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Chemical Processes Industries Inorganic II Course # 501 23rd February, 2007 EXPERIMENT # 3 OBJECT Determination of Zinc as Zinc Pyrophosphate.

REAGENTS 1. 2. 3. Zinc Carbonate Solution. 10% Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate. Dilue Ammonia Solution.

REACTIONS Zn+++HPO4++NH4ZnNH4PO4+H+ 2ZnNH4PO4Zn2P2O7+2NH3+H2 OBSERVATION Weight of the empty crucible = 32.02gm CALCULATION Weight of the empty crucible Weight of the empty crucible + ppt Weight of ppt (Zn2P2O7) = 32.23-32.02 Molecular Weight of Zn2P2O7 Amount of Zn in Zn2P2O7 (0.21)304gm of Zn2P2O7 contains 25ml of Zinc Salt Solution contains 1000ml of Zinc Salt Solution contains RESULT The amount of Zinc is found to be 3.59 gm. = 32.02gm = 32.23gm = 0.21gm = 304gm = 130gm = (130/304)0.21gm of Zinc = 0.089gm = 0.089gm of Zinc = (0.089/25)1000gmof Zinc =3.59gm of Zinc

Muhammad Irfan Sharif Muhammad Asim Iqbal Muhammad Afaq Abbassi

Chemical Processes Industries Inorganic II Course # 501

DISCUSSION
The object of our experiment is to determine the quantity of Zinc as Zinc Pyrophosphate by gravimetric analysis. MECHANISM Mechanism is categorized in the following steps.

1. Neutralization of Zinc carbonate solution


The zinc is precipitated as phosphate from neutralization ,therefore the solution of zinc carbonate (Acidic in nature) must be neutralized with Ammonium Hydroxide (NH4OH) which is basic in nature ,with a neutral solution otherwise the precipitate are not obtained 2. Boiling of Neutral Solution By the reaction of Zinc Carbonate and NH4OH (dilute) the formation of soluble complex cations Zn(NH3) is possible which not be formed to avoid this we heat the solution to boiling to remove all ammonia giving a neutral solution with Zn++cation. . 3. Formation of Precipitate of Zn3(PO4)2 After boiling we slowly add diammonium phosphate (NH4)2PO4 to form precipitate of zinc phosphate (Zn3PO4)2 an Amorphous compound 4. Formation of Zinc Ammonium Phosphate Zn(NH4)PO4.H2O Crystals Now this precipitate become crystalline to give Zn(NH4)PO4.H2O crystal by giving a constant steam heating for about 30 minutes in a water bath . It is to be noted that crystallization only possible at 60-90oc temperature range which must be controlled and if the temperature is at 105oC the crystalline product losses its water of crystallization for this type of condition we use steam healing Zn++ + HPO-4+NH4 ZnNH4PO4 + H+ 5. Washing of Crystals The crystals are washed with Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate for the removal of chlorides 6. Ignition of Crystals
Muhammad Irfan Sharif Muhammad Asim Iqbal Muhammad Afaq Abbassi

Chemical Processes Industries Inorganic II Course # 501 The crystals are then burn in a crucible slowly to remove water of crystallization and then strongly which causes the decomposition of crystals i.e. the pyrolysis process occur and we obtain a compound called Zinc Pyro Phosphate the word pyro indicating that this compound is obtained through the pyrolysis process (i.e. decomposition by heating ) 2ZnNH4PO4Zn2P2O7 + 2NH3 + H2 REFERENCE Ferman Inorganic Analysis

Muhammad Irfan Sharif Muhammad Asim Iqbal Muhammad Afaq Abbassi