Physical, Earth, and Space Science Skill and Practice Worksheets 
Chapter and Section 







Chapter 1: Measurement 

_{1}_{.}_{1} _{M}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} 
• Lab Safety 
• Using Your Textbook 
• SI Units 

• Scientific Notation 

_{1}_{.}_{2} _{T}_{i}_{m}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{D}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e} 
• Measuring Length 
• Averaging 
• SQ3R Reading and Study Method 
• Stopwatch Math 
• Indirect 

• Understanding 
Measurement 

Light Years 

1.3 Converting Units 
• Dimensional 
• Study Notes 
• SI Unit Conversion 

Analysis 
• Science Vocabulary 
Extra Practice 

• Fractions Review 
• SIEnglish 

• Significant Digits 
Conversions 

1.4 Graphing 
• Creating 
• Interpreting Graphs 

Scatterplots 
• Recognizing Patterns on Graphs 

• What’s the Scale? 

Chapter 2: The Scientific Process 

2.1 
Inquiry and the Scientific 
• Scientific 

Method 
Processes 

• What’s Your 

Hypothesis? 

2.2 
Experiments and 
• Recording Observations in the Lab 
• Using a 
• Identifying Control 

Variables 
Spreadsheet 
and Experimental 

Variables 

• Lab Report Format 

2.3 
The Nature of Science 

and Technology 
i
Physical, Earth, and Space Science Skill and Practice Worksheets 
Chapter and Section 







Chapter 3: Mapping 

_{3}_{.}_{1} _{M}_{a}_{p}_{s} 
• Position on the Coordinate Plane 
• Navigation 

• 
Latitude and 

Longitude 

• Map Scales 

• Vectors on a Map 

3.2 Topographic Maps 
• Topographic Maps 

_{3}_{.}_{3} _{B}_{a}_{t}_{h}_{y}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c} _{M}_{a}_{p}_{s} 
• Bathymetric Maps 
• Tanya Atwater 

Chapter 4: Motion 

4.1 Speed and Velocity 
• 
Solving Equations With One Variable 
• 
Speed 

• 
Velocity 

• 
Problem Solving 

Boxes 

• 
Problem Solving 

with Rates 

• 
Percent Error 

4.2 Graphs of Motion 
• Calculating Slope From a Graph 
• 
Analyzing Graphs of Motion With Numbers 

• 
Analyzing Graphs of Motion Without Numbers 

4.3 Acceleration 
• Acceleration 
• Acceleration Due to Gravity 

• 
Acceleration and 

SpeedTime 

Graphs 
ii
Physical, Earth, and Space Science Skill and Practice Worksheets 
Chapter and Section 







Chapter 5: Force 

_{5}_{.}_{1} _{F}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e}_{s} 
• Ratios and Proportions 
• Internet Research 
• 
Mass vs. Weight 
• Gravity Problems 

• Bibliographies 
• 
Mass, Weight, and Gravity 
• Universal 

Gravitation 

5.2 Friction 
• Friction 

5.3 Forces in Equilibrium 
• Equilibrium 

Chapter 6: Laws of Motion 

6.1 Newton’s First Law 
• Net Force and Newton’s First Law 
• Isaac Newton 

6.2 Newton’s Second Law 
• Newton’s Second Law 

6.3 Newton’s Third Law and 
• Applying Newton’s 
• Rate of Change of Momentum 

Momentum 
Laws 

• Momentum 

• Momentum 

Conservation 

• Collisions and 

Conservation of 

Momentum 
iii
Physical, Earth, and Space Science Skill and Practice Worksheets 
Chapter and Section 







Chapter 7: Work and Energy 

7.1 
Force, Work, and 
• Mechanical 
• Gear Ratios 

Machines 
Advantage 
• Levers in the Human Body 

• Mechanical 

Advantage of 
• Bicycle Gear Ratios Project 

Simple Machines 

• Work 

• Types of Levers 

7.2 
Energy and the 
• Potential and 
• James Joule 

Conservation of Energy 
Kinetic Energy 

• Identifying Energy 

Transformations 

• Energy 

Transformations 

Extra Practice 

• Conservation of 

Energy 

7.3 
Efficiency and Power 
• Efficiency 
• Power in Flowing Energy 

• Power 

• Efficiency and 

Energy 

Chapter 8: Matter and Temperature 

8.1 The Nature of Matter 

8.2 Temperature 
• Measuring 
• Temperature 

Temperature 
Scales 

8.3 Phases of Matter 
• Reading a Heating/ Cooling Curve 
iv
Physical, Earth, and Space Science Skill and Practice Worksheets 
Chapter and Section 




Chapter 9: Heat 

9.1 
Heat and Thermal 
• 
Specific Heat 

Energy 
• 
Using the Heat Equation 

9.2 
Heat Transfer 
• Heat Transfer 

Chapter 10: Properties of Matter 

_{1}_{0}_{.}_{1} _{D}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} 
• 
Measuring Mass with a Triple Beam Balance 
• 
Density 

• 
Measuring Volume 

• 
Calculating Volume 

10.2 Properties of Solids 

10.3 Properties of Fluids 
• Pressure in fluids 

• 
Boyle’s Law 

10.4 Buoyancy 
• Buoyancy 
• Archimedes 
• Archimedes’ 

• Charles’ Law 
• Narcis Monturiol 
Principle 

• Pressure 

Temperature 

Relationship 
v
Physical, Earth, and Space Science Skill and Practice Worksheets 
Chapter and Section 







Chapter 11: Weather and Climate 

11.1 Earth’s Atmosphere 
• Layers of the Atmosphere 

11.2 Weather Variables 
• GaspardGustave Coriolis 
• 
Degree Days 

_{1}_{1}_{.}_{3} _{W}_{e}_{a}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} _{P}_{a}_{t}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{n}_{s} 
• Joanne Simpson 
• Weather Maps 

• Tracking A 

Hurricane 

Chapter 12: Atoms and the Periodic Table 

12.1 Atomic Structure 
• Structure of the Atom 
• Ernest Rutherford 

• 
Atoms and Isotopes 

12.2 Electrons 
• Electrons and Energy Levels 
• Neils Bohr 

12.3 The Periodic Table of 
• The Periodic Table 

the Elements 

12.4 
Properties of the 

Elements 

Chapter 13: Compounds 

13.1 
Chemical Bonds and 
• Dot Diagrams 

Electrons 

13.2 Chemical Formulas 
• Finding the Least Common Multiple 
• Chemical Formulas 
• Families of 

• Naming 
Compounds 

Compounds 

13.3 Molecules and Carbon 

Compounds 
vi
Physical, Earth, and Space Science Skill and Practice Worksheets 
Chapter and Section 







Chapter 14: Changes in Matter 

14.1 Chemical Reactions 
• Chemical 
• The Avogadro 

Equations 
Number 

• Formula Mass 

14.2 Types of Reactions 
• Classifying 
• Predicting 

Reactions 
Chemical 

Equations 

• Percent Yield 

14.3 Energy in Chemical 

Reactions 

14.4 
Nuclear Reactions 
• Lise Meitner 
• Radioactivity 

• 
Marie and Pierre Curie 

• 
Rosalyn Yalow 

• 
ChienShiung Wu 

Chapter 15: Matter and Earth’s Resources 

15.1 Chemical Cycles 

15.2 Global Climate Change 
• Svante Arrhenius 
vii
Physical, Earth, and Space Science Skill and Practice Worksheets 
Chapter and Section 







Chapter 16: Electricity 

16.1 Charge and Electric Circuits 
• 
Open and Closed Circuits 
• Benjamin Franklin 

16.2 
Current and Voltage 
• Using an Electric Meter 

16.3 
Resistance and Ohm’s 
• 
Voltage, Current, 

Laws 
and Resistance 

• 
Ohm’s law 

16.4 
Types of Circuits 
• Series Circuits 
• Thomas Edison 

• 
Parallel Circuits 
• George 

Westinghouse 

• Lewis Latimer 

Chapter 17: Magnetism 

17.1 Properties of Magnets 
• Magnetic Earth 

17.2 Electromagnets 
• Maglev Train Model Project 

17.3 Electric Motors and 

Generators 

_{1}_{7}_{.}_{4} 
_{G}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{E}_{l}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y} 
• Michael Faraday 
• Transformers 

• Electrical Power 
viii
Physical, Earth, and Space Science Skill and Practice Worksheets 
Chapter and Section 







Chapter 18: Earth’s History and Rocks 

18.1 Geologic Time 
• Andrew Douglass 

_{1}_{8}_{.}_{2} _{R}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{D}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} 
• Relative Dating 
• Nicolas Steno 

18.3 The Rock Cycle 
• The Rock Cycle 

Chapter 19: Matter and Earth 

_{1}_{9}_{.}_{1} _{I}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{E}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{h} 
• Earth’s Interior 
• Charles Richter 

• 
Jules Verne 

19.2 Plate Tectonics 
• Alfred Wegener 

• Harry Hess 

• John Tuzo Wilson 

19.3 Plate Boundaries 
• Earth’s Largest Plates 

19.4 Metamorphic Rocks 
• Continental U.S. Geology 

Chapter 20: Earthquakes and Volcanoes 

_{2}_{0}_{.}_{1} _{E}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{h}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{k}_{e}_{s} 
• Averaging 
• Finding an Earthquake Epicenter 

20.2 Volcanoes 
• Volcano Parts 

_{2}_{0}_{.}_{3} _{I}_{g}_{n}_{e}_{o}_{u}_{s} _{R}_{o}_{c}_{k}_{s} 
• Basalt and Granite 
ix
Physical, Earth, and Space Science Skill and Practice Worksheets 
Chapter and Section 







Chapter 21: Water and Solutions 

21.1 Water 

_{2}_{1}_{.}_{2} _{S}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} 
• Concentration of Solutions 

• Solubility 

• Salinity and 

Concentration 

Problems 

21.3 Acids, Bases, and pH 
• Calculating pH 

Chapter 22: Earth’s Water Systems 

22.1 
Water on Earth’s 
• Groundwater and Wells Project 

Surface 

22.2 The Water Cycle 
• The Water Cycle 

22.3 Oceans 

Chapter 23: How Water Shapes the Land 

23.1 
Weathering and 

Erosion 

23.2 
Rivers, Streams, and 

Sedimentation 

23.3 Glaciers 

23.4 Sedimentary Rocks 
x
Physical, Earth, and Space Science Skill and Practice Worksheets 
Chapter and Section 







Chapter 24: Waves and Sound 

24.1 Harmonic Motion 
• Period and Frequency 

• 
Harmonic Motion 

Graphs 

_{2}_{4}_{.}_{2} _{P}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{W}_{a}_{v}_{e}_{s} 
• Waves 
• Wave Interference 

_{2}_{4}_{.}_{3} _{S}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d} 
• Decibel Scale 
• Standing Waves 

• 
The Human Ear 
• Waves and Energy 

• Palm Pipes Project 

Chapter 25: Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum 

25.1 Properties of Light 
• The 

Electromagnetic 

Spectrum 

_{2}_{5}_{.}_{2} _{C}_{o}_{l}_{o}_{r} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{V}_{i}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n} 
• Color Mixing 
• The Human Eye 

_{2}_{5}_{.}_{3} _{O}_{p}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{s} 
• Measuring Angles 
• Using Ray Diagrams 
• 
Drawing Ray 

Diagrams 

• Reflection 

• Refraction 
xi
Physical, Earth, and Space Science Skill and Practice Worksheets 
Chapter and Section 





Chapter 26: The Solar System 

26.1 
Motion in the Solar 
• Astronomical Units • Nicolaus 
• Measuring the Moon’s Diameter 

System 
• Gravity Problems Copernicus 

• Universal 
• Galileo Galilei 

Gravitation 
• Johannes Kepler 

26.2 
Motion and 
• Benjamin Banneker 

Astronomical Cycles 

26.3 
Objects in the Solar 
• Touring the Solar System 

System 

Chapter 27: Stars 

27.1 The Sun 
• The Sun: 
• Arthur Walker 

A CrossSection 

_{2}_{7}_{.}_{2} _{S}_{t}_{a}_{r}_{s} 
• Inverse Square Law 

27.3 Life Cycles of Stars 

Chapter 28: Exploring the Universe 

_{2}_{8}_{.}_{1} _{T}_{o}_{o}_{l}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{A}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{n}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{r}_{s} 
• Scientific Notation 
• Understanding 
• Edwin Hubble 

Light Years 

• 
Parsecs 

_{2}_{8}_{.}_{2} _{G}_{a}_{l}_{a}_{x}_{i}_{e}_{s} 
• Light Intensity 
• Henrietta Leavitt 
• Calculating 

Luminosity 

28.3 Theories About the 
• 
Doppler Shift 

Universe 
xii
Name: 
Date: 

1.1 Lab Safety 
What can I do to protect myself and others in the lab?
Science equipment and supplies are fun to use. However, these materials must always be used with care. Here you will learn how to be safe in a science lab.
Materials
• Poster board
• Felttip markers
Follow these basic safety guidelines
Your teacher will divide the class into groups. Each group should create a postersized display of one of the following guidelines. Hang the posters in the lab. Review these safety guidelines before each investigation.
1. Prepare for each investigation.
a. Read the investigation sheets carefully.
b. Take special note of safety instructions.
2. Listen to your teacher’s instructions before, during, and after the investigation. Take notes to help you remember what your teacher has said.
3. Get ready to work: Roll long sleeves above the wrist. Tie back long hair. Remove dangling jewelry and any loose, bulky outer layers of clothing. Wear shoes that cover the toes.
4. Gather protective clothing (goggles, apron, gloves) at the beginning of the investigation.
5. Emphasize teamwork. Help each other. Watch out for one another’s safety.
6. Clean up spills immediately. Clean up all materials and supplies after an investigation.
Know what to do when
7. working with heat:
a. Always handle hot items with a hot pad. Never use your bare hands.
b. Move carefully when you are near hot items. Sudden movements could cause burns if you touch or spill something hot.
c. Inform others if they are near hot items or liquids.
8. working with electricity:
a. Always keep electric cords away from water.
b. Extension cords must not be placed where they may cause someone to trip or fall.
c. If an electrical appliance isn’t working, feels hot, or smells hot, tell a teacher right away.
9. disposing of materials and supplies:
a. Generally, liquid household chemicals can be poured into a sink. Completely wash the chemical down the drain with plenty of water.
b. Generally, solid household chemicals can be placed in a trash can.
d.
If glass breaks, do not use your bare hands to pick up the pieces. Use a dustpan and a brush to clean up. “Sharps” trash (trash that has pieces of glass) should be well labeled. The best way to throw away broken glass is to seal it in a labeled cardboard box.
Page 2 of 6 c. 
Any liquids or solids that should not be poured down the sink or placed in the trash have special disposal guidelines. Follow your teacher’s instructions. 
10. you are concerned about your safety or the safety of others:
a. Talk to your teacher immediately. Here are some examples:
• You smell chemical or gas fumes. This might indicate a chemical or gas leak.
• You smell something burning.
• You injure yourself or see someone else who is injured.
• You are having trouble using your equipment.
• You do not understand the instructions for the investigation.
b. Listen carefully to your teacher’s instructions.
c. Follow your teacher’s instructions exactly.
1.
Draw a diagram of your science lab in the space below. Include in your diagram the following items. Include notes that explain how to use these important safety items.
Page 3 of 6 Safety quiz 
• Exit/entrance ways 
• 
Eye wash and shower 
• 
Sink 
• Fire extinguisher(s) 
• 
First aid kit 
• 
Trash cans 
• Fire blanket 
• 
Location of eye goggles and lab aprons 
• 
Location of special safety instructions 
2. How many fire extinguishers are in your science lab? Explain how to use them.
3. List the steps that your teacher and your class would take to safely exit the science lab and the building in case of a fire or other emergency.
Page 4 of 6 4. Before beginning certain investigations, why should you first put on protective goggles and clothing? 
5. Why is teamwork important when you are working in a science lab?
6. Why should you clean up after every investigation?
7. List at least three things you should you do if you sense danger or see an emergency in your classroom or lab.
8. Five lab situations are described below. What would you do in each situation?
a. You accidentally knock over a glass container and it breaks on the floor.
b. You accidentally spill a large amount of water on the floor.
Page 5 of 6 c. 
You suddenly you begin to smell a “chemical” odor that gives you a headache. 
d. You hear the fire alarm while you are working in the lab. You are wearing your goggles and lab apron.
e. While your lab partner has her lab goggles off, she gets some liquid from the experiment in her eye.
f. A fire starts in the lab.
Safety in the science lab is everyone’s responsibility!
Page 6 of 6 Safety contract 
Keep this contract in your notebook at all times.
By signing it, you agree to follow all the steps necessary to be safe in your science class and lab.
I, 
, (Your name) 

• 
Have learned about the use and location of the following: 

• Aprons and gloves 

• Eye protection 

• Eyewash fountain 

• Fire extinguisher and fire blanket 

• First aid kit 

• Heat sources (burners, hot plate, etc) and how to use them safely 

• Wastedisposal containers for glass, chemicals, matches, paper, and wood 

• 
Understand the safety information presented. 

• 
Will ask questions when I do not understand safety instructions. 

• 
Pledge to follow all of the safety guidelines that are presented on the Safety Skill Sheet at all times. 

• 
Pledge to follow all of the safety guidelines that are presented on investigation sheets. 

• 
Will always follow the safety instructions that my teacher provides. 
Additionally, I pledge to be careful about my own safety and to help others be safe. I understand that I am responsible for helping to create a safe environment in the classroom and lab.
Signed and dated,
Parent’s or Guardian’s statement:
I have read the Safety Skills sheet and give my consent for the student who has signed the preceding statement to engage in laboratory activities using a variety of equipment and materials, including those described. I pledge my cooperation in urging that she or he observe the safety regulations prescribed.
Signature of Parent or Guardian
Date
Name: 
Date: 

1.1 Using Your Textbook 
1.1 
Your textbook is a tool to help you understand and enjoy science. Colors, shapes, and symbols are used in the book to help you find information quickly. Take a few minutes to get familiar with these features—it will help you get the most out of your book all year long.
Part 1: Organizing features of the student text
Spend a few minutes answering the questions below. You will learn to recognize visual clues that organize the reading and help you find information quickly.
1. What color is used to identify Unit four?
2. List four important vocabulary words for section 3.2.
3. What color are the boxes in which you found these vocabulary words?
4. What is the main idea of the last paragraph on page 37?
5. Where do you find section review questions?
6. What is the first key question for Chapter 9?
7. What are the four numbered parts (or steps) shown in each sample problem in the text?
8. List the four sections of questions in each Chapter Assessment.
Part 2: The Table of Contents
The Table of Contents is found after the introduction pages. Use it to answer the following questions.
1. How many units are in the textbook? List their titles.
2. Which unit will be the most interesting to you? Why?
3. Where do you find the glossary and index? How are they different?
Part 3: Glossary and Index
The glossary and index can help you quickly find information in your textbook. Use these tools to answer the following questions.
1. What is the definition of velocity?
2. On what pages will you find information about the layer of Earth’s atmosphere known as the troposphere?
3.
On what page will you find a short biography of agricultural scientist George Washington Carver?
Name: 
Date: 

1.1 SI Units 
1.1 
In the late 1700's, as scientists began to develop the ideas of physics and chemistry, they needed better units of measurement to communicate scientific data. Scientists needed to prove their ideas with data based on measurements that other scientists could reproduce. A decimal system of units based on the meter as a standard length, the kilogram as a standard mass, and the liter as a standard volume was developed by the French. Today this system is known as the SI system, or metric system. The equations below show how the meter is related to other units in this system of measurements.
1 meter = 100 centimeters 1 cubic centimeter = 1 cm ^{3} = 1 milliliter 1000 milliliters = 1 liter
The SI system is easy to use because all the units are based on factors of 10. In the English system, there are 12 inches in a foot, 3 feet in a yard, and 5,280 feet in a mile. In the SI system, there are 10 millimeters in a centimeter, 100 centimeters in a meter, and 1,000 meters in a kilometer.
Question: Using the graphic at right, state how many kilometers it is from the North Pole to the equator.
Answer: You need to convert 10,000,000 meters to kilometers.
Since 1 meter = 0.001 kilometers, 0.001 is the multiplication factor. To solve, multiply 10,000,000 0.001 km = 10,000 km. So, it is 10,000 kilometers from the North Pole to the equator.
These are the standard units of measurement that you will use in your scientific studies. The prefixes on the following page are used with the base units when measuring very large or very small quantities.
When you are measuring: 
Use this standard unit: 
Symbol of unit 
mass 
kilogram 
kg 
length 
meter 
m 
volume 
liter 
l 
force 
newton 
N 
temperature 
degree Celsius 
°C 
time 
second 
s 
You may wonder why the kilogram, rather than the gram, is called the standard unit for mass. This is because the mass of an object is based on how much matter it contains as compared to the standard kilogram made from platinum and iridium and kept in Paris. The gram is such a small amount of matter that if it had been used as a standard, small errors in reproducing that standard would be multiplied into very large errors when large quantities of mass were measured.
Page 2 of 3 The following prefixes in the SI system indicate the multiplication factor to be used with the basic unit. For example, the prefix kilo is a factor of 1,000. A kilometer is equal to 1,000 meters, and a kilogram is equal to 1,000 grams. 1.1 
Prefix 
kilo 
hecto 
deka 
Basic unit 
deci 
centi 
milli 

(no prefix) 

Symbol 
k 
h 
da 
m, l, g 
d 
c 
m 

Multiplication Factor or PlaceValue 
1,000 
100 
10 
1 
0.1 
0.01 
0.001 



1. How many centigrams are there in 24 grams? 

a. Restate the question: 24 grams = 
centigrams 

b. Use the place value chart to determine the multiplication factor, and solve: 

kilo 
hecto 
deka 
meter, liter, or gram 
deci 
centi 
milli 

thousands 
hundreds 
tens 
ones 
tenths 
hundredths 
thousandths 
Since we want to convert grams (ones place) to centigrams (hundredths place), count the number of places on the chart it takes to move from the ones place to get to the hundredths place. Since it takes 2 moves to the right, the multiplication factor is 100. Solution: multiply 24 × 100 = 2,400. Answer: There are 2,400 centigrams in 24 grams.
2. How many liters are there in 5,000 deciliters?
a. Restate the question: 5,000 deciliters (dl) =
b. Use the place value chart to determine the multiplication factor, and solve:
Since we want to convert deciliters (tenths place) to liters (ones place), count the number of places on the chart it takes to move from the ones place to get to the hundredths place. Since it takes 1 move to the left, the multiplication factor is 0.1. Solution: multiply 5,000 × 0.1 = 500. Answer: There are 500 liters in 5,000 deciliters.
liters (l)?
3. How many decimeters are in a dekameter?
a. Restate the question: 1 dam =
b. Use the place value chart to determine the multiplication factor, and solve:
dm.
Page 3 of 3 Since we want to convert dekameters to decimeters, count the number of places on the chart it takes to move from the tens place (deka) to the tenths place (deci). It takes 2 moves to the right, so the multiplication factor is 100. Solution: multiply 1 × 100 = 100. Answer: There are 100 decimeters in one dekameter. 
1.1 
4. How many kilograms are equivalent to 520,000 centigrams?
(1) Restate the question: 520,000 centigrams = (2) Determine the multiplication factor, and solve:
Moving from the hundredths place (centi) to the thousands place (kilo) requires moving 5 places to the left, so the multiplication factor is
0.00001.
Solution: Multiply 520,000 × 0.00001 = 5.2 Answer: 5.2 kilograms are equivalent to 520,000 centigrams.
kilograms.
1. How many grams are in a dekagram?
2. How many millimeters are there in one meter?
3. How many millimeters are in 6 decimeters?
4. Convert 4,200 decigrams to grams.
5. How many liters are equivalent to 500 centiliters?
6. Convert 100 millimeters to meters.
7. How many milligrams are equivalent to 150 dekagrams?
8. How many liters are equivalent to 0.3 kiloliters?
9. How many centimeters are in 65 kilometers?
10. Twelve dekagrams are equivalent to how many milligrams?
11. Seven hundred twenty centiliters is how many liters?
12. A fountain can hold 53,000 deciliters of water. How many kiloliters is this?
13. What is the name of a length that is 100 times larger than a millimeter?
14. How many times larger than a centigram is a dekagram?
15.
Name the distance that is 10 times smaller than a centimeter.
Name: 
Date: 

1.1 Scientific Notation 
1.1 

A number like 43,200,000,000,000,000,000 (43 quintillion, 200 quadrillion) can take a long time to 
write, and an even longer time to read. Because scientists frequently encounter very large numbers like this one (and also very small numbers, such as 0.000000012, or twelve trillionths), they developed a shorthand method
for writing these types of numbers. This method is called scientific notation. A number is written in scientific notation when it is written as the product of two factors, where the first factor is a number that is greater than or equal to 1, but less than 10, and the second factor is an integer power of 10. Some examples of numbers written
in scientific notation are given in the table below:
Scientific Notation 
Standard Form 
4.32 × 10 ^{1}^{9} 
43,200,000,000,000,000,000 
1.2 × 10 ^{–}^{8} 
0.000000012 
5.2777 × 10 ^{7} 
52,777,000 
6.99 10 ^{}^{5} 
0.0000699 
Rewrite numbers given in scientific notation in standard form.
• Express 4.25 × 10 ^{6} in standard form: 4.25 × 10 ^{6} = 4,250,000 Move the decimal point (in 4.25) six places to the right. The exponent of the “10” is 6, giving us the number of places to move the decimal. We know to move it to the right since the exponent is a positive number.
• Express 4.033 × 10 ^{–}^{3} in standard form: 4.033 × 10 ^{–}^{3} =
0.004033
Move the decimal point (in 4.033) three places to the left. The exponent of the “10” is negative 3, giving the number of places to move the decimal. We know to move it to the left since the exponent is negative.
Rewrite numbers given in standard form in scientific notation.
• Express 26,040,000,000 in scientific notation: 26,040,000,000 = 2.604 × 10 ^{1}^{0} Place the decimal point in 2 6 0 4 so that the number is greater than or equal to one (but less than ten). This gives the first factor (2.604). To get from 2.604 to 26,040,000,000 the decimal point has to move 10 places to the right, so the power of ten is positive 10.
• Express 0.0001009 in scientific notation: 0.0001009 = 1.009 × 10 ^{–}^{4} Place the decimal point in 1 0 0 9 so that the number is greater than or equal to one (but less than ten). This gives the first factor (1.009). To get from 1.009 to 0.0001009 the decimal point has to move four places to the left, so the power of ten is negative 4.
1.
Fill in the missing numbers. Some will require converting scientific notation to standard form, while others will require converting standard form to scientific notation.
Page 2 of 3 
1.1 
Scientific Notation 
Standard Form 

a. 
6.03 
× 10 ^{–}^{2} 

b. 
9.11 × 10 ^{5} 

c. 
5.570 
× 10 ^{–}^{7} 

d. 
999.0 

e. 
264,000 

f. 
761,000,000 

g. 
7.13 
× 10 ^{7} 

h. 
0.00320 

i. 
0.000040 

j. 
1.2 × 10 ^{–}^{1}^{2} 

k. 
42,000,000,000,000 

l. 
12,004,000,000 

m. 
9.906 
× 10 ^{–}^{2} 
2. Explain why the numbers below are not written in scientific notation, then give the correct way to write the number in scientific notation.
Example: 0.06 × 10 ^{5} is not written in scientific notation because the first factor (0.06) is not greater than or equal to 1. The correct way to write this number in scientific notation is 6.0×10 ^{3} .
a. 2.004 × 1 ^{1}^{1}
b. 56 × 10 ^{–}^{4}
c. 2 × 100 ^{2}
d.
10 × 10 ^{–}^{6}
Page 3 of 3 

3. 
Write the numbers in the following statements in scientific notation: 

a. 
The national debt in 2005 was about $7,935,000,000,000. 
1.1 

b. 
In 2005, the U.S. population was about 297,000,000 

c. 
Earth's crust contains approximately 120 trillion (120,000,000,000,000) metric tons of gold. 

d. 
The mass of an electron is 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 91 kilograms. 
e. The usual growth of hair is 0.00033 meters per day.
f. The population of Iraq in 2005 was approximately 26,000,000.
g. The population of California in 2005 was approximately 33,900,000.
h. The approximate area of California is 164,000 square miles.
i. The approximate area of Iraq in 2005 was 169,000 square miles.
j. In 2005, one rightfielder made a salary of $12,500,000 playing professional baseball.
Name: 
Date: 

1.2 Measuring Length 
How do you find the length of an object?
Size matters! When you describe the length of an object, or the distance between two objects, you are describing something very important about the object. Is it as small as a bacteria (2 micrometers)? Is it a light year away (9.46 × 10 ^{1}^{5} meters)? By using the metric system you can quickly see the difference in size between objects.
Reading the meter scale correctly
Materials
• Metric ruler
• Pencil
• Paper
• Small objects
• Calculator
Look at the ruler in the picture above. Each small line on the top of the ruler represents one millimeter. Larger lines stand for 5 millimeter and 10 millimeter intervals. When the object you are measuring falls between the lines, read the number to the nearest 0.5 millimeter. Practice measuring several objects with your own metric ruler. Compare your results with a lab partner.
Stop and think
a. You may have seen a ruler like this marked in centimeter units. How many millimeters are in one centimeter?
b. Notice that the ruler also has markings for reading the English system. Give an example of when it would be better to measure with the English system than the metric system. Give a different example of when it would be better to use the metric system.
Page 2 of 4 

Example 1: Measuring objects correctly 
Look at the picture above. How long is the building block?
1. Report the length of the building block to the nearest 0.5 millimeters.
2. Convert your answer to centimeters.
3. Convert your answer to meters.
Example 2: Measuring objects correctly
Look at the picture above. How long is the pencil?
1. Report the length of the pencil to the nearest 0.5 millimeters.
2. Challenge: How many building blocks in example 1 will it take to equal the length of the pencil?
3.
Challenge: Convert the length of the pencil to inches by dividing your answer by 25.4 millimeters per inch.
Page 3 of 4 

Example 3: Measuring objects correctly 
Look at the picture above. How long is the domino?
1. Report the length of the domino to the nearest 0.5 millimeters.
2. Challenge: How many dominoes will fit end to end on the 30 cm ruler?
Practice converting units for length
By completing the examples above you show that you are familiar with some of the prefixes used in the metric system like milli and centi. The table on the following page gives other prefixes you may be less familiar with. Try converting the length of the domino from millimeters into all the other units given in the table.
Refer to the multiplication factor this way:
• 1 kilometer equals 1000 meters.
• 1000 millimeters equals 1 meter.
1. How many millimeters are in a kilometer?
1000 millimeters per meter × 1000 meters per kilometer = 1,000,000 millimeters per kilometer
2. Fill in the table with your multiplication factor by converting millimeters to the unit given. The first one is done for you.
1000 millimeters per meter × 10 ^{–}^{1}^{2} meters per picometer = 10 ^{–}^{9} millimeters per picometer
3. Divide the domino’s length in millimeters by the number in your multiplication factor column. This is the answer you will put in the last column.
42.5 millimeters ÷ 10 ^{–}^{9} millimeters per picometer = 42.5 ×10 ^{9} picometers
Page 4 of 4 

4. 
. 
Prefix 
Symbol 
Multiplication 
Scientific notation in meters 
Your multiplication factor 
Your domino 

factor 
length in: 

pico 
p 
0.000000000001 
_{1}_{0} 
–12 
10 
^{–}^{9} 
42.5 ×10 ^{9} pm 
nano 
n 
0.000000001 
10 
^{–}^{9} 
nm 

micro 
µ 
0.000001 
10 
^{–}^{6} 
μm 

milli 
m 
0.001 
10 
^{–}^{3} 
mm 

centi 
c 
0.01 
10 
^{–}^{2} 
cm 

deci 
d 
0.1 
10 
^{–}^{1} 
dm 

deka 
da 
10 
10 
^{1} 
dam 

hecto 
h 
100 
10 
^{2} 
hm 

kilo 
k 
1000 
10 
^{3} 
km 
Name: 
Date: 

1.2 Averaging 
1.2 
The most common type of average is called the mean. Usually when someone (who’s not your math teacher) asks you to find the average of something, it is the mean that they want. To find the mean, just sum (add) all the data, then divide the total by the number of items in the data set. This type of average is used daily by many people. Teachers and students use it to average grades. Meteorologists use it to average normal high and low temperatures for a certain date. Sports statisticians use it to calculate batting averages and many other things.
• William has had three tests so far in his English class. His grades are 80%, 75%, and 90%. What is his average test grade?
Solution:
a. Find the sum of the data: 80 + 75 + 90 = 245
b. Divide the sum (245) by the number of items in the data set (3): 245 ≥ 3 ≈ 82%
William’s average (mean) test grade in English (so far) is about 82%
1. The families on Carvel Street were cleaning out their basements and garages to prepare for their annual garage sale. At 202 Carvel Street, they found seven old baseball gloves. At 208, they found two baseball gloves. At 214, they found four gloves, and at 221 they found two gloves. If these are the only houses on the street, what is the average number of old baseball gloves found at a house on Carvel Street?
2. During a holiday gift exchange, the members of the winter play cast set a limit of $10 per gift. The actual prices of each gift purchased were: $8.50, $10.29, $4.45, $12.79, $6.99, $9.29, $5.97, and $8.33. What was the average price of the gifts?
3. During weekend baby sitting jobs, each sitter charged a different hourly rate. Rachel charged $4.00, Juanita charged $3.50, Michael charged $4.25, Rosa charged $5.00, and Smith charged $3.00.
a. What was the average hourly rate charged among these baby sitters?
b. If they each worked a total of eight hours, what was their average pay for the weekend?
4. The boys on the ninth grade basketball team at Fillmore High School scored 22 points, 12 points, 8 points, 4 points, 4 points, 3 points, 2 points, 2 points, and 1 point in Thursday’s game. What was the average number of points scored by each player in the game?
5. Jerry and his friends were eating pizza together on a Friday night. Jerry ate a whole pizza (12 slices) by himself! Pat ate three slices, Jack ate seven slices, Don and Dave ate four slices each, and Teri ate just two slices. What was the average number of slices of pizza eaten by one of these friends that night?
Name: 
Date: 

1.2 Reading Strategies (SQ3R) 
1.2 
Students often read a science textbook as if they were watching a movie—they just sit there and expect to take it all in. Actually, reading a science book is more like playing a video game. You have to interact with it! This skill builder will teach you active strategies that will improve your reading and study skills. Remember—just like in video game playing—the more you practice these strategies, the more skilled you will become.
The SQ3R active reading method was developed in 1941 by Francis Robinson to help his students get the most out of their textbooks. Using the SQ3R method will help you interact with your text, so that you understand and remember what you read. “SQ3R” stands for:
Survey
Question
Read
Recite
Review
Your student text has many features to help you organize your reading. These features are highlighted in Chapter 1: Measurement, found on pages 3–32 of your student text. Open your text to those pages so that you can see the features for yourself.
Survey the chapter first.
• Skim the introduction on the first page of every chapter. Notice the key questions. The key questions are thoughtprovoking and designed to spark your interest in the chapter. See if you can answer these questions after you have read the entire chapter.
• You will find vocabulary words with their definitions in blue boxes on the right side of each page. Vocabulary words will be scattered throughout the chapter. Write down any vocabulary words that are unfamiliar to you to help you recognize them later.
• Next, skim the chapter to get an overview. Notice the section numbers and titles. These divide the chapter into major topics. The subheadings in each section outline important points. Vocabulary words are highlighted in bold blue type. Solving Problems pages provide stepbystep examples to help you learn to use mathematical formulas. Tables, charts, and figures summarize important information.
• Read the section review questions at the end of each section. The questions help you identify what you are expected to know when you finish your reading. You will also find Challenge, Solve It, Study Skills, Journal, Science Fact, and/or Technology boxes scattered throughout each section. These boxes provide you with an interesting way to learn more about information in the section.
• Carefully read the Chapter Assessment at the end of the chapter to see what kinds of questions you will need to be able to answer. Notice that it is divided into four subtitles: Vocabulary, Concepts, Problems, and Applying Your Knowledge. Each set is listed by chapter section.
Page 2 of 2 

Question what you see. Turn headings into questions. 

• Look at each of the section headings and subheadings, found at the tops of pages in your text. 
1.2 

Change each heading to a question by using words such as who, what, when, where, why, and how. For example, Section 1.1: Measurements could become What measurements will I need to make in physical science? The subheading Two common measurement systems could become What are two common measurement systems? Write down each question and try to answer it. Doing this will help you pinpoint what you already know and what you need to learn as you read. 
Read and look for answers to the questions you wrote.
• Pay special attention to the sidenotes in the left margin of each page. For example, under the Section 1.3 subheading Converting between English and SI units, the sidenotes are: The problem of multiple units and Comparing English and SI units. These phrases and short sentences are designed to guide you to the main idea of each paragraph. Also, note the sidebars and illustrations on the right side of the page with additional explanations and concepts. For example, the target diagrams in Figure 1.4 will help you understand the terms accuracy, precision, and resolution.
• Slow your reading pace when you come to a difficult paragraph. Read difficult paragraphs out loud. Copy a confusing sentence onto paper. These methods force you to slow down and allow you time to think about what the author is saying.
Recite concepts out loud.
• This step may seem strange at first, because you are asked to talk to yourself! But studies show that saying concepts out loud can actually help you to record them in your longterm memory.
• At the end of each section, stop reading. Ask yourself each of the questions you wrote in step two on the previous page. Answer each question out loud, in your own words. Imagine that you are explaining the concept to someone who hasn’t read the text.
• You may find it helpful to write down your answers. By using your senses of seeing, hearing, and touch (when you write), you create more memory paths in your brain.
Review it all.
• Once you have finished the entire chapter, go back and answer all of the questions that you wrote for each section. If you can’t remember the answer, go back and reread that portion of the text. Recite and write the answer again.
• Next, reread the key questions at the beginning of the chapter. Can you answer these?
• Complete the section reviews and the chapter assessment. Use the glossary and index at the back of the book to help you locate specific definitions.
The SQ3R method may seem timeconsuming, but it works! With practice, you will learn to recognize the important concepts quickly.
Active reading helps you learn and remember what you have read, so you will have less to relearn as you study for quizzes and tests.
Name: 
Date: 

1.2 Stopwatch Math 
1.2 
What do horse racing, competitive swimming, stock car racing, speed skating, many track and field events, and some scientific experiments have in common? The need for some sort of stopwatch, and people to interpret the data. For competitive athletes in speedrelated sports, finishing times (and split times taken at various intervals of a race) are important to help the athletes gauge progress and identify weaknesses so they can adjust their training and improve their performance.
• Three girls ran the following times for one mile in their gym class: Julie ran 9:33.2 (9 minutes, 33.2 seconds), Maggie ran 9:44.24 (9 minutes, 44.24 seconds), and Mel ran 9:33.27 (9 minutes, 33.27 seconds). In what order did they finish?
Solution:
The girl who came in first is the one with the fastest (smallest) time. Compare each time digit by digit, starting with the largest placevalue. Here, that would be the minutes place:
There is a “9” in the minutes’ place of each time, so next, compare the seconds’ place. Since Maggie’s time has larger numbers in the seconds’ place (44 ) than Julie or Mel (33 ), her time is larger (slower) than the other two. We know Maggie finished third out of the three girls. Now, comparing Julie’s time (9:33.2 ) to Mel’s (9:33.27 ), it is helpful to rewrite Julie’s time (9:33.2 ) so that it has the same number of places as Mel’s. Julie’s time needs one more digit, so adding a zero onto the end of her time, it becomes 9:33.20 . Notice that Mel’s time is larger (slower) than Julie’s (27 > 20 ). This means that Julie’s time was fastest (smallest), so she finished first, followed by Mel, and Maggie’s time was the slowest (largest).
1. Put each set of times in order from fastest to slowest.
Page 2 of 2 

2. 
The table below gives the winners and their times from eight USA track and field championship races in the men’s 100 meter run. Rewrite the table so that the times are in order from fastest to slowest. Include the times and the years. Please note that the “w” that occurs next to some times indicates that the time was wind aided. 
1.2 
Year 
2005 
2004 
2003 
2002 
2001 
2000 
1999 
1998 
Time 
10.08 
9.91 
10.11 
9.88w 
9.95w 
10.01 
9.97w 
9.88w 
Name 
Justin 
Maurice 
Bernard 
Maurice 
Tim 
Maurice 
Dennis 
Tim 
Gatlin 
Greene 
Williams 
Greene 
Montgomery 
Greene 
Mitchell 
Harden 

Time 

Year 
3. The following times were recorded during an experiment with batterypowered cars. Put them in order from fastest to slowest.
a. 
1:22.4 
1:24.007 
1:25 
1:22.04 
1:23.117 
1:23.2 
1:24 
1:33 

Fastest 
Slowest 

b. 
1:18.3 
1:20.22 
1:21.003 
1:20 
1:17.99 
1:21.2 
1:18.22 
4. Write a set of five times (in order from fastest to slowest) that are all between _{2}_{6}_{:}_{1}_{5}_{.}_{2} and _{2}_{6}_{:}_{1}_{5}_{.}_{2}_{4} . Do not include the given numbers in your set.
Name: 
Date: 

1.2 Understanding Light Years 

How far is it from Los Angeles to New York? Pretty far, but it can still be measured in miles or 
1.2 
It’s about one hundred fortynine million, six hundred thousand
kilometers (149,600,000, or 1.496 × 10 ^{8} km). Because this number is so large, and many other distances in space are even larger, scientists developed bigger units in order to measure them. An Astronomical Unit (AU) is 1.496 × 10 ^{8} km (the distance from Earth to the sun). This unit is usually used to measure distances within our solar system. To measure longer distances (like the distance between Earth and stars and other galaxies), the light year (ly) is used. A light year is the distance that light travels through space in one year, or 9.468 × 10 ^{1}^{2} km.
kilometers. How far is it from Earth to the Sun?
1. Converting light years (ly) to kilometers (km)
Earth’s closest star (Proxima Centauri) is about 4.22 light years away. How far is this in kilometers? Explanation/Answer: Multiply the number of kilometers in one light year (9.468 × 10 ^{1}^{2} km/ly) by the number of light years given (in this case, 4.22 ly).
(
 × 4.22 ly
9.468
×
10
1 ly
12
) km
≈
3.995
×
2. Converting kilometers to light years
10
13
km
Polaris (the North Star) is about 4.07124 × 10 ^{1}^{5} km from the earth. How far is this in light years? Explanation/Answer: Divide the number of kilometers (in this case, 4.07124 × 10 ^{1}^{5} km) by the number of kilometers in one light year (9.468 × 10 ^{1}^{2} km/ly).
4.07124
×
10
15
12
km _{÷}  × =
1 ly
9.468
10
km
4.07124
 _{×}  _{≈} _{4}_{3}_{0} _{l}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{y}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{s}
×
1
10
15 km
1 ly
10
12
9.468
×
km
Convert each number of light years to kilometers.
1. 6 light years
2. 4.5 × 10 ^{6} light years
3. 4 × 10 ^{–}^{3} light years
Convert each number of kilometers to light years.
4. 5.06 × 10 ^{1}^{6} km
5. 11 km
6.
11,003,000,000,000 km
Page 2 of 2 

Solve each problem using what you have learned. 

7. 
The second brightest star in the sky (after Sirius) is Canopus. This yellowwhite supergiant is about 1.13616 × 10 ^{1}^{6} kilometers away. How far away is it in light years? 
1.2 
8. Regulus (one of the stars in the constellation Leo the Lion) is about 350 times brighter than the sun. It is 85 light years away from the earth. How far is this in kilometers?
9. The distance from earth to Pluto is about 28.61 AU from the earth. Remember that an AU = 1.496 × 108 km. How many kilometers is it from Pluto to the earth?
10. If you were to travel in a straight line from Los Angeles to New York City, you would travel 3,940 kilometers. How far is this in AU’s?
11. Challenge: How many AU’s are equivalent to one light year?
Name: 
Date: 

1.2 Indirect Measurement 
1.2 
Have you ever wondered how scientists and engineers measure large quantities like the mass of an iceberg, the volume of a lake, or the distance across a river? Obviously, balances, graduated cylinders, and measuring tapes could not do the job! Very large (or very small) quantities are calculated through a process called indirect measurement. This skill sheet will give you an opportunity to try indirect measurement for yourself.
• The length of a tree’s shadow is 4.25 meters and the length of a meter stick’s shadow is 1.25 meters. Using these two values and the length of the meter stick, how tall is the tree?
Looking for The height of a tree. 
Solution 
1.00 
m 
height of tree 

= 

Given Tree’s shadow = 4.25 m Meter’s stick’s shadow = 1.25 m Height of meter stick = 1 m 
1.25 
m 
4.25 m height of tree 

4.25 m 1.00 ×= m 
× 
4.25 m 

1.25 
m 
4.25 m 

3.40 
m 
= 
height of tree 

Relationships There is a direct relationship between the height of objects and the length of their shadows. 
The height of the tree is 3.40 meters. 

height of meter stick 
height of object 

length of meter stick shadow 
= 
length of object shadow 
• At the science museum, 12 first graders stand on a giant scale to measure their mass. The combined mass of the 12 first graders is 262 kilograms. What is the average mass of a first grader in this group?
Looking for The average mass of a first grader.
Solution
262 kilograms
12
Given Total mass of 12 first graders = 262 kilograms
= 21.8 kilograms
The average mass of a first grader in this group is 21.8 kilograms.
Relationships
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