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By : YUNI SUSANTI F42111064


Why Integrating? It gives students greater motivation that converts to better retention of principles of effective speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Rather than being forced in a course that limits itself to performance, students are given a change to diversity their effort in more meaningfull task

Models of integrated skills approaches:

Content-Based Instruction Theme Based Instruction Experiential Teaching The Episode Hypothesis Task-Based Teaching

Content-Based Instruction
It is integrates the learning of some specific subject-matter content with the learning of a second language Example: Immersion program for Elemanteyschool children

Theme-Based Instruction
It is important to distinguish: - The primary purpose of a course is to instruct student in a subject-matter area, and language is of secondary and subordinate interest. -place in equal value on content and language objectives.

The activities
Use environmental statistic and fact for classroom reading, writing, discusion, and debate Carry out research and writing project Have students create their own environmental awareness material Arrange field trips Conduct stimulation games

Experiential Teaching
Its an activities that engage both left- and right-brain processing, that contextualize language, that integrate skills, and that point toward authentic, real-world purpose.

Example of learning-centered: -hands-on projects -computer activitirs -role-play and stimulation

Example of teacher-controlled -using props, realia, visuals, showand tell-session -playing games

The Episode Hypothesis

It means the presentation of language is enchanced if students receive interconnected sentences in a interest-provoking episode rather than in a disconnected series of sentences.

Task-Based Teaching
It is an activity in which: - Meaning is primary, - There is some communication problem to solve, - There is some sort of relationship to comparable real-world activities, - Task completion has some priority, - The assesment of task is in terms of outcome


Listening Comprehension In Pedagogical Research

Some specific questions about listening comprehension: - What are listeners doing when they listen? - What factors affect good listening? - What are the characteristics of real-life listening? - What are the amny things listeners listen for? - What are some principles for designing listening techniques? - How can listening techniques be interactive? - What are some common techniques for teaching listening?

An Interactive Model of Listening Comprehension

The process: - The hearer processes what we call raw speech and holds an image of it in short-term memory. (phrases, clauses, cohesive markers, intonation, and stress pattern) - The hearer determines the type of speech even being processed (a conversation, a speech, a radio broadcast) - etc

Types of Spoken Language

Monologue - Planned - Unplanned Dialogue -Interpersonal ( Unfamiliar, Familiar) - Transactional (Unfamiliar, Familiar)

What Make Listening Difficult?

Clustering Redundancy Reduced Forms Performance Variables Colloquial Language Rate of delivery Stress, Rhythm, and Intonation Interaction

Types of Classroom Listening Performance

Reactive Intensive Responsive Selective Extensive Interactive

Principles for Designing Listening Techniques

In an interactive, four-skills curriculum, make sure that you dont overlook the importance of techniques that specifically develop listening comprehension competence. Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating. Utilize authentic language and contexts. Carefully consider the form of listeners responses.. Encourage the development of listening strategies Include both bottom-up and top-down listening techniques.

Listening Techniques From Beginning to Advanced

Bottom-Up Exercise Top-Down Exercise Interactive Exercise



1. Conversational discourse 2. Teaching pronunciation 3. Accuracy and fluency 4. Affective factors 5. Interactive effect


Clustering Redudancy Reduced forms Performance variables Colloquial language Rate of delivery Stress, rhythm, and intonation


1. Imitative : Drill is a legimate part of communicative language classroom; drill offer the students an opportunity to listen and to orally repeat certain strings of language that may pose some linguistic difficulty-either phonological or grammatical. Here are some useful guideliness for successful drill : 1. Keep them short 2. Keep them simple 3. Keep them snappy 4. Make sure students know why they are doing the drill. 5. Limit them to phonology or grammar points. 6. Make sure they ultimately lead to communicate goals. 7. Dont overuse them.

2. 3. 4. 5.


Intensive : intensive speaking can be self-initiated or it can even form part of some pair work activity. Responsive : short replies to teacher or student initiated questions or comments. Transactional (dialogue) : carried out for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information, is an exteded of responsive language. Interpersonal (dialogue) : carried ot more for the purpose of maintaining social relationships than for the transmission of facts and information. Students can involve some trickie conversation of the following factors : A casual register Colloquical language Emotionally charged language Slang Ellipsis Sarcasm A covert agenda Extensive (monologue) : here the register is more formal and deliberative.


1. Use techniques that cover the spectrum of learner needs, from language-based focus on accuracy to message-based focus on interaction, meaning, and fluency. 2. Provide intrisically motivating techniques. 3. Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful context. 4. Provide appropriate feedback and correction. 5. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening. 6. Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication. 7. Encourage the development of speaking strategies.


a. b. c. d. e. f. Richards (1990: 79-80) offered the following list of features of conversation that can receive sppecific focus in classroom instruction : How to produce both short and long turn in conversation Strategies for opening and closing conversations. How to use both a casual style of speaking and neutral or more formal style How to use conversational routine. Etc Here are some sample task that illustrate teaching various aspect of conversation, as well as an oral grammar practice technique: Conversation-indirect (strategy consciousness-raising) Conversation-direct (gambits) Conversation-transactional (ordering from a catalog) meaningful oral grammar parctice (modal auxillary would) Individual practice: oral dialogue journals Other interactive techniques

Our goal as a teachers of English pronunciation should therefore be more realistically focused on clear, comprehensible pronunciation. The factor within learners that affect pronunciation, below are the list that you should consider: Native language Age Exposure Innate phoonetic ability Identitu and language ego Motivation and concern for good pronunciation.

There are three techniques for teaching different aspects of English pronunciation : 1. Intonation-Listening for Pitch Changes 2. Stress-Contrasting Nouns 3. Meaningful Minimal Pairs


Research on reading a second language 1. Bottom-up and top-down processing in bottom-up processing, readers must first recognize a multiplicity of linguistic signal. While in top-down processing in which we draw our own intelligence and experience to understand text. 2. Schemata theory and background knowledge Research has shown that reading is only incidentally visual. More information is contributed by the reader than by the print on the page. Skill in reading depends on the efficient interaction between linguistic knowledge of the world.

3. The role of affect culture The autonomy gained through the learning of reading strategies has been shown to be a powerful motivator (Bamford & Day 1998), not to mention the affective power of reading itself. Similarly, culture plays an active role in motivating and rewarding people for literacy. 4. The power of extended reading John Green and Rebecca Oxford (1995) found that reading for pleasure and reading without looking up all the unknown words were both highly correlated with overall language proficiency.

5. Adult literacy training Teaching literacy is a specialized field of research and practice that derives insights from a number of psycholinguistic and pedagogical domains of inqui


Each of the types listed below represents, or is an example of, a genre of written language: Fiction Nonfiction Letters Memo Message Announcements Form, applications Diaries, journal Recipes Maps Invitations Comic stips, etc


Performance Processing time Distance Orthography Complexity Vocabulary formality


Identify the purpose in reading Use grephemic rules and pattern to aid in bottom-up decoding (especially for beginning level learners) Use efficient silent reading techniques for relatively rapid comprehention (for intermediate to advanced levels). Skim the text for main ideas. Scan the text for specific information. Use semantic mapping or clustering Guess when you arent certain. Analyze vocabulary. Distinguish between literal and implied meaning. Capitalize on discourse marker to process relationships.


Classroom reading performance Oral intensive Linguistic content silent Extensive scanning global



In an interactive curiculum, make sure that you dont overlook the importance of specific instruction in reading skills. Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating Balance authencity and readabiliry in choosing texts. Encourage the development of reading strategies. Include both bottom-up and top-down techniques. Follow survey, question, read, recite, review seqence. Subdivide your techniques into pre-reading, duringreading, and after-reading phrases. Build in some evaluative aspect to your techniques.


Research on Second Language Writing

Composing vs. writing Process vs. product Contrastive rhetoric Differences between L1 & L2 writing Authentic The role of the teacher


Non-fiction Fiction Letters Greeting cards Diaries journals Memos Messages Announcements Newspaper journalese Academic writing Forms, applications Questionnaires directions Labels Signs Recipes Bills Maps Manuals Menus Schedules Advertisement Invitations Directories Comic strips, cartoon


A WRITERS VIEW permanence Production time Distance Orthography Complexity Vocabulary Formality

Microskills For Writing

1. Produce graphemes and orthographic pattern of English 2. Produce writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose 3. Produce an acceptable core of words and use appropriate word order pattern 4. Use acceptable grammatical systems, patterns, and rules 5. Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms

6. Use cohesive devices in written devices in written discourse 7. Use rhetorical forms and conventions of written discourse 8. Appropriately accomplish the communicative function of written texts according to form and purposes 9. Convey links and connections between events and communicate such relation as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalization and exemplification 10. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings when writing 11. Correctly convey culturally specific references in the context of the written text.

Types of Classroom Writing Performance

1. Imitative 2. Intensive or controlled 3. Self-writing 4. Display writing 5. Real writing a. Academic b. Vocational / technical c. Personal


1. Incorporate practices of good writers. 2. Balance process and product 3. Account for cultural /literary backgrounds 4. Connect reading and wri 5. Provide as much authentic writing as possible 6. Frame your techniques in terms of prewriting, drafting, and revising stages 7. Strive to offer techniques that are as interactive as possible 8. Sensitively apply methods of responding to and correcting your students writing 9. Clearly instruct students on the rhetorical, formal convention or writing


The place of grammar No one can tell you that grammar is irrelevant, or that grammar is no longer needed in a CLT framework. No one doubts the prominence of grammar as an organizational framework within which communication operates.

to Teach or Not to Teach Grammar

Grammar is important in some degree in all the six variables : Age Proficiency levels Educational background Language skills Style (register) Needs and goal

Issues About How to Teach Grammar

Should grammar be presented inductively or deductively Should we use grammatical explanations and technical terminology in a CLT classroom Should grammar be taught in separate grammar only classes? Should teachers correct grammatical errors?

Grammar Techniques
Charts Objects Maps and drawings Dialogues Written text

Grammar Sequencing in Textbooks and Curricula

Grammatical categories are one of several considerations in curricular sequencing A curriculum usually manifest a logical sequence of basic grammatical structures, but such a sequence may be more a factor or frequency and usefulness then of clearly identified degrees of linguistic difficulty. Beyond those basic structures, a few permutations here and there will make little difference in the eventual success of students, as long as language is being learned in the context of communicative curriculum.

A Word About Vocabulary Teaching

These are some guidelines for the communicative treatment of vocabulary instructions. Allocate specific class time to vocabulary learning Help students to learn vocabulary in context Play down the role of bilinguals dictionaries Encourage students to develop strategies for determining the meaning of words. Engage in unplanned vocabulary teaching