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Endocrine System (16.

1)

Reproductive System (16.2)

Pregnancy (16.3)

The Endocrine System and Reproduction Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Vocabulary
HORMONE H Y P OT H A L A M U S EGG SPERM T E S TO S T E RO N E TESTIS OVA RY E S T RO G E N U T E RU S

1 2 7 5 8

M E N S T RUA L C YC L E OV U L AT I O N E M B RYO FETUS A M N I OT I C S AC Z YG OT E P L AC E N TA UMBILICAL CORD P U B E RT Y

17 Function

18 Hormones

19 Glands

The Endocrine System

Section 16.1 Page 640

2 Systems that Regulate Activities


Nervous System (see chapter 15) Endocrine System
This system produces chemicals that control many of the bodys daily activities. It also regulates longterm changes such as growth and development

The hypothalamus and pituitary glands link these two regulatory systems

Structures Endocrine System


Endocrine Glands: produce and release chemical products into bloodstream Hormones: chemicals made by endocrine glands that turn on, turn off, speed up, or slow down activities of other organs and tissues. They are considered Chemical Messengers

Functions Endocrine System


Nerve impulses stimulates an endocrine gland into action. Response is longer-lasting than nervous system responses. Hormones only effect target cells

20 Male System

21 Female System

The Male and Female Reproductive Systems


Section 16.2 Page 648

PRIVATE PARTS NOTES (Ch 16.2)


Words to Know: Egg, Sperm, Testis, Testosterone, Ovary, Estrogen, Uterus

Sexual Reproduction:

Process by which male and female living things make new individuals

Sexual reproduction involves the production of eggs by the female and sperm by the male.

Fertilization

The egg and sperm join together during fertilization.

Zygote

Fertilization creates a zygote which contains all the genetic information needed to produce a new individual.

Males
The male reproductive system is specialized to produce sperm and the hormone testosterone. The structures of the male reproductive system include the testes, scrotum, and penis. Testes produce sperm. Testosterone is a hormone that controls the development of physical characteristics in mature men.

Females

The role of the female reproductive system is to produce eggs and, if an egg is fertilized, to nourish a developing baby until birth. The organs of the female reproductive system include the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina. Ovaries produce and store eggs Estrogen is a hormone that controls the development of physical characteristics in mature females. The uterus is a hollow muscular organ where fertilized eggs attach and pregnancy begins.

Menstrual Cycle
The monthly cycle of change that occurs in the female reproductive system is called the menstrual cycle. During the menstrual cycle, an egg matures in an ovary. At the same time, the lining of the uterus becomes thicker. The menstrual cycle prepares the womans body for pregnancy.

Pregnancy, Development, and Birth


Section 14.2 Page
22 - Zygote 25 - Structures 28 Childhood

23 - Embryo

26 Twins

29 Adolescence

24 - Fetus

27 Birth

30 Adulthood

PREGNANCY NOTES (Ch 16.3)


Words to Know: Embryo, Fetus, Amniotic Sac, Placenta, Umbilical Cord

Development Before Birth


The zygote develops first into an embryo and then into a fetus. Differentiation leads to specialized cells, tissues, and organs.

Zygote to Embryo
After fertilization (egg and sperm join) the zygote moves toward the uterus (4 days).

Differentiation of the Embryo


The embryo attaches to the uterus wall During the first 8 weeks the cells begin to differentiate (specialize)

6 week old embryo 4 week old embryo

Development of the Fetus


The baby is considered a fetus after 9 weeks The baby continues to develop and grow

Protection and Nourishment


The membranes and other structures that form during development protect and nourish the developing baby. The baby must get all it nutrients and oxygen from its mother The mother must avoid harmful substances (cigarettes, drugs, alcohol)

Amniotic Sac
The amniotic sac is a fluid filled sac that cushions and protects the developing baby

Placenta

The placenta is an organ where the babys blood vessels are located next to the mothers blood vessels.

Umbilical Cord
A ropelike structure called the umbilical cord forms between the baby and the placenta

Identical Twins Fraternal Twins 1 zygote 2 zygotes Develops into 2 Each develop into an embryos embryo Babies are Babies are as alike as genetically identical a regular siblings Same gender Can be same gender or boy/girl

Twins

Birth
Birth is difficult and stressful on both the mother and the baby. Stress causes the baby to cry when it is born which rids the lungs of fluid and fills them with air.

Stage 1 - Labor
Contractions cause the cervix to enlarge (2-20 hrs)

Stage 2 - Delivery
The baby usually comes out head first (up to a few hrs)

Stage 3 - Afterbirth
Contractions push the placenta out (less than 1 hr)

Growth and Development


The changes that take place between infancy and adulthood include physical changes, such as an increase in size and coordination, and mental changes, such as the ability to communicate and solve complex problems.

Infancy
First 2 years Grows quickly Muscles and nerves become more coordinated Learn to walk and talk Follow directions, feed themselves, play with toys

2 years old puberty Taller, heavier More coordinated, curious, smarter Skills improve rapidly

Childhood

Adolescence
Children mature into adults physically and mentally Puberty (9-15 years old) occurs

Adult
Mental and emotional growth continues Aging begins around age 30 and speeds up after age 40