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Chapter Overview
,. Introduction
Newton's Corpuscular Theory
,. Huygen's Wave Theory
Coherent Sources
Interference of Light
~ > Introduction
" Diffraction of Light
"' Difference between Interference
and Diffraction
g Polarisation of Light
" Doppler's Effect in Light
The nature of light has been the source of one of the longest debates
in the history of science for centuries. Different scientist's theories like
Newton's corpuscular theory, Huygen's wave theory, Planck's quantum
theory, Maxwell's electromagnetic theory, Einstein's photoelectric effect etc
presented light as waves and particles. Finally the quantum electromagnetic
dynamics completely explained the light and electromagnetic interactions.
According to this theory, light shows wave like behaviour in certain
situations eg, interference , and diffraction and it behaves like particles
(photon) in other circumstances (eg, photoelectric effect).
In this chapter we deals about wave nature of light interference and
diffraction.
R> Newton's Corpuscular Theory
In 16 7({> , Newton propounded the corpuscular theory of light to define
its nature. He assumed that
/
936 , I Chapter 24 Wave Optics
(i) Light is composed of nearly massless tiny particles called
corpuscles.
(ii) The corpuscles travel in a straight line with a tremendous
speed in a homogeneous medium.
(iii) The speed of corpuscles changes when they travel from
one medium to the other.
(iv) The corpuscles oflight of different colours are of different
sizes.
(v) When the corpuscles strike on retina, we get the sensation
of vision.
~ > Huygen's Wave Theory
In1678, a Dutch scientist, Christian Huygen propounded the
wave theory of light. According to him
(i) Light travels in the form of waves.
(ii) These waves travel in all the directions with the velocity
of light.
(iii) The waves of light of different colours have different
wavelengths.
(iv) Initially the light waves were assumed to be longitudinal.
But later on while explaining the phenomenon of
polarization the light waves were considered to be
transverse.
(v) The whole universe with all matter and space is filled
with a luminiferous medium called ether of very low
density and very high elasticity.
(vi) Huygen's theory could explain reflection, refraction,
diffraction, polarization but could not explain
photoelectric effect and Compton's effect.
(vii) Wave theory introduced the concept of wavefront.
Wavefront
A surface drawn
at any instant in the
medium affected by
p
the waves originated Rays
from a source, on which S -E----+---r----'-- Q
each particle vibrates in
same phase is called the
wavefront.
The wavefront may
also be defined as the
hypothetical surface on
which the light waves
are in same phase.
As the wave travels
forward.
R
S =source of light,
AB =wavefront and SP, SO
and SR are rays of light.
forward, the wavefront also moves
The perpendicular to the surface of a wavefront gives the
direction of light ray. The disturbance from the source propagates
in all directions, with the same speed c. Hence, after a time t, all
the points on the hypothetical sphere of radius ct, with the point
source Sat the centre, are in the same phase of vibration. Hence,
this hypothetical sphere acts as a spherical wavefront of light.
The energy transfers along the direction of rays.
Wavefronts in Different Cases
(a) Light emerging from a point source Wavefronts are
spherical and eccentric with point source at their centre
as shown in figure by circles 1, 2, 3 and 4. Rays are radial
as shown by arrows.
In spherical wavefront
Amplitude oc _!.
r
I
. 1
ntens1ty oc
2
r
Direction
of propagation
(b) Light coming out from a line source Wavefronts
1, 2 and 3 are cylindrical and co-axial with the straight
source as their common axis.
(c) When light sources is emitting parallel rays, or when
the light is coming from a very far off source Wavefronts
will be planes as shown in figure.
Plane wavefronts
Huygen's Principle of Secondary Wavelets
In 1678, in order to explain the propagation of wave in a
medium, Huygen propounded a principle known as Huygen's
principle of secondary wavelets by which at any instant we
can geometrically obtain the position of wavefront. He made
following three assumptions
(i) Every point on a given wavefront (called primary
wavefront) can be regarded as fresh source of new
disturbance and sends out its own spherical wavelets
called secondary wavelets.
(ii) The secondary wavelets spread in all directions with the
velocity of wave (ie, velocity of light).
(iii) A surface touching these secondary wavelets, tangentially
in the forward direction at any instant gives the position
and shape of the new wavefront at that instant. This is
called secondary wavefront.
A'
B'
(a)
> Coherent Sources
(b)
'TWo sources are said to be coherent if they have the same
frequency and the phase relationship remains independent
of time. In this case, the total intensity I is not just the sum of
individual intensities !
1
and !
2
due to two sources but also
includes an interference term whose magnitude depends on the
phase difference at a given point.
I= !
1
+ !
2
+ 2JT;I; cos<j>
where the phase difference.
The 2M cos <1> averaged over a cycle is zero if
(a) the source have different frequencies.
(b) the source have the same frequencies but not constant
phase difference.
(c) for such incoherent sources I =I
1
+I
2
, where does
not change with time, we get an intensity pattern and
the sources are said to be coherent.
In practice coherent sources are produced either by dividing
the wavefront or by dividing the amplitude (as in the case of thin
films, Newton rings etc) of the incoming waves.
> Interference of Light
When two light waves of exactly equal frequency having
phase difference which is constant with respect to time travelled
in same direction and overlap each other, then intensity is not
uniform in space.
At some points the intensity of light is maximum (more than
the sum of individual intensities of those waves), while at some
points the intensity of light is minimum (less than the difference
of individual intensities of those waves).
Thus, formation of maximum intensity at some points and
minimum intensity at some oilier points by the two identical light
waves travelling in same direction is called tlle interference of light.
The interference at the points where the two waves meet
in same phase, ie, the intensity of light is maximum, is called
the constructive interference while at the points where the
two waves meet in opposite phase, ie, the intensity of light is
minimum is called the destructive interference.
Chapter 24 Wave Optics 937
Resultant wave Second wave
(a) Constructive interference
First wave
Resultant wave
(b) Destructive interference
Conditions of Maxima and Minima
Lety
1
=A
1
sincotandy
2
=A
2
sin be two sin1ple harn10nic
waves of same frequency travelling in tlle same direction, A
1
and A
2
are tlleir amplitudes, is tlle initial phase difference between tllem
and co/2n is the common frequency of the two waves.
By the principle of superposition the resultant displacement is
y = y
1
+ Y2 = A
1
sin cot+ A
2
sin (cot+
From this expression, the resultant amplitude is given by
A
2
2A
1
A
2
cos<j>
The resultant intensity I is given by
I =A
2
So, I= 2A
1
A
2
cos<j>
I == I 1 + I 2 + 2M cos <I>
Thus, the resultant amplitude (or the resultant intensity) at
a point depends on the phase difference at that point between
the two superposing waves.
(i) For constructive interference (maximum intensity)
The intensity I is maximum, when cos = + 1, ie, when phase
difference = 2nn; n = 0,1, 2, ... etc,
n = 0 stands for zero order maxima
n = 1 stands for Ist order maxima
n = 2 stands for lind order maxima
Path difference = n'A
So, I max= 2A
1
A
2
= (A
1
+ A
2
i
(ii) For destructive interference (minimum intensity)
The intensity I is minimum when cos 4> = - 1
ie, when phase difference
= (2n -1)n; n = 1, 2, .. . etc.
n = 1 for first order minima, n = 2 stands for second order
minima 'A
path difference = (2n -1)-
2
So, I min= 2A
1
A
2
= (A
1
- A
2
)
2
Figure shows the variation of intensity I with the phase
difference !]> due to the superposition of two waves of equal
amplitudes. The graph is called the intensity distribution
curve. , .' . '. . ,
2
.
when!]> = 0, 21t,41t, ... , !max= 4A
and when <1> = 1t, 3, 51t , ... ,!min= 0
Instance 1 Light waves from two coherent sources of having
i11tensity ratio 81 : 1 produce interferenr;e. Then the ratio of maxima
and minima in the interference pattern will be
( )
18 (b) 16
a
23 25
25
(c)
16
Interpret
or
(d) 23
18
. I A
2
81
GIVen _l = -
1
= -
I
2
\ 1

A
2
1
A
1
= 9A
2
I max - (Al + Az)2
I min - (Al- Az)
2
From Eq. (i), we have
I max (9Az + Az)2
Imin = (9Az-Az)
2
c1oi 25
C8i = 16
... (i)
Instance 2 Light waves from two coherent sources having
intensities I and 2I cross each other at a point with a phase difference
of 60. The intensity at the point will be
(a) 4.414 I (b) 5.455 I
(c) 4 I (d) 6.441 I
Interpret Here, I
1
=I, 1
2
= 21 and !]> = 60
we know that the amplitude A of resultant wave is
A=

+ b
2
+ 2 abcos<jl
A
2
=a
2
+b
2
+2abcos<jl
We also know that
I oc A
2
:. Resultant Intensity, I= 1
1
+ 1
2
+ 2ji'J"; cos<jl
= I + 21 + z.J I x 21 cos 60
= 4.414I
Young's Double Slit Experiment
In the given figure, Sis a slit illuminated by a monochromatic
light. Light waves from the slit S are incident on slits 5
1
and 5
2

Slits 5
1
and 5
2
are situated such that the distance SS
1
is equal
to the distance 55
2
Hence, the waves emanating from the slit
S reach 5
1
and 5
2
simultaneously, ie, the waves at 5
1
and 5
2
are
in same phase. Infront of the slits 5
1
and 5
2
, there is a vertical
. screen P. We are to find the positions of bright and dark fringes
on the basis ofYoung's experiment.
Suppose the distance of the point P from centre of the fringe
pattern be x then in b.S
2
PQ.
(S
2
P)
2
= (S
2
Qi + (PQi = D
2
+( x +%Y
In b.S
1
PM,
(SlP)
2
= (SlM)
2
+ (PM)
2
= D
2
+ (X- %Y
So, (S
2
P)
2
- (S
1
P)
2
= 2dx
or (SzP + S
1
P) (SzP- S
1
P) = 2dx
Now since, P is very close to 0, we can have to a first
approximation assuming that
SzP + S
1
P = D + D = 2D
dx
.. 5
2
P-5
1
P=D
So, path difference between the interfering waves is dx .
D
(i) Position of bright fringes or maxima on the screen
Constructive interference occurs when the path difference is an
even multiple of A/2.
xd A
ie, -=2n-=nA
D 2
or
nAD
X=--
d
(where n = 0, 1, 2, 3 , .. )
When n = 0 gives central fringe, hence,
x = 0, ie, x
0
= 0
AD
n = 1, x
1
=-
d
2AD
n = 2, x
2
=-d-
nAD
n=n,xn =d
If
(1st bright fringe)
(2nd bright fringe)
(n'h bright fringe)
(ii) Position of dark fringes or minima on the
screen Destructive interference occurs when the path difference
is an odd multiple of A/2.
ie,
or
xd A
-=(2n-l)-
D 2
(2n-l)AD
X=
2d
(where n = 1, 2, 3 ... )
Let the positions of the minima be represented by instead
of xn (so that there is confusion as xn represents the ' position of
nth maxima).
When n = 1, xi= AD
2d
n = 2 x'
,
2
2 d
, (2n-l) AD
n = n, xn =--2-d
(1st
(2nd minima)
(n'h minima)
Fringe width The distance between two consecutive bright
or dark fringes is called fringe width.
Let the distance of nth and (n + l)th bright or dark fringes
from the central fringe are xn and xn+l' then
and
nW
X=--
n d
(n + 1)W
xn+l = d
:. Distance between (n + 1)th and nth 'fringes
(n + 1)W nW ')..])
x - x = - --=- [n + 1- n]
n+l n d d d
')..])
or
xn+l -xn =d
:. Width of bright or dark fringe, = ')..])
d
Important Features
1. Consider two coherent sources 5
1
and 5
2
Suppose two
waves emanating from these two sources superimpose
at point P. The phase difference between them at P
is ljl (which is constant) . If the amplitudes due to two
individual sources at P are A
1
and A
2
, then resultant
amplitude at P, will be
s1
p
A= + Ai + 2A
1
A
2
cos<!J
Similarly, the resultant intensity at P is given by
I= /
1
+1
2
+2M cos<!J
Here, 1
1
and 1
2
are t he intensities due to independent
sources. If the sources are incoherent then resultant
intensity at P is given by
I = Jl + l z
2. For two coherent sources the resultant intensity is given
by
Putting,
We have,
l=l
1
+1
2
+2Mcos<!J
ll=lz=lo
I= !
0
+ !
0
+

x /
0
cos<!J
Simplifying the above expression, we get
I=


2
3. Resultant intensity due to two coherent sources is given by
I =!
1
+!
2
+2M cosljl
!max= cJf; + ji;)
2
where cos <I> = + 1
,
and /min = cJf;- Fz )
2
where cos ljl = - 1
Chapter 24 Wave Optics 939
If both the slits are of equal width, 1
1
= !
2
= 1
0
(say)
I max = 4!
0
and Jmin = 0
Thus, I = I cos
2
!
max
2
4. Optical path length We can show that a thickness t in
a medium of refractive index J..l is equivalent to a length
J..lt in vacuum (or air). This is called optical path length.
Thus, optical path length= J..tt .
5. If the whole YDSE set up is taken in another medium
then A. change, changes 1
eg, in water A = 2::9_
w
f..l w
I
=? =fu
f..l w
6. Displacement of fringes If a thin transparent plate of
thickness t and refractive index J..l is placed in the path
of one of interfering waves (say in path S
1
P) , then
effective path in air is increased by an amount (J..l- l)t
due to introduction of plate. Effective path difference in
air
For maxima
= S.J>- [S
1
P + (J..l- 1)t]
dx
=(S
2
P-S
1
P) -(J..t-1)t=-n -(J..t-1)t
D .
dx
_ n -(J..t-1)t=nA
D
D
xn =d[nA+(J..l-1)t]
Fringe width = xn+l - xn = DA
d
It means fringe width remains unchanged. Position of
maxima in absence of plate.
nDA
(xn)t=O = -d-
Displacement of fringes
L'.x = xn - Cxn )t=O
'
D nDA
=-[nA+(J..t-1)t]--
d d
= E.cJ..t-1)t =
d A
7. In the problems of YDSE our first task is to find path
difference. Let us take a typical case. In the figure shown,
path of ray 1 is more deviated than path of ray 2 by a
distance
940 Chapter 24 Wave Optics
L1x
1
= d sin r:i and L1x
2
= (J..l
1
-1) t
1
and path of ray 2 is greater than path of ray 1 by a
distance
L\x
3
= d s i n ~ and L1x
4
= J!-!
2
-1) t
2
Therefore, net path difference is /
LlX = (LlX
1
+ LlX
2
)-(LlX
3
+ LlX
4
)
Interference in Thin Films
Interference effects are commonly observed in thin films
such as thin layers of oil on water or the thin surface of a soap
bubble.
c
A
Consider a film of uniform thickness t and index of refraction
J..l as shown in figure. Let us assume that a monochromatic ray of
light AB incident at angle i, on the upper surface PQ of the film.
The ray of light will suffer reflection and refraction. The rays BC
and FG are said to interfere in reflected system and the rays DE
and HI are said to interfere in transmitted system.
It can be shown that
(i) In the reflected system
For constructive interference
2J.!t cos r = (2n - 1) A/2
For destructive interference
or 2!-lt cos r = n'A.
(ii) In the transmitted system
For constructive interference
2!-lt cos r = nA.
For destructive interference
2J.!t cos r = (2n- 1)A/2
Obviously, conditions for thin film to appear bright/dark in
reflected system are just the reverse of those in the transmitted
system.
Instance 3 In a YDSE, if D = 2 m, d = 6 mm, /.. = 6000 A, then
the fringe width and the position of the 3'd maxima are
(a) 0._2 mm, 0.6 mm (b) 0.8 mm, 0.1 mm
(c) 1.2 mm, 0.2 mm (d) None of these
Interpret We know that
. . AD 6000 X 10-
10
X 2
Fnnge Wldth ~ =-=
3
= 0.2mm
d 6x 10-
Position of 3rd maxima
3AD
Y3 = d = 3 ~ = 3 x 0.2 = 0.6 mm
Instance 4 White light is used to illuminate the two slits in a
Young's double slit experiment. The separation between the slits is b and
the screen is at a distanceD > > b from the slit. At a point on the screen
directly infront of one of the slits. Find the missing wavelengths.
b2 b2 b2 b2 b2 b2
(a) (b)
D' 3D' SD ... 2D' 4D' SD .. .
b2 b2 b2
(c)
3D' SD' 6D ...
(d) None of these
Interpret According to theory of interference, position y of a
point on the screen is given by
D
y =- LlX
d
For missing wavelengrhs intensity will be minimum ( = 0) , if
L1 x = (2n- 1) A/2
D(2n -1)A
So, y=--- - -
2d
Given, d =bandy= b/2
b2
A = where n = 1, 2, 3, ..
(2n -1)D
So wavelength when n = 1
b2
A----
1- (2-1)D
b2
n = 2, A
2
(4-1)D
n = 3,
b2 b2
- --=- etc will be
(6-1)D SD
absent or missing at point P.
Instance 5 The intensity of the light coming from one of the slits in
a Young's double slit experiment is double the intensity from the other
slit. Find the ratio of the maximum intensity to the minimum intensity
in the interference fringe pattern observed.
(a) (.J3 + 1 )
2
.J3 -1
(c) (-}2 -1 )2
-J2 + 1
(b) (-12 + 1 )2
-J2 -1
(d) None of these
Interpret
!max __ (.jf; + Fz)
2
!min .jf; -.[!;
Chapter 24 Wave Optics 941
Since, Interpret Here, d = 0.1 mm = 10-
4
m
Instance 6 In YDSE, the two slits are separated by0.1 mm and they
are 0.5 mfrom the screen. The wavelength of light used is 5000 A. What
is the distance between 7th maxima and ll th minima on the screen ?
(a) 5.65 mm (b) 6.75 mm
(c) 8.75 mm (d) 7.8 mm
D = 0.5 m, f..= 5000 A= 5.0 x 10-
7
m
Llx =(Xu )dark- (X7 )bright
(2xll-1)AD 7/..D
2d d
ilx= ?f..D = 7x5x1o-
7
x0.5
8
_
75
x
10
_3 m
2d 2x10-4 ~
= 8.75mm
lntext Questions 2 4 . ~ . 1
(i) What is the geomenical shape of wavefront of light emerging out ofa convex lens; when point source is placed at
(ii) Can twoi,J:tdependent sources of light be coherent ? What happens to the interference pattern, if the phase diffel1enc:j'! blemreeJ!l.
sources connnuously varies?
(iii) Why does an excessively thin film appear black in reflected light?
(iv) What is the effecjpn the i.J:!,terference pattern in Young's double slit experiment due to each of Jhe following ot)eratio:ils ?
(a) The width of the slits are increased equally.
(b) If the source is not exactly on the centre line between the slits.
> Diffraction of light
Diffraction of light is the phenomenon of bending of light
around corners of an obstacle or aperture in the path of light.
This bending light penetrates into the geometrical shadow
of the obstacle. The light thus deviates from its linear path.
This deviation is more effective when the dimensions of the
aperture or the obstacle are comparable to the wavelength of
light.
The phenomenon of diffraction is divided mainly in the
following two classes
(a) Fresnel diffraction
(b) Fraunhofer diffraction
1. The source is at a finite
distance.
2. No optical.s are required.
3. Fringes are not sharp and
well defined.
Fraunhofer Diffraction
The source is at infinite
distance.
Optical.s are in the foi:m of
collimating lens and focusing
lens are required.
I Fringes are sharp and well
1 defined.
1. Fraunhofer's arrangement for studying diffraction at
a single narrow slit (width = a) is shown in adjoining
figure. Lenses, L
1
and L
2
are used to render incident light
beam parallel and to focus parallel light beam
Slit Screen
,
2. Angular position of nth secondary minima is given by
. e A.
sm =9= n-
a
and linear distance
X = De = nDA. = nf2A.
n a a
where f
2
is focal length of lens L
2
and D = f
2
.
Similarly, for nth maxima, we have
sine= e = (
2
n +
1
)/...
2a
and x = (2n + 1)DA = (2n + 1) f 2A.
n 2a 2a
3. The angular width of central maxima is 29 =
2
" or linear
a
width of central maxima
= 2Df.. = 2f2/..
a a
The angular width of central maxima is double as
compared to angular width of secondary diffraction
maxima.
4. Condition of diffraction minima is given by
a sinS= nf..
where n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ...
But the condition of secondary diffraction maxima is
a sinS= (2n + 1)2:.
2
where n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ...
5. Diffraction at plane grating When polychromatic
or monochromatic light of wavelength A. is incident
normally on a plane transmission grating, the principal
maxima are
where
(e +d) sinS= nf..
n = order of maximum
8 = angle of diffraction
e + d = grating element
d = opaque part
942 Chapter 24 Wave Optics
6. Diffraction of circular aperture When monochromatic
light of wavelength A is incident on a circular aperture of
diameter d, then angular width of dark fringe
dsin8=1.22A.or sin 8 = l.Z21c
d
Angular radius of central maximum
.
8
1.221c
Sill =--
d
If 8 is small, sin 8 = 8 = 1.
2
2"-
d
Diffraction pattern is as shown below
Principal maxima
Secondary
3/Je
Difference between lnterterence and Diffraction
1. Interference is the superposition of waves from two
different wavefronts, whereas diffraction is due to
superposition of wavelets from different points of the
same wavefront.
2. Interference all maxima are equally bright and minima
equally dark (perfectly black). In case of diffraction
maxima are of decreasing intensity, minima are not
perfectly black.
3. In case of interference, there are large number of
maxima and minima, but in case of diffraction bands
are few.
Interference
,
Instance 7 In a single slit diffraction experiment first minima f or
A
1
= 660 m coincides with fi rst maxima for wavelength A
2
, then A
2
will be equal to ,
(a) 240 nm (b) 345 nm
(c) 440 nm (d) 330 nm
Interpret Given, A = 660 nm
Position of minima in diffraction pattern is given by
a sin 6 = n'A
For first minima of A
1
, we get
asin8
1
= 1/....
1
or
. e A.!
sm
1
= -
a
For the first maxima approximately of wavelength A
2
. 3,
asm8
2
=

2
. e 3/....2
sm z = 2a
The two will be considered if,
8
1
= 8
2
or sin8
1
= sin8
2
A. 3/.... 2 2 .
_l = --
2
or /....
2
= - /....
1
= - x 660 nm
a 2a 3 3
/....
2
= 440 nm
Polarisation of light
Light is an electromagnetic wave in which electric and
magnetic field vectors vary sinusoidally, perpendicular to each
other as well as perpendicular to the direction of propagation of
wave of light.
The phenomenon of restricting the vibrations of light
(electric vector ) in a particular direction, perpendicular t o the
direction of wave motion is called polarisation of light. The
tourmaline crystal acts as a polariser.
Thus, electromagnetic waves are said to be polarised when
their electric field are all in a single plane, called the plane
of oscillation/vibration. Light waves from common sources are
oscillation/vibration. Light waves from common sources are
unpolarised or randomly polarised.
The plane ABCD in which the vibrations of polarised light
are confined is called the plane of vibration. The plane EFGH
which is perpendicular to the plane of vibration is defined as the
plane of polarisation.
Brewster's Law
A
---------,o
E :
-----r-----7F
I /
I /
-----t---G
I
I
a ----- ----c
According to this law, when unpolarised light is incident at
an angle called polarising angle, iP on an interface separating
air from a medium of refractive index !-! , then the reflected
light is fully polarised (perpendicular to the plane of incidence) ,
provided
This relation represents Brewster's law. Note that the parallel
components of incident light do not disappear, but refract into
the medium, with the perpendicular components.
Note
If =tan iP then iP + r =goo
siniP
From Brewster s taniP =--.
COSIP
siniP
and from Snell s
smr
cosip=sinr
sin (goo iP) =sin r
Hence,
or
or
law of Malus
r=goo iP
i + r =goo
p
1
tani =
P sinic
cot iP = sinic (i, =critical angle)
When a beam of completely plane polarised light is incident
on an analyser, the resultant intensity of light (I) transmitted from
the analyser varies directly as the square of cosine of angle(8)
between plane of transmission of analyser and polariser.
ie, .I = cos
2
8
If intensity of plane polarised light incidenting on analyser is
!
0
, then intensity of emerging light from analyser is
I
0
cos
2
8
\n No::_ te:;___,_ ___ _
We can prove that when unpolari sed light 'of intensi ty /
0
gets polarised on
f
. 1
passing through a polaroid, its intensity becomes hal 1e, I=

2
Polaroids
Polaroids are thin and large sheets of crystalline polarising
material (made artificially) capable of producing plane polarised
beams of large cross-section.
A polaroid sheet can also be obtained from a sheet of
polyvinyl alcohol. When such a sheet is subjected to a large
strain, the molecules get oriented in the direction of the applied
strain. When the sheet is impregnated with iodine, the material
becomes dichroic. The polaroid sheet so obtained is called
H-polariod.
If the stretched sheet of polyvinyl alcohol is heated in the
presence of a dehydrating agent such as HCl, it becomes strongly
dichroic as well as very stable. Such a polaroid sheet is called
K-polaroid.
A polaroid has a characteristic plane called transm1ss1on
plane. When unpolarised light falls on a polaroid, only the
vibrations paralled to the transmission plane get transmitted
Polariser
,
Chapter 24 Wave Optics 943
Uses- - -t t 1 ..... '
' L In sun glasses Polaroids are use-d in sun glasses. They
protect the eyes from the glare.
2. In window panes The polaroids are used in window
P'lnes of a train and especially of an aeroplane. They
help to contr;ol the light entering through the windows.
3. In three dimensional motion pictures The pictures
taken by a stereoscopic camera, when seen with the help
of polaroid spectacles, create three dimensional effect.
4. In wind shield in automobiles The wind shield of an
automobile is made of polaroid. Such a wind shield
protects the eyes of the driver of the automobile from
the dazzling.light of the approaching vehicles.
In addition to the above uses, polaroids are used as filters
in photography to produce and detect the plane polarised light
in the laboratory and to study the optical properties of the
metals.
Instance 8 Light reflected from the surface of glass plate of
refractive index 1.5 7 is linearly polarised. What is the angle of rejiaction
of glass ?
(a) 32.SO
(c) 30.2
(b) 42S
(d) 44S
Interpret Given that = 1.57
According to Brewster's Law
=tan iP = 1.57, iP = tan-
1
(1.57) = 57.5
As r = 90 iP orr= 90 57.5 = 32.5
> Doppler's Effect in light
The phenomenon of apparent change in frequency
(or wavelength) of the light due to the relative motion between the
source of light and the observer is called Doppler's effect in light.
When the source of light and the observer approach each
other, the frequency of the light appears to be more than the actual
frequency of the light emitted from the source (or the wavelength
of the light appears to be lesser than the actuial wavelength). On
the other hand, when the source of light and the observer recede
from each other, the apparent frequency of the ljght decreases
or the apparent wavelength increases. The change in frequency
(or the wavelength) of the light for the given relative velocity of
the source and the observer is independent of the fact, whether
the source is in motion.or the observer is in motion.
Consider that a source of light emits light waves of frequency
v and wavelength A. If the light travels with velocity c, then
c = , . A.
A stationary observer will receive v waves per second.
In case, the observer moves towards the source of light with
velocity v along the direction of propagation of light, then the
number of waves received per second ie, apparent frequency of
light will be
v' = v + number of waves contained in distance equal to v
v v
Y+-=Y+ --
A C/Y
v' = v (1 +
or
v' = v

944 Chapter 24 Wave Optics
It follows that v' > v ie, when the source and the observer
approach each other, apparent frequency of the light increases.
When the source of light and the observer move away
from each other, then the apparent frequency of light can be
obtained from above equation by changing v to -v. Therefore,
when the source of light and the observer move away from each
other, the apparent frequency of the light is given by
v' =
It follows that v' < v ie, the apparent frequency of light
aecreases, when the source of light and the observer move away
from each other.
For apparent frequency of light may be written in the
combined form as

Doppler shift. The apparent change in the frequency (or
the wavelength) of the light due to relative motion between the
source and the observer is called Doppler shift.
The apparent change in frequency is given by
v'-v =
c
The apparent change in frequency v'- vis denoted by and
is called Doppler shift. Therefore,
v
= -v
c
The positive sign is to be considered, when the source and
the observer approach each other and the negative sign, when
the two move away from each o,ther.
,.,
by
Doppler shift in terms of the wavelength of the light is given

c
In equation, the negative sign corresponds to the case,
when the source of light and the observer approach each other.
The negative value of M indicates that the wavelength of the
light decreases, when the source of light and the observer move
towards each other. It is called blue shift.
On the other hand, in equation the positive sign corresponds
to the case, when the source of light and the observer move
away from each other. The positive value of D.A. indicates that
the wavelength of the light increases, when the source of light
and the observer move away from each other. It is called red
shift.
Instance 9 The spectral line for a given element in light received
from a distant star is shifted towards the longer wavelength by 0.32%.
Deduce the velocity of star in the line of sight.
Interpret Here, M =
0

032
(postion, as the .shift is towards
A 100
longer wavelength)
Now, Doppler shift is given by

c
V = - !:iA C =- 0.0
32
X 3 X 108
A 100
=- 9.6 x 10
4
ms-
1
The negative sign indicates that the star is receding.
uestions 24.2
,
Chapter 24 "' Wave Optics 945
Chapter Compendium
1. Ray of light is drawn perpendicular to the wavefront.
2. Huygens' Piinciple
(i) Each pomt on given Or primary wavefront acts as a.
source of sending out
all directions in a similar manner as the origil1al sogrce
oflight.
(ii). The new positi<m of the wavefront at any instant is the
of the secondary wavelets at that instant.
3. If two coherent waves with intensities 1
1
and lz are
superimposed with a phase difference off, the resulting wave
intensity is
I= 1
1
+ 1
2
+

1
2
cos$
For maxima, x"' .n'A (A.= optical path difference)
or
2 2
Phase difference, q, =
2
7t (x)
'A
Ratio of maximum to mininmm intensity
lmax _ Cal + az)
2
[min - (al- azP
f
1
P1
Also, Iz = Pz
4. Young's double slit experiment
(i) .. For maxima ,
or y =
(ii) For rninirna,
DA- 3DA
Y
=+- +-- so on
- 2d , _ 2d ?
(iii) Fringe width, p = AD
d
(iv) When a fil:nl of thickness t and refractive index f.t is
introqw:ed in the path?f one light;then
fringe shift occurs as the optical patl;ldifference changes.
Optical path. difference at P
,
L'lx = S
2
P"-(S
1
Pqtt t ]
= S
2
P- 5
1
P- (!+ -l)U y . (d/D)--; (Jl - l)t
The fringe shift is given by, 4)>.= D(J.t-l)t
d
(v) Intensity variation on screen

the intensity of light beam coming from each slit,


then the resultant intensity at a. pqi.):lt where they have
a phase difference pf is given by
I== 41
0
cos
2
%, where q, =


5 . . Diffraction is the phenomenon of bending ()flight round
the sharp corners and spreading into the regions of
.geometrical shadow is called diffraction. .
6. Diffraction from a slit
(i) Angular position of the n th secondary minimmn
nA.
a
(ii) Distance of the nth secondary
nDA.
centre of the screen xn = -;-
maximum from the
(iii) Angular positions of the nth
9
,_ (2n + l)A.
secondary m imum
n-
2a
(iv) Distance ofttte n'h secondary maximum from the
of the screen x' = (Zn + l)DA.
11
2a
( v) Width of a secondary maximWP- or mininlurn p =
(vi) Width of the centraLmaximum p
0
= 2,Df::
a
a
phenomenon due to which vibrations light
restricted in a parti<;ular plane is called polarisation.
8. Brewster's Law states that when light is incident at polarising
angle, the refl:ected and refracteq rays are perpendicular to
each other.
Mathematically J.l=tan iP
9. Law states that when a completely plane
light beam is incident on an analyser tlie intensity of tht=
emt;rgent: light varies as the square pf the cosh1e of the
angle between the plane of of the analyser
and the polariser
Mathematicap.y e
10. Doppler shift.
(a)
c
(b) Ll'A=
c
Example 1 Ifamplitude rqtio of two sources producing interference
is 3 : 5, th,e ratio pfinten,sities bfmaxima cirid'minima is
(a) 5 : 3 (b) 16 : 1
(c) 25 : 16 (d) 25 : 9
Solution We know in ,
1max = c.ji; + JI;Y while 1min =.c.Ji; J[;y
I J , I . 1 I l
' ' ' ' _ C.ji; + .ji;y _ (A
1
+ A
2
)
2
!min-


-:-' (Al -A2)
2
According to problem . . . .
'
1
rll r (3+5)
2
; 16, -
1
' .
..: .... '' flz' s 'dmin (3'- 5)2 1
r t , ' t ' 1 - ... r,
I:.'
'
'.'
''.
Examp'le 2 . ' Monochromatic green light; of wavelength 5 x 10-
7
m
illuminates a pair of slits 1 mm apart. The separation of bright lines on
the interference pattern formed on a screen 2m away is
(a) Ldmm
1
(b) o.b1 mm
(c) 0.1 mm (d) 0.25 mm
Solution Separation line.$ o.r.fl;i.nge width
D'A Sxl0-
7
x2 _
3
, .. :3 m=lO m=l.Omm .. ,.
! J

,' lQ,- JI 11,;1 \


Example 3 Young's double slit is' ccirried out wing
microwaves of wavelength A "''-3 em. Distance between the slits is
d = 5 em and the distance between the plane of slits and the screen is
D = 100 em. Then what is the number 6pin'ax:imas 'and their positions
on the screen? ' -
(a),)' 3/ 0
1
Qnd '7s r - I
(c) 3, 1 and 55 em
Solution
(b} 4;1 and- 6'0 d;z
(d) None of these
PT
s1 Y
s2
----------- Jl
I
I
The maximwn path difference that can be produced = distance
between the sources ie, 5 em.
Hence, in this condition we can have only 3 maximas one .
central maxima and two on its either side for a path difference
of/.. or3 em.
Now, for maximwn intensity at P
S
2
P-S
1
P ='A
,
or + d/2)2 + D2 - d/2)2 + D2 = i
Putting, d = 5 em, D = 100 em
and A = 3 em, we get
y = 75 em
Thus, the three maximas will be at
y = 0 andy = 75 em
Example 4 In Young's double slit experiment, an interference
pattern is obtained for A = 6000 A, .coming from. two coherent sources
51 'and 52. At certain point P on the screen third dark fringe is formed.
Then the path difference S
1
P- S
2
P in microns is
' (a) 0.75 (b)o 1.5
'<' (c) 3.0 f d) 4.5
' ' (2n-1)/..
Solution For dark fringe at-P, ,S
1
P- S
2
P =
2
5/..
S
1
P-S
2
P=-
2
= 5 x
6000
= 15000- = 1.5 micron
2
Exam 5 Tw.o slits. are separated.by a distance of 0.5 .mm and
illuminated with light of A = 6000 A. If, the screen is placed 2.5 m
from the slits . .The .of the third bright image froTI! the centre
will be
(a) 1.5 mm ( b) 3 mm
. (c) 6 mm (d) ,9 mrn.
Solution Distance of n'h bright fringe from the centre
nD'A
Yn=d
Y3 =
3 X 6000 X 10-lO X 2.5
0.5 X 10-
3
x 10-
3
m = 9 nun.
0 I
Example 6 In a double slit arrangement fringes are produced
using light of wavelength 4800 A. One slit is covered by a thin plate
of glass of refractive index 1.4 and the other with another glass plate
of same thickness but of refractive index 1. 7. By doing so the central
bright shifts to original fifth bright fringe from centre. Thickness of
glass plate is
(a) 8 (b) 6j..i.m
(c) 4!lm (d) 10j..i.m
Solution When one slit is covered by a thin plate of glass, then
shift
when another slit is covered by a thin plate of glass of different
refractive index, then shift

= i(llz -1)t
Net shift =




= i(llz -111) t
Here given,

5 = t (Jlz -Ill) t
Example 7 What is the minimum thickness of a soap film needed
for constructive interference in reflected light, if the light incident of the
film is 750 nm? Assume that the index for the film is f.l = 1.33
(a) 282 nm (b) 70.5 nm
(c) 141 nm (d) 387 nm
Solution Here, 2 f!t = A/2
A .
tmin =-=141 nm
411
Example 8 A beam of light of wavelength 600 nmfrom a distant
soilr'Ge faits on a single slit 1.0 mm wide and the resulting diffraCtion '
is observed on a screen 2 m away. What is the distance between
the first dark fringe on either side of the central bright fringe ?
(a) 1.5 mm (b) 1 mm
(c) 1.2 mm (d) 2.4 mm
Solution For the di.ffiaction at a single slit, the position of
mininla is given by
a sin 8 = n/..
For small value of 8
,
sin 8 == 8 = y/D
D
a (y!D) =/..or y=-A
a
... l
Chapter 24 Wave Optics 947
Substituting the values, we have
2x6x1o-
7
y = = 1.2 x 10-
3
m= 1.2 mm
1 x l0-
3
. . Distance between first minima on either side of central
maxima = 2y = 2.4 mm
Example 9 A parallel beam ofmenochromatic light ofwaveiength
450 nm passes through of mrri. Find q'ngular
divergence in which most of the light is' diffracted.
(a) 4.5 x 10-
3
rad (b) 5.5 x 10-
3
rad
(c) 3.2 x 10-
2
rad (d) 3.5 x 10-
3
rad
Solution Most of the light is diffracted between the two first
order mininla. These minima occur at angle given by,
. . A A5oxlo-
9
,',',.
asm9=nA,sm9=-= ,
' a

'
' =


:. angular divergance = 4.5 x'10-'-
3
'riid
Example 10 Two are to each 'other. Now, one of
them is rotated through 60. What percentage of incil}.ent unpolarised
light will pass through the system ?
(a) 37.5 % (b) 45.6%
(c) 52.3% (d) 66.7%
Solution Let I
0
be intensity of the incident unpolarised light on
the system. As the in<;ident .light the intensity of
light on being transmitted from the first polaroid will become
I - I '--'- Io (:.' eos
2
8=_!_) '
- a -2 . . 2
If 8 is the angle between the planes pf the_ two
polaroids, then intensity of light on passing through the
polaroid is given by
f=Jc6s
2
9 =
10
cos
2
e ) . .. ....
2
Since, the !Wo polaroids were initially -the angle
between the transmission planes of the two' polaroids on
60 will become , , .. , . , , , , ,
,8 = 90 -:- 60 = 30
6
'
. . ( ' .
' I
0
--
2
I v3 ---
., J'c= .-XCOS 30"=_Q_X - =0.3751
0
,
' '' 2 '' I, 2 ' 2 ' '.'
.
Hence, per.centage of tncident light that through :the '
system, ' ' I_ '
I'
-x100 = 0.375 X 100 = 37.5%
Io
'I
''
1' ... ,
' ' ' ' .\ . . .. .
I I l J l
. r
:I!
'1.;,..;, f.( r. t''
, ,o I
'
Chapter Practice
Exercise I
Theories of Light and Interference
1. Light propagates 2 em distance in glass of refractive index
1.5 in time t
0
. In the same time t
0
, light propagates a
distance of 2.25 em in a medim:n. The refractive index of
the medium is
(a) 4/3
(c) 8/3
(b) 3/2
(d) None of these
2. The wave front due to a source situated at infinity is
(a) spherical (b) cylindrical
(c) planar (d) None of these
3. Which of the following is not an essential condition for
interference?
(a) The two interfering waves must be propagated in
almost the same direction or the two interfering
waves must intersect at '\'ery small angle
(b) The wave must have the same period and
wavelength
(c) The amplitude of the two waves must be equal
(d) The two interfering beams of light rriust originate
from the same source
4. In Young's double slit experiment with monochromatic
light of waveiength 600 nm, the distance between slits is
10-
3
m. For changing fringe width by 3 x 10-
5
m .
(a) the screen is moved away from the slits by 5 em
(b) the screen is moved by 5 em towards the slits
(c) the screen is moved by 3 em towards the slits
(d) Both (a) and (b) are correct
5. In Young's double slit experiment, the distance between
slits is 0.0344 mm. The wavelength ~ f light used is
600 nm. What is the angular width of a fringe formed on
a distant screen?
(a,) 10
(c) 3
6. A Young' s double slit experiment uses a monochromatic
source. The shape of the interference fringes formed on a
screen is
(a) hyperbola
(c) straight line
(b) circle
(d) parabola
7. If Young's double slit experiment, is performed in water
(a) the fringe width will decrease
(b) the fringe width will increase
(c) the fringe width will remain uncha'nged
(d) there will be no fringe
,
8. In Young's double slit experiment, the spacing between
the slits is d and wavelength of light used is 6000 A. If the
angular width of a fringe formed on a distance screen is
1, then value of d is
(a) 1 mm
(c) 0.03 mm
(b) 0.05 mm
(d) 0.01 mm
9. In Young's double slit experiment, when violet light of
wavelength 4358 A is used, the 84 fringes are seen in the
field of view, but when sodium light of certain wavelength
is used, then 62 fringes are seen _in the field of view, the
wavelength of sodium light is
(a) 6893 A (b) 5904 A
Cc) 5523 A Cd) 6429 A
10. In a double slit experiment, 5th dark fringe is formed
opposite to one the slits. The wavelength of light is
d2 d2
(a) - (b) -
6D 5D
11. Two non-coherent sources emit light beams of intensities
I and 4I. The maximum and minimum intensities in the
resulting beam are
(a) 9I and I (b) 9I and 3I
(c) 5Iandi (d) 5Iand3I
12. The maximum intensity in the case of n identical
incoherent waves, each of intensity 2 wm-
2
is 32 wm-
2

The value of n is
(a) 4
(c) 32
(b) 16
(d) 64
13. In an interference pattern the position of zeroth order
maxima is 4.8 mm from a certain point P on the screen.
The fringe width is 0.2 mm. The position of second
maxima from point P is
(a) 5.1 mm (b) 5 mm
(c) 40 mm (d) 5.2 mm
14. 5
1
and 5
2
are two coherent sources. The intensity of both
sources are same. If the intensity at the point of maxima
is 4 wm-
2
, the intensity of each source is
(a) 1 wm-
2
(b) 2 wm-
2
(c) 3 wm-
2
(d) 4 wm-
2
15. n incoherent sources of intensity I
0
are superimposed at a
point, the intensity of the point is
16.
(a) n !
0
(b) !.9_
n
(c) n
2
I
0
(d) Noneofthese
In the given figure , C is middle point of line S
1
S
2
A
monochromatic light of wavelength A is incident on slits.
The ratio intensity of S
3
and S
4
is
(a) zero
(c) 4; 1

.}J._o---
(b) 00
(d) 1 : 4
17. In the given arrangement, S
1
and S
2
are coherent sources
(shown in figure). The point Pis a point of
ft IP
Sz
(a) bright fringe (b) dark fringe
(c) either dark or bright (d) None of the above
18. When two coherent monochromatic light beams of
intensities I and 4 I are superimposed, what are the
maximum and minimum possible intensities in the
resulting beams?
(a) SI and I
(c) 91 and I
(b) SI and 31
(d) 91 and 31
19. A parallel beam of light of intensity 1
0
is incident on a
glass plate, 25% of light is reflected by upper surface and
50% of light is reflected from lower surface. The ratio of
maximum to minimum intensity in interference region of
reflected rays is
(a)
2-H
5
(c) -
8
(b)
(d)
5
20. In Young's double slit experiment, the length ofband is 1 mm.
The ring width is 1.021 mm. The number of fringes is
(a) 45 (b) 46
(c) 47 (d) 48
21. In a Young's experiment, one of the slits is covered with a
transparent sheet of thickness 3.6 x 10-
3
em due to which
position of central fringe shifts to a position originally
occupied by 30th fringe . The refractive index of the sheet,
if A = 6000 A, is
(a) 1.5 (b) 1.2
(c) 1.3 (d) 1.7
22. Light waves travel in vacm1m along the .Y-axis. Which of
the fi !lowing may represent the wavefront?
Chapter 24 Wave Optics 949
(a) y = constant
(c) z = constant
(b) x = constant
(d) x + y + z = constant
23. The correct curve between fringe width and distance
between the slits (d) in figure is

-d -d
/ 1
(c) j L__ (d) L_
- d -d
24. The correct formula for fringe visibility is
(a)
V = [max- [min
(b)
V = I max+ !min
[max +[min [max -[min
(c)
V =I max
(d)
V =I min
I min [max
25. Two coherent waves are represented by y
1
= a
1
cos rut
and y
2
== a
2
sin rut, superimposed on each other. The
resultant intensity is
(a) (a
1
+ a
2
) (b) (a
1
- a
2
)
26. Light appears to travel in straight lines since
(a) it is not absorbed by the atmosphere
(b) it is reflected by the atmosphere
(c) its wavelength is very small
(d) its velocity is very large
27. The equations of two interfering waves are y
1
= b cos rut
and Yz = b cos (rut + <!>). For destructive interference the
path difference is
- (a) 0 (b) 360
(c) 180
6
(d) 720
28. The Young's double slit experiment is performed with blue
and with green light of wavelengths 4360 A and 5460 A
' respectively. If x is the distance of 4th maxima from the
central one, then'
' (a) x (blue) = x (green)
(b) x (blue) > x (green)
(c) x (blue) < x (green)
(d) x (blue)/x (green) = 5400/4360
29. In a double slit interference experiment, the distance
between the slits is 0.05 em and screen is 2 m away from
the slits. The wavelength of light is 8.0 x 10-
5
em. The
distance between successive fringes is
(a) 0.24 em (b) 3.2 em
(c) 1.28 em (d) 0.32 em
30. Two light rays having the same wavelength A in vacuum
are in phase initially. Then the first ray travels a path
L
1
through a medium of refractive index n
1
, while the
second ray travels a path of length L
2
through a medium
of refractive index n
2
The two waves are t hen combined
950 Chapter 24 Wave Optics
to observe interference. The phase difference between the
two waves is
(c) 2rr (n2LI - ni L2) (d) 2rr (LI - L2 )
A . A ni n
2
31. Through quantum theory of light we can explain
a number of phenomena observed with light, it is
necessary to retain the wave nature of light to explain
the phenomenon of .
(a) Photoelectric effect
(c) Compton effect
Diffraction
(d) Black body radiation
32.- If the intensities of the two interfering beams in Young's
double slit experiment be II. and I
2
, then the contrast
between the maximum and minimum intensity is good
,.when
(a) II is much greater than I
2
(b) I I is much smalle'r than I
2
(c) II = I
2
(d) Either II = 0 or I
2
= 0
' 33. The fringe width a:t' a distance of 50 em from the slits
in Young's experiment for light of wavelength 6000 A
is 0.048 em. The fringe width at the same distance for
A= sooo A will
35.
36.
(a) 0.04 em
(c) 0.14 em
(b) 0.4 em
(d) QAS em
Two waves originating from sources SI and 5
2
having
zero phase difference and common wavelength A will
show complete destructive interference at a point P, if
(S
1
P-S
2
P) = r.
- (a) 5 A
(b) 3A
4 ,
(d) llA
2 '.
Two coherent sources of intensities I I and I
2
produce
an interference pattern. The maximum' intensity in the
interference pattern will be '.
(a) I
1
.+I2 (b)'
(c) CII +I
2
i (d) cji; +fi;f
In Young's double slit experiment, the s;vmth maximum
with wavelength A
1
is at a distance di and the same
maximum with wavelength A
2
' is at a distance d
2
. Then
dl/d2 =
)
AI
(a -
'A2
r c) Ai
,
)._2
(d)
I
37. When monochrbm:atic light is replaced by white light in
Fresnel's qiprism arrangement, the central fringe is
col.0ured
1
' (b) white
(c) dark (d) None ofthese
38. In i:he up shown in figure, tlie slits, 5
1
and 5
2
are
not equidistant from: the slit S. The central fringe at 0 is,
then ,
I
sLf----------- o

I
(a) always bright
(b) always dark
(c) Either dark or bright depending on the position of S
(d) Neither dark nor bright
39. In a double slit interference experiment, the distance
between the slits is 0.05 em and screen is 2 m away from
the slits. The wavelength of light is 6000 A. The distance
between the fringes is
(a) 0.24 em
(c) 1.24 em
(b) 0.12 em
(d) 2.28 em
40. The separation between successive fringes in a double
slit arrangement is x. If the whole arrangement is dipped
under water, what will be the new fringe separation?
[The wavelength of light being used in soooA]
41.
42.
(a) 1.5 X (b) X
(c) 0.75 x (d) 2x
In a Young's experiment, two coherent sources are placed
0.90 mm apart and the fringes are observed one meter
away. If it produces the second dark fringe at a distance
of 1 mm from the central fringe, the wavelength of
monochromatic light used will be
(a) 60 x 10-
4
em (b) 10 x 10-
4
em
(c) 10 x 10-
5
em (d) 6 x 10-
5
ern
In the Young's double slit experiment, the interference
pattern is found to have an intensity ratio between bright
and dark fringes as 9. This implies that
(a) the intensities at the screen due to two slits are 5 units
and 4 units respectively
(b) the intensities at the screen due to two slits are 4 units
and 1 unit respectively
(c) the amplitude ratio is 3
(d) the amplitude ratio is 2
43. Interference fringes are being produced on screen XY by
the slits 5
1
and 5
2
In figure, the correct fringe locus is
S1 ! w1 _,---W3
,
/
s \
'
Q
Sz !
'
---- w4 Wz
(a) PQ (b) W
1
W
2
(c) W
3
W
4
(d) XY
44. Microwaves from a transmitter are directed normally
towards a plane reflector. A detector moves along the
normal to the reflector. Between positions of 14 successive
maxima, the detector travels a distance of 0.14 m. The
frequency of transmitter is
(a) 1.5 x 10
10
H (b) 10
10
H
(c) 3 x 10
10
H (d) 6 x 10
10
H
I I.
I I
45. Two waves having the intensities in the ratio of 9 : 1
produce interference. The ratio of maximum to minimum
intensity is equal to
(a) 10 : 8
(c) 4 : 1
(b) 9 : 1
(d) 2 : 1
46. In Young's double slit experiment, phase difference
between light waves reaching 3rd bright fringe from the
central fringe when A = 5000 A is
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
(a) 6 n (b) 2 1t
(c) 4n (d) zero
In an interference pattern produced by two identical slits,
the intensity at the slit of the. central maximum is I . The
intensity at the same spot when either of the slits is closed
is I
0
Therefore
(a) I = 1
0
(b) I= 2 I
0
(c) I = 4 I
0
(d) I and I
0
are not related to each other
In a two slits experiment with monochromatic light,
fringes are obtained on a screen placed at some distance
from the slits. If the screen is moved by 5 x 10-
2
m
towards the slits, the change in fringe width is 3 x 10-
5
m.
If separation between the slits is 10-
3
m, the wavelength of
light used is
(a) 4500 A
(c) 5000 A
Cb) 3ooo A
(d) 6ooo A
In Young's double slit experiment, let 5
1
and 5
2
be the two
slifs, and C be the centre of the screen. If LS
1
CS
2
= 8 and
A is the wavelength, the fringe width will be
A
(a)
e
(c) 2 A
e
(b) A8
(d) _!:____
28
In Young's double slit .experiment, tl).e intensity on screen
at a point where path difference .is A-is K. What will be
intensity at the point where path difference is A/4?
(_a) K/4 (b) K/2
(c) K (d) zero .
In the Young' s double slit ex'Perimefif, a mica slip of
thickness t and refractive index 11 is introeluced in the
ray from first source 5
1
'. By how much distance fringes
pattern will be displaced.
d
(a)
D
d
(c)
(f..L-1)D
D -
(b)
d .. -
D
(d) d(f..L-1)
Oil floating on water looks coloured due to interference of
light. What should be the order of magnitude of thickness
of oil layer in order that this effect may be observed?
(a) 10,000 A (b) 1 em
(c) 10 A Cd) 100 A
"' !')'l
Two waves y
1
= A
1
sin(wt-

and .h .= A
2
sin(wt-


superimpose to form a resultant amplitude is
(a) + 2A
1
A
2
cos(l3
1
- -13
2
)
(b)


(c) A
1
+ A
2
(d)
1
IA
1
+ A
2
1
Chapter 24 Wave Optics 951
54. In Young' s double slit experiment, 12 fringes are. obtained
to be formed in a certain segment of the screen when
light of wavelength 600 nm is used. If the wavelength of
light is changed to 400 nm, number of fringes observed in
the same segment of the screen is given by
(a) 12 (b) 18
(c) 24 (d) 30
55. In Young's double slit experiment, distance between
two sources is 0.1 mm. The distance of screen from the
sources is 20 em. Wavelength of light used is 5460 A.
Then-angular position of first dark fringe is
(a) 0.08 0.16
(c) 0.20 (d) 0.32
56. Two beams of light having intensities I and 4I interfere to
produce a fringe ,pattern on a screen. The phase difference
between the beams. is n/2. at point A and 1t at point B.
Then the difference between the resultant intensities at A
andB is
(a) 2I
(c) 5 I (d) 7 I
57. In a Young's double slit experiment usilig red and blue
lights of wavelengths 600 .nm and 480 urn respectively,
. .. the value of n from which the nth red fringe coincides with
(n + 1) the blue fringes is -
(a) 5 (b) . 4 . , ,
(c) 3 (d) 2
58. In Young's double sfit experiment, distance between sources
is 1 mm and distance the screen and source -is 1m.
-If the frin.ge width on the screen is 0.06 em, then A is
(a) 6ooo A Cb) 4ooo A
(c) 1200 A Cd) 24oo A
59. In Young's double s.lit experiment, the central bright fringe
can be identified
(a) as it has greater: intensity than the other bright fringes
(b) as it is wider than the other bright fringes
(c) a,s ,it is 11arrower than the other bright :(ringes
,_: , (d) by using white J,ight of ffi9nochromatic light
60. Two slits, 4 mm apart are illuminated by-light of wavelength
600 A. Wnat Will be the fringe width on a screen placed
2 m from the slits ?
(a) 0.12 mm
(c) 3.0 mm
I i ' , ' '
(b) 0.3 mm'
(d) 4 .. 0.11llT]- .
. Diffraction of Light , . '
61. A parallel beam of light of wavelength 3141.59 A is
incident on a small aperture. After passing through the
aperture; the beam is no longer parallel but diverges at
1 to t he incident direction. What is the diameter of the
aperture?
(a) 180m (b) 18
(c) 1.8 m (d) 0.18 :U
62. To observe diffraction, the size of. an fiperture
(a) should be ofthe same order as wavelength should be
much larger than the wavelength
(b) should be much larger than the wavelength
(c) have no relation t9 ' ' -- .
(d) should be exactly A/2
952 Chapter 24 Wave Optics
63. Air has refractive index 1.003. The thickness of air
column, which will have one more wave length of yellow
light (6000 A) than in the same thickness of vacuum is
(a) 2 mrn (b) 2 em
(c) 2m (d) 2 km
64. The distance between the first and the sixth minima in the
diffraction pattern of a single slit is 0.5 mm. The screen is
0.5 m away from the slit. If the wavelength of light used
is 5000 A, then the slit width will be
(a) 5 mm (b) 2. 5 mm
(c) 1.25 mm (d) 1.0 mm
65. Plane microwaves are incident on a long slit having a
width of 5 em. The wavelength of the microwaves if the
first minimum is formed at 30 is
(a) 2.5 em (b) 2 em
(c) 25 em (d) 2 mm
66. A plane wave of wavelength 6250 A is incident normally
on a slit of width 2 x 10-
2
em. The width of the principal
maximum on a screen distant 50 em will be
(a) 312.5 X 10-
3
cm (b) 312.5 X 10-
4
em
(c) 312 em (d) 312.5 x 10-
5
em
67. The main difference between the phenomena of
interference and diffraction is that
(a) diffraction is caused by reflected waves from a source
whereas interference is caused due to refraction of
waves from a source
(b) diffraction is due to interaction of waves derived from
the same source, whereas interference is that bending
of light from the same wavefront
(c) diffraction is due to interaction of light from
wavefront, whereas the interference is the interaction
of two waves derived from the same source
(d) diffraction is due to interaction of light from the same
wavefront whereas interference is the interaction of
waves from two isolated sources
68. Light of wavelength 6000 A is incident on a single slit.
The first minimum of the diffraction pattern is obtained
at 4 mm from the centre. The screen is at a distance of
2 m from the slit. The slit width will be
(a) 0.3 mm (b) 0.2 mn1
(c) 0.15 mm (d) 0.1 mm
69. The Fraunhofer 'diffraction' pattew of a single slit is
formed in the focal plane of a lens of focal length 1 m.
The width of slit is 0.3 mm. If third minimum is formed
at a distance of 5 mm from central maximum, then
wavelength of light will be
(a) 5000 A (b) 2500 .\
(c) 7soo k CC.:) s::;oo A
70. What should be refractive index of a transparent medium
to be invisible in vacuum ?
(a) 1 (b) < 1
(c) >1 (d) Noneofthese
71. A slit 5 em wide is irradiated normally with microwaves of
wavelength 1.0 em. Then the angular spread of the central
maximum on either side of incident light is nearly
,
(a) 1/5 rad (b) 4 rad
(c) 5 rad (d) 6 rad
72. Which of the following phenomena is not common to
sound and light waves?
(a) Interference (b) Diffraction
(c) Coherence (d) Polarisation
73. A beam of ordinary unpolarised light passes through a
tourmaline crystal C
1
and then it passes through another
tourmaline crystal C
2
, which is oriented such that its
principal plane is parallel to that of C
2
The intensity of
emergent light is 1
0
Now C
2
is rotated by 60 about the
ray. The emergent ray will have an intensity
(a) 2 1
0
(b) lof2
(c) lof4 (d) Iof..fi
74. A ray of light strikes a glass plate at an angle of 60. If
the reflected an refracted rays are perpendicular to each
other, the index of refraction of glass is
(a) 1
2
(c) 3
2
(b) #.
(d) 1.732
75. An unpolarised beam of intensity 2 a
2
passes through a
thin polaroid. Assuming zero absorption in the polaroid,
the intensity of emergent plane polarised light is
(a) 2 a
2
(b) a
2
2
(c) J2a
2
(d) 9:_
2
76. 80 g of impure sugar when dissolved in a litre of water
gives an optical rotation of9.9, when placed in a tube of
length 20 em. If the specific rotation of sugar is 66, then
concentration of sugar solution will be
(a) 80 gL-
1
(b) 75 gL-
1
(c) 65 gL-
1
(d) 50 gL-
1
77. If for a calcite c1ystal, f.! o and 1-le are the refractive indices
of the crystal for 0-ray and E-ray respect ively, then along
the optic axis of the crystal
(a) 1-lo = 1-le (b) f.le = f-lo
(c) 1-le = 1-lo (d) None of these
78. 'A.a and 'A.m are the wavelength of a beam of light in air
and medium respectively. If 8 is the polarising angle, the
correct relation between 'A.a, 'A.m and El is
(a) 'A.a == 'A.m tan
2
e
(b) 'A.m == 'A.a tan
2
e
(c) 'A.a == 'A.m cote
(d) 'A.m == 'A.a cote
79. Ordinary light incident on a glass slab at the polarising
angle, suffers a deviation of 22. The value of the angle of
refraction in glass in tllis case is
(a) 56 (b) 68
(c) 34 (d) 22
80. At what angle should an unpolarised beam be incident on
a crystal of f.! == J3, so that reflected beam is polarised?
(a) 45 (b) 60
(c) 90 (d) 0
Chapter 24 Wave Optics 953
Exercise II
Only One Correct Option
1. A beam of circularly polarised light is completely absorbed
by an object on which it falls. If U represents absorbed
energy and m reperesents angular frequency, then angular
momentum transferred to the object is given by
u (b) u
(a)
0
/ 2ro
(c) U
(J)
(d) 2U
(J)
2. In an interference pattern by two identical slits, the
intensity of central maxima is I . What will be the intensity
of the same spot, if one of the slits is closed?
(a) I l 4 (b) I12
(c) I (d) 2 I
3. In Young's double slit experiment we get 60 fringes in the
field of view of monochromatic light of wavelength 4000
A. If we use monochromatic light of wavelength 6000 A,
then the number of fringes obtained in the same field of
view are
(a) 60 (b) 90
(c) 40 (d) 1.5
4. The phenomenon which does not take place in sound
waves is
(a) scattering (b) diffraction
(c) interference (d) polarisation
5. Two Nicol prisms are first crossed and then one of them
is rotated through 60. The percentage of incident light
transmitted is
(a) 1.25 (b) 25.0
(c) 37.5 (d) 50
6. Find the thickness of a plate which will produce a change
in optical path equal to half the wavelength A of the light
passing through it normally. The refractive index of the
plate
A
(a)
')..
(c)
2A
(b)
A
(d)
2(j.!-1)
7. A beam of light of wavelength 600 nm from a distant
source falls on a single slit 1.00 mm wide and the resulting
diffraction pattern is obsetved on a screen 2 m away. The
distance between the first dark fringes on either side of
the central bright fringe is
(a) 1.2 em
(c) 2.4 em
(b) 1.2 mm
(d) 2.4 mm
8. Light of wavelength 2 x 10-
3
m falls on a slit of width
4 x 10-
3
m. The angular dispersion of the central
maximum will be
(a) 30 (b) 60
(c) 90 (d) 180
9. nth bright fringe if red light (/..
1
= 7500 A) coincid;s with
(n + l)'h bright fringe of green light (A
2
= 6000A) . The
value ofn =?
(a) 4
(c) 3
,
(b) 5 .
(d) 2
10. In Young's t"v'IO slit experiment the distance between
the two coherent sources is 2 mm and the screen is at a
distance of 1 m. If the fringe width is found to be 0.03 em,
then the wavelength of the light used is
(a) 4ooo A Cb) 5ooo A
c c) 5890 A c d) 6ooo A
11. In Young's experiment the wavelength of red light is
7.8 x 10-
5
em and that of blue light 5.2 x 10--
2
em. The
value of n for which (n + 1)th blue bright band coincides
with nth red band is
(a) 4 (b) 3
(c) 2 (d) 1
12. Two slits separated by a distance of 1 mm are illuminated
with red light of wavelength 6.5 x 10-
7
m. The interference
fringes are observed on a screen place 1 m from the slits.
The distance between the third dark fringe and the fifth
bright fringe is equal to
(a) 0.65 mm (b) 1.63 nun
(c) 3.25 mm (d) 4.88 mm
13. In Young's double slit experiment, the 7rh maximum
wavelength A
1
is at a distance d
1
and that with wavelength
A
2
is at a distance d
2
Then (d
1
1d
2
) is
(a) (/..
1
I A
2
) (b) (/..
2
I /..
1
)
(c) C"-i I (d) A.i)
14. If white light is used in a biprism experiment then
(a) fringe pattern disappers
(b) all fringes will be coloured
(c) central fringe will be white while ot.hers will be coloured
(d) central fringe will be dark
15. Two waves of same frequency and same amplitude from
two monochromatic source are allowed to superpose at a
certain point. If in one case the phase difference is 0 and
in other case is rr I 2, the ratio of the intensities in the
two cases will be
(a) 1 : 1 (b) 2 : 1
(c) 4 : 1 (d) None of these
16. 1\vo polaroids are kept crossed to each other. Now one of
them is rotated through an angle of 45. The percentage
of incident light now transmitted through the system is
(a) 15% (b) 25%
(c) 50% (d) 60%
17. In Young's double slit experiment, the two slits act as
coherent sources of equal amplitude A and wavelength
A. In another experiment vlith the same setup, the two
slits are sources of equal amplitude A and wavelength A
but are incoherent. The ratio of the intensity of light at
the mid-point of the screen in the first case to that in the
second case is
(a) 2 : 1 (b) 1 : 2
(c) 3 : 4 (d) 4: 3
18. If the two waves represented by y
1
4 sinmt and
Y?. =3sin(ffit+n:l3) interfere at a point, the amplitude
of the resulting wave will be about
(a) 7 (b) 5
(c) 6 (d) 3.5
19. In a biprism experiment, by using light of wavelength
5000 A, 5 mm wide fringes are obtained on a screen
954 Chapter 24 e Wave Optics
1.0 m away from the coherent sources. The separation
between the two coherent sources is
(a) 1.0 mm (b) 0.1 mm
(c) 0.05 mm (d) 0.01 mm
20. How will the diffraction pattern of single slit .change when
yellow light is replaced by blue light? The fringe will be
(a) wider (b) narrower
(c) brighter (d) fainter
21. White light is used to illuminate the two slits in a Young's
doubel slit experiment. The separation between slits is b
and the screen is at a distance d (>>b) from, the slits. At
a point on the screen in fTont of one of the slits,
certain are missing, figure. S<;>me of these
missing wavelengths are
. '
(a)
b
2
2b
2
A=-- (b)
0. b
2
. 3b: '

d '3d 2d 2d .'
2b
2
(d)
'- 3b
2
(c) A=- 'A=-
3d 4d '.'
, 22. A beam of unpolarized light having t1U:X io-
3
W falls
normally on a polarizer of cross sectional area 3 X 10-
4
m
2

The polarizer rotateS\,Yith an angular freqilt3rtcy of"31.4
rads-
1
. The energy of light passing through the polarizer
per revolution will be
(a) 10-
4
J (b) 10-
3
,J
(c)

J (d) 10-
1
J
23. In a biprism experiment, 5'h dark fringe is obtained.' at a
point. If a thin transparent film 'is placed in' the path of one
of waves, then 7th bright' fringes is obtained at the same
point. The thickness of the film in terms of wavelength l
and refractive index will be
1.5A
(a) (Jl-1)
(c) 2.5(Jl-1)A
(b)
(d) J.5A
(Jl-1)
24. The ratio of intensities of successive max1ma m the
differaction pattern due to single slit is
(a) 1 : 4: 9 (b) 1 : 2: 3
4 4 ' 4 9
(c) 1:-2:--2 (d) 1:2:2
9n 25n n n
25. The equations of displacement of two given as
y
1
= 10sin(3nt + n I 3)
Yz = 5(sin 3nt + J:3 cos 3nt), .
then what is the ratio of their amplitude? .
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 : 1
(c) 1 : 1 (d) None ofthese
26 . . Light of wavelength A is incident on a slit of width d. The
resJ lting diffraction pattern is observed on a screen at a
distance D. The linear width of the principal maximum is
equal to the width of the slit, if D equals
d
2
d
(a) 2A (b) A
(c) 2A2 . < (d) 2A
d ' d
2 7. A glass slab of thickness 8 em contains the same number
of waves as 10 em of water when both are traversed by
the same monochromatic light. If the refractive index of
water is 4/3, the refractive index of glass is
(a) 5/4 (b) 3/2
(c) 5/3 (d) 16/15
28. Fringes are obtained with the help of a biprism in the
focal plane of an _eyepiece distant 1 m from the slit. A
convex lens produces images of the slit in two positions
betw.ee:r;J. biprism eyepiece. Jheqista:r;J.ces,behveen two
images of the slit in two positions are 4.05 x 10-
3
m and
2.90 x 10-
3
The distance between the slits
will be
(a) 3.43 x 10-
3
m (b) 0.343 rri
(c) 0.0343 m (d) 43.3 m
29. In Young's double slit experimel,lt = 10-4 (d =distance
. D
between slits, D = distance of screen from the slits). At
a point P on the screen resultant intensity is equal to the
intensity due to individmihlit I
0
Then the distance of
point P from the central maximum is (A,= 600QA)
(a) 0.5 mm (b) 2 mm
(c) 1mm (d) 4mm
. 10 .. In young's double slit experiment, the intensity of the

0 0

0
maxima is I. If the width of each slit is dqubled, the
intensity of the r,naxima will be
(a) 1!2 . (b) 2 I
_ (d) I
May have Mot:eQian One CorrectOpti.on
',
31. A light of wavelength 6000 A in air enters a medium of
refra.ctive inde,x 1.5. Inside the medium, its frequency is v

(a) v = 5 x 10
14
I:Iz
(c) A= 4oooA
(b) v=7.5x10
14
Hz
(d) A= 90ooA
" In Yotiri:g'sdoubTe slit experiment, the distance betWeen
the two' slits is 0.1 mm and wavelength of light used is
4 x 1 o-
7
m: lfthe width of fringe on screen is 4 mm, the
- distance between screen and slit is
(a) 0.1 mm (b) 1 em
(c) 0.1 em (d) lm
0
, 0 a. monochromatic light, the fringe width using a

_' setup in air is 2 mm. Given a = 3 I 2 and


' .. rDik _a 5/ {he whole up is immersed in liquid, then

_ width is, :,
' .. mm- (b) 6 mm
(c) 6/5 mm {d) 8/3 mm
o -34. In Young's double slit experiment, on interference, ratio
of of a brighqJand and a dark band is 16 : 1.
The 'ratio of amplitudes of interfering waves is
(a) 16 ' (b) 5/3
(c) 4 ,.,L
0
(d) 1/4
35. Light waves travel in vacuum along X-axis. Which of the
following may represent the wavefronts?
(a) x = a (b) y = a
(c) x = a' (d) x + y + z = a
Comprehension Based Questions
Passage
In YDSE, intensity of light from two slits is proportional
to their width, and also to of amplitudes of light
from the slits, ie,
II rol a2
I2 = (1)2 = ll
At points, where crest of one wave falls on crest of the
other and through falls on trough, intensity of light is
maximum. Interference is said to be constructive. At
points, where crest of one wave falls on trough of the
other, resultant intensity of light is minimum. The
interference is said to be destructive.
, ImaJ<- (a+b)2
Imin- (a-b)
2
For sustained interference, the two sources must be
coherent; Two independent sources cannot be coherent.
36. The light waves from two coherent sources are represented
by
0
.y
1
= a
1
'sinrot and Y2 = a
2
sin(rot + 1t I 2)
' The resultant amplitude will be
(a) a
1
(b) a
2
(c) a
1
+a
2
(d)
3?. The ratio of intensities in the interference pattern in the
. above' question will be
(a) 9 : 1
(c) 2 : 1
(b) 4 : 1
(d) 1 : 4
38. The amplitudes of light waves from two shts are in the
ratio 3 : 1. Widths of slits are in the ratio
ca.) I : 9 ' (b) 1:3
(c) 9 : 1 ( (d) 3 : 1
The widths of two slits in YDSE ate in the' ratio 1 : 4. The
ratio of amplitudes of light waves fro'm two slits will be
(a) 9 : 1 (b) 4 : 1
(c) 1 : 2 (d) 1 : J2
tO. Two independent sources emit ligP,t waves given by
y
1
=a
1
sinro
1
t and Y2 =a
2
sin(ro
1
t+7t/2).
Will you observe interference pattern?
(a) Yes (b) No
(c) Sometimes (d) Cannot say
Assertion and Reason
Directions Question No. 41 to 50 are Assertion-Reason
type. Each of these contains two Statements : Statement I
(Assertion), Statement II (Reason). Each these questions
also has four alternative choice, only one of which is correct.
You have to select the correct choices from the codes (a) , (b),
(c) and (d) given below:
(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is
correct explanation of the Assertion.
(b) If both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not
correct explanation of the Assertion.
(c) If AsseJ;;tion is true but Reason is false.
(d) If Assertion is false but the Reason is true.
Chapter 24 Wave Optics 955
41. Assertion Newton' s rings are formed in the reflected
system when the space between the lens and the glass
plate is filled with a liquid of refractive index greater than
that of glass, the central spot of the pattern is dark.
Reason The refraction in Newton' s ring cases will be from
denser to rarer medium and the two interfering rays are
reflected under similar conditions.
42. Assertion To observe diffraction of light the size of
obstacle/aperture should be of the order of 10-
7
m.
Reason 10-
7
m is the order of wavelength of visible light.
43. Assertion A famous painting was painted by not using
brush strokes in the usual manner, but rather a myriad of
small colour dots. In this painting the colour you see at any
given place on the painting changes as you move away.
Reason The angular separation of adjacent dots changes
with the distance from the painting.
44. Assertion In Young's experiment, the fringe width for
dark fringes is same from that for white fringes.
Reason In Young's double slit experiment, when the
fringes are performed with a source of white' light, then
only black and bright fringes are observed.
45. Assertion Thin films such as soap bubble or a thin layer
of oil on water show beautiful colours when illuminated
by light.
Reason It happens due to the interference of light
reflected from the upper surface of the thin film.
46. Assertion Corpuscular theory fails in explaining the
velocities of light in air and water.
Reason According to corpuscular theory, light should
travel faster in denser media than in rarer media .
47. Assertion When a tiny circular obstacle is placed in the
path of light from some distance, a bright spot is seen at
the centre of shadow of the obstacle.
Reason Destructive interference occur's at the centre of
the shadow.
48. Assertion Out of radio waves and microwaves, the former
undergoes more diffraction.
Reason Radio waves have greater frequency compared
to microwaves.
49. Assertion No diffraction is produced in sound waves near
a very small opening.
Reason For diffraction to take place the aperture of
opening should be of the same order as wavelength of the
waves.
50. Assertion In Young's experiment, for two coherent
sources, the resultant intensity given by I = 4I
0
cos
2
1..
. 2
Reason Ratio of maximum and minimum intensity
I maJ< ( ji; + jf-;y
Imin = cji; -ji;F
Previous Year's Questions
51. A mixture of light consisting of wavelength 590 nm and
an unknown wavelength illuminates Young' s double slit
and gives rise to two overlapping interference patterns on
the screen. The central maximum of both light coincide.
Further, it is observed that the third bright fringe of known
956 Chapter 24 o Wave Optics
light coincides with the 4'h bright fringe of unknown
light. From this data, the wavelength of unknown light is
(AIEEE 2009)
(a) 885 .0 nm
(c) 776.8 nm
(b) 442.5 nm
(d) 393.4 nm
52. A parallel monochromatic beam of light is incident
normally on a narrow slit. A diffraction pattern is formed
on a screen placed perpendicular to the direction of the
incident beam. At the first minimum of the diffraction
pattern, the phase difference between the rays corning
from the two edges of slit is (UP SEE 2009)
(a) zero (b) n
(c) ~ (d) 2n
2
53. What causes chromatic aberration? (UP SEE 2008)
(a) Non-paraxial rays
(b) Paraxial rays
(c) Variation of focal length with colour
(d) Difference in radii of curvature of the bounding
surfaces of the lens
54. In an interference experiment, the spacing between
successive maxima or minima i.i (UP SEE 2008)
(a) Ad I D
(c) dD!f..
(b) Wid
(d) Ad I 4D
55. In the case of diffraction pattern due to a single slit,
angular width of central maximum can be increased by
(Karnataka CET 2008)
(a) decreasing the wavelength
(b) increasing the slit Width
(c) increasing distance between slit and screen
(d) decreasing the slit width
56. Both, light and sound waves produce diffraction. It is
more difficult to observe diffraction with light waves
because (Karnataka CET 2008)
(a) light waves do not require medium
(b) wavelength of light waves is far too small
(c) light waves are transverse in nature
(d) speed of light is far greater
57. In an interference experiment using waves of same
amplitude, path difference between the waves at a point
on the screen is AI 4. The ratio of intensity at this point with
that at the central bright fringe is (Karnataka CET 2008)
(a) 1 (b) 0.5
(c) 1.5 (d) 2.0
58. In Young's experiment, the third bright band for light of
wavelength 6000 A coincides with the fourth bright hand
for another source of light in the same arrangement. Then
the wavelength of second source is (Kerala CET 2008)
(a) 36oo A Cb) 4ooo A
(c) 5ooo A (d) 45oo A
59. The Young's double slit experiment is performed with blue
and with green light of wavelengths 4360 A and 5460 A
respectively. If x is t h ~ distance of 4'h maximum from the
central one, then (BVP Engg. 2008)
(a) x (blue) = x (green) (b) x (blue) > x (green)
(c) x (blue) < x (green) (d) x(blue)
5460
' x (green) 4360
60.
I
61.
62.
63.
The necessary condition for an interference by two sources
of light is that (BVP Engg. 2008)
(a) two light sources must have the same wave length
(b) two point sources should have the same amplitude
and same wavelength
(c) two sources should have the same wavelength,
nearly the same amplitude and have a constant phase
difference
(d) two point sources should have a randomly varying
phase difference
In the Young's double slit experiment, the central maxima is
observed to be 1
0
If one the slits is covered, then the intensity
at the central maxima will become (BVP Engg. 2007)
(a) !_g_ (b) J.g_
2 .J2
(c) Io (d) Io
4
If the polarising angle of a piece of glass for. green light
is 54.74, then the angle of minimum deviation for an
equilateral prism made of same glass iS' (Kerala CET 2007)
(Given: tan 54.74 = 1.414)
(a) 45 (b) 54.7
(c) 60 (d) 30
In Young's double slit experiment, the intensity at a point
where the path difference is ~ ( A . being the wavelength
6
oflight used) is I. IfJ
0
denotes the maximum intensity, _!_
Io
is equal to (AIEEE 2007)
3 1
(a)
4
(b) .J2
(c) J3 (d)
1
2 2
64. The phenomenon of polarization of electromagnetic
waves proves that the electromagnetic waves are
(Gujarat CET 2007)
(a) transverse
(b) mechanical
(c) longitudinal
(d) neither longitudinal nor transverse
65. In the phenomenon of diffraction of light, when blue light
is used in the experiment instead of red light, then
(a) fringes will becomes narrower
(b) fringes will becomes broader
(c) no change in fringe width
(d) None of the above
(DCE 2007)
66. Monochromatic light of frequency 6.0 x 10
14
Hz is
produced by a laser. The power emitted is 2 x 10-
3
W.
The number of photons emitted, on the average, by the
source per second is (UP SEE 2007)
(a) 5 x 10
15
(b) 5 x 10
16
(c) 5 X 10
17
(d) 5 X 10
14
67. When an unpolarized light of intensity 1
0
is incident on a
polarizing sheet, the intensity of the light which does not
get transmitted is (UP SEE 2007)
1
(a) 2Io
(c) zero
(b) ]:_1
0
4
(d) 1
0
'
68. The refractive index of glass is 1.520 for red light and
1.525 for blue light. Let D
1
and D
2
be angles of minimum
deviation for red and blue light respectively in a prism of
this glass. Then, (UP SEE 2007)
(a) D
1
< D
2
(b) D
1
= Dz
(c) D
1
can be less than or greater than D
2
depending upon
the angle of prism
(d) D
1
> D
2
69. In double slit experiment, the distance between two slits is
0.6 mm and these are illirninated with light of wavelength
4800 A. The angular width of first dark fringe on the
screen distant 120 em from slits will be (BCECE 2006)
(a) 8 x 10-
4
rad (b) 6 x 10-
4
rad
(c) 4 x 10-
4
rad (d) 16 x 10-
4
rad
70. A lens is made of flint glass (refractive index = 1.5).
Which the lens is immersed in a liquid of refractive index
1.25, the focal length (UP SEE 2006)
(a) increases by a factor of 1.25
(b) increases by a factor of 2.5
(c) increases by a factor of 1.2
(d) decreases by a factor of 1.2
71. In Young's double slit experiment, the wavelength of
light A. = 4 x 10-
7
m and separation between the slits is
d = 0.1 mm. If the fringe width is 4 mm, then the
separation between the slits and screen will be
(Orissa JEE 2006)



Exercise I
1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (a)
11. (d) 12. (b) 13. (a) 14. (a) 15. (a)
21. (a) 22. (a) 23. (b) 24. (a) 25. (c)
31. (b) 32. (c) 33. (a) 34. (d) 35. (d)
41. (d) 42. (b) 43. (c) 44. (c) 45. (c)
51. (b) 52. (a) 53. (a) 54. (b) 55. (b)
61. (b) 62. (a) 63. (a) 64. (b) 65. (a)
71. (a) 72. (d) 73. (c) 74. (d) 75. (b)
Exercise II
1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (c)
11. (c) 12. (b) 13. (a) 14. (c) 15. (b)
21. (a) 22. (a) 23. (d) 24. (c) 25. (c)
31. (a,c) 32. (d) 33. (c) 34. (b) 35. (a,c)
41. (d) 42. (a) 43. (a) 44. (c) 45. (c)
51. (b) 52. (d) 53. (c) 54. (b) 55. (d)
61. (c) 62. (d) 63. (a) 64. (a) 65. (a)
71. (b) 72. (d) 73. (c) 74. (b) 75. (b)
,
Chapter 24 Wave Optics I 957
(a) 100 mm (b) 1 m
(c) 10
6
em (d) 10 A
72. A beam of light of 600 nm from a distant
source falls on a single slit 1 mm wide and the resulting
diffraction pattern is observed on a screen 2 m away. The
distance between the first dark fringes on either side of
the central bright fringe is (Karnataka CET 2006)
(a) 1.2 em (b) 1.2 mm
(c) 2.4 em (d) 2.4 mm
73. In Young's double slit experiment, intensity at a point is
(1/ 4) of the maximum intensity angular position of this
point is (liT JEE 2005)
(a) sin-
1
(A. /d)
(c) sin -l (A. !3d)
(b) sin-
1
(A. /2d)
(d) sin-
1
(A./4d)
74. The maximum number of possible interference maxima
for slit separation equal to twice the wavelength in
Young' s double slit experiment is (AIEEE 2004)
(a) infinite (b) 5
(c) 3 (d) zero
75. If l
0
is the intensity of the principal maximum in the single
slit diffraction pattern, then what will be its intensity
when the slit is doubled? (AIEEE 2004)
(a) :!_g_ (b) 1
0
2
(c) 4 I
0
(d) 2 I
0
w
Answers
6. (d) 7. (a) 8. (c) 9. (b) 10. (d)
16. (b) 17. (a) 18. (c) 19. (a) 20. (c)
26. (c) 27. (c) 28. (c) 29. (d) 30. (b)
36. (a) 37. (b) 38. (c) 39. (a) 40. (c)
46. (a) 47. (c) 48. (d) 49. (a) 50. (b)
56. (b) 57. (b) 58. (a) 59. (d) 60. (b)
66. (a) 67. (c) 68. (a) 69. (a) 70. (a)
76. (b) 77. (a) 78. (d) 79. (c) 80. (b)
6. (d) 7. (d) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (d)
16. (b) 17. (a) 18. (c) 19. (b) 20. (b)
26. (a) 27. (c) 28. (a) 29. (b) 30. (b)
36. (d) 37. (a) 38. (c) 39. (c) 40. (b)
46. (a) 47 . . (c) 48. (c) 49. (a) 50. (a)
56. (b) 57. (b) 58. (d) 59. (c) 60. (c)
66. (a) 67. (a) 68. (a) 69. (a) 70. (b)
958 Chapter 24 Wave Optics
Hints & Solutions
Exercise I
1. For a given time, optical path remain constant
J.l1X1 = J.lzXz
or 1.5 x 2 = J.lz x 2.25
7. As we lmow
and
l.Sx2 2 20 4
1-lz = 2.25 =1.5=15=3
=LillA
d
=
A
10-
3
X 3 X 10-
5
600xl0-
9
= 5 em away or towards the slits
From Eqs. (i) and (ii),
1
pocAoc-

J.l
. J.l
... (i)
... (ii)
The refractive index of water is greater than air, therefore
fringe width will decrease.
B. Here, sin= 8 ={i)
So,
D
Angular fringe width 8
0
= (Width = p)
8 = l = DA x = !:_
0
D d D d
8
0
= 1= n;/180 rad
and A= 6x10-
7
m
d = _!:_ =
180
X 6 X 10-
7
8a 7r
= 3.44 x 10-
5
m
mm
9. As field of view is same in both cases
or
n1P1 =
n
1
( )= n
2
(
or
,
10.

A
2
= 5904A
For dark fringe,
Here,
or
xd A
-=(2m-1)-
D 2

2
0
d
m=Sx=-
, 2
d d A
--=(2x5-1)-
2 D 2
dz =9A
D
,,.
11. When two cohere!'lt light of intensities 1
1
and 1
2
superimpose, then maximum intensity is cji; +.Fz)
2
and minimum intensity is Cji; -ji;)
2
But when two
incoherent light beams of intensities 1
1
and 1
2
superimpose,
then maximum intensity is' (I
1
+ 1
2
) and minimum intensity
is (1
1
-1
2
) .
== 51, Imin 31
12. For incoherent waves,
Jmax = nl
.''
I 32

I 2
13. The distance between zeroth order maxima and second
order minima is
Y1 =%+P=%P
3
=-x0.2mm = 0.3 mm
2
:. The distance of second maxima from point P is
. y = (4.8+0.3) mm = 5.1 mm
14. At a point of maxima
. . Imax = 41
0
= 4 wm-
2
. . 1
0
= 1 wm-
2
16. As S
3
, & = s
1
s
3
- S
2
S
3
= o
:.' '. <1> = 27r & = 0
A
18.
. 1
3
= !
0
+ !
0
+ 2-JI
0
x I
0
(cos0)
. . [3 = 4Io
The path difference at 5
4
is
&:' = S1S4 -S2S4 = xd
D
d AD A
=-X-=-
D 2d 2
, 2n A
!J> =--=1t
A 2
I
4
= I
0
+I
0
+ 2I
0
cos 1t = 0
_2= 4!
0
==
[4 0
I max= !1 + [2 + 2ji;f;
= 4! +I +2.,)2!
1
xi
= 9!
!min= [1 +[2 -2.,)2!1[2
Imm =I
19. The intensity of light reflected from upper surface is
I
1
= !
0
x 25%
25
=I
0
x -
100
= Io
4
The intensity of light from upper surface is
I- I - Io- 3Io
-
0
4- 4
:. The intensity of reflec;ted light from lower surface is
I = 3I 0 X 50 = 3I 0
2
4 100 8
[max --' cji; +JI;t ._ '
.Imin -: Cjf; -Ji;)
2
JJ + ftFj'
Imin- ( fj -PJ
.
-
t; ''. : ..
. ' -
". ; ,._ ... .... ....
20. The number of fringes on either side of centre C of screen
is
n
1
= =
0.021 . -uoc; . r
:. Total number of fringes
= 2n
1
+ fringe a:t centre
= 2n
1
+ 1 = 2 x 23 + 1
= 46 + 1= 47
In Young's experiment, the number of fringes sho.uld be
:
,
21.
Chapter 24 Wave Optics 959
The position of 30th bright fringe
30AD
Y3o=-d-
Now position shift of central fringe is
30 ).J)
Yo= - d-
D
But we know, y
0
=-(f..L-l)t
d
30AD D
-d-=d(f..L-l)t
(f..L-1) = 30 A = 30 X (6000 X 10-
10
) = 0.5
t (3.6 X 10-
5
)
f..l = 1.5
22. As velocity of light is perpendicular to the wavefront, and
light is travelling in vacuum along they-axis, therefore,
the wavefront is represented by y = constant.
23. As = ).J)
d
:. 1 I d
24. Fringe visibility (V) is given by v =
1
max - I min
!max +!min
25. y
1
= a
1
cosmt = a
1
sin(mt + 90)
y
2
= a
2
sin mt
:. Phase difference = !j> = 90
R = af + + 2a
1
a
2
cos !J> = af +
:. Resultant intensity II= R
2

26. Light appears to travel along straight lines because its
wavelength is very small.
27. For destructive interference, path difference = 2:.
2
, ' Therefore, phase difference =
2
7t . 2: = n radian = 180.
A 2
28. Distance of n'h maxima, x =nAp_"" A
d
. . xblue < xgreen
29. Distance between fringes = fringe Width
= = AD = 8 x 10-5 x 2 = 0.32 em
d 0.05
30. Optical path for 1st ray = n
1
L
1
Optical path for 2nd ray = n
2
L
2
:. Phase difference, =
2
7t &:
A
21t
= T(nl Ll - n2L2)
31. Wave nature of liglwalone can explain the phenomenon
lik.e diffraction.
32. For maximum contrast, !
1
= !
2
33,
1
= = SOQO X 0.48 = 0.04
A 6000
em
34. 5
1
P- S
2
P = ll(A I 2) = odd integral multiple of A/2
960 Chapter 24 Wave Optics
35. Let !
1
= a
2
,!
2
== b
2
Imax =(a+b)
2
=a
2
+b
2
+2ab
= 1
1
+ I
2
+ 2ji; ji; = Cji; + ji;)
2
and
37. At the centre, all meet in phase, hence central
fringe is white.
38. Path difference, x = (SS
1
+ S
1
0)-(SS
2
+ S
2
0)
If x = n ),, the central fringe at 0 will be bright. If
x = (2n- l)A/2, the central fringe at 0 will be dark.
39. Distance between the fringes= fringe width
AD 6x10-
7
x2
x = = d-= -O.OS x 10-2
= 24 x 10-4m = 0.24 em
40. When the arrangement is dipped in water,
= == = = 0.75x
!1 4/3 4
'AD
41. x=(2n-1)2"d-
A= 2xd
(2n -1)D
2 X 10-
3
X 0.9 X 10-
3
(2x 2-1) x 1
= 6 x 10-
7
m = 6 x 10-
5
em
b 2 I b
42.
1
max or
lmin (a-bi a-b
or 3a- 3b == a+ b or 2a = 4b;
I a
2
4b
2
__l_=- =-=-4: 1
!2 b2 b2
43. Interference fringes are bands on screen XY running
parallel to the lengths of slits. Therefore, the locus of
fringes is represented correctly by W
3
W
4

44. Distance between two successive maxima
A= 0.14 m =10-2m
14 '

3
x
108
=3x10
10
H
A 10-
2
I a
2
9
45. _j_ =-=-
[2 b2 1
a 3
b 1
!max=

=
4
: l
Imin (a-b) 3 1
46. Path difference of 3rd bright fringe from central
fringe= 3A, so that phase difference= 3(2n) = 61t rad.
47. When one slit is closed, amplitude becomes half and
intensity becomes 1/ 4th
ie, I
0
=}:_I or I= 4!
0
4
48.
d
P' =AD'
d
__ P' = A(D -D')
d
3
x
10
_
5
= AX5x10-
2
10-
3
or A =: -
3
X w-s = 6 X 10-
7
m = 6000A
50
49. =-A-=2:
d d! D e
50. When path difference is A., I max = 4 I = K
When path difference is !: , phase difference, <1> = 1t / 2
4
IR = I
1
+I
2
+2Nz cos<!>
K
=I+I=2I=-
2
51. For a path difference (!l-1)t , the shift is
D
X= (!l-1)t d
52. Oil floating on water looks coloured opJy when thickness
of oil layer;:;; wavelength of light;:;; 10000 A.
53. Amplitude A
1
and A
2
are added as vectors. Angle between
these vectors is the phase difference

-

between
them
..


54. Here, n
1
= 12,A
1
= 600 nm
n
2
= ?, A
2
= 400nm
As nr Ar = n2A2
n
2
= n1 A1 = 12 x 602_ =
18
A
2
400
55. d= 0.1 mm = 10-
4
, D = 20 em= !m
5
A= 5460A = 5.46 x w-
7
m
Angular position of first dark fringe is
6
=..::_=...?:_= 5.46xlo-
7
D 2d 2x10-4
= 2.73,x 10-
3
rad
180
= 2.73 X 10-
3
X--= 0.156
1t
56. Here, I
1
=I,I
2
=4I,e
1
=n/2,e
2
=n
IA = I
1
+1
2
+2Nz cos8
1
= [ +4I COS1t/2'= 51
I
8
= I
1
+I
2
cos8
2
= I + 4 I + 2jl x 4 I cos 1t
= SI- 41 =I
IA-IB=5l-l =4I
I
57. nAr=(n+l)Ab
n + 1 = = 600 = i
n Ab 480 5
!=i-l=}_n=4
n 5 4
58.
AD 0.06 x 10-
2
xl0-
3
From = d => A= D =
1
= 6 x 10-
7
m= 6000 A
5'9. When white light is used instead of monochromatic light,
the central bright fringe becomes white, while others are
coloured. Hence, distinction is rriade.
AD 6000x10-
10
x 2
60
' 4x1o-3
= 0.3 x 10-
3
m = 0.3 mm
61. From diffraction at a single slit, size of aperture,
A
a=--
sinO
3141.59 x lo-Io 18 10-6 -18
a= = x m- 11m
sin1
62. For diffraction to be observed, size of aperture must be of
the same order as wavelength of light.
63. llv = 1 and = 1.003
!:x_ = lla = 1.0003
Aa llv
X = Avn = Aa (n ;- 1)
n +
1
= !:x_ = 1.0003
n Aa
1 1
1 +- = L0003,- = 0.0003
n n
1 10
4
n=---=-
0.0003 3
10
4
x =An= 6000xl0-
7
mm x- = 2mm
a 3
64. Distance between first and sixth minima
SAD
X=--
d
nAD 1 x SOOx10-
10
x 2
a= -x- = O.Sx10-3
d = 2.5 x 10-
3
m = 2.5 mm
65. As, a sinO= nA
A= a sinO:. = Ssin30 =
2
.Scm
n 1
66. Here, A= 6250 A = 6250 X 10-
10
m
a= 2 x 10-
2
cm = 2 x 10-4m
D = SO em = 0.5 m
Chapter 24 Wave Optics
'd h f 1 . ZAD
W1 t o centra mrunmum = --
a
2 X 6250 X 10-
10
X 0.5
2x10-4
=312.5 x 10-
3
em
961
67. In interference, we use two sources while in diffraction,
we use light from two points of the same wavefront.
68. From a sin 8 = nA
x nAD 1 x6000 x10-
10
x2
a-=nA a=--=-=--___:__:------;;--
D ' x 4 x 1o-
3
= 3 x 10-4 = 0.3 mm
69. asinO =n A
, ax 0.3 x l0-
3
xSxl0-
3
ax =3A
! 3f 3xl
= 5 x 10
7
m = 5000 A
70. To be invisible in vacuum, 11 of medium must be equal to
11 of vacuum, which is 1.
71. Angular spread on either side is e = = _!_ rad
a 5
72. Sound waves cannot be polarised as they are longitudinal.
Light waves can be polarised as they are transverse.
73. Intensity of light from C
2
= 1
0
On rotating through 60,
I = [
0
cos
2
60 (law of Malus)
=l0 GJ =10 / 4
74. As reflected and refracted rays are perpendicular to each
other, therefore, iP = i = 60
"= tani = tan60= J3 = 1 732 p .
75. The intensity of plane pola1i sed light is = 2a
2

:. Intensity of polarised light from first nicol prism
1
0
1 2 2
=-=-x 2a =a
2 2
76. Here, e = 9.9 , I= 20cm = 0.2m,s = 66
c = ?c = = = O.O?Sgcc-
1
Is 2 x 66
= 75 gL-
1

77. Along the optic axis, 1-lo = 1-le
a
78. We lmow, Am = - and 11 = tan 0
ll
A
A = -a- = A cote
m tane a
79. Deviation = iP - r = 20
Also, iP = r = 90
Solve to get r = 34
80. taniP = 11 = J3 :. iP = 60
I
962 Chapter 24 Wave Optics
Exercise II
1. Angular momentum
or
L= nh
21t
U = nhv
w = 2nv::::}
21t
U= nhro
21t
U = Lw
L = !!_
(J)
2. IR = 1
1
+ 1
2
+ 2.JI
1
1
2

I
0
=I +I +2Icos0= 4I
When one of the slits is closed, intensity on the same spot
=I= I
0
/4
3. As x = n
1
= n
2


= n
1
A
1
= n
2
A
2
:. nz = n1 A1 = 60 x 4000 =
40
A
2
6000
4. As sound waves are longitudinal, therefore, polarization
of sound waves is not possible.
5. If I
0
is intensity of unpolarized light,
then from 1st nicol, I
1
= Io
2
From 2nd nicol, I
2
= I
1
cos
2
(90-60)
= Io (J3J
2

2, 2 8
I
_1_ = 37.5%
Io
6. From (Jl-l)t = n A.
7. A= 600 nm = 6 x 10-
7
m
a = 1 mm = 10-
3
m, D = 2 m
Distance between the first dark fringes on either side of
central bright fringe = width of central maximum
2AD 2x6x10-
7
x2
a 10-
3
= 24 x 10-4 m = 2.4 mm
8. Angular dispersion of central maximum
dispersion of 1st minimum (= 29)
F
. 9 n 2x10-
3
. 1
rom s1n =-=---,-
a 4x10-
3
2
9= 30
9. As the two bright fringes coincide
.. n A
1
= (n + 1) A
2
'
n+1 A
1
7500 5
=4
2 . .'
n=-(
n 4'
10. w, '
1
'
. tl ' ' ' . - , , r'
angular
0.3xl0-z x2x 1o;}, .,;, 6 x10-7 m=60ooA.
... )(
11. X = (n + 1) Ab = n Ar
n+l Ar 7.8x10-
5
3
5.2 x 1o-s =2
1 3
1+-=-
b 2
n=2
12. Here, d = 1 mm =10-
3
m,
A= 6.5x 10-
7
m
D =1m
x
5
= nA D = 5 X 6.5 X 10-
7
X _!_
3
d w-
= 32.5 X 10-
4
m
AD
x
3
= (2n -1)"2d
(2x3-1)x6.5 x 1o-
7
2 x 10-
3
= 16.25 x 10-4 m
x
5
- x
3
= (32.5 -16.25) 10-4m
= 16.25 x 10-4m = 1.63 mm
13. From x = n A.P._
d
D
d1 =7A1d
D
dz =7A2d

d2 A.2
14. When white light is used in a biprism experiment, central
spot will be white, while the surronding fringes will be
coloured.
15. From I R = I
1
+I
2
+ 2ji;l;
When = 0 ,IR =I+ I+ 2.Jii cos0= 41
90
I R I = I+ I + 2.Jii cos 90 = 2 I
4I =
2
:
1
IR 2I
16. If I
0
is intensity of unpolarised light, then intensity of
polarised light from 1st polaroid = Iof2.
On rotating through 45, intensity of light from 2nd
polaroid,
I= (!.SL)ccos45o)z = Io ( _.!__ )2 = Io
2 2j2 ' 4
.-. < 25%I0
17. When sourC!=S" are coherent ' ' '
I
1
+ I
2
+ 2ji;I;
At middle peint of the sereen, q, = 0
IR:, I +I +2.Jii cos0 = 4I
When inco,hereJ1t,:
I
1
+I
2
=I +I +21'
I 41 ..
-li-=-=2
IR 2I ,'
18. y
1
= 4sinwt
Yz = 3sin(rot + 1t I 3)
Here, a=4,b=3, <j>=n/3
R =

+b
2
+ 2abcos<j>
=

+3
2
+ 2 x 4 x 3cosn / 3
=m=6
'AD
. 19. From
3
(5000x10-
10
) xl.O
5 x 10- = d
d =
5
x
10
-
7
=10-4m= 0.1 mm
5 X 10-
3
20. Fringe width oc wavelength of light.
Therefore fringe will become narrower.
21. S2P=(d
2
+b
2
)
112
=d(1+ :: r
2
= d ( 1 + ;:2 J = d +
Path difference = S
2
P- S
1
P
b2
x=d+--d=b
2
! 2d
2d
For missing wavelengths (i2n - 1)!:, = x = bd
2
2 2
For
For
b2
n=1 A=-
' d'
2b
2
n=2 A= -
' 3d
22. Here, w = 31.4 rads-
1
:. Time period of revolution,
T = 27t = 2 x 3.14 = 0.
2
s
(J) 31.4
Energy transmitted/ revolution
= (IA) T = e; A )r
= <j> 0 T = 10-
3
X 0.2 =
10
-4 J
2 2
23. For 5th dark fringe,
'AD 9A.D
x =(2n - 1)--=- -
1 2 d 2d
D ?AD
For 7th bright fringe, x
2
= nA. - = --
d d
,
1)
X
2
- X
1
=(!l-1)t- '
' d
AD [7 - = (I!- 1) t B '
d . 2 ' d .
2.5'A
t=-- - -
(!l - 1) ,'
Chapter 24 Wave Optics 963
24. The ratio of intensities of successive maxima is
1
= C
2
1tJ = =
= 1 . ___ . _4_
. 9n
2
. 251t
2
25. Here, a= 10,b =



= 10
= 10 = 1 : 1
b 10
26. The linear width of central principal maximum
2'A D
d
If it is equal to width of slit (d), then
2W d
2
--=d or D=-
d 2'A
27. Let the wavelength of monochromatic light in glass be
)...g em, and in water be "-w em.
. . Number of waves in 8 em of glass = J!..., and number
A.g.
of waves in 10 em of glass = J!....
"-w
8 10 "-w 10 5
- =-or-=-=-
'Ag Aw Ag 8 4
c c
llg = - and llw = -
vg vw
Now,
.&_ = Vw = V Aw =
llw Vg VAg 4
5 5 4 5
llg = 4llw = 4 X 3 = 3
28. Distance between the slits,
d =


= >f'4- .0-5_x_1_0-:_3:--x-2-.-90- x -10-_-=- 3
= 3.427 x w-
3
m
29. The resultant intensity at any point P is
1=410 cos
2
(%)
1
0
= 4J
0
cos
2
<j>/ 2
or
If Lll: is the corresponding value of, path difference at P,
then <I> =


'A
As
or
21t 21i: ' '
-=-fix.
3 'A -
,_' ... .... ' .:
---.x.a -
Lll: _'"'
xd,
3 'A D
I '
x=-A. - = 6 x 1o-7 =Zx1o-3m _r,
3d I D 3 x 10-4
- X = 2 inm : ' .-,; -.. ' ,' , ",'
This
\
964 Chapter 24 * Wave Optics
30. /max= I= 1
1
+ lz + 2
. 31.
32.
33.
34.
When Wldth of each slit is doubled, intensity from each
slit becomes twice ie,
!'
1
= 21
1
and 1'
2
= 2!
2
I' max = I' = I' 1 + I' 2 +
=2l
1
+21
2
+2J21
1
x21
2
= 2(1
1
+1
2
+2Ji:xl;) = 21
o C 3 X 10
8
\, = 6000A, V a =- = 10
"-a 6000x 10-
=5x1014Hz
A.a 6ooo'A o
In water, "-m =- = ---= 4000 A.
1.5
'AD
From P=-
d
D =
'A
4x10-
3
x0.1x10-
3
=
1
m
4 X 10-
7
p 2 6
Pt =_a = --= -mm
5/3 5
]max- (a+b)2 - 16
/min- (a-b)2 -l
a+b 4
a-b 1
4a-4b=a+b or3a = 5b
a 5
b 3
35. The wavefront in Y-Z plane travels alongX-axis. Therefore,
x = a and x = a' represent such a wavefront.
36. R 2a
1
a
2
cos 1t I 2
37. In the interference pattern,
38.
39.
]max _(a+b)2 _(1+2)2 -91
/min- (a-b)2- (1-2)2- .
:: = = G J = 9 : 1.
11 - w1 - 1 - az
!
2
- w
2
-4-/l

b
40. Two independent sources cannot be coherent. Therefore,
no interference pattern would be observed.
41. When the medium between plane-cbli.vex lens and
plane is rarer than the medium of lens and glass,
the central spot of Newton's ring is dark. The darkness
of central spot is due to the phase change of 1t which is
introduced between the rays,reflected from denser to
rarer and rarer to denser medium.
42. For diffraction to occur, the si?-e of an obstacle/aperture is
comparable to the wavelength of light wave. The order of
wavelength of light wave is io-
7
m, so diffraction occurs.
43. When we seen the painting which is painted by a myriad
of small colour dots near our eyes, scientillating colour of
dots are visible due to diffraction of light and when we
go away from the painting our eyes blend the dots and
we see the different colours. This is due to the change is
angular separation of adjacent dots as the distance of the
object changes.
44. In Young's experiment fringe width for dark and white
fringes are same while in the same experiment, when a
white light as a source is used, the central fringe is white
around which few coloured frings are observed on either
side.
45. The beautiful colours are seen on account of interference
of light reflected from the upper and the lower surfaces
of the thin films. Since, condition for constructive and
destructive interference depends upon the wavelength
of light therefore, coloured interference fringes are
observed.
46. According to Newton's to corpuscular the01y of light, the
light should travel faster in denser mediQ. than in rarer
media. It is contrary to present theory of light which
explains the light travels faster in air (rarer) and in water
(Denser).
47. The waves diffracted from the edges of circular obstacle,
placed in the path of light, interfere constructively at
the centre of the shadow resulting in the formation of a
bright spot.
48. The waves which consist longer wavelength have more
diffraction. Since radio waves have greater wavelength
than microwaves, hence, radio waves undergo more
diffraction than microwaves.
49. The diffraction of sound is only possible when the size of
opening should be of the same order as its wavelength
and the wavelength of sound is of the order of 1.0 m,
hence, for a very small opening no diffraction is produced
in sound waves.
50. For two coherent sources,
1=1
1
+1
2
+Mcos<jl
Putting,
We have, I= 1
0
+ 1
0
+ 2.JI
0
x 1
0
cos<jl
Simplifying the above expression
I= 21
0
(1 + cos<jl)
= 21
0
( 1 + 2 cos
2
% - 1 )
=2I
0
x2cos
2
1
2
= 41
0
cos
2
1
2
Also,
[max = c.ji; +Fz)
2
i
I min = ( .ji; - JJ;f
f
r
I
i
51. As 4th bright fringe of unknown wavelength A' coincides
with 3rd btight fringe of known wavelength A= 590 nrn,
therefore
4A'D 3AD
--=--
d d
A.'= 2A = 2x590 = 442.5nm
4 4
52. The phase difference ($) between the wavelets from the
top edge and the bottom edge of the slit is ljl =
2
1t (d sin 9),
. A.
where dis the slit width. The first minima of the diffraction
pattern occurs at sine= 2::_, so ljl =
2
1t (d x !:.) = 21t
d A d
53. In chromatic aberration the image formed by a lens has
coloured fringes, because the refractive index for different
colours is different and hence the focal length of lens for
different colours is different. So, the cause of chromatic
aberration is the variation of focal length with colour.
54. In an interference experiment the spacing between
successive maxima and minima is called the fringe width
and is given by

55. Angular width of central maximum
2
A.D It can be
a
increased by decreasing the slit width (a).
56. It is more difficult to observe diffraction with light waves
because wavelength of light waves is far too smaller
compared to that of sound waves.
57. From IR = I
1
+ I
2
+

I
2

21t A. 1t
where
58.
A. 4 2
1t
I R = I + I + 2I cos- = 2I
2
At the central bright fringe, I R = 4 I
. . !B._= 3!_ = 0.5
IR I 4I
X= n A!!_= 3 X 6000!!_ = 4 X A!!_
d d d
A = 3 X 6000 = 4500 A
4
59. Position of fourth maxima
4DA
Xo=-d-
or x oc A.
:. x (blue) < x (green)
60. Two sources should have the same wavelength, nearly the
same amplitude and have a constant phase difference. If
the phase difference between two interfering waves does
not remain constant, interference pattern will not be
sustained.
61. Intensity, I
0
= I
1
+ I
2
+

I
2
ff
then I
0
= 4I
When one slit is covered then I
2
I' -I- Io
. . , 0- - 4
Chapter 24 Wave Optics
62. f.l. = taniP = tan54.74= 1.44 = J2
From ll = sin(A +om) I 2 = )2
sinAl 2
. (60o+Om) r;:;2 . 600
sm = vL.sm-
2 2
= J2 x }:_ = = sin 45
2 v2
om= 90-60= 30
63.


A. A 6 3
and
1=1
1


I I = I + I + 21 = 3 I
3
I
0
= I + I + 2 I cos 0 = 4l
I ' 3
I
0
4
965
64. Polarisation proves that light waves are transverse m
character.
65. As Ab < /,r
and width of pattern is directly proportional to A,
therefore, the fringes will become narrower.
66. Photons are the packets of energy.
Power emitted,
Energy of photon,
3
P=2x1o- w
E = hv = 6.6 X 10-
34
X 6 X 10
14
J
h being Planck's constant.
Number of photons emitted per second
p
n=-
E
2x1o-
3
.
6.6 X 10-
34
X 6 X 10
14
= 5 X 10
15
67. Intensity of polarized light = I
0
12
:. Intensity of light which does not get transmitted
= I
0
- Iof2 = Iof2
68. D = (f.l.-1) A
For blue light Jl is greater than tl1at for red light, so
D2 > D1.
69. d=0.6mm=6x10-4m,A=4800x10-
10
m
D = 120 em = 1.2 m
For dark ,
, A.D . A.D
x = (2n -1)-- = (2x 1-1)--
, . 2 d 2 d
' 2'x A
Angular width = - = -
-'
''
..v- d
r
I
966 Chapter 24 Wave Optics
70. Lens-Maker's formula is given by
_!_=( Jl -1)(_!_ _ _!_)
f a g Rl Rz
... (i)
where al-lg is refractive index of glass w.r.t. air, R
1
and R
2
are radii of curvature of two surfaces of lens and f is focal
length of the lens.
If the lens is immersed is a liquid of refractive index J.l
1
then
1 (1 '1)
-=(zJlg -1) ---
fz R1 Rz
Here zJ.lg is refractive index of glass w.r.t. liquid.
Dividing Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii) , we have
f
1
(aJlg - 1)
-=
fz (zJlg -1)
=> !1=(1.5-1_1)
/
2
1.25
=>
f1 = 0.5 X 1.25 =
2
_
5
f
2
0.25
Hence, focal length increases by a factor of 2.5.
'AD
71. From 13 = d
D=j3xd
').._
4x10-
3
x0.1x10-
3
=
1
m
4 X 10-
7
... (ii)
72. Distance between first dark fringe on either side of central
bright fringe = width of central maximum
2f...D 2 X (600 X 10-
9
) X 2
=--=
a 10-
3
= 24 x 10-4 m = 2.4 mm
,
73. Distance between first dark fringe on either side of central
bright fringe = width of central maximum
2f...D 2 X (600 X 10-
9
) X 2
=--=
a 10-
3
= 24 x 10-
4
m = 2.4 mm
Here, I=
10
= 1
1
= 1
2
and if ~ is the phase difference,
4
then I= I
1
+I
2
+ 2 ~ I
1
I
2
cos<j>
I I I Ml
.. _Q_ = _Q_ + _Q_ + 2 _Q_ X _Q_ COS <j>
4 4 4 4 4
1 1 1 1
- = - +- + 2 X- COS <j>
4 4 4 4
or
1 21t
cos<j>=- or <1>=-
2 3
or
If L\x the path difference betwee11 two waves, then
<I> L\x ').._ ').._ 21t ').._
-=-=> L\x=-<j>=-X-.--=-
21t ').._ 21t 21t 3 3
For path difference L\x, if angular separation is 8 then
d sin 9L\x = 'A I 3
or sm =- or e = sm - . e "- . -1 ( "- J
3d 3d
74. For maxima on the screen
dsin8=nA.
Given d = slit-width= 2A.
2A.sin8=nA.
2sin8=n
The maximum value of sin 8 = + 1
.. n=2
:. Eq. (i) is satisfied by- 2,- 1, 0, 1, 2.
75. The intensity of principal maximum in the single slit
diffraction pattern does not depend upon the slit width.