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Ecology

Biology 2013 Mr. Abrams

The four (4) main concepts of ecology

Now that we know how animals eat, lets see how they interact with one another

Community interactions Or ***Symbiosis***

Symbiosis 1: Mutualism (+/+)


Lichens

People

Red-Billed Oxpecker and Impala

Sea Anemones and Clownfish

Bees and Flowers

Symbiosis 2: Commensalism (+/0)


Titan triggerfish

Remoras & Sharks

Barnacles on Blue Whales

Egrets on Cattle

Symbiosis 3: Parasitism (+/)

Lice

Leeches

Mistletoe

Symbiosis 4: Predation (+/ )


Otters and Oysters

Bears and Salmon

Sharks and Fish

This is also predation

Really really important HUGE misconception

Venomous Poisonous
Venomous
Toxin is injected into the bloodstream of another organism using a specialized structure (stinger, fangs) Its harmless if you drink it

Poisonous The toxin must be eaten, drunk, or absorbed through the skin

Prey adaptations
Defensive coloration
Essentially the opposite of camouflage

Mimicry
A species takes advantage of the common perceived characteristics of another species

Symbiosis 5: Competition (/ )
Vs.
Vs.

Vs.

Symbiosis 6: Amensalism (/0)

How Rude!

Symbiosis 7: Neutralism (0/0)


Two species interact but do not affect each other
The fitness of one species has absolutely no affect on the fitness of another This is nearly impossible
Pelican Eats fish
Sandpiper Eats insects