to Chapter 8, Introduction to Model Editor, for information on the use of Undo and Redo in Model Editor Mode.

3.13 Leaving PDMS


To leave a PDMS session select Design > Exit from the main menu. If changes have been made to the databases a Question alert message is displayed asking whether the changes are to be saved or not. Clicking the Yes button saves the changes and exits PDMS, clicking the No button doesnt save the changes and exits PDMS and clicking the Cancel button aborts the exit command.

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Where no changes have been made to the databases a Confirmation alert is displayed. Clicking the Yes button exits PDMS and clicking the No button aborts the exit command.

3.14 Documentation and Help


Clicking the AVEVA Plant Suite 12.1 Help icon in the Start menu icons, displays the User Documentation 12 Series form.

All product documentation can be accessed by using the form menu system, for example:

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Clicking the desitred entry from the menu system opens a separate window containing the document and various controls including Contents, Search and Favorites tabs.

A printable PDF version of the document may be obtained by clicling the Printable version link label on the documentation page. The document may be navigated by expanding the tree structure in the Contents tab and selecting appropriate entries or clicking the forward an backwards arrows on the document page . The Search tab enables the document to be searched for key words.

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Pressing the F1 key whilst in a PDMS module opens a relevant document in a similar window to that show above, depending on the current module. The Contents, Search and Favorites tabs are available.

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Exercise 1
Entering PDMS Double click the Plant Design 12.1 desktop icon or select Start > All Programs > AVEVA Plant > Design > PDMS 12.1SP2 > Design from the Start menu to display the Design login form.

The Trainer may supply different login details to the following. Click the Project button to display the Project list and select the Training project.

The list will dismiss and the project name will be displayed on the Design login form.

Click the down arrow button on the right hand side of the Username combo box to display the Username list. Select the A.EQUIPMAN (A.EQUIPMAN) entry from the list. The list will dismiss and the user name will be displayed on the Design login form.

Enter A (in upper case) in the Password textbox and press the Return key.

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Click the down arrow button on the right hand side of the MDB option list to display the MDB list. Select A.EQUIPMENT (MDB for Design User A.EQUIPMENT Department) The list will dismiss and the MDB name will be displayed on the Design login form.

Left click the Login button to enter PDMS.

The Splash Screen is displayed while PDMS is loading. After a short time PDMS is opened with the default screen layout:

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Manipulating the Display Many of the forms and menus can be positioned, resized and docked on the screen as required. These positions will be remembered for the next time the user enters AVEVA PDMS. The windows are moved and docked using standard windows mouse techniques. Click the + icon next to Design Worl * in Design Explorer to open up the top level explorer tree. Click and hold with the left mouse button on the Design Explorer title bar and move the cursor to undock the form. Note the displayed docking icons. Try docking the Design Explorer in various positions. Select Display > Members from the main menu to display the Members form. Resize the form by dragging the edges/corners as required and move it to a suitable location, noting that it is not a dockable form, i.e. the docking icons are not displayed when it is moved. Click the Control > Close option from the form menu on the Members form. Right click in the empty area to the right of the main menu to display the list of available toolbars, noting the ones that are checked, i.e. displayed. Select the Positioning Control option and note the appearance of the toolbar, although it is inactive. Click and hold with the left mouse button over the left hand edge (four vertical dots) to display the standard Windows move icon. Drag the toolbar onto the 3D graphics view. Try docking different toolbars around the edges of the display. Accessing Applications The default application in Design is the General application. Other Design module applications are accessed from the main menu. Click the Design item on the main menu with the left mouse button to display the menu options. Move the pointer to highlight the Equipment item on the menu and then select by clicking the left mouse button. The Equipment application is loaded, as indicated by the main window banner. Note the change in the main menu and toolbars. These are specific items for the Equipment application. Select other applications from the Design menu and note the changes in the main menu and toolbars. Setting Up Training Data Ensure the Equipment application is selected. Select Utilities > Training Setup from the main menu to display the Training Setup form.

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Navigate to the Foundations tab then select the Add TRA SITE checkbox, click the Apply button, then close the form. Note that the Design Explorer updates to show the TRA Site. The site is automatically added to the 3Dview.

Navigating the Hierarchy In Design Explorer click on the icon adjacent to the TRA.SITE entry and note how the tree view expands to show the ZONEs owned by the SITE. Expand the ZONE entries to show the members of each ZONE and note the element types contained within. Expand some of the different element types in the ZONEs to see what type of elements they own. Click on each of the PIPE elements in the ZONE to make each one the current element. Left click on the down arrow adjacent to the left arrow on the History toolbar to display the list of previously current elements.

With the list open press the P key and highlight the first entry in the list. Press the P key several times and note that the list steps through the entries whose name begins with P. Use the Forward and Backwards arrows and their associated history list to navigate in Design Explorer. Collapse the Design Explorer tree by clicking the icon next to the Design WORL * entry. Select the Piping entry in the Design Explorer filter options list with the left mouse button and left click the Filter checkbox to activate it. This will expand the Design Explorer tree.

Double left click the PIPE.ZONE, then pipe2, followed by pipe2-b1. Note that all of the pipe components are displayed. Navigate to the the EQUIP.ZONE. Expand the zone hierarchy, then the hierarchy of PUMP1. Note that only the nozzle elements are displayed as they relate to piping. The Members list can be used to view the other primitives that make up PUMP1. Expand the STRUC.ZONE and the TANK2-STRU element. Note that no members are shown below the FRMW level as no elements relate to piping. The Members list can again be used to view the other primitives that make up the framework. Use the Equipment and Structural filters and note the resulting display in the Design Explorer for different element types. Copying Elements with Design Explorer Right click on TANK1 in Design Explorer to make it the CE and display the pop-up menu. Select the Copy option. Right click on TANK2 to display the pop-up menu again, this time selecting the Paste option. Note that a copy of TANK1 has been created and named Copy-of-TANK1, after the CE, i.e. TANK2. Right click on PIPE.ZONE and select Paste from the pop-up menu. Note that a further copy of TANK1, named Copy-(2)-of-TANK1, has been created in the different ZONE.

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Hold down the Ctrl key and click and hold down with the left mouse button on PUMP1 in the Design Explorer. Drag the pointer down the explorer, still holding down the Ctrl key and the left mouse button, and note the displayed line. When the line is displayed below Copy-of-TANK1, simultaneously release the Ctrl key and the left mouse button. Note that a copy of PUMP1, named Copy-of-PUMP1 has been created at the selected position. Deleting Elements Make Copy-of-TANK1 the CE. Click on the Delete CE button on the main menu and click the Yes button on the subsequent confirmation message. Right click on Copy-(2)-of-TANK1. Select Delete from the pop-up menu and click the Yes button on the subsequent confirmation message. Make Copy-of-PUMP1 the CE. Select Delete > CE from the main menu and click the Yes button on the subsequent confirmation message. Click the Undo button on the Model Editor Toolbar. The last deletion is undone and the element Copyof-PUMP1 is restored to Design Explorer. In the Command Window enter DELETE EQUI and press the Return key. Note that there is no confirmation message of the deletion.

If the Command Window is not already displayed select Display > Command Window from the
main menu. Multiple Design Explorers Right click on the EQUIP.ZONE element in Design Explorer to make it the CE and display the Design Explorer pop-up menu. Select the New Explorer > /EQUIP.ZONE option. Note that a new Explorer, labelled EQUIP.ZONE Explorer(1) is created. In the newly created explorer expand the EQUIP.ZONE then right click on PUMP1. From the pop-up menu and again select the New Explorer > /PUMP1 option to create another explorer labelled PUMP1 Explorer(2). Left click TANK1 in the main Design Explorer and note that it highlights the element in that explorer and in the EQUIP.ZONE explorer. Left click on PUMP1 in the main Design Explorer and note that it is highlighted in all three explorers. Close the two additional design explorers. Saving Work Remove the TRA site from the 3D view by typing REM ALL in the Command Window. Click the Save Work button on the Default Toolbar or select Design > Save Work from the main menu.

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CHAPTER 4

Displaying Modelled Elements

This chapter describes how to view the required model elements; set the view limits and set the viewing direction. In order to view the design in a 3D View, the basic things to consider are: Which elements are required to be viewed, i.e. Building the Drawlist. Scaling the required elements to fit the 3D View, i.e. Setting the View Limits. Which direction are the elements to be viewed from, i.e. Setting the View Direction.

4.1

Building the Drawlist

PDMS uses the concept of a Drawlist, that is, a list of database elements to be displayed. All elements in the Drawlist must exist in the databases, i.e. they can be seen in Design Explorer. However, not all database elements need be in a Drawlist, thus making the Drawlist a very powerful tool for viewing the model. Before any element can be displayed in a 3D View it must be added to a Drawlist. The Drawlist may consist of a single element (e.g. an EQUI), a number of items (e.g.an EQUI and some PIPEs), a complete SITE, or the whole model. When elements are added to a Drawlist, any element that is a member of the added element, i.e. elements owned by the added element, are also added to the Drawlist. Elements may be added or removed from a Drawlist at any time during a Design session.

4.1.1

Populating the Drawlist Form

Right clicking on the Pick Object to Hide or Right Click for Drawlist Options button on the left hand side of the 3D View displays the Drawlist Options pop-up menu. Selecting the Drawlist option displays the Drawlist form:

Elements may be added and removed from the Drawlist in several ways, as described in the following sections. If elements are added to the Drawlist, by any method, that are already present in the Drawlist, they are not added again.

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4.1.1.1 By Drag & Drop from Design Explorer


Elements may be dragged from the Design Explorer and dropped into a 3D View. Clicking an element in the Design Explorer with the left mouse button, which makes it the CE, and dragging it into a 3D View populates the Drawlist. If the CE is a component or primitive the owning element is added to the 3D View. However, if the Ctrl key is pressed during the drag operation, only the component or primitive will be added to the 3D View. If the added elements are the first elements to be added to an empty Drawlist, the display zooms to the limits of the elements. Subsequent additions to the Drawlist do not affect the limits of the display.

4.1.1.2 From the Default Toolbar


The Default Toolbar contains two buttons, one for adding elements to the Drawlist and one for removing elements. Clicking the Add CE to Drawlist button will add the current element to the Drawlist and the 3D View. Clicking the Remove CE from Drawlist will remove the current element from the Drawlist and the 3D View.

4.1.1.3 From Design Explorer

Clicking the CE in Design Explorer with the right mouse button displays the Design Explorer popup menu, as described earlier in this training guide. The 3D View option has a sub-menu that has the following options:

Add this option adds the CE to the 3D View, with all the elements it owns.

If the CE is a primitive, the owning element is added to the 3D View.

Add Only this option adds only the CE to the 3D View. Add Connected this option adds the CE and any elements connected to it to the 3D View. How elements are connected varies depending on the discipline and is outside the scope of this training guide. Refer to specific discipline training guides for element connectivity. Add Within Volume this option adds the CE and any elements that are partially or wholly within a volume box whose size is derived from the extremities of the CE to the 3D View.

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Remove this option removes the CE from the 3D View, with all the elements it owns.

If the CE is a primitive, the owning element is removed from the 3D View.

Remove Only this option removes only the CE from the 3D View. Highlight this option highlights the CE in the designated highlight colour. Another element needs to be made the CE before the highlighting is displayed; this is because the designated CE colour is dominant. Element colours are detailed in Chapter 5 - Working with 3D Views. Unhighlight this option un-highlights the CE.

4.1.1.4 From the Command Window


Entering ADD CE in the Command Window will add the current element to the Drawlist and the 3D View. Names may also be used to explicitly add named elements to the Drawlist, e.g. ADD /EQUIP will add the Zone named /EQUIP while ADD /E1301 /C1101 /D1201 will add all the named elements. The element type may also be used with the syntax, i.e. ADD ZONE while the CE is the Zone or any member of the Zone will add the Zone to the Drawlist Similarly, entering REM CE in the Command Window removes the current element from the Drawlist and the 3D display. The same syntax can be used to remove one or more named elements or the element type. Entering REM ALL in the Command Window removes every element from the Drawlist and empties the 3D View.

Whichever method is used to populate the Drawlist, the form updates (refreshes) automatically providing the Track changes checkbox is checked. If it is not checked the Drawlist will not update with changes to the Drawlist until the checkbox is checked.

4.1.2

Using the Drawlist Form

The Drawlist is a re-sizable and dockable form that has many features to help control the Drawlist for a 3D View. The form has, essentially three areas as described in the following sections.

4.1.2.1 Tabs and Grid Gadgets


The top part of the form consists of three tabs, each of which has a grid gadget: The Drawlist tab displays all the elements currently in the Drawlist. The Graphical Selection tab displays all elements in the current graphical selection. The Primitives tab displays the primitives of an element selected from the Drawlist tab list. The tab header changes to Primitives of /nnnn, where nnnn is the name of the element, when an element is selected from the Drawlist tab. If more than one element is selected in the Drawlist tab, the first primitives of the first element selected will appear in the Primitives tab and the tab title appropriately changed. The grid gadgets in each tab have the same functionality. Each grid has two columns showing the element Name, either an explicit name or the system generated name, and the element Type.

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The grid entries may be grouped, sorted and filtered to suit the users requirements, as described below. Grouping

Dragging a column header with the left mouse button into the area labelled Drag a column here to group by that column groups the grid data by the chosen column. The groups may be expanded and collapsed by double clicking the group headers with the left mouse button or using the + and buttons respectively adjacent to the group headers.

Sorting The grid data can be sorted alpha-numerically, either ascending (default) or descending, by clicking the column header with the left mouse button. Once clicked a small icon is displayed in the right hand side of the column header to indicate ascending and descending. The grid data may only be sorted on one column at a time.

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Filtering Placing the cursor in the empty top row of the grid displays the filter mechanism.

Clicking the down arrow on the filter mechanism displays a list of all the entries in the grid column. Checking and unchecking the checkbox adjacent to each entry will toggle the display of the entry in the grid.

Placing the cursor over the Text Filters option displays a sub-menu with the text filtering opeartors. Clicking the desired operator entry displays the Custom Filter form.

The required filtering text is entered in the text box adjacent to the operator. Additional filters may be added by clicking the Add button and following the same process. Once more than one filter is defined the Delete button is active.

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Clicking the OK button on the Custom Filter form filters the Drawlist grid accordingly. The grid data may be filterted on more than one column and filtered data may be sorted, as described above. Filters are removed by clicking the clear button at the top right hand corner of the column. If more than one column is filtered each column filter must be removed separately.

4.1.2.2 Drawlist Pop-up Menu


Clicking with the right mouse button on any element in any of the tab grids displays the Drawlist pop-up menu which has the following options:

More than one element may be selected from the grid tabs using the Ctrl or
Shift keys in combination with the left mouse button, as in standard Windows operations. Navigate To this option navigates to the element, selected in the list, in the Design Explorer, effectively making it the current element. Where more than one element is selected this option navigates to the first one in the list. Hide this option hides the selected element(s) from the 3D View. The elements are not removed from the Drawlist, only removed from the graphics display. The Show checkbox in the Display Settings area of the form is unchecked. Show this option shows the selected elements(s) in the 3D View, if they have been hidden. The Show checkbox in the Display Settings area of the form is checked. Remove this option removes the selected element(s) from the Drawlist. Add to My Data this option adds the selected element(s) to My Data. Export to Excel this options opens the Save Drawlist to Excel browser, enabling the grid contents to be saved to a .xls file.

4.1.2.3 Select, Add and Remove buttons


Below the tabs and grid gadgets on the Drawlist form are three buttons that perform the following functions: This button selects the CE, as shown in Design Explorer, in the selected tab list and highlights the entry. If the CE is not in the selected tab list then a warning alert form is displayed. This button adds the current element, as shown in Design Explorer, to the Drawlist. This may be a significant element, a component or a primitive. This button removes the selected row(s) from the Drawlist. The other tabs are updated automatically. This button is only enabled when one or more rows in any of the tab grids has been selected.
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4.1.2.4 Display Settings


The Display Settings area of the form enables single elements or multiple elements selected in the tab grids to have their visual properties in the 3D View modified.

When the display settings of a top level element in the Drawlist are modified, all lower level elements owned by the element are also modified, however, individual primitives may have their display settings changed from their owners colour by making a selection from the Primitives of <nnnn> tab.

The available settings are described below: If unchecked, the Show checkbox hides the selected item(s) in the 3D View. Checking the box displays the object in the 3D View, if hidden. The Colour button shows the colour of the selected element(s) and displays its colour name. If more than one element is selected the colour of the first element selected is shown, although the operation will change the colour of all selected elements. Clicking the Colour button displays the Colour form which displays the standard 50 PDMS colours. Any colour may be selected from the palette by clicking the required colour button. The name of the colour is displayed at the bottom of the form. When a colour is selected the Colour button on the Drawlist form is updated. The Colour form may then be dismissed. The selected elements on the Drawlist form will be displayed in the new colour.

The Translucency slider enables the translucency of elements to be modified. Setting the translucency of displayed elements allows other elements that are obscured in the display to be seen through the translucent element. The number next to the slider label shows the percentage of translucency for the selected item(s), i.e. 0% is a solid colour and 100% is completely transparent. The percentage may be set by dragging the slider with the left mouse button or by clicking the left (lower) or right (higher) arrow buttons at each end of the slider until the desired number is reached. If more than one element is selected the colour of the first element selected is shown, although the operation will change the colour of all selected elements

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If checked, the edges of the element(s) are displayed in the 3D View. This setting is often used with semi-translucent elements to ensure a clearer view of the element(s).

4.1.3

Additional Drawlist Functions

Other functions that affect the Drawlist and the visual properties of displayed elements are described in the following sections.

4.1.3.1 Pick Object to Hide Button

An object may be hidden, i.e. removed from the display but not from the Drawlist, by left clicking on the Pick Object to Hide button and selecting an element in the 3D View.

In a multi-pick sequence, say for defining a limits box graphically, an object requiring to be picked may be obscured by another element. Left clicking the Pick Object to Hide button sets the graphical view so that the next 3D object picked will be hidden. This has the effect of temporarily suspending any current multi-pick sequence and allowing the obscuring object to be picked. This will cause the picked object to be hidden whereupon the multi-pick sequence will be restored, allowing the user to complete the sequence

4.1.3.2 Drawlist Options Pop-up Menu

Right clicking on the Pick Object to Hide button on the left side of the 3D View displays the Drawlist Options pop-up menu. The following options are applicable to this chapter:

Show Last Hidden Object(s) this option re-shows the object(s) most recently hidden in the current session, providing they are still in the Drawlist. Show All Hidden Objects this option re-shows all objects hidden in the current session, providing they are still in the Drawlist. Show Hidden Objects - this option displays the Hidden Objects form that enables the user to select objects to re-show.

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The Hidden Objects form contains a grid gadget that displays all objects that are currently hidden. The objects may be grouped, filtered and sorted in the same way as the Drawlist form. The Show Objects button becomes active when a single selection or multiple selections are made. Left clicking the button re-shows the objects in the 3D View. The Refresh button updates the grid list. See Chapter 5, Working with 3D Views, for details of the remaining options.

4.1.3.3 Using the Element Pop-up Menu


Right clicking an element in the 3D View will display the element pop-up menu. The Hide option hides the graphical selection from the 3D View. The Remove from 3D View removes the graphical selection from the Drawlist and the 3D View. Refer to Chapter 5, Working with 3D Views, for information on graphical selections.

4.2

Setting the View Limits

In order to display items in the 3D View, whether it is a single item, a selection of items or an entire model, the elements have to be scaled to fit the view. Scaling of the items is performed automatically by PDMS once the limits of the items to be displayed are known. The limits of an item, or a selection of items, can be thought of as a box completely encapsulating the item(s) to be viewed.

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4.2.1

Using the View Control Buttons

The view limits may be manipulated using some of the View Control buttons on the left hand side of a 3D View. Left clicking the Limits CE & Options button sets the view limits to the current element. Clicking the Zoom to Selection button sets the view limits to the current graphical selection. If there is no current graphical selection the CE is used as the selection. Clicking the Walk to Drawlist button sets the view limits and centres the view to the contents of the Drawlist. Right clicking the Limits CE & Options button displays a sub-menu. The following options are applicable to setting the view limits. The other options will be explained later in this training guide.

Obstruction this option sets the view limits to the elements contained in the Obstruction List. This list is primarily used for clash detection but may be used for this purpose. Clipbox this option sets the view limits to the same co-ordinates as the current Clipbox, if defined. See section 5.8 for information on Clipping. Explicit - this option displays the Volume Design [1] form. This form enables a limits box to be set from a volume which is specified by defining two diagonally opposed corners of a 3D box. The From and To co-ordinates may be specified manually - by entering values in the text boxes graphically by selecting two elements from the Select form menu that has the following options: CE this option sets the limits box to the extremities of the CE. Owner this option sets the limits box to the extremities of the owner of the CE. Pick this option sets the limits box to the extremities of an element picked in the 3D View. Pick Owner this option sets the limits box to the extremities of the owner of an element picked in the 3D View. Restore this option restores the previous limits after a zoom. Look Explicit - this option looks in an explicitly defined direction Refer to Chapter 5, Working with 3D Views.

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4.2.2

Using the View Menu


Selecting either View > Zoom To or View > Walk To from the main menu displays a sub-menu whose options set the view limits. Selection this option sets the view limits to the current graphical selection or to the CE if there is no current graphical selection. Identify Element - this option enables an element to be selected graphically from the 3D View. In this case, the selected element does not become the CE. Entire Draw List this option sets the view limits to the extremities of the entire Drawlist. Walk To differs from Zoom To in that it removes items between the eye position and the target item that are not in the immediate vicinity of the target item. Items in the immediate vicinity of the target will continue to be displayed, so it may be necessary to remove items still obscuring the target item by removing them from the Drawlist.

4.2.3

Using the 3D View Pop-up Menu


Right clicking in any blank area of a 3D View, i.e. the cursor is not over a element, displays the 3D View pop-up menu. The menu contains Zoom To and Walk To options, with sub-menus, as described for the View menu on the main menu. The other options on this menu are described elsewhere in this training guide.

4.2.4

Using the Element Pop-up Menu


Right clicking an element in the 3D View will display the element pop-up menu. The menu contains Zoom To and Walk To options that use the current graphical selection. Refer to Chapter 5, Working with 3D Views for information on graphical selections.

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4.3

Setting the View Direction

Although the model may be viewed form any direction, functionality is provided for setting the viewing direction to pre-defined and explicit directions and is described in the following sections.

4.3.1

Using the View Menu

The following options on the View menu relate to setting the view direction: View > Look The Look option sub-menu contains the six cardinal viewing directions. Selecting a direction views the contents of the 3D View in that direction, i.e. selecting North views the model from the South, looking North.

View > Plan The Plan option sub-menu contains four cardinal directions. Selecting a direction displays a plan view of the model with the selected direction pointing up in the 3D View.

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View > Isometric The Isometric option sub-menu contains four pre-set isometric view directions. Each direction corresponds to North towards bottom right, top right, top left and bottom left of the 3D View.

4.3.2

Using the 3D View Pop-up Menu

Right clicking in any blank area of a 3D View, i.e. the cursor is not over a element, displays the 3D View pop-up menu. The menu has the same Look, Plan, and Isometric options (and functionality) as those found under the main View menu.

The current viewing direction is displayed in the Status bar on a 3D View:

A direction of n90d, i.e. North 90 Down, is the default viewing direction and is the direction obtained when selecting Plan > North. A direction of e45n35d, i.e. East 45 North 35 Down, is the direction obtained when selecting Isometric > Iso 3.

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Exercise 2
Building the Draw List Right click on the Select Object to Hide or Right Click for Drawlist Options button on the left side of the 3D View and select the Drawlist option from the pop-up menu to display the Drawlist form. Dock the Drawlist on the bottom of Design Explorer. Note that the Drawlist is empty as no components have been added to the 3D View. Make sure the Track changes checkbox at the top right of the Drawlist form is checked. In Design Explorer expand the TRA.SITE element to show the ZONE elements and expand the EQUIP.ZONE element. Highlight the equipment item TANK1 and Drag and Drop it into the 3D View. Note that the equipment element has been added to the 3D View and the view limits adjusted to the element. Highlight the equipment item PUMP1 in Design Explorer and click the Add CE to Drawlist button from the Default Toolbar to add the equipment to the Drawlist. Right click the EQUIP.ZONE element in Design Explorer to display the Design Explorer pop-up menu. Select 3D View > Add from the sub-menu to add the ZONE to the Drawlist. Note that only the equipment element TANK2 has been added to the Drawlist. As the other equipment items owned by the EQUI.ZONE were already in the Drawlist only the remaining equipment item has been added. TANK2 cannot be seen in the 3D View as the display limits were set around TANK1. Click the Walk to Draw List button on the left side of the 3D View. The limits are now set to all of the equipment elements. Right click on TANK1 in Design Explorer and select 3D View > Add Connected from the sub-menu. This will add pipe1-b1 to the 3D View as the pipe is connected to the equipment item. Right click on TANK2 in Design Explorer and select 3D View > Add Within Volume from the pop-up menu. This adds pipe2-b1 and some of the Section (SCTN) elements that make up the TANK2 supports to the 3D View as they are within the volume of the equipment item. Make the PIPE.ZONE element the Current Element (CE) by left clicking it in Design Explorer and click the Add CE to drawlist button on the Drawlist form to add the remainder of the pipe branches to the 3D View. If the Command Window is not displayed, select Display > Command Line from the main menu. Make the STRUC.ZONE the CE and in the Command Window enter ADD CE and press the Return key. Add the CIVIL.ZONE to the Drawlist using any method.

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The 3D View should now look similar to this:

Setting the View Limits Clear the Drawlist by left clicking the top entry in the Drawlist form grid, holding down the Shift key and left clicking the bottom entry in the grid, using the scroll bar if necessary, to highlight all Drawlist entries (alternatively left click on any item in the grid and then press the Ctrl and A buttons to select all entries). Right click in the grid to display the Drawlist pop-up menu and select the Remove option. Add the TRA.SITE to the Drawlist and remove the EQUI.BASE element by right clicking on it in the 3D View to make it the CE and display the element pop-up menu and selecting the Remove from 3D View option. Select View > Walk To > Entire Draw List from the main menu and note that the elements in the Drawlist now fill the 3D View. Right click on TANK1 in the 3D View to make it the CE (check in Design Explorer) and display the element pop-up menu. Select the Walk To option from the menu and note that the equipment element now fills the 3D View. Left click on any visible part of PUMP1 in the 3D View to make it the CE and left click the Zoom to Selection button on the left side of the 3D View. Note that the pump now fills the view. Display the entire Drawlist again by right clicking anywhere in a blank area of the 3D View to display the 3D View pop-up menu and select the Walk To > Entire Draw List entry. Navigate to TANK2 in Design Explorer to make it the CE and right click the Limits CE & Options button on the left side of the 3D View. Select the Explicit option from the pop-up menu to display the Volume form. Select the Select > CE option from the form menu and note the volume box that is displayed around the extents of TANK2. Click the Apply button to set the view volume. The equipment item now fills the 3D View. Click the Dismiss button to clear the volume box and dismiss the form.

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Setting the View Direction Add the EQUI.BASE element to the Drawlist and click the Walk to Draw List button to view the entire Drawlist contents. Note the view direction in the Status bar in the bottom left corner of the 3D View. It should read n 90 d, i.e. North 90 Down, a plan view with the North direction going up the 3D View. Select View > Isometric > ISO 3 from the main menu. Note the change in the view direction on the Status bar. Right click anywhere in a blank area of the 3D View to display the 3D View pop-up menu. Select Isometric > Iso 1, Iso 2 and Iso 4 in turn, noting the change to the 3D View and the view direction in the Status bar. Select View > Look > North from the main menu to display the southern elevation of the model. Note that the view direction has changed to n, i.e. North. Select different options from either the View > Look menu on the main menu or 3D View pop-up menu, noting how the view changes. Select View > Plan > North from the main menu. Note that the view direction has changed to n 90 d, the default viewing direction. Select the different options from either the View > Plan menu on the main menu or 3D View pop-up menu. Save Work.

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CHAPTER 5

Working with 3D Views

The previous chapters have introduced the concept of the 3D View, described how to display model elements and control the content, view limits and viewing direction of a 3D View. This chapter describes additional functionality of 3D Views including modes of operation, graphical selections, multiple, local and clone views, model manipulation, model representation, view clipping, colours and graphical settings.

5.1

Modes of Operation in 3D Views

3D Views in Design may be used in one of three modes of operation: Navigate Mode (default setting) in this mode 3D Views allow an element to be selected simply by clicking on it, which navigates to it in the database and makes it the CE. In this mode, the prompt bar across the top of the 3D View contains the prompt Navigate:. Event Driven Graphics (EDG) Mode in this mode mouse pointer picks are used as part of an event driven graphics routine. The user is invited to perform a graphical pick on an element or a graphical feature in the displayed model. The prompt bar contains an instruction which prompts the user to perform a graphical selection. Model Editor Mode - in this mode one or more selected elements can be moved or rotated dynamically by dragging with the mouse pointer. The prompt bar contains the prompt Modify.

Model Editor Mode cannot be entered whilst in EDG mode, and vice versa.

Refer to Chapter 8, Introduction to Model Editor, for information on operations in Model Editor Mode.

5.2

Graphical Selections

Visible items in a 3D View may be grouped together to form a Graphical Selection which are used in a variety of ways in PDMS. Items that form a graphical selection are highlighted with a solid green line around the extremities of the constituent parts of the item(s). Items may be added to or removed from the current Graphical Selection by: selecting them individually. dragging a rectangular fence around items to be selected. using selection operations to select related groups of items.

5.2.1

Selecting Items Individually

Clicking on an item in the 3D View with the left mouse button makes it the CE and creates a new Graphical Selection containing that one item. The Ctrl key is used to add or remove items from the graphical selection: Holding down the Ctrl key and clicking on an unselected item will add it to the current Graphical Selection. Holding down the Ctrl key and clicking on a selected item removes it from the current Graphical Selection.

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5.2.2

Fence Selection

A group of items may be selected by using a fence selection which has two selection options: Wholly Within this option selects items that are entirely contained inside the rectangular boundary of a fence. Wholly and Partially Within this option selects both items that are entirely contained inside the rectangular boundary of a fence, and items that cross the boundary. The selection may be made by: Selecting Selection>Select Rectangle from the main menu and choosing from the sub-menu. Using the right mouse button to define the fence, see below. A fence is defined by clicking in an empty space in the 3D View, i.e. not with the cursor over an item, to specify one corner of the fence rectangle and then dragging the mouse pointer to the opposite corner of the rectangle and releasing the mouse button. Dragging the fence with the left mouse button selects the items in the fence, depending on the Within setting. Dragging a fence with the right mouse button displays a pop-up menu when the mouse button is released. The within option may be selected from the pop-up menu. The Cancel option aborts the fence selection process. Pressing the Esc key also aborts the fence selection. Holding down the Ctrl key, while making a fence selection, adds the selected item(s) to the current Graphical Selection, if the selected item(s) are not already part of it. Holding down the Shift key, while making a fence selection, removes the selected item(s) from the current Graphical Selection, if the selected item(s) are in it.

5.2.3

Clearing the Graphical Selection

Clicking in a blank space in the 3D View with the left mouse button clears the Graphical Selection.

Right clicking on one of the elements in the current Graphical Selection displays the element pop-up menu. Selecting the De-Select All option clears the Graphical Selection. Selecting De-Select Current removes the element that was clicked on from the current Graphical Selection.

5.2.4

Reinstating the Previous Graphical Selection

If a Graphical Selection has been lost accidentally by clearing the selection or by starting a new selection, the previous selection can be reinstated by selecting Edit>Re-Select from the main menu.

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5.3

Navigate to Element Button


affects the way graphical picking works in

The Navigate to Element button on the Utilities toolbar Navigate and EDG modes.

If the function is on, then in Navigate mode, selecting an equipment item will make the selected primitive the CE, rather than creating a Graphical Selection of the equipment item. It is not possible to create a Graphical Selection in Navigate mode with the Navigate to Element function on. Navigate to Element and Model Editor Mode are mutually exclusive. Model Editor Mode cannot be entered while Navigate to Element is on and the Model Editor button on the Utilities toolbar is greyed out. Whilst in Model Editor Mode, clicking the Navigate to Element button will exit Model Editor. Navigate to Element also affects the Navigation Level in the Equipment application. See TM-1104 Equipment Modelling training guide for details of the Navigation Level options in the Equipment application.

5.4

Multiple, Local and Clone Views

PDMS provides the ability to view the model in multiple 3D Views; however, the number of views will probably be limited by the physical size of your display device.

5.4.1

Multiple Views

Additional 3D Views may be created in two ways: Selecting Display > Graphical View from the main menu creates a new 3D View. Selecting Display > View Control from the main menu displays the 3D View Control form. The 3D View Control form enables 3D Views to be created, deleted, the background colour changed and graphical settings defaults made for new views. The list shows all of the current 3D Views. The views are numbered sequentially with the default view being labelled 3D View (1) and subsequent additional views would be labelled 3D View (2), 3D View (3), etc. These labels appear on the 3D View window header. See section 5.10.1 for information on changing these labels. New views are created by clicking the Create button in the New Views area of the form. The Settings button displays the Graphics Settings form whose functionality is described later in this chapter. Selecting one or more entries in the list activates the Background and Delete buttons. Clicking the Background button displays the Background Colour form from which a new background colour may be selected. The setting affects all 3D Views highlighted in the grid. Clicking the Delete button deletes all 3D Views highlighted in the list. No warning or confirmation alerts are given.

3D Views may also be deleted by clicking the Delete button on the top right of the 3D View Window.

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Right clicking in the grid displays a pop-up menu that contains the following options: Select All this option selects all the 3D Views in the grid list. Background colour - this option displays the Background colour form, as described earlier. Delete this option deletes all 3D Views highlighted in the grid list. All multiple views created in this way use the global Drawlist; therefore, any changes to the Drawlist contents or display settings will affect the content of all of the views. Each 3D View has a full set of view control buttons that apply only to that view. Each view also has its own prompt area and Status bar. The default 3D View and any newly created view initially fills the complete 3D View area so that the window frame cannot be seen. Left clicking the Restore button on the graphics window reduces the size of all of the 3D Views so that the window frames are displayed. The views may then be resized and positioned using standard Windows manipulation functionality. The 3D View windows may also be organised using standard Windows tiling and selection functionality. Only one 3D View may be active at any one time. The checkmark denotes the current view. A view may be made active by clicking anywhere in the view with the left mouse button. If the view window frames are displayed the active window is highlighted. The colours and style depend on the Windows display settings. A 3D View window may be re-sized to completely fill the 3D View area by left clicking the Maximise button 2D View Window

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5.4.2

Local Views
Selecting the New Local View of Selection option from the Drawlist Options pop-up menu creates a Local View of the current graphical selection. This may be done from any 3D View. A local view is like any other additional 3D View except that it has its own Drawlist, containing only those elements that are in the local view.

It is therefore possible to have a number of Drawlists apart from the global Drawlist. Only one Drawlist may be displayed at one time. If a Drawlist for a 3D View is displayed and another view is made active and the Drawlist for that view opened, it will replace the previously displayed Drawlist.

5.4.3

Clone Views
Selecting the New Clone View option from the Drawlist Options popup menu creates a Clone View of the current 3D View. This may be done from any 3D View. A Clone View uses the same Drawlist as the 3D View it was cloned from. This may be the global Drawlist or a local Drawlist, depending on how the original view was created.

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5.5

View Projection Mode

Objects in a 3D View may be viewed in a parallel projection or in perspective.

The view projection mode may be set by selecting View > Settings > Perspective from the main menu. If the Perspective option is unchecked the projection mode is set to Parallel. If the Perspective option is checked the projection mode is set to Perspective. Function keys F1 through F9 have specific uses in PDMS. The projection mode may also be toggled by pressing the F4 function key. The specific uses of the other function keys are described elsewhere in this chapter. The current view projection mode is displayed in the Status bar.

The majority of operations are normally carried out in parallel projection mode with perspective being reserved for creating realistic screen shots. However, all PDMS functionality will work in perspective mode.

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5.6

Zoom, Pan, Rotate and Walk

A 3D View may be interactively manipulated by zooming, panning, rotating and walking to achieve the desired view of the displayed items. Each of these modes is used by dragging the middle mouse button or using the scroll wheel.

5.6.1

Setting the Middle Mouse Button Options

The middle mouse button options may be set in a number of ways, as described in the following sections and may be accessed in the following ways: Using the View menu Selecting View > Middle Button Drag from the main menu displays a sub-menu where the middle mouse button drag mode may be set. The checkmark denotes the current mode.

The Walk option is greyed out as it is only available when the 3D View is in Perspective mode.

Using the 3D View pop-up menu Right clicking in a blank area of a 3D View displays the 3D View pop-up menu. The Middle Button Drag option displays a sub-menu from where the middle mouse button drag mode may be set. The checkmark denotes the current mode. Using the View Control buttons Left clicking the following View Control buttons on the left side of a 3D View perform sets the middle mouse button drag modes: Sets Zoom Rectangle mode Sets Zoom In/Out mode Sets Rotate mode Sets Pan mode Sets Walk mode Using the Function Keys The function keys that affect the middle mouse button drag mode are: F2 sets Zoom mode F3 sets Pan mode F5 sets Rotate mode F6 sets Walk mode

Zoom Rectangle mode is not available using the Function Keys.

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The current setting of the middle mouse button drag mode is displayed on the Status bar:

5.6.2

Zoom

Zooming in a 3D View may be performed in the following ways: Zoom Rectangle with the middle mouse button drag mode set to Zoom Rectangle, clicking and holding down the middle mouse button in the 3D View and moving the mouse to drag a rectangle will zoom to the extents of the rectangle when the button is released. The rectangle may be started from any corner. Zoom In/Out with the middle mouse button drag mode set to Zoom In/Out, clicking and holding down the middle mouse button anywhere in the 3D View and moving the cursor up the screen will zoom in and moving the cursor down the screen will zoom out. Using the Scroll Wheel

Scrolling the wheel forward will zoom in and scrolling the wheel backwards zooms out. Zooming with the scroll wheel can be performed in any of the middle mouse button drag modes; however, it is much coarser than zooming with the middle mouse button drag.

5.6.3

Pan

Panning enables the contents of the 3D View to be moved across the view in any direction. With the middle mouse button mode set to Pan, clicking and holding down the middle mouse button anywhere in the 3D View and moving the cursor in any direction will pan the view. The view will pan in the opposite direction to the mouse movement and in direct correlation to the amount the cursor is moved. The 3D View may also be effectively panned by Setting the Centre of Interest. Positioning the cursor anywhere in the 3D view and clicking the middle mouse button will move the selected point to the centre of the view, thus effectively panning the view. Thus, the view may be panned in any direction by selectively picking a point in the view and clicking the middle mouse button. The view will pan by the distance between the picked point and the centre of the view. Keeping the cursor in the same location and repeatedly clicking the middle mouse button will keep panning the view.

5.6.4

Rotate

The contents of the 3D View may be rotated around a vertical or horizontal axis running through the centre of the view. The view may only be rotated around one axis at a time. The rotation may be achieved in two ways: Using the middle mouse button - with the middle mouse button mode set to Rotate, clicking and holding down the middle mouse button anywhere in the 3D View and moving the mouse left or right across the view will rotate the view contents around the vertical axis. Moving the mouse up or down the view will rotate the view contents around the horizontal axis. Using the 3D View Borders selecting View > Settings > Borders from the main menu toggles the display of rotation sliders at the bottom and right hand side of the 3D View. The rotation sliders may also be toggled by pressing the F9 function key. 78

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The sliders are operated by dragging the orientation indicator with left mouse button. Dragging the bottom slider will rotate the contents of the 3D View around the vertical axis and dragging the right hand slider will rotate the contents of the 3D View around the horizontal axis.

5.6.4.1 Rotation Modes


Using the concept of an eye and a target, PDMS has two modes for rotating in a 3D View: Model Mode this mode rotates the eye around the target. In actuality it appears as though the model is rotating; however, it is the eye moving around the target. Eye Mode this mode rotates the target around the eye. This has a very different effect to that of model mode and the model can quickly disappear from the 3D View. The rotation mode may be set by selecting View > Settings > Eye from the main menu.

If the Eye option is unchecked the rotation mode is set to Model. If the Eye option is checked the rotation mode is set to Eye. The rotation mode may also be toggled by pressing the F7 function key. The current rotation mode is displayed in the Status bar.

5.6.5

Walk

Walk through mode enables the eye point move towards or away from the model, and is only available if the3D View is in Perspective viewing mode. With the middle mouse button drag mode set to Walk, clicking and holding down the middle mouse button anywhere in the 3D View and moving the mouse up the screen walks the eye point forward, i.e. towards the model, and moving the mouse down the screen walks the eye point backwards, i.e. away from the model.

5.6.6

Controlling Speed of Operation

The speed of manipulating the model with the middle mouse button drag options will largely depend on the amount of data being displayed and the speed of the hardware, particularly the graphics card, being used. However, the speed of zooming, panning, rotating and walking can be affected in the following ways: Holding the Ctrl key down while dragging will increase the speed of the operation Holding down the Shift key while dragging will decrease the speed of the operation

The speed of the Zoom Rectangle function is not affected by the Ctrl or Shift keys.

The speed indication is displayed in the Status bar.

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5.7

Setting the View Centre

Selecting any of the Walk To and Zoom To options, either from the View menu or 3D View pop-up menu, or clicking the Walk To Draw List and Zoom to Selection buttons in the 3D View will set the centre of the view to the relevant selection. The view centre may also be set on a selection, an identified element or a screen pick. Selecting View > Set Centre of View from the main menu or the Set Centre Of View option from the 3D View pop-up menu displays identical sub-menus, whose options are: Selection this option centres the view on current Graphical Selection, if on exists, or the CE if not. Identify Element - this option centres the view on an identified element. The element is identified by left clicking on it in the 3D View.

Selecting an element in this way does not make it


the CE. Screen Pick - this option allows a position to be identified in a 3D View to become the centre of view. The position is picked by left clicking anywhere in the view. Clicking in the 3D View with the middle mouse button also performs this operation. Left clicking on the Centre on Selection button , on the left side of a 3D view, sets the view centre to the current Graphical Selection, if one exists, or the CE if not.

5.8

Clipping
Clipping enables only those parts of the model which fall inside a clipping box or defined clipping planes to be displayed. Right clicking on the Clipping & Options button on the left side of a 3D View displays the Clipping Options pop-up menu that contains the following options: Enable this option controls whether the whole model or the clipped model is displayed in a 3D View. Selecting this option toggles clipping on and off, checking and un-checking the option on the menu. Left clicking the Clipping & Options button also toggles clipping on and off. The default setting for clipping is off.

Capped when clipping is used, only parts of the model inside the clipping box or planes are displayed. Where items are intersected by the clipping box or plane, this option enables a coloured cap to be added to show that the items extend beyond the displayed region. Selecting this option toggles capping on and off, checking and un-checking the option on the menu. The default setting for capping is off.

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Colour - this option sets the cap colour. The Clip Cap Colour form is displayed from which the cap colour may be selected.

CE this option sets the limits of the clipbox to the extents of the CE. The Clip CE button View performs the same function. Owner this option sets the limits of the clipbox to the extents of the owner of the CE.

on the 3D

Limits Box this option sets the clipbox limits to the dimensions of the explicitly defined Limits Box, if one exists. Refer to section 4.2.1 for information on explicitly defining a Limits Box. Pick Limits this option sets the extent of the clipping box to be defined by picking two opposing corners of a box. The corner positions are defined by graphically picking on the 3D View. Positioning options are controlled by the Positioning Control Toolbar. Refer to section 6.2.1 for details of the Positioning Control Toolbar. Explicit - selecting this option displays the Clipping Box form and activates the Positioning Control Toolbar. If a clipbox has previously been defined its dimensions and origin are shown on the form, if not, a default sized box is placed at the origin of the view.

The size of the clipbox may be specified by entering values in the appropriate text boxes. The position, i.e. the centre, of the clipbox may be specified by entering co-ordinates in the relevant text boxes or by graphically picking in the 3D View. Picking options are controlled by the Positioning Control Toolbar. The orientation of the clipbox may be specified by defining a plane through which it passes using the two buttons at the top of the Orientation section of the form or by editing the Y is and Z is text boxes. The extents of the clipbox may be modified by entering a +ve or ve value in the Extend clipped volume by text box. Clicking the Apply button enables the defined clip box. Planes - as an alternative to the clipbox, up to six individual planes may be defined to clip the model. The clipping planes feature and the clipbox are mutually exclusive, i.e. enabling one has the effect of disabling the other and clearing any related forms and aid graphics. Clipping planes may be at any angle, the direction of the plane considered to point into the area of interest.
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Selecting this option displays the Clipping Planes form. The Define clipping plane pull-down is used to select which plane (1-6) will be defined. Clicking the Pick button enables a clipping plane to be aligned with an item when picked in the 3D View. The Position and Direction fields are automatically filled in based on the position and orientation of the picked item. Once the position and direction of the plane are defined it can be enabled by clicking the Enable plane button. When selected the button is greyed out and the Disable plane button becomes active. Thus the plane can be enabled or disabled. If any manual modifications are made to the Position or Direction settings the Enable and Disable plane buttons are temporarily replaced by the Apply changes and Discard changes buttons. Once one of these buttons is selected the display reverts back to the Enable and Disable plane buttons.

When a plane is defined a labelled graphics aid arrow is displayed at the origin of the plane. The aid arrow is normal to the plane and points in the plane direction. The Reverse button will reverse the direction of the plane and update the displayed aid arrow and Direction text box. The location of the plane can be finely adjusted using the gadgets in the Slide plane out or in area of the form. The left and right arrow keys move the plane by increments of 50mm. An explicit value may be entered in the text box. A +ve value will move the plane in the direction of the aid arrow, i.e. in, and a ve value will move the plane in the opposite direction of the aid arrow, i.e. out. Dragging the slider with the left mouse button moves the plane in the indicated direction, i.e. In or Out, by the value displayed in the text box. The Tools form menu has the following options: Derive 6 planes from grid lines - this option displays the Clip from Grid form that enables the clip plane to be derived from grid lines. Derive 6 planes from clip box - this option uses the clipbox to define the six planes, e.g. following Clip CE and the manually adjusted. Clear all clip planes - this option displays a confirmation alert form for removal of all clip plane data.

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5.9

Additional View Menu Options

The View menu contains the following options in addition to those described earlier: Print Graphics- this option displays the standard Windows print dialogue and prints the contents of the current 3D View.

Copy Image this option displays a sub-menu with options for the resolution of the copied image. The contents of the current 3D View are copied as an image to the clipboard at the requested resolution and may be pasted into any document.

Save View this option displays a sub-menu that enables up to four views to be saved for each 3D View. Selecting a view number that already has a saved view overwrites the existing view with no confirmation alert.

Restore View this option displays a sub-menu from which a saved view may be restored on the current 3D View. Only saved view numbers are active on the sub-menu. Settings this option displays a sub-menu that has the following options that have not been described previously: Shaded this option toggles between a solid colour shaded and a wire-line view representation. Most operations in PDMS use a solid colour shaded view but occasionally it may be beneficial to work in wire-line mode. The shaded mode may also be toggled using the F8 function key. Black/White Background these options set the background colour of the current 3D View to black or white. High Quality this option can be used to toggle between high and standard quality images of the Design model. A high quality image is slower to draw and manipulate than a standard quality one.

Show Tooltips this option toggles the display of Tooltips for database elements. If enabled, the name of the element under the cursor in the 3D View is displayed in the tooltip.

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Animations - toggles smooth pan and zoom operations in the 3D view when the Zoom To or Walk To options are used. The pan or zoom operation is animated to show the transition from the original view definition to the final view definition. Animations only operate if the system determines that the hardware is capable of performing a smooth pan or zoom with the size of the model displayed in the 3D View.

5.10 Graphics Settings


Selecting Settings > Graphics from the main menu displays the Graphics Settings form. The form contains six tabs from which the majority of graphics settings can be made, including many that have been described earlier. Each tab is described in the following sections.

5.10.1 Graphics Settings 3D Views Tab


The 3D Views tab enables settings to be made that affect the 3D View. All of these settings, with the exception of the View Title, have alternative ways of being set that have been previously described in this training guide. The settings will take effect on any subsequently created views. Any current Views are not affected. The Title textbox contains the default 3D View title that is displayed on the View header. This default title may be changed by entering a new title in the text box. Each 3D View will still be identified a sequential number but it will be pre-fixed by the Title text.

5.10.2 Graphics Settings - Colour Tab


The General Colours frame of the tab enables colours used for specific purposes in a 3D View to be set. Clicking the colour button adjacent to the purpose label displays a colour form with buttons for the 50 standard PDMS colours. Selecting a colour button changes the button colour on the tab accordingly. Each colour form has a title describing the purpose it is setting.

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CE this button sets the colour of the current element in a 3D View. This colour overrides any other colour that may be set for the element. Active this button sets the colour of elements associated with the CE, e.g. if an equipment primitive is the CE then all other primitives owned by that equipment will be displayed in the active colour. Visible this button sets the colour of all other elements in the 3D View other than the CE and those elements with the active colour. This setting is only applied if Auto Colour rules are inactive. Aids this button sets the colour of the graphical aids used in PDMS. Highlight this button sets the highlight feedback colour, e.g. for highlighting elements to be deleted. Auto Colours are a set of rules that define the colours for different elements in a 3D View, e.g. pipe systems may be displayed in different colours according to the fluid code or equipment in different areas shown in different colours. Auto Colours are toggled on and off using the Auto Colour checkbox on the tab. The Dynamic Auto Colour checkbox controls the re-evaluation of an elements colour if the attribute that the colour is dependant on is modified. If enabled the colour will be changed dynamically if the attribute is changed and if disabled the colour will change when the element is next added to a Drawlist. Both of these settings are checked by default. The Auto Colour Rules button displays the Auto Colour Rules form, from which Auto Colour rules may be created, deleted and modified.

5.10.3 Graphics Settings Representation Tab


How items are represented in a 3D View is controlled from this tab. The Level area of the form shows the current display level for various item types in the model. The display level may be set by entering a valid display level number in the appropriate text box.

The PDMS default display level is 6.

The Tube and Centreline checkboxes are used for pipe components. In the piping catalogue, two representations for components are defined, detailed solid representation and a centreline representation. The checkboxes toggle the representation of the components in the 3D View.

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The Holes Drawn checkbox controls how negative elements are displayed in the 3D Views. PDMS does not fundamentally change the solid primitives from which items are created but modifies them with negative primitives that cut the solid primitives. The display of the negative primitives is controlled by the Holes Drawn checkbox. If disabled, any negative elements are displayed as black lines in a shaded view. If enabled, the negative primitives cut the primitives to show the holes.

The Insulation options list controls the display of insulation on Pipework, if any, as defined in the catalogue. The default setting is Off. Selecting Solid will display the insulation as a solid colour, however, a degree of translucency may be applied to the insulation, i.e. the pipe will be seen through the insulation, by selecting an appropriate percentage value from the options list. The Obstruction options list controls the display of obstruction volumes. The default setting is Off. Selecting Solid will display any obstruction volume as a solid element; however, a degree of translucency may be applied to the obstruction volume by selecting an appropriate percentage value from the options list. The Arc Tolerance value controls the representation of certain curves as polygon segments or faceting planes. The smaller the arc tolerance, the smoother the curve drawn, however, on very large models this may be an overhead on graphical performance.

The arc tolerance value may be set by entering a number in the text box. The default setting is 10 (mm) and the minimum setting is 0.1 (mm).

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5.10.4 Graphics Settings Steelwork Tab

The Steelwork tab controls the display of structural profiles and the display, size and colour of Primary and Secondary nodes for structural sections. The Display checkboxes toggle the display of the Nodes, the Size textboxes enable the size of the Nodes to be set and the Colour buttons enable the colour of the displayed Nodes to be set. Primary and Secondary Nodes are explained in TM-1101 Structural Modelling Training Guide.

5.10.5 Graphics Settings - Cabling Tab

The Cabling tab controls the display of cableway volumes, centreline representation, head/tail/route attachments and cable nodes. The Display checkboxes toggle the display of the attachments and nodes, the Size textboxes set the size of the attachments and nodes and the Colour buttons enable the colour of the displayed attachments and nodes to be set. Cabling attachment points and route nodes are explained in TM-1105 Cableway and Cabling Design.

5.10.6 Graphics Settings Plines and Ppoints Tab


The Plines & Ppoints tab controls the display of Plines (on structural profiles) and Ppoints (on primitives and piping, HVAC and cable tray components). The Display checkboxes toggle the display of the Plines and Ppoints and the Pkey and Numbers checkboxes control the display of the Pline name or Ppoint number respectively. The Length value determines the length of the displayed Plines or Ppoints. Plines are explained inTM-1101 Structural Modelling Training Guide. Ppoints on primitives are explained in TM-1104 Equipment Modelling Training Guide.

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The Graphics Settings form has a row of buttons along the bottom of the form that are applicable to all tabs. The buttons have the following functions: The Load button loads Graphics Settings from a previously saved file. The Save button saves the current Graphics Settings to a file. The OK button applies the form settings and dismisses the form. The Cancel button cancels any changes made and dismisses the form. The Apply button applies the form settings.

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Exercise 3
Multiple, Local and Clone Views Select Design > General from the main menu to select the General application.

All of the features described work in any Design application.

Select Display > Graphical View from the main menu to create a new 3D View. Note that the end of the main Window header bar now reads [3D View (2)], indicating that there are now two 3D Views. Select Window > Tile Vertically from the main menu to show both 3D Views. Select Display > View Control from the main menu to display the 3D View Control form. Note the two entries in the form list. Click the Settings button on the form to display the Graphics Settings form. Make sure the 3D View tab is current on the form and click the Background Colour button (the solid black button) to display the Background Colour form. Select any colour by left clicking on it and then click the Dismiss button on the form. Select the Apply button on the Graphics Settings form and then the OK button to dismiss the form. Click the Create button on the 3D View Control form to create a third 3D View. Note that the view has the selected background colour and fills the 3D View space. Select Window > Tile Vertically from the main menu to display all three 3D Views. Select the Drawlist option from the Drawlist Options popup menu in 3D View(2) and note that the Drawlist form title bar changes to reflect the active view. Repeat for 3D View(3). All three views have the same Drawlist content as they all use the Global Drawlist. Dismiss the Drawlist form. Click 3D View(3) entry in the 3D View Control form list and click the Delete button. Repeat this for 3D View(2) and then click the maximise button in the top right corner of 3D View(1). Close the 3D View Control form. Left click on TANK1 in the 3D View to make it the CE and the Graphical Selection, i.e. its primitives are bounded by a green line. Select the New Local View of Selection option from the Drawlist Options pop-up menu to create 3D View(2) that contains only TANK1. Click the Minimise button in the top right corner of 3D View(2) to reveal 3D View(1) and then maximise the view. Left click on TANK2 in the 3D View to make it the CE and the Graphical Selection. Hold down the Ctrl key and left click on the pipe coming out of the bottom of TANK2 to add it to the Graphical Selection. Note that the pipe is only highlighted up to the first elbow. Continue holding down the Ctrl key and click pipe just past the elbow to add it to the Graphical Selection. Keep adding the pipe components up to the flange just before the tee to the pump, as shown:

Select the New Local View of Selection option from the Drawlist Options pop-up menu to create 3D View(3) that contains TANK2, pipe1-b2 and pipe2-b1. Select the New Clone View option from the Drawlist Options pop-up menu to create 3D View(4) that is a clone of 3D View(3).

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Select Window > Tile Vertically from the main menu to display all four view. The layout should look something like this:

Manipulating 3D Views Delete 3D Views 2, 3 and 4 and maximise 3D View(1). Remove the CIVILS.ZONE from the Drawlist and set the view direction to Iso3. Select View > Middle Button Drag > Zoom Rectangle from the main menu. Drag a rectangle around TANK1 in the 3D View by clicking and holding the middle mouse button to the bottom left of the element and, keeping the middle mouse button held down, moving the pointer to the top right of the element. A rectangle will be rubber banded from the first point. Release the middle mouse button and the display will zoom to the rectangle limits. Click the Middle mouse button: Zoom In/Out button on the left side of the 3D View. Click and hold down the middle mouse button and move the pointer down the screen to zoom out. Move the pointer up the screen to zoom in. Rotate the scroll wheel in each direction and note that this has the same zoom effect, although the scroll wheel zoom is coarser. Right click in a blank area of the 3D View to display the pop-up menu and select the Middle Button Drag > Pan option. Note the change from Zoom to Pan in the Status area at the bottom left of the 3D View. Click and hold down the middle mouse button and move the pointer around the screen, noting the panning effect on the model. Click the middle mouse button with the pointer away from the centre of the 3D View to set the centre of interest, noting the panning effect of this action. Click the middle mouse button several times with the pointer in the same place to pan the view in the same direction. Click the Walk to Draw List button to recentre the displayed elements. Click the Middle mouse button: Rotate button on the left side of the 3D View, click and hold down the middle mouse button and move the pointer left and right across the screen to rotate the displayed elements around a vertical axis in the centre of the view. Release the middle mouse button and repeat the action but this time move the pointer up and down the screen to rotate the displayed elements around a horizontal axis.

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Press the F7 function key to set Eye in the Status area and repeat the rotate actions noting the difference from the Model setting. Press the F7 function key again to return to the Model setting. Press the F9 function key to display the rotation sliders on the bottom and right-hand side of the 3D View. Click and hold the left mouse button on the bottom slider and move the slider left and right to rotate the displayed elements around a vertical axis. Repeat the action with the right-hand slider, moving the pointer up and down to rotate the displayed elements around a horizontal axis. Press the F9 function key again to remove the sliders. Press the F4 function key to set the view projection mode to Perspective, noting the change in the Status area. Select View > Middle Button Drag > Walk from the main menu to set Walk mode. Click and hold down the middle mouse button and move the pointer up the screen to walk the eye point forward. Move the pointer down the screen to walk the eye point backwards. Press the F4 function key to set the view projection mode to Parallel. Click the Walk to Draw List button and set the view direction to Iso 3. Click on TANK2 in the 3D View to make it the Graphical Selection and select View > Set Centre of View > Selection from the main menu. Note that the view adjusts to move the equipment item at the centre of the view. Press the F5 function key to set Rotate mode and rotate the displayed elements, noting that the centre of rotation is TANK2. Left click anywhere in a blank area of the 3D View to remove the Graphical Selection. Click the Navigate to Element button on the Utilities Toolbar to activate it. Select Set Centre of View > Identify Element from the 3D View pop-up menu and select any primitive on the PUMP1 equipment item. Rotate the model and note the rotation centre. Select Set Centre of View > Screen Pick from the 3D View pop-up menu and left click anywhere in the 3D View. Note that the pointer location when the mouse button was clicked has moved to the centre of the view. Rotate the displayed elements. Clipping Click the Walk to Draw List button and set the view direction to Iso3. Make PUMP1 the CE and right click on the Limits CE & Options button on the left side of the 3D View and select the Explicit option from the pop-up menu to display the Volume form. Select the Select > CE option from the form menu, click the Apply button and then the Dismiss button. This has set the Limits Box to PUMP1. Zoom out the 3D View. Right click the Clipping & Options button on the left side of the 3D View and select the Limits Box option from the pop-up menu. Note that PUMP1 is the only element displayed as all others have been clipped. Right click the Clipping & Options button again, noting that the Enable option on the pop-up menu is checked, i.e. active. Select the Enable option to un-clip the 3D View and note the effect on the displayed elements. Click the Walk to Draw List button and right click the Clipping & Options button again and select the Explicit option from the pop-up menu to display the Clipping Box form. Enter the following values in the form: Xlength Ylength Zlength East North Up 1778 1556 3550 2711 7000 3350

Click the Apply button on the Clipping Box form and note that the 3D View has been clipped to TANK2 and some small part of its support steelwork. Click the Dismiss button on the form. Right click the Clipping & Options button again and select the Planesoption from the pop-up menu to display the Clipping Planes form. Select Tools > Derive 6 planes from clipbox from the form menu.

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Six independent clipping plans have now been derived. Clip Plane 1 is shown by default in the 3D View and its Position and Direction information is displayed on the form. Press the F8 function key to display the elements in wireline mode and note the displayed aid vector arrow which is normal to the clip plane. On the Clipping Planes form; open the Define clipping plane options list and select 6 from the list. Note that the aid vector arrow is now shown for Clip Plane 6. Press the F8 function button again toggle back to shaded mode. Right click the Clipping & Options button again and select the Colour option from the pop-up menu to display the Clip Cap Colour form. Select Green from the form palette and click the Dismiss button on the form. Right click the Clipping & Options button again and select the Capped option from the pop-up menu to activate capping. On the planes Clip form, with Clip Plane 6 as the current clipping plane, in the Slide plane out or in area of the form, enter 500 in the Slide by text box and press the Return key, noting that Clip Plane 6 has slid inwards by 500mm and capped the clipped cylinder in green. Select 3 from the Define clipping plane options list and use the left and right arrow buttons each side Nudge out or in label to adjust Clip Plane 3. Select 1 from the Define clipping plane options list and enter E 45 N in the Direction textbox, press the Return key and click the Apply changes button. Note that Clip Plane 1 has changed direction and affected the clipping. Left click and hold on the Out/In slider and move it to adjust Clip Plane 1. Click the Close button on the planes Clip form. Right click the Clipping & Options button again and select the Enable option from the pop-up menu to disable clipping. Saving and Restoring Views Click the Walk to Draw List button and set the view direction to Iso3. Select View > Save View > View 1 from the main menu. Modify the view by zooming, panning and rotating. Right click in the 3D view and select Save View > View 3 from the 3D View pop-up menu. Modify the view again by zooming panning and rotating. Select Restore View from the 3D View pop-up menu. Note in the pop up menu that Views 1 and 3 are displayed in black text, while Views 2 and 4 are displayed in grey text (no view associated). Restore View 3 by selecting Restore View > View 3 from the pop-up menu. Graphics Settings Click the Walk to Draw List button and set the view direction to Iso3. Select Settings > Graphics from the main menu to display the Graphics Settings form. Click on the Colour tab to make it current and click the Navigate to Element button to toggle it on. Zoom in to PUMP1 and left click on the cylinder that forms part of the pump motor. Note that the cylinder is now coloured yellow, the default CE colour, as shown in the Colour tab, but the rest of the primitives that make up the equipment are coloured orangered, the default Active colour, as shown on the Colour tab. Click the CE colour button on the Graphics Settings form to display the Current Element Colour form. Click on the brightred button, in the top right corner, to set the colour and click the Dismiss button on the Current Element Colour form. Click the Apply button on the Graphics Settings form and note that the cylinder is now coloured brightred. Click the Auto Colour checkbox on the Graphics Settings form to uncheck it, i.e. toggle the setting off, and note that the Dynamic Auto Colour checkbox is greyed out. Click the Visible colour button to display the Visible Element Colour form and select any colour. Click the Dismiss button on the form and then click the Apply button on the Graphics Settings form. To make this change to the displayed elements they must be removed from the Drawlist and added back to it. Right click on the TRA.SITE in Design Explorer and select 3D View > Remove from the pop-up menu. Add back the PIPE.ZONE, EQUIP.ZONE and STRUC.ZONE separately to the Drawlist and note that all elements are displayed in the new Visible colour.
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Click the Auto Colour checkbox on the Graphics Settings form to check it, i.e. toggle the setting on. Remove all elements from the Drawlist and add back the PIPE.ZONE, EQUIP.ZONE and STRUC.ZONE and note that they all now use the Auto Colour Rules, i.e. each type of element, equipment, pipes and structural components, are different colours. Click on the Representation tab to make it current. Click the Tube checkbox to uncheck it and click the Centreline checkbox to check it. Click the Apply button and note the change in representation of the piping elements, i.e. the only the pipe centrelines are drawn and valves have a schematic representation. Changes the settings back and click the Apply button again to change the representation. Zoom in to the top of one of the TANK2 support columns where the horizontal beams connect. Note the black lines and circles that represent negative extrusion that cut-back the steel beams and make holes in the columns for bolted joints. Click the Holes drawn checkbox to check it and click the Apply button. Note that the black lines and circles representing the negatives have disappeared and that the negatives have cut the steelwork. Zoom in further to the holes in the top of the column and note that the holes are faceted. Enter 1 in the Arc Tolerance textbox and click the Apply button. Note that the holes in the column are now more round in appearance. Zoom out from the column and zoom in on one of the valves in the model. Open the Obstruction options list, select the 50% option and click the Apply button. Note that semi-translucent shapes have appeared around parts of the valve. These represent the obstruction volumes for, say, hand wheel access, valve stem rise, etc. and are used for clash detection. Select the Off option from the Obstruction options list and click the Apply button to remove the obstruction volumes from the display.

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CHAPTER 6

6 6.1

Attributes, Positioning and Orientation Element Attributes

Every PDMS element has a fixed set of properties know as its attributes. Some attributes are common throughout the large range of elements, some are applicable to many elements and some are unique to one type of element. For some element attributes, appropriate values are set by the creation or modification of the element when modelling, whilst others may be set or entered by the user via the User Interface. For example, a cylinder primitive (CYLI) has the following attributes:

Attribute RefNo Name Type Lock Owner Purpose Position WRT Owner Orientation WRT Owner

Description The unique database reference number. The explicit element name or system generated element name. The type of element. May be displayed as the abbreviated name. May be set to True (locked) or False (unlocked). If locked, the element may not be modified or deleted. The name of the elements owning element. This attribute may be set if the element has a specific purpose. The position of the elements origin with respect to its owners origin. All primitives have an origin. The values of the coordinates are expressed in the current session units. See Appendix A for details of PDMS Primitives. The orientation of the components axis system with respect to its owners axis system. See section 2.7 for an explanation of axis systems. PDMS can produce different representations of an item, depending on how it has been modelled and the representation levels used. The Level attribute is expressed as a range of levels; however, only one display level (for certain element types) may be displayed at one time. 95

Level

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Obstruction Diameter Height Tmrref RepCount

The Obstruction attribute is used to declare whether an element may be considered solid or not. Obstruction values may be set to 2 (Hard), 1 (Soft) or 0 (No obstruction). This attribute is used in clash detection purposes. The diameter of the cylinder in the current session units. The height of the cylinder in the current session units. Template repeat reference. This is an advanced attribute applicable to primitives used with a repeat function in templates. Repeat Count. This is an advanced attribute applicable to primitives used with a repeat function in templates.

Only the Diameter and Height attributes describe the geometry of the cylinder. Other primitives will have specific attributes that describe their geometry.

For a list of element attributes, see the Data Model Reference Manual supplied with PDMS.

6.1.1

Pseudo Attributes

In addition to the standard set of attributes that all PDMS elements have, they also have a set of derived attributes known as Pseudo Attributes. The number of pseudo attributes varies depending on the element type. Pseudo attributes may be queried and used in expressions, say in reports, in the same way as fixed attributes. Examples of pseudo attributes are: Brweight Branch weight (in kg). Clle centreline length (of branch). Gcof Gross centre of gravity (position). Ncof Nett centre of gravity (position). Gwei - Gross weight (in kg). Nwei Nett weight (in kg). Cutl cut length (of structural profile). Tctl true cut length (of structural profile). For a list of pseudo attributes, see the Data Model Reference Manual supplied with PDMS.

6.1.2

User Defined Attributes

In addition to the standard element attributes and pseudo attributes, PDMS enables additional User Defined Attributes (UDA) to be assigned to one or more elements. The Lexicon module is used to create, modify and assign a UDA, a task which is normally performed by the System or Project Administrator. A UDA is just like any other attribute but may be specific to the company or the particular project. The setting of the UDA is normally made manually by the user, although it may have a default value. UDAs are prefixed by a colon which differentiates them from standard attributes. For example: :Manufacturer - User Defined Attribute Height - Standard Attribute

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6.1.3

Querying and Displaying Attributes

When working with PDMS there are numerous occasions when one or more attributes of a database element are required to be known, whether it be a standard attribute, a pseudo attribute or a UDA. PDMS provides two ways to query an elements attributes.

6.1.3.1 The Attributes Form


Selecting Display > Attributes, Query > Attributes or Modify > Attributes from the main menu or selecting the Attributes option from the Design Explorer pop-up menu, displays the Attributes form for the CE. The Attributes from is a re-sizeable and dockable form that displays, by default, the standard attribute data and any UDAs for the current element in a grid. The Track CE checkbox toggles the updating of the form when a different element becomes the current element. A Filter button is also displayed at the top right of the form. This allows users to see if any filters have been applied to the attributes displayed.

For further information relating to this button see the


Modify Category Filters option later in this section.

Right clicking in the grid displays the Attributes from pop-up menu. Some of the options are greyed out depending on the attribute the cursor was on when the right click was made. The pop-up menu has the following options: Navigate To this option is highlighted when the attribute has a reference that can be navigated to, i.e. Owner, Spref, Pspec, etc. Set Attribute Value to CE this option enables an attribute value to be set to tanother element in Design Exlorer, e.g. BendMcReference on a PIPE element. WRT Element this option enables certain attributes, e.g. Position and Orientation, to be set with respect to (WRT) other, pre-determined elements. By default, any elements that have Position and Orientation attributes are set to be with respect to their Owner.

This option has a sub-menu that displays the available elements that the WRT attributes can be set to. The contents of the sub-menu vary depending on the element displayed in the Attributes form.

The WRT setting affexts all attributes that have a WRT setting.
See sections 6.2 and 6.3 respectively for an explanation of position and orientation attributes. Display P-Points this option toggles the display of Ppoint data for elements that own Ppoints. Track CE this option toggles Check CE on and off. The checkmark is displayed when on.

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Categorised/Alphabetical this option displays the grid in categorised mode or alphabetical mode. The system defines the category that each attribute belongs to.

Expand Nodes this option expands all nodes, i.e. any attributes or categories with the them. Collapse Nodes this option collapses all nodes, i.e. any attributes or categories with the them.

icon next to icon next to

Modify Category Filters this option displays a form that enables categories of attributes to be displayed or hidden. This applies in both Categorised and Alphabetical mode. Clicking the Filter button at the top of the Attributes form will also display the category filter form. The type of button displayed will vary depending on whether or not a filter has been applied to the displayed attributes. Indicates a filter is being applied to the displayed attributes. Indicates no filter is being applied to the displayed attributes.

Manage Category Filters this option displays the Manage Category Filters by Element Type form and is used to control how category filters are implemented. Display Standard Attributes this option toggles the display of standard PDMS element attributes on and off. Display UDAs this option toggles the display of User Defined Attributes on and off. See section 6.1.2 for details of User Defined Attributes. Display Pseudo Attributes this option toggles the display of Pseudo Attributes on and off.
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Columns this option has a sub-menu the enables the attributes Description and/or Data Type to be added as columns in the grid.

Settings this option has a sub-menu that enables the display of attributes whose value is Nulref, i.e. null reference, and/or is unset, to be supressed.

Export to Excel this option displays the Save As browser that enables the grid to be saved as a .xls file. Print Preview this option opens the standard Windows print preview form, enabling the grid to be printed.

6.1.3.2 Querying Attributes using the Command Window


Element attributes may be queried via the Command Window. Entering Q ATT on the active line and pressing the Return key. Any attribute may be queried individually by entering Q followed by the full attribute name or its abbreviation, usually the first four characters, e.g. Q PURP has the same meaning as Q PURPOSE. Attributes may also be grouped together, e.g. Q NAME PURP POS will display the attribute and its value on three separate lines. UDAs appear in an elements attribute list with the standard attributes if the Q ATT syntax is used. A pseudo attribute may be queried by entering Q <pseudo> where <pseudo> is the attributes name. Entering Q PSATTS lists all of pseudo attributes for the current element.

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6.1.4

Modifying Attributes
Standard attributes and UDAs may be modified from the Attributes form. Some attributes, generally those set by the system and all pseudo attributes, cannot be modified and are shaded grey in the Value column. Double clicking in a modifiable attributes Value column entry highlights the attribute value or parts of the value so it can be modified using standard Windows techniques.

If the modification is successful, i.e. a valid entry has been made, the value cell is highlighted in cyan. If the modification is unsuccessful then the value cell is highlighted in red. Attributes may also be modified using the Command Window, however, this is not recommended for inexperienced PDMS users.

6.2

Positioning

Many PDMS elements have a Position attribute, e.g. SITE, ZONE, EQUI, SUBE, STRU, PANE, Primitives, etc. Positions in PDMS are expressed in terms of 3D co-ordinates, i.e. X, Y and Z. As PDMS assigns cardinal directions to these three axes, i.e. X is East, Y is North and Z is Up, positions are often expressed in terms E, N, U rather than X,Y,Z.

In Design applications, the main menu selection Settings > Coordinates has a sub-menu which enables either ENU or XYZ notation to be displayed on forms or aid graphics.

The Position attribute gives the elements position with respect to its owner, however, where the elements owner does not have a Position attribute, the position is given with respect to its owners owner. For example, a PANE is owned by a FRMW, however, a FRMW does not have a Position attribute; therefore, the PANEs position is given with respect to the FRMWs owner, a STRU, which does have a Position attribute. Positions may be queried with respect to any other elements in the Attributes form, as described previously, or to any other element that has a Position attribute by entering Q POS WRT <element name> or <element type> in the Command Window. For example, Q POS WRT /E1301 will give the position with respect to the origin of element /E1301 or Q POS WRT SITE will give the position with respect to the elements owning Site.

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Frequently the position is required with respect to the World origin. Entering Q POS WRT /* will give this position. Forms that create or modify elements often enable the position to be expressed with respect to other elements although the Position attribute always gives the value with respect to its owner, no matter how it was derived. In other cases forms only allow positions to be expressed with respect to their owner or the World.

6.2.1

The Positioning Control Toolbar

In EDG mode, positions may be picked using other elements in the graphics display. Whenever this is applicable the Positioning Control toolbar is activated.

The Positioning Control toolbar enables the user to specify how cursor picks are interpreted as positions, using a combination of Pick Type and Pick Method.

The Positioning Control toolbar is only active when applications are in Event Driven Graphics (EDG) mode.

6.2.1.1 Pick Type


The Pick Type pull-down offers the following options: Any uses any appropriate pick type. Element - picking is restricted to elements. Aid - picking is restricted to 3D Aid Constructs, including User Grid Systems. Pline - picking is restricted to structural Plines.

Ppoint - picking is restricted to Ppoints or panel vertices. Screen - enables pick anywhere in the graphical view, which identifies two co-ordinates, the third coordinate being taken from the current Working Plane or normal to the view direction if there is no active Working Plane. Graphics enables edge, surface and corner picks on any graphical element displayed in the graphical view. External this option is tied to the Laser Modelling Interface and is outside the scope of this training guide.

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6.2.1.2 Pick Method


The Positioning Control Method determines how the position will be derived from subsequent cursor picks. The Pick Method pull-down offers the following options:

Snap - Selects the snap point nearest to the cursor pick point. This means nearest start, end or other valid snap point on a SCTN.

Distance -applies the offset value entered in the textbox adjacent to the Method pull-down. For example a +ve value of 500 derives a point 500 mm from the nearest snap point, measured towards the cursor position, whereas, a ve value of 500 derives a point 500 mm from the nearest snap point, measured away from the cursor position.

Mid-Point - derives the mid-point between two snap points along a linear item.

Fraction - subdivides the distance between two snap points into a specified number of parts, entered in the textbox adjacent to Method pull-down. The derived position is the fractional position closest to the cursor pick.

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Proportion - derives the point whose proportional position between two snap points has been entered in the textbox adjacent to the Method pull-down. For example, a value of 0.25 gives a point 25% along the line joining the first snap point to the second snap point.

Intersect requires two picked lines (any directional items) or three planes and then derives their intersection point.

Cursor - places the derived point exactly where the cursor picks on the element.

6.2.2

Positioning Explicitly

Elements may be positioned explicitly (i.e. at the specified co-ordinates) using a variety of methods. The Positioning Control Toolbar has an Explicit Position button Position form. that displays the Explicit

An explicit position may be defined by entering values in the appropriate text boxes. The text boxes only allow East, North and Up values. West, South, or Down co-ordinates must be expressed as a negative value in the corresponding E,N,U textbox. Selecting Position > Explicitly (AT) from the main menu, in any of the Design applications, will open the Explicit Position form. The explicit position is defined by entering the required co-ordinates in the East/West, North/South and Up/Down textboxes. The option buttons are used to set the appropriate direction in each case. If required, the Lock checkboxes may be used to fix the current coordinate along any axis. The wrt (with respect to) textbox can be used to identify an element whose coordinate system is to be used for the Position data. The Datum pull-down allows identification of the specific point on the element to which the position is to apply. The options for the pull-down vary, depending on the element being positioned.

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The Select form menu options change the focus of the form, i.e. if a new CE is selected in Design Explorer, selecting the CE or Owner option displays the position of the CE or its owner, respectively, on the form. The Pick and Pick Owner options prompts for an item to be picked and the selected item or its owners position, respectively, is displayed on the form.

Picking a position with the Positioning Control Toolbar in conjunction with the Explicit Position form open automatically populates the coordinate textboxes.

When the form is opened or a new element selected, a bounding box is placed around the extremities of the element to be moved, whether it is displayed or not. On entering new co-ordinates the bounding box is moved to the new location as a preview of the changes to be made. An axis aid is also displayed at the Datum point showing the cardinal directions.

Clicking the Apply button on the form moves the element to the specified location. Clicking the Dismiss button removes the bounding box and dismisses the form. An explicit position may also be specified by using the AT syntax in the Command Window, e.g. AT E 5000 N 4500 U 2975 positions the element at specified coordinates.

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6.2.3

Positioning Relatively

Elements may be positioned relatively, i.e. from their current position by a specified direction and distance, using different methods. The Design applications have a Position By form, displayed by selecting Position > Relatively (BY) from the main menu, via which an element may be moved relatively from its current position. The offsets from the current position are defined by entering the required distances in the East/West, North/South and Up/Down textboxes, using the option buttons to set the appropriate direction in each case. If required, the Lock checkboxes may be used to fix the current position along any axis. The default offsets 0, 0, 0 represent the current position of the element.

The wrt (with respect to) textbox can be used to identify an element whose co-ordinate system is to be used for the Position data A different element may be selected for relative position by using the pull-down at the top of the form: The options list has the following choices: CE this option uses the CE as the element to move. Pick this option allows an element to be selected from a graphical view. List this option uses the elements in the current list. All elements in the list are repositioned.

When the form is first opened, or a new selection made, an axes aid, showing the cardinal directions, is placed at the elements current position. When offsets are entered aid lines show the offsets, true distance and the new position.

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Clicking the Apply button on the form moves the element(s) by the specified offsets. The aids are still displayed showing the new position if the Apply button was to be clicked again. Clicking the Dismiss button removes the aids and dismisses the form.

In addition to these methods of positioning elements, the Design applications have other functionality to move, drag and perform planar moves affect an elements position. Similarly, the Model Editor enables elements to be moved graphically.

Relative positioning may also be specified by using the BY syntax in the Command Window, e.g. BY E 1500 N 2200 U 945 moves the element by the specified offsets in the specified direction. Only one or two offsets and directions need to be specified, e.g. BY D 1250 or BY W 750 D 1000.

6.3

Orientation

Many PDMS elements have an Orientation attribute, e.g. SITE, ZONE, EQUI, SUBE, STRU, PANE, Primitives, etc. Orientation in PDMS is expressed in terms of axes direction, e.g. Y is N and Z is U, meaning that the elements Y axis is pointing North and the elements Z axis is pointing Up. Only two axes need to be stated as the third axis direction is know because it conforms to the right hand rule, i.e. in this case X is E. Axis directions do not have to follow Cardinal directions, they can include one or more angles and directions, e.g. Y is N 45 E, meaning that the Y direction is North 45 East or Y is N 45 E 30 U, meaning that the Y direction is North 45 East 30 Up are both valid directions. Any direction can be expressed in PDMS using this syntax. Elements that have a rotation attribute have, essentially, their own axis system which is known as the frame of reference. For example, the Z axis for a cylinder (CYLI) primitive is along the length of the cylinder. If the Z axis is Up with respect to its owner, the cylinder is orientated in an upright position. In order to place the cylinder horizontally, say with its Z axis pointing in an East/West direction, the orientation of the cylinder would need to be expressed as Y is N and Z is E (and X is D)

As with positioning, orientation is given with respect to its owner and the same rules apply for owning elements that do not have an orientation attribute. Orientations may be queried with respect to any other element that has a frame of reference by entering Q ORI WRT <element name> or <element type> in the Command Window. For example, Q ORI WRT /E1301 will give the orientation with respect to the element /E1301s frame of reference, or Q ORI WRT SITE will give the orientation with respect to the elements owning Sites frame of reference. Frequently the orientation is required with respect to the World frame of reference. Entering Q ORI WRT /* will give this orientation.

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6.3.1

Display Axes on CE

An axes aid can be placed on the CE by clicking the Display Axes on CE button on the Utilities Toolbar or selecting Query > Axes from the main menu. Both options also display the Define Axes form. The axes are displayed at the origin of the CE and are labelled X, Y, Z, i.e. the local frame of reference. The Cardinal Directions checkbox toggles between the local frame of reference and the Worlds Cardinal directions. The Label checkbox toggles the display of a label that shows the CE name. The Size textbox enables the size of the axes aid to be set. The default is 500mm.

The Close form menu has two options that close the form. The Retain axes option leaves the axes aid displayed and the Remove axes option removes it from the display. The Select form menu options places the axes on the selected item, i.e. if a new CE is selected in Design Explorer, selecting the CE or Owner option displays the axes aid on the new CE or its owner, respectively. The Pick and Pick Owner options prompts for an item to be picked and the axes aid is displayed on the picked item or its owners respectively.

6.3.2

Displaying World Axes


A World axes symbol may be displayed in the bottom left corner of a 3D View by clicking the World Axes button on the left hand side of the 3D View. Axis notation depends on the setting chosen from Settings > Coordinates on the main menu.

The World Axes symbol is displayed in the bottom left hand corner of the 3D View in which it was invoked. The symbol displays the World E (X), N (Y) and Z (U) directions, rotates to maintain the World directions when the viewing direction is changed, remains a constant size when the 3D View is zoomed and always overlays 3D View graphics.

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6.3.3

Setting Orientation using Axes

The Design applications have an Orientate form, displayed by selecting Orientate > Axes from the main menu, via which an elements that have an Orientation attribute may be re-orientated by modifying its axes directions. The form displays, by default, the current X and Y axes directions, the third axes being automatically derived. The top axis option list contains X and Y and the bottom axis option list contains Y and Z. It is, therefore possible to set the required axes using these option lists. If one option list is changed, the other option list and the displayed third axis are updated. The direction of the selected two axes may be modified by entering a valid direction in the appropriate textbox. As soon as the Return key is pressed after entering a value, the other two axes are updated. On opening the form or a new element selected, a bounding box is placed around the extremities of the element and an axes aid placed at the elements origin, whether the element is displayed or not. On entering a new direction for one of the axis, the bounding box is re-orientated to the new orientation. Clicking the Apply button re-orientates the element but retains the bounding box and axes aid. Clicking the Dismiss button removes the aids and dismisses the form.

If an element does not have an orientation attribute a warning message is displayed.

6.3.4

Setting Orientation using Rotate

Rotating elements using the Appware in PDMS is carried using a Rotation Axis, the position and direction of which are set by the user. Refer to Chapter 8, Introduction to Model Editor, for details of graphical rotation of elements. Selecting Orientate > Rotate from the main menu displays the Rotate form. When the form is displayed, a Rotation Axis aid is placed at the origin of the CE. The aid shows the default direction of the axis and cardinal angle labels show the direction of positive rotation.

The origin of the Rotation Axis may be re-positioned using the Rotate form menus.

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The Cursor form menu contains the following options: Element this option prompts the user to pick an element in the graphic view. The Rotation Axis is placed at the origin of the picked element. Design Point this option prompts for the selection of a Point, i.e. a Ppoint. Pline this option prompts for the selection of a Pline on a SCTN or GENSEC. Edge this option prompts for the selection of a PANE edge. Defaults - this option displays the Cursor Defaults form. This form enables the way cursor picks are interpreted when a position is picked in a graphical view. The Pick Options setting specify how a pick along a linear item is to be interpreted as a position. The choices are: Snap (default) The position will be at whichever end of the item is nearest to the cursor. The textbox next to this option is not applicable in the current context. Proportional a proportion, between 0 and 1, is entered in the adjacent textbox. The derived position will be at this proportion of the items length from the end nearest to the cursor. Distance a distance is entered in the adjacent textbox. The derived position will be at this distance from the end nearest to the cursor towards the cursor position A negative distance will give a position beyond the end.

Exact - The position will be exactly at the picked point. The Pick Qualifier setting specifies how many picks will be used to identify the position, and how a single position is to be constructed from multiple picks. The choices are: Single pick - the position will be as determined by the Pick Options setting for a single pick. Mid-point of two picks - each of two picks will be interpreted as determined by the Pick Options setting and then the mid-point of the two will be constructed to give the final position. Centroid of multi-picks - each of two or more picks will be interpreted as determined by the Pick Options setting and then the centroid of the points will be constructed to give the final position. Pressing the Esc key terminates the picking. reset. The Intersection menu options enables a position to be defined by picking two directional items using the cursor in a graphical view. The derived position will be at the intersection of the two items or, if they do not actually intersect, at a point on the first picked item which corresponds to the projection of the second item onto the first.

Any modified cursor defaults will remain in force for all subsequent picking operations until they are

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The menu and submenu options enable any combination of the following types of directional item: Element - this option prompts the user to pick any element which has its principal axis pointing through or towards the required position. Design Point - this option prompts the user to pick any design point, which is aligned through or towards the required position. Pline - this option prompts the user to pick any Pline which is aligned through or towards the required position. Edge - this option prompts the user to pick any PANE edge which is aligned through or towards the required position. If the Rotation axis position is set using one of the methods described above, the Rotate form automatically updates the co-ordinate information. The co-ordinates may be edited or set manually by entering values in the appropriate axis textbox. Having positioned the Rotation Axis, its direction may be set by entering a direction in the Direction textbox. If necessary, the wrt (with respect to) textbox may be used to identify the element whose axis system is to be used as the reference. The required rotation angle is entered in the Angle () textbox. The entry may be positive or negative depending on the rotation direction required. A different element may be selected for rotation position by using the pull-down at the top of the form. The pull-down has the following options: CE this option uses the CE as the element to move. Pick this option allows an element to be selected from a graphical view. List this option uses the elements in the current list. All elements in the list are rotated.

Clicking the Apply button on the Rotate form rotates the selected element(s). Clicking the Apply button again will rotate the element(s) again.

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Exercise 4
Setting Up the Exercise Clear the Drawlist then select Utilities >Training Setup from the main menu to display the Training Setup form. Select the Foundations tab. Click the Delete TRA.SITE and add MESS Site checkbox, followed by the Apply button, then dismiss the form.

The SITE TRA.SITE has been deleted and the SITE TRA.SITE.MESS added to the databases and displayed in the 3D view. The site has been modified to introduce some design errors. These design errors may be grouped into three categories: Size errors - some primitives have one of their size attributes incorrectly set. The task is to identify which attribute is wrong and correct its value. Positional errors - equipment items are incorrectly positioned or primitives are incorrectly positioned within the equipment. The task is to correctly position the equipment and the primitives. Orientation errors - equipment items or primitives within an equipment are incorrectly orientated. The task is to correctly orientate equipment and primitives. Note: All equipment and primitives should be orientated on an orthogonal axis.

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The following is a list of the Design errors for each piece of Equipment: TANK1 The equipment Orientation should be Y is North and Z is Up with respect to the World. CYLI1 the Position should be at Up 1500 with respect to its owner. BOX1 the Ylength attribute should be 2850. TANK2 CONE1 the Dtop attribute should be 1500. CYLI1 the East position should be 2600 with respect to the World. PYRA2 the North position should be 0 with respect to its owner. PYRA1 the Up position should be the same as Pyramid 2. NOZZ TANK2-N2 the nozzle must be re-orientated by 90. PUMP1 The equipment Up position should be 350 with respect to the World. The drive shaft cylinder, CYLI1, must be re-orientated by 90. DISH2- must be connected to the motor cylinder.

TANK1 Corrections Select Design > Equipment... from the main menu to enter the Equipment application. Make TANK1 the CE in Design Explorer. Select Orientate > Axes from the main menu to display the Orientate form. Note that the wrt textbox shows /*, i.e. the orientation is expressed with respect to (wrt) the World (/*). Change the Y setting from E 45 N to N and press the Return key. Note that the bounding box rotates. Also note that X changes to E and Z changes to U, i.e. the orientation of the equipment is Y is N and Z is U. Click the Apply button to rotate the equipment and then the Dismiss button. Expand the TANK1 element in Design Explorer and make CYLI1 the CE. Select Position > Explicitly (AT) from the main menu to display the Explicit Position form. Note that the position is expressed with respect to the World. Enter owner in the wrt textbox and press the Return key. Note that the wrt textbox has changed to /TANK1, i.e. the owner of the cylinder, and the co-ordinates have changed to express the position with respect to the equipment. Enter 1500 in the Up text box and press the Return key. Note that the bounding box has changed position to the new location. Click the Apply button to reposition the cylinder and then click the Dismiss button. Make BOX1 of TANK1 the CE. Select Modify > Attributes... from the main menu to display the Modify Attributes form. Note that the Ylength attribute value is currently 6000. Left click on the Ylength entry in the form grid to display the Ylength textbox at the bottom of the form. Enter a value of 2850 in the Ylength textbox and press the Return key. Note that the Ylength value has been updated on the form to the entered value and the box has changed length. Dismiss the form by clicking the close button in the top right hand corner of the form.

TANK2 Corrections Make CONE1 of TANK2 the CE. Select Modify > Attributes from the main menu to display the Modify Attributes form. Note that the Dtop attribute value is currently 4000. Left click the Dtop entry in the form grid to display the Dtop textbox at the bottom of the form. Enter a value of 1500 in the Dtop textbox and press the Return key. Note that the Dtop value has been updated on the form to the entered value and the cone has changed shape. Dismiss the form by clicking the close button in the top right hand corner of the form.

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Make CYLI1 of TANK2 the CE. Select Position > Explicitly (AT) from the main menu to display the Explicit Position form. Note that the position is expressed with respect to the /TANK1. Enter world in the wrt textbox and press the Return key. The coordinates will change to be with respect to the World. Enter a value of 2600 in the East textbox and press the Return key. Note that the bounding box has changed position to the new location. Click the Apply button to re-position the cylinder and then click the Dismiss button. Make PYRA2 of TANK2 the CE. Select Position > Explicitly (AT) from the main menu to display the Explicit Position form. Note that the position is expressed with respect to the World. Enter /TANK2 in the wrt textbox and press the Return key. Note that the co-ordinates change to be expressed with respect to TANK2, i.e. the owner. Enter 0 in the North text box and press the Return key. Click the Apply button to re-position the pyramid and then click the Dismiss button. With PYRA2 still as the CE, Select Query > Attributes from the main menu to display the Attributes form. Note that the Position Z value is 625, i.e. Up 625. Check the Track CE checkbox, if not already checked, to toggle the option on. Graphically select, or select from Design Explorer, PYRA1 of TANK2 to make it the CE. Note that the Attributes form now displays the attributes for PYRA1. Note that the Position Z value is -875, i.e. Down 875. Therefore, PYRA1 needs to be moved up by 875+625 = 1500. Dismiss the Attributes form. Select Position > Relatively (BY) from the main menu to display the Position By form. Enter a value of 1500 in the Up textbox and press the Return key. Note that the new position for the element is displayed. Click the Apply button to re-position the pyramid and then click the Dismiss button to remove the form. Make NOZZ TANK2-n2 the CE. Select Orientate > Rotate from the main menu to display the Rotate form. Select Cursor > Element from the form menu and graphically pick the nozzle. Note that the rotation axis is displayed at the origin of the nozzle and the rotation axis origin co-ordinates and direction, with respect to itself, are displayed on the Rotate form. Change the Rotation Axis direction to Up by entering U in the textbox and pressing the Return key. Note that the graphical aid is now pointing in the Up direction and the 0/90/180/270 text aids are showing the direction of positive rotation. Enter a value of -90 in the Angle textbox and press the Return key. Click the Apply button to rotate the nozzle. Note that the nozzle has rotated to the correct position, i.e. it now mates with the flange on the connecting pipe. Click the Dismiss button to remove the form.

PUMP1 Corrections Make PUMP1 the CE. Select Position > Explicitly (AT) from the main menu to display the Explicit Position form. Note that the position is expressed with respect to the /TANK2. Enter world in the wrt textbox and press the Return key. The co-ordinates will change to be with respect to the World. Enter a value of 350 in the Up textbox and press the Return key. Note that the bounding box has changed position to the new location. Click the Apply button to re-position the pump and then click the Dismiss button. Zoom in to the pump. Make CYLI PUMP1-CYL2 the CE in Design Explorer. Select Orientate > Rotate from the main menu to display the Rotate form. Select Cursor > Design Point from the form menu. Click and hold down the left mouse button on the CYLI and note that the element is outlined in white and three dots are displaye d, one at each end and one in the centre of the cylinder. These are the cylinders Ppoints. Move the pointer over the central dot and note that the pointer display changes as it is moved over the dot and the Ppoints identity is displayed in the secondary prompt area at the bottom of the screen. When the pointer has changed, release the left mouse button to display the rotation axis at the centre of the cylinder. Enter N in the Direction textbox and press the Return key to change the rotation axis direction. The Angle textbox should still have -90 displayed. If not, enter a value of 90 in the Angle textbox. Click the Apply button to rotate the cylinder and then click the Dismiss button. Zoom out and locate DISH PUMP1-DISH2 and make it the CE in Design Explorer. The dish needs to be placed at the end of CYLI PUMP1-CYL5 of the pump to complete the representation of the pump motor. Manipulate the displayed elements such that PUMP1-DISH2 and PUMP1-CYL5 can both be viewed as closely as possible.

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Select Position > Relatively (BY) from the main menu to display the Position By form. On the Positioning Control Toolbar select Ppoint from the Pick Type options list and Snap from the Pick Method options list. Click and hold down the left mouse button on PUMP1-DISH2 and move the pointer over the centre of the flat face of the dish to highlight a Ppoint. When the pointer display changes, release the mouse button. Note that a Measure Distance Start text aid is displayed at the Ppoint location. Click and hold down the left mouse button on CYLI PUMP1-CYL5 and move the pointer over the centre of the cylinder face closest to the dish to highlight a Ppoint. When the pointer display changes, release the mouse button. Note that a New Position text aid is displayed at the Ppoint location and an aid line, showing the measured distance is shown from the dish Ppoint to the cylinder Ppoint. Also note that measured value has been placed in the relevant text box on the Position By from, i.e. West 4567. Click the Apply button to re-position DISH PUMP1-DISH2. Click the Dismiss button on the form.

The corrected model elements should now look like this:

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CHAPTER 7

General Utilities

This chapter describes various general utilities that are useful when working with PDMS.

7.1

Other Utilities, i.e. Groups, Search Utility and User Grid Systems are detailed TM-1003 Design Utilities training Guide.

Lists

Lists are a temporary collection of elements on which operations can be performed that affect all the members of the list. There can be many lists, although only one list can be current at any one time. Lists are not saved at the end of a Design session although the data may be saved to file and restored in a future Design session. The current list is displayed in the pull-down on the Default Toolbar. If there are no defined lists the pull-down will display No list. Clicking the Create/Modify Lists button from the Default toolbar or selecting Utilities/Lists from the main menu displays the Lists/Collections form. The first step in creating a List is to create the list itself. Selecting Add > List from the form menu displays the Create List form.

A name for the list is entered in the Description text box. Clicking the OK button will create the list and add the name to the List pull-downs on the form and the Default toolbar. This is now the current list. The name of the list should be meaningful and ideally should indicate something about the lists content. The format of the list may be selected from the Format pull-down at the bottom of the form. The list can be displayed with the element Name only, the element Description only or a concatenation of Name + Description.

Having created the list, selecting Add from the form menu again gives the following options: CE this option adds the CE to the list. CE Members this option adds the members of the CE to the list. Identified this option enables items to be picked from a 3D View by left clicking them. When the selection is finished, pressing the Esc key adds the selected elements to the list.

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Selection - this option displays the Add to List form that enables a search of the databases to be performed, using different methods, to find elements to add to the list. One or more PDMS element types may be entered in the Selection text box to filter the elements searched for. The selection may be further refined by adding a valid PML expression to the with Rule text box. The source of the selection is made by clicking the For Element or From List radio buttons. The selection may also be made by specifying a volume, either explicitly or with a 3D cursor, and selecting whether part of or the entire element is within the volume by checking the appropriate check box. Whichever method is chosen to select the items to add to the list, the selected items will appear in grid of the Lists/Collections form. The contents of the list, once populated, may be modified by adding additional items or removing items from the list.

The Remove pull-down on the form menu has similar options to the Add menu described previously but with the following additions: from List this option removes the element highlighted in the list from the list. All this option removes all elements from the list.

The elements in the list may be highlighted in the graphical view by checking the Highlight check box at the top of the form. PDMS commands may be directly applied to the list by entering valid PDMS syntax in the text box at the bottom of the form and clicking the Action button. It is recommended that this option is used only if the user has a good understanding of PDMS syntax, otherwise use the list in conjunction with the applicable forms from the appware.

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7.2

My Data

The My Data utility may be used to generate collections of database elements that need to be worked on. Each time the My Data form is opened, in any of the modules that use it, i.e. Draft, Design, Spooler, etc, the data collections generated will be displayed. This enables elements to be easily transferred between these modules. For example, if Design elements are added to My Data, then the user switches to the Draft module, the same data would be seen. Selecting Display > My Data from the main menu displays the My Data form. The form is re-sizeable and dockable. The upper pane displays the current elements and collections in a list gadget. Below the list gadget the form displays two fold-up panels. The Actions fold up panel displays the actions that may be taken with My Data elements. The Contents fold up panel displays the contents of a collection in a list gadget. Elements may be added to My Data by dragging and dropping from the Design Explorer or by using the My Data option on the Drawlist pop-up menu. If two or more items are simultaneously chosen from the Drawlist pop-up menu, they will be placed in My Data as a New Collection and appended with a sequential number. A new collection may also be created by selecting the New Collection link label at the bottom of the pane. Clicking on a collection in the top panel displays the collections contents in the Contents fold-up panel. Elements may be added to this collection by dragging and dropping into the Contents panel from the Design Explorer. Elements that are displayed in the upper pane may be placed into a collection by dragging and dropping them into an existing collection in the upper pane. The elements will no longer be displayed in the top pane but may be viewed in the Contents panel by clicking on the collection. The Remove Selected link label at the bottom of the pane will remove any element that is highlighted in the pane from the My Data list.

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Right clicking on an element or a collection in the upper pane grid highlights the entry and displays a pop-up menu that has the following options: Remove from My Data this option removes the highlighted element or collection from My Data. Resolve Inconsistency An inconsistency occurs when elements referred to in My Data, either individually or within a collection, are deleted by another user in a separate session and a Get Work is performed. The element or collection is highlighted by a red triangle containing an exclamation mark. In the case of a collection, the Contents fold-up panel also marks the inconsistent element in the same way Selecting the Resolve Inconsistency option from the pop-up menu removes the affected element from My Data or the collection. Edit this option displays a sub-menu with Cut, Copy and Paste options that enable elements to be cut or copied from one collection and pasted into another. Rename this option allows a collection to be renamed. This option is greyed out for elements. 3D View - this option displays a sub-menu that with Add, Add Connected, Add Within Volume, Remove, Highlight and Unhighlight options that function as previously described for the Design Explorer pop-up menu. Datal Listing this option displays the Datal Listings Options form, from which a database listing for the highlighted element or collection can be written, either to a file or to the Command Window. Find referred elements- this option displays the MyData Reference Extender form that shows connected elements or catalogue references for an element or all of the elements in a collection. Right clicking in a blank area of the upper pane list displays a pop-up menu. The New collection option creates a new collection and the Arrange By sub-menu allows the entries to be sorted alpha-numerically by Name or Type. This may also be achieved by clicking on the column headers. Right clicking on an element in the Contents panel list highlights the entry and displays a pop-up menu with the following options: Remove selected from Collection this option deletes the highlighted option from the collection. Multiple selections can be made form the grid prior to right clicking. All selected elements will be removed from the collection if this option is used. Navigate To this option navigates in the Design Explorer to the item selected in the grid. If there are multiple selections this option is greyed out on the sub-menu.

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The remaining options on this sub-menu are the same as previously described for the upper pane pop-up menu. Right clicking in a blank area of the Contents panel list displays a pop-up menu. The Select All option selects all of the elements in the collection and the Arrange By sub-menu allows the entries to be sorted alpha-numerically by Name, Type and DB. This may also be achieved by clicking on the column headers.

The Actions panel contains four actions that may be performed on the selected element or collection in the top pane. The link labels are greyed out until an element or collection is selected. The Highlight Elements and Unhighlight Element options are greyed out if the selected element or collection is not in the 3D View.

7.3

Measuring

PDMS provides utilities for measuring linear distances and angles for elements displayed in a 3D view. Measure Distance and Measure Angle are available from the Utilities toolbar.

Alternatively, selecting Query > Measure Distance and Query > Measure Angle from the main menu. Both measuring utilities are used in conjunction with the Positioning Control toolbar.

7.3.1

Measure Distance

In the following example pumps P1501A and P1501B have been added to the 3D view. Clicking the Measure Distance button on the Utilities toolbar, or selecting Query > Measure Distance from the main menu, displays the Measure Distance form and activates the Positioning Control toolbar. The prompt Measure distance start (Snap) Snap: will be displayed in the primary prompt area of the 3D view.

The prompt will change depending on the pick method setting on the Positioning Control toolbar, e.g. Measure distance start (Mid-Point) Snap:

Which point is picked for the start of the measure operation depends on the settings of the Positioning Control toolbar. For example, if the settings are Element/Snap and an equipment (EQUI) element is picked, the measure distance start point will be the origin of the picked element. However, if a steelwork section (SCTN) element is selected and the same settings used, the measure distance start point may be the start, end, or nearest snap point, depending on the pick position.

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Picking a start point displays a text aid at the picked point and changes the prompt to Measure distance end (Snap) Snap:. The measure distance end point may then be picked using the same Positioning Control toolbar settings or the settings may be changed before the end point is picked.

When the second point is selected an aid line is drawn between the picked points and aid text graphic displays the true distance between the points. The distance is displayed in the Measure form in the Distance textbox. The true direction between the picked start and end points is displayed in the Direction textbox.

The cardinal direction offsets between the two picked points are displayed in the Relative offset X, Y and Z textboxes.

The direction and relative offsets are expressed, by default, with respect to the World coordinate system. They may be expressed in terms of another frame of reference by entering a named element, CE, Owner or db reference no. in the wrt textbox on the Measure Distance form. www.aveva.com
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Once a measure distance task is performed, the form will remain active, enabling other distances to be measured, until the Dismiss button is clicked.

7.3.1.1 Using Graphics Picks


The graphics in the 3D view may also be used to derive points for measuring. Selecting pick type Graphics on the Positioning Control toolbar enables the graphics to be used with any of the pick methods. Clicking and holding the left mouse button over an element in the 3D view highlights the edges of the element and displays a graphics cursor. Moving the cursor over the element(s) changes the cursor shape depending on what is below the cursor at the time, for example a surface, a corner or an edge.

7.3.2

Measure Angle

In the following example the STRU /PIPERACK has been added to the 3D view. Clicking the Measure Angle button on the Utilities toolbar or selecting Query > Measure Angle from the main menu displays the Measure Angle form and the prompt Measure angle root of angle (Snap) Snap:

The prompts will change depending on the pick method setting on the Positioning Control toolbar.

The Positioning Control toolbar is also activated. With appropriate settings on the Positioning Control toolbar, an origin point, i.e. the root of the angle, may be picked from a 3D view. A graphics label is displayed at the selected angle root point.

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Once the root point of the angle has been picked the prompt changes to Measure angle first point (Snap) Snap:. The first point for the measured angle may then be picked in the 3D view. A graphics label is displayed at the selected first point in the 3D view.

Once the first angle measure point has been picked the prompt changes to Measure angle second point (Snap) Snap:. The second point for the measured angle may then be picked in the 3D view. A graphics label is displayed at the selected first point in the 3D view.

Once the second angle measure point has been picked, a graphics label displays the measured angle with a graphics aid arc between the first and second picked points.

The angle, together with the directions of the first and second picked points from the root of the angle point, is displayed on the Measure Angle form. The measured angle is expressed, by default, with respect to the World coordinate system. The measured angle may be expressed in terms of another frame of reference by entering a named element, CE, Owner or db reference no. in the wrt textbox on the Measure Angle form.

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7.4

Saving and Restoring Views

In addition to the Save and Restore View functionality available from the View menu, refer to section 5.9, 3D Views can be saved and restored with additional information including: View direction. Drawlist members. Visual properties. Clip box details.

7.4.1

Saving Views
Clicking the Save & Restore View button on the left hand side of the 3D View window, displays the Save Restore View form. Entering a name in the Save Name option list and clicking the Saver Current View button on the form displays the saved view in the graphics view. The time and creation date are also displayed at the bottom of the form. The view is saved as three files that are stored in the pdmsuser folder The three files conatin the viewing environment, Drawlist information and a view image. The files are named from the module-project-MDB-<file type>-view name.

If another view is saved with the same name a confirmation message is displayed. Clicking the Yes button saves the current view with the selected name, overwriting the previous view. Clicking the No button cancels the save.

7.4.2

Restoring Saved Views

Restoring saved views may be achieved in three ways using the buttons on the Save & Restore View form toolbar. Restore Current View if there are existing elements in the current 3D view, the Drawlist is emptied and the Drawlist contents and view settings from the selected saved view are restored. Add to Drawlist - The Drawlist content of the selected saved view is added to the Drawlist of the current view. The view settings, i.e. direction, scale, etc., are not changed to the saved view settings. Replace Drawlist - The Drawlist content of the selected saved view replaces the Drawlist of the current view. The view settings, i.e. direction, scale, etc., are not changed to the saved view settings.

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7.4.3

Deleting Saved Views

Saved views may be deleted using the buttons on the Save & Restore View toolbar: Delete Saved View this option deletes the saved view named in the Save Name option list. A confirmation message is displayed:

Clicking the Yes button deletes the named saved view. Clicking the No button aborts the deletion. Delete All Saved Views- this option deletes all saved views. A confirmation message is displayed:

Clicking the Yes button deletes all named saved views. Clicking the No button aborts the deletion.

7.5

Claimlists in Multiwrite Databases

Where Multiwrite databases are used, the modification of elements in the databases is controlled by the use of Claimlists which, essentially, stops an element being owned by more than one user at a time and avoids conflicting data being written to the databases by sequential saves by different users. Multiwrite databases have a claim mode that is set when the database is created: If the claim mode is Explicit the element must be claimed before it can be worked on. If the claim mode is Implicit when a user starts to modify an element it is automatically claimed. In this mode an element may also be claimed explicitly. Selecting Utilities>Claimlists from the main menu displays the Multiwrite Claim Lists form. The Claim List options list can be set to: Active Claimlist this is the users Claimlist. Lists of all the significant elements claimed by the user are displayed in the elements list. Others Claimlist the elements list displays all significant elements claimed by all other users in the MDB, except those in the Active Claimlist.

The name of each user is displayed along side the significant elements and the names are added to the Claim List options list so that an individual user Claim List may also be selected.
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Elements are claimed and unclaimed using the form menu options. Control

Update - Updates the list. The list is automatically updated when it is displayed and the Active Claimlist is updated when elements are claimed using the form, however, in other cases the list may not show all claimed elements unless this option is used. Close - Closes the form. Claim / Unclaim

The Unclaim menu is only active when there are members in the Active Claimlist.

CE - Claims and unclaims the CE and all the elements below it. CE Members - Claims or unclaims the members of the CE and all the members below it, but not the CE. CE only - Claims or unclaims the CE only and not any hierarchy below it. This can be used, for example, to change an attribute such as a description which will not affect any elements below the CE. CE Members only - Claims or unclaims each member of the CE only and not the hierarchy below. Pick - Enables items to be claimed and unclaimed by graphically picking them in a 3D View. List - This option has a sub-menu that displays the available lists. Selecting a list claims or unclaims all of the elements in the selected list. In addition, the Unclaim option has the following options: All Unclaims all the elements in the Active Claimlist. Selected Unclaims all the elements selected in the elements list. Colour

Highlight - Displays the Claimlist Colours form. Selecting a colour highlights the elements in the Claimlist in that colour in all 3D Views. Only elements already in the Drawlist are highlighted, elements are not automatically added to the Drawlist. Different colours may be used for each Claimlist. Unhighlight - Displays a sub-menu that un-highlights the CE, all Elements in the selected Claimlist or All elements in the 3D Views.

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Databases

MDB - Displays all of the claimed elements in the databases in the MDB. DBs - The sub-menu displays all databases in the MDB. Selecting a database from the sub-menu list displays all claimed elements in that database. If there are many elements in the Claimlist they may be separated into pages by selecting an entry, i.e. 15, 50, 100, All, from the Number of results per page options list. The numbers of pages are displayed on the left hand side of the form header. The and buttons page down and up respectively. Elements must be unclaimed before other users can access them. Other users must do a Getwork before they can see the changes. Elements that have been claimed and modified cannot be unclaimed until a Save Work is performed. Switching modules or exiting PDMS will unclaim all elements.

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Exercise 5
Setting Up the Exercise This exercise uses model elements in AREA01 of the training model. To aid clarity, the SITE TRA.SITE.MESS will first be deleted from the database. Select Utilities > Training Setup from the main menu to display the Training Setup form. Select the Foundations tab then click the Delete TRA and MESS Sites checkbox.

Click the Apply button then dismiss the form.

Lists Empty the Drawlist and add the following SITEs to the 3D view: SITE-EQUIPMENT-AREA01 SITE-CIVIL-AREA01 SITE-PIPING-AREA01 SITE-STRUCTURAL-AREA01 Set the view direction to Iso3 and click the Walk to Drawlist button. Select Utilities > Lists from the main menu to display the List/Collections form. Select Add > List from the form menu to display the Create List form. Enter EQUIPMENT in the Description textbox, press the Return key and then click the OK button. Note that the description now appears in the List options list on the List/Collections form. Make the zone ZONE-EQUIPMENT-AREA01 the CE and on the List/Collections form select Add > CE Members from the form menu. The equipment elements have now been added to the list. Check the Highlight checkbox and note that the equipment elements are displayed in the 3D View in the highlight colour. Uncheck the Highlight checkbox. Left click on C1101 in the list grid. Select Remove > from List from the form menu. C1101 has now been removed from the list. Check the Highlight checkbox again and note that C1101 is not highlighted. Make the ZONE ZONE-PIPING-AREA01 the CE. Select Add > List from the form menu to display the Create List form. Enter PIPE_100 in the Description textbox, press the Return key and then click the OK button. Select Add > Selection from the form menu to display the Add to List form. In the Selection textbox enter BRAN and in the with Rule textbox enter HBOR EQ 100. This specifies to add only Branch elements with an Hbore (Head Bore) attribute equal to 100mm. Click the for Element radio button and enter CE in the adjacent textbox and then click the Apply button. The pipe branches that meet the criteria are added to the list, Click the Dismiss button. Left click on branch 150-A-3/B1 in the List/Collections form and note that it is now the CE in Design Explorer. In the Command Window enter Q HBOR and press the Return key. The answer Hbore 100mm is displayed. Create a new list named PIPE_150 and add to it Branches with an Hbore greater or equal to 150mm. The expression HBOR GE 150 should be used.

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Click the Dismiss button on the Add to List form and then select Control>Close from the List/Collections form menu. Open the Active List options list and note the three lists that may be selected.

My Data Empty the Drawlist so there is nothing displayed in the 3D View. Select Display > My Data from the main menu to display the My Data form. Expand ZONE-PIPINGAREA01 and 100-B-1 in the Design Explorer. Click and hold down the left mouse button on branch 100B-1/B1 and drag and drop it into the upper pane on the My Data form. The element name is now displayed in on the form. Add 100-B-1/B2 and 100-B-1/B3 to the My Data form in the same way. Click the New Collection link label on the My Data form to create a new collection that is displayed in the upper pane. Right click on the New Collection in the upper pane, select Rename from the pop-up menu and enter Branches as the name for the collection. Drag and drop the branches, one by one, from the upper panel into the Branches collection. Left click on the Branches collection and open the Contents fold-up panel and note that the three Branch elements are now in the Branches collection. Drag and drop all of the Branch elements from Pipe 100-B-2 from Design Explorer directly into the Branch collection in the upper pane. Note that these elements are now displayed in the Contents foldup panel. Create a new collection named Equipment. With this collection highlighted in the upper pane, drag and drop the EQUI items in ZONE-EQUIPMENT-AREA01 from Design Explorer directly into the Contents fold-up panel. Note that these items are added to the new Equipment collection. Left click the Equipment collection in the upper pane and select Add to 3D View from the Actions foldup panel. All EQUI items in the collection have been added to the Drawlist and are displayed in the 3D View. Right click on the Branches collection in the upper pane and select 3D View > Add from the pop-up menu. Select Highlight in the Actions fold-up panel and note all the piping elements have been highlighted. Select Unhighlight from the Actions fold-up panel to un-highlight the piping elements. Create a collection for the steelwork in ZONE-STRUCTURAL-AREA01 and add it to the 3D View. Click the Close button on the My Data form header to dismiss the form.

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CHAPTER 8

Introduction to Model Editor

This chapter introduces the use of the Model Editor for the graphical re-positioning and re-orientation of selected elements.

8.1

Model Editor Mode

Model Editor is a mode of operation in Design that enables selected elements to be re-positioned and reorientated graphically using the mouse pointer. Model Editor Mode may be toggled on and off by clicking the Model Editor button on the Model Editor toolbar or selecting Edit > Model Editor from the main menu. When in Model Editor Mode, the prompt in the primary prompt area reads Modify:. Model Editor may be used to manipulate Graphical Selections, consisting of either a single item or groups of items. See section 5.2 for details of Graphical Selections.

When a Graphical Selection is present a Locator Handle is displayed. The Locator Handle is used to graphically manipulate the Graphical Selection.

8.1.1

The Locator Handle


The Locator Handle is a collection of individual graphical manipulation handles grouped together. The Locator Handle can be used to drag the entire Graphical Selection to a new position or rotate the entire Graphical Selection through an angle about a selected axis. This combination of direct graphical manipulation handles offers the ability to move selected items constrained in a direction or in a plane, or rotate the selection about an axis.

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8.2

Overview of Model Editor Operations

The following section gives an overview of Model Editor operations. Details of each operation are given later in this training guide.

8.2.1

Movement

A Graphical Selection is moved using linear or planar handles on the Locator Handle. Dragging a linear or planar handle with the mouse pointer moves the current Graphical Selection. The movement is made in steps, the size of which is controlled by the Linear Increment. This allows the Graphical Selection to be positioned accurately in relation to its original position. The Graphical Selection can be moved until it is aligned with another item in the display by using Locator Handles or by dragging with Feature Highlighting mode switched on.

8.2.1.1 Linear Movement

Clicking and dragging one of the three Linear Movement Handles constrains the movement of the selection to be in the direction of the selected axis.

8.2.1.2 Planar Movement

Clicking and dragging one of the three Planar Movement Handles constrains the movement of the selection to be in the plane of the two axes of selected planar handle.

8.2.2

Rotation

The Graphical Selection is rotated using a Rotation handle. The selection rotates in angular steps as it is dragged with the mouse pointer, the amount of rotation is controlled by the Rotation Increment. This allows the Graphical Selection to be rotated accurately from its original orientation. The Graphical Selection can be rotated until an axis of the Locator Handle is aligned with another item in the display by using Locator Handles or by dragging with Feature Highlighting switched on.

Clicking and dragging one of the three Rotation Handles constrains the rotation of the selection to be about the axis corresponding to the selected rotation handle.

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8.2.3

Alignment

The Graphical Selection can be moved or rotated until it aligns with a point, Ppoint, Pline or an edge in the model. The target points and lines are called Features. The origin of the Locator Handle is the reference datum for aligning the Graphical Selection.

8.2.4

Locator Handle as a Frame of Reference

The Locator Handle can be moved or rotated independently of the Graphical Selection. This allows a datum to be set for movement and alignment operations, or to set an axis of rotation about which the Graphical Selection can be rotated.

8.2.5

Feedback

The Locator Handle changes shape to show movement or rotation constraints. Movement and rotation feedback for freehand operations is displayed both in the 3D View and on the status bar. This allows both world position and displacement from the starting position to be shown. The distance values are output in the current session units and style. If feature alignment is in use, feedback is given on features as the mouse pointer passes over them, and graphical feedback is provided to help achieve the correct alignment in a 3D model.

8.2.6

Unconstrained Positioning

The Locator Handle provides functions for positioning the Graphical Selection constrained in a given direction or in a plane. However, it is sometimes necessary to specify a new position without any constraints applied to movement of the Graphical Selection. An unconstrained position can be specified by typing world co-ordinates into a form, by typing a 3D offset from the current Location Handle position, or by snapping to a Point feature. These functions are provided from a right click pop-up menu on the Locator Handle.

8.2.7

Undo and Redo

Undo and Redo functions in Model Editor Mode allow stepping backwards or forwards through one or more movement or rotation operations. Undo and Redo operate on a sequence of direct graphical manipulation operations in the Model Editor. Undo/Redo operations can also take place outside of Model Editor Mode. If the Undo operation involves moving into or out of Model Editing mode, then the switch into that mode happens automatically, and the

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Model Editor button and menu option reflect the change. The selection set and handle appropriate to the editing operation that was being used will also be restored.

8.2.8

Performance

The speed of interactive selection and dragging operations is dependent on both the specification of the hardware being used, and on the complexity of the model displayed in the 3D View. Generally, it is advisable to minimise the size and complexity of the displayed model in order to obtain good interactive feedback from the system. Performance tips when using Model Editor: Display only those elements that are necessary for the modification being performed. As the Graphical Selection is dragged on the screen the display is continuously redrawn. Avoid using large graphical selections. It may be better to make bulk moves in small groups. Avoid drawing the model with high levels of detail. For example, do not display the model with holes drawn; do not use a fine arc tolerance. Avoid displaying the model with Ppoints switched on.

8.3

The Selection Menu

The Selection menu on the main menu bar contains commands for setting properties of the Locator Handle and the Graphical Selection. The Selection menu on the main menu bar has the following options: Feature Highlighting this option toggles feature highlighting on and off. In Model Editor Mode, pressing the F key will also toggle feature highlighting on or off.

Set Increments - this option displays the Set Increments form: The Linear increment determines the incremental steps when the Graphical Selection is dragged using the linear or planar movement handles. The Fine linear increment determines the fine incremental steps using the up and down cursor arrow keys The Angular increment determines the incremental steps when the Graphical Selection is rotated using the rotation handles. Set Handle Colour this option displays a sub-menu where by which the colour of the Locator Handle may be chosen from a limited set of colours. Drag Image this option has a sub-menu that enables the style of visual feedback when a dragging operation using the Locator Handles to be determined. The sub-menu options are Solid, Translucent and Wireline. Select Rectangle this option has a sub-menu that enables the Wholly Within or Wholly and Partially Within options to be set when creating a Graphical Selection with a Fence selection.

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8.4

Positioning and Orientation using the Locator Handle

The Locator Handle provides three ways to move or rotate a Graphical Selection: Dragging the linear, planar or rotation handles freehand with the mouse pointer. Aligning with points, Ppoints, Plines or straight lines (edges) on other displayed items. Typing in offset distance or angular displacement values.

8.4.1

Aligning the Graphical Selection with points or lines on other displayed items

When aligning a Graphical Selection with other plant items in the displayed model, Feature Identification Mode is entered, i.e. the mouse pointer is sensitive to finding features on the Design graphics. Features are points, straight lines (edges), Ppoints or Plines. Points are located at vertices on the model, such as the corner of a box, and at the mid-point of lines. Lines are straight edges on the model (Design Aid graphics cannot be used as a feature). Feature Identification Mode is toggled on and off by selecting Selection > Feature Highlighting from the main menu, or by pressing the F key when the mouse pointer is over a 3D View, and the Model Editor is active. Some operations turn on Feature Identification Mode temporarily to allow a feature to be picked, e.g. Edit > Move Selection > Snap To Point. Once the required feature is identified, the mode reverts to its state before the command was actioned.

8.4.2

Automatic Scrolling

If the target location for a drag operation is outside of the 3D view, the mouse pointer can be moved to an edge of the view, where the view will pan automatically up, down, left or right according to the 3D view edge that the mouse pointer hits. The mouse pointer must move in order for the panning to continue. This may necessitate the user making a small movement of the pointer near to the view edge to keep the pan operation going. This technique for panning the view is appropriate for locating a target position that is just out of view.

8.4.3

Linear Movement Handles

The Linear Movement handle allows the movement of the Graphical Selection to be constrained in the direction of the linear handle axis. The size of each step of the movement is defined by the current Movement Increment. To initiate a linear drag, click and hold the left mouse button over one of the linear movement handles. With the left button still held, moving the mouse drags the Graphical Selection constrained in the selected direction. As the mouse moves over a linear handle, the pointer symbol changes to the linear drag pointer.

8.4.3.1 Moving one Movement Increment at a Time


If the movement increment is small relative to the magnification of the 3D view, it can be difficult to move the mouse freehand to a precise displacement from the Locator Handle's original position. Fine control over positioning can be achieved by dragging with a linear handle so that it is close to the required position then, while continuing to hold down the mouse button, press the plus ( +) or minus (-) key
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on the numeric keypad. This moves the Graphical Selection by one movement increment in the direction of the linear handle if + is pressed, or in the opposite direction if - is pressed. Using the cursor arrow keys in this way moves the Graphical Selection by 0.1 of the current movement increment for each press of the key.

8.4.3.2 Feedback
When moving a selection in a constrained direction, the Locator Handle changes to a cutdown version of the full handle to show the direction of movement. The current World position of the Locator Handle is displayed on the status bar, and an offset from the original position of the handle is displayed on the 3D View.

8.4.3.3 Linear Movement Handle Pop-up Menu

Right clicking on a linear drag handle displays a pop-up menu with the following options:

Enter Value - this option displays the Move Selection form: The textbox corresponding to the selected axis is activated so that a value may be manually entered. A +ve value will move the Graphical Selection in the positive axis direction and a ve value will move the Graphical Selection in the negative axis direction. Clicking the Preview button shows the affect of the entered value and clicking the OK button moves the Graphical Selection. Align with Feature - this option allows the Graphical Selection to be positioned in relation to another object on the screen but forces the Graphical Selection to move along the selected axis. Linear drag can align with a point feature or a line feature.

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Snap to Point - this option allows the Graphical Selection to be moved to a Point feature. The Graphical Selection is not constrained to move along the direction of the Linear Handle. Move Handle this option has a sub-menu that enables the Locator Handle to be moved independently of the Graphical Selection, thus changing the datum for the next operation on the Graphical Selection. The Enter Value, Align with Feature and Snap to Point sub-menu options function in the same way as described for moving the Graphical Selection except they move the entire Locator Handle. Cancel this option cancels the current Model Editor operation.

8.4.4

Planar Movement Handles

Each of the planar movement handles constrains the drag operation such that the Graphical Selection moves only in the plane of the selected handle. The handle moves in steps determined by the current Movement Increment setting. To initiate a planar drag, click and hold the left mouse button over one of the planar movement handles. With the left button still held, moving the mouse drags the Graphical Selection constrained in the selected plane. As the mouse moves over a linear handle, the pointer symbol changes to the planar drag pointer.

8.4.4.1 Feedback
A triangle is displayed on the current constraint plane, between the original position of the handle and the current position. The relative movement distances are shown on the sides of the triangle. The current World position of the Locator Handle is displayed on the status bar. All values are shown in the current selected units.

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8.4.4.2 Planar Movement Handle Pop-up Menu

Right clicking on a planar drag handle displays a pop-up menu with the following options:

Enter Values - this option displays the Move Selection form: The textboxes corresponding to the selected plane are activated so that values may be manually entered. +ve values move the Graphical Selection in the positive relevant axis direction and ve values move the Graphical Selection in the negative relevant axis direction. Clicking the Preview button shows the affect of the entered values and clicking the OK button moves the Graphical Selection. Align with Feature - this option allows the Graphical Selection to be positioned in relation to another object on the screen but forces the Graphical Selection to move only in the selected plane. Planar drag can align with a point feature or a line feature.

Snap to Point - this option allows the Graphical Selection to be moved to a Point feature. The Graphical Selection is not constrained to move in the plane of the Planar Handle. Move Handle this option has a sub-menu that enables the Locator Handle to be moved independently of the Graphical Selection, thus changing the datum for the next operation on the Graphical Selection. The Enter Value, Align with Feature and Snap to Point sub-menu options function in the same way as described for moving the Graphical Selection except they move the entire Locator handle. Cancel this option cancels the current Model Editor operation.

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8.4.5

Rotation Handles

The rotation handles allows the Graphical Selection to be rotated around the relevant axis using the current Angular Increment to control the angular step size.

To initiate a rotational drag, click and hold the left mouse button over one of the Rotation Movement Handles. With the left button still held, moving the mouse rotates the Graphical Selection around the selected axis. As the mouse moves over a Rotation Randle, the pointer symbol changes to the rotation drag symbol, and half of the Rotation Handle arc changes to show two arrows

8.4.5.1 Feedback

The angular movement from the original orientation is shown as the Locator Handle is rotated. The angular displacement is also shown in the status bar.

8.4.5.2 Rotation Handle Pop-up Menu

Right clicking on a rotation handle displays a pop-up menu with the following options:

Enter Values - this option displays the Rotate Selection about X/Y/Z form: The textbox enables a value, in degrees, to be entered to rotate the Graphical Selection around the specified axis. A +ve value rotates the Graphical Selection in the positive rotation direction and a ve value rotates the Graphical Selection in the negative rotation direction. Clicking the Preview button shows the affect of the entered value and clicking the OK button rotates the Graphical Selection. Orient to Point - this option allows the Graphical Selection to be orientated in relation to another object on the screen but forces the Graphical Selection to rotate only around the selected axis. Rotational drag can align with a point feature or a line feature.

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Align with Direction - this option allows the Graphical Selection to be rotated to align with the direction of a plane through a selected feature.

Align with - this option displays the Enter Direction for X/Y/Z Axis form: Any direction for the specified axis may be entered in the standard direction format. The axis selected depends on the relative position of the rotational drag cursor symbol when the right click is made on the Rotation Handle, i.e. if it is closer to the X axis the then the direction is specified. Clicking the Preview button shows the affect of the entered value and clicking the OK button rotates the Graphical Selection. Rotate handle this option has a sub-menu that enables the Locator Handle to be rotated independently of the Graphical Selection, thus changing the frame of reference for the next operation on the Graphical Selection.

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The Enter Value, Orient to Point, Align with Direction and Align with sub-menu options function in the same way as described for moving the Graphical Selection except they rotate the entire Locator Handle. The To World option aligns the Locator Handle with the World co-ordinate system, without rotating the Graphical Selection. The Locator Handle Y axis points North, and the Z axis points Up. Cancel this option cancels the current Model Editor operation.

8.4.6

Dragging the Locator Handle Independently of the Graphical Selection

A Locator Handle can be moved independently of the Graphical Selection from the pop-up menus, as describe previously, allowing a datum position to be set for subsequent move operations, or an axis of rotation to be set for subsequent rotation operations. The Locator Handle may be also be dragged independently of the Graphical Selection. Selecting a linear, planar or rotation handle by clicking and holding with the left mouse button down, and then pressing the H key on the keyboard, detaches the Locator Handle from the Graphical Selection. The H key can be used to toggle between moving the Locator Handle on its own, and moving the Graphical Selection with the Locator Handle.

8.5

Positioning and Orientation Using the Edit Menu


The Edit menu on the main menu bar works in conjunction with Model Editor Mode. Most of the options are similar or are the same as those available from other buttons or via the pop-up menus from the Locator Handles. The Edit menu has the following options: Model Editor this option toggles Model Editor Mode on and off. If on, a check mark appears next to the menu entry. Undo and Redo these options Undo or Redo Model Editor actions. These options are only active when Model Editor Mode is on.

Re-Select this option re-selects the previous Graphical Selection, if any. This option is only active if Model Editor Mode is on.

Move Selection this option has a sub-menu:

The sub-menu has the following options for moving the Graphical Selection:

Offset in 3D - this option displays the Move Selection form. Entering values in any of the three axis textboxes moves the Graphical Selection using the Locator Handle as the frame of reference. Clicking the Preview button shows the affect of the entered value and clicking the OK button moves the Graphical Selection.

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Set 3D Position - this option displays the Set Position of Selection form. The current position of the Locator Handle, with respect to the World, is displayed. Modifying the values in the textboxes moves the Graphical Selection in the direction, and by the values specified. Clicking the Preview button shows the affect of the entered value and clicking the OK button moves the Graphical Selection.

Snap to Point - this option enables the Graphical Selection to be positioned at a selected position relative to another object in the 3D View. The Locator Handle may be snapped to a point on another object, thus moving the selection.

Rotate Selection this option has a sub menu:

The sub-menu has the following options for rotating the Graphical Selection:

To World this option re-orientates the Locator Handle and the Graphical Selection such that the Y axis of the Locator Handle points in the World North direction and the Z axis points in the World Up direction. About X, About Y and About Z these options display the Rotate Selection about X/Y/Z form, depending on the axis selected. Entering a value in any of the textbox rotates the Graphical Selection and the Locator Handle around the specified axis. Clicking the Preview button shows the affect of the entered value and clicking the OK button moves the Graphical Selection.

Move Handle this option has a sub-menu: The options on this sub-menu are the same as for the Move Selection sub-menu described above, except that they apply to the Locator Handle only.

Rotate Handle this option has a sub-menu:

The options on this sub-menu are the same as for the Rotate Selection sub-menu described above, except that they apply to the Locator Handle only.

Delete Selection this option deletes the current Graphical Selection.

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Exercise 6
Setting Up the Exercise This exercise corrects the errors on the SITE TRA.MESS.SITE, as carried out in Exercise 4, except that position and orientation errors will be corrected using the Model Editor. Clear the Drawlist, then select Utilities > Training Setup from the main menu to display the Training Setup form. Select the Foundations tab, then click the Delete TRA.SITE and add MESS Site checkbox.

Click the Apply button then close the form. TANK1 Corrections Enter Model Editor Mode either by clicking the button on the Model Editor Toolbar or by selecting Edit > Model Editor from the main menu. Graphically select TANK1 in the 3D View to make it the CE and display the Locator Handle at the origin of the equipment.

Left click and hold on the Rotation Handle that rotates the equipment around the Z axis and move the handle until the feedback information reads 45 and N (or 45 and E, depending on which end of the rotation handle was selected). Release the left mouse button. The equipment is now correctly orientated.

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Right click on TANK1 and select Edit Members of Equipment from the pop-up menu. Note that all of the other elements in 3D View are displayed semitranslucent. Select the tank cylinder and note that it becomes the CE and the Locator Handle is displayed at its origin. Turn on Feature Highlighting by selecting Selection > Feature Highlighting from the main menu or pressing the F key.

Right click on the Z Linear Movement and select Move Handle > Align with Feature from the pop-up menu. Locate the Ppoint at the bottom of the cylinder by moving the pointer, using the left mouse button, over the cylinder until the Ppoint is displayed and the Through Ppoint Feature text is shown. Click the left mouse button to place the Locator Handle at the bottom centre of the cylinder.

Right click on the Z Linear Movement handle and select Snap to Point from the pop-up menu. The bottom of the cylinder needs to be located on the top surface of the box that forms the base of the tank. Move the pointer over the centre of the base box until the top surface Ppoint is located and the cylinder snaps to the point. Click the Ppoint to re-position the cylinder.

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Right click on the equipment and select Exit Equipment Editor from the pop-up menu. Click the Model Editor button to exit Model Editor Mode. Finish the corrections by modifying the Ylength attribute of BOX1 of TANK1 to 2850, using the Modify Attributes form.

TANK2 Corrections Modify the Dtop attribute of CONE1 of TANK2 to 1500 using the Modify Attributes form as described previously. Make TANK2 the CE and Graphical Selection. Enter Model Editor Mode, right click on TANK2 and select Edit Members of Equipment from the pop-up menu. Make CYLI1 the CE, right click the Z Linear Movement handle on the cylinder and select Move Handle > Align with Feature from the pop-up menu. Locate the Ppoint at the bottom of the cylinder by moving the pointer, using the left mouse button, over the cylinder until the Ppoint is displayed and the Through Ppoint Feature text is shown. Click the left mouse button to place the Locator Handle at the bottom centre of the cylinder.

Right click the X Linear Movement handle and select Snap to Point from the pop-up menu. Locate the Ppoint at the top centre of the cone and left click it to move the cylinder to this location.

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Left click on PYRA2 to make it the CE and move the Locator Handle to the pyramids origin. Right click on the Locator Handle and select Move Handle > Align with Feature from the pop-up menu. Move the handle to Ppoint 2, i.e. the central bottom face of the pyramid. Right click on the XY Planar handle and select Align with Feature from the pop-up menu. The bottom of the pyramid needs to be aligned in the XY plane to the centre of the cylinder. Move the pointer over the Ppoint on the top of the cylinder and note that the pyramid is aligned with this cylinder but the movement is constrained in the XY plane. Left click the Ppoint to re-position the pyramid. Left click on PYRA1 to make it the CE and move the Locator Handle to its origin. The bottom face of the pyramid needs to be aligned with the bottom face of PYRA2. Right click the Z Linear Movement handle and select Move Handle > Align with Feature from the popup menu. Move the handle to Ppoint 2, i.e. the central bottom face of the pyramid. Right click the Z Linear Movement handle again and select Align with Feature from the pop-up menu. Move the pointer over a bottom edge of PYRA2 to highlight a Through Linear Edge feature and left click to re-position the pyramid Left click on NOZZ TANK2-N2 to make it the CE and move the Locator Handle to its origin. The nozzle needs to be rotated around its flange face so that it faces East, i.e. a 90 rotation. Right click on the Z axis rotation handle and select Enter Value form the pop-up menu to display the Rotate Selection about Z form. Enter 90 in the textbox and click the Preview button. If the nozzle does not rotate to the correct orientation, enter -90 in the textbox and click the Preview button again. If the nozzle is in the correct orientation, click the OK button. Right click the on any equipment primitive and select Exit Equipment Editor form the pop-up menu.

PUMP1 Corrections

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Left click on PUMP1 to make it the CE and display the Locator Handle at its origin. Right click on the Z Linear Movement handle and select Move Handle > Snap to Point from the pop-up menu. Move the pointer over the face of the suction nozzle of the pump to find the P0 and then left click on it to move the handle.

Right click on the Z Linear Movement handle and select Align with Feature from the pop-up menu. Move the pointer over the flange on the pipe that the suction nozzle is meant to connect to until P1 is identified and the Through normal Ppoint Feature text is displayed. Left click on the feature to reposition the pump.

Right click on any of pumps primitives and select Edit Equipment from the pop-up menu. Right click on CYLI1 of PUMP1, the drive shaft cylinder, to make it the CE and move the Locator Handle to its origin. Right click on the Y Axis Rotation handle and move the pointer over the inboard dish until P1 is located. Left click the Ppoint to re-orientate the cylinder.

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Locate DISH2 of PUMP1 and right click on it to make it the CE and move the Locator Handle to its origin. Right click the Z Linear Movement handle and select Snap to Point from the pop-up menu. Move the pointer over the end of CYLI1 until P2 is located. Left click on the Ppoint to re-position the dish. Right click on any pump primitive and select Exit Equipment Editor from the pop-up menu.

Click the Model Editor button on the Model Editor Toolbar to exit Model Editor Mode. The corrections are now complete.

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APPENDIX A

APPENDIX A AVEVA Primitives


Key dimensions for a range of common primitives are outlined in the pages that follow. Some P-Points have been omitted for clarity.

Box (BOX)

Specific geometric attributes: Xlength Length parallel to X axis Ylength Length parallel to Y axis Zlength Length parallel to Z axis

Cylinder (CYLI)

Specific geometric attributes: Diameter Diameter of cylinder Height Length parallel to Z axis

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Cone (CONE)

Specific geometric attributes: Dtop Diameter at top of cone Dbottom Diameter at bottom of cone Height Length parallel to Z axis

Snout (SNOU)

Specific geometric attributes: Dtop Diameter at top of snout Dbottom Diameter at bottom of snout Xoffset Offset of centre of top from centre of bottom on X axis Yoffest Offset of centre of top from centre of bottom on Y axis Height Length parallel to Z axis

Only an Xoffset is show in this example, however, both Yoffset and Xoffset may be set.

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Pyramid (PYRA)

Specific geometric attributes: Xbottom Length of bottom of pyramid parallel to X axis Ybottom Length of bottom of pyramid parallel to Y axis Xtop Length of top of pyramid parallel to X axis Ytop Length of top of pyramid parallel to Y axis Height Length parallel to Z axis Xoffset Offset of centre of top from centre of bottom on X axis Yoffset Offset of centre of top from centre of bottom on Y axis

Only a Yoffset is show in this example, however, both Yoffset and Xoffset may be set.

Circular Torus (CTOR)

Specific geometric attributes: Rinside Inside radius in XY plane Routside Outside radius in XY plane Angle Subtended angle (maximum 180)

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Rectangular Torus (RTOR)

Specific geometric attributes: Rinside Inside radius in XY plane Routside Outside radius in XY plane Height Length parallel to Z axis Angle Subtended angle (maximum 180)

Dish (DISH)

Specific geometric attributes: Diameter Diameter of dish in XY plane. Height Height of dish parallel to Z axis Radius Knuckle radius

If the knuckle radius is 0 then the dish is represented as a segment of a sphere. If the knuckle radius is greater than 0 then the dish is represented as a partial ellipsoid, generally used to represent a torispherical end to a vessel.

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Sloped Cylinder (SLCY)

Specific geometric attributes: Diameter Diameter of sloped cylinder Height Length in Z axis from bottom centre to top centre Xtshear Inclination of top of cylinder in the XZ axis (in degrees) Ytshear Inclination of top of cylinder in the YZ axis (in degrees) Xbshear Inclination of bottom of cylinder in the XZ axis (in degrees) Ybshear Inclination of top of cylinder in the YZ axis (in degrees)

Only an Xtshear and Ybshear are shown in this example, however, Xtshear, Ytshear, Xbshear and Ybshear may be set in any combination to obtain the required results. The values for these attributes may be +ve or ve.

Extrusion (EXTR)

Specific geometric attributes: Height Height of extrusion in Z axis

An extrusion is a 2D shape, defined by a series of vertices at each change in direction, extruded through a height. The primitive consists of three element types, i.e. EXTR, LOOP and VERTs.

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Solid of Revolution (REVO)

Specific geometric attributes: Angle Rotation angle around X axis (selected rotation line)

A solid of revolution is a 2D shape, defined by a series of vertices at each change in direction, rotated through a specified angle around a specified rotation axis. The primitive consists of three element types, i.e. REVO, LOOP and VERTs.

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Nozzle (NOZZ)
Although a nozzle is classed as a primitive, it is unlike the other primitives in that its geometry is determined in Paragon as part of a catalogue component. Nozzles of different types and geometry may be constructed in Paragon to suit the requirements of the Piping Specification. The specific nozzle type is referenced from Paragon using the Specification Reference (Spref) attribute.

Specific geometric attributes: Height Height between nozzle face and end, i.e. from P1 to P2.

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