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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System V100R001C01

Product Description
Issue Date 01 2012-10-30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

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Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information, and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind, either express or implied. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

About This Document

About This Document


Related Versions
The following table lists the product versions related to this document. Product Name OptiX RTN 310 iManager U2000 Version V100R001C01 V100R008C00

Intended Audience
This document is intended for: l l l l l l Network planning engineer Hardware installation engineer Installation and commissioning engineer Field maintenance engineer Data configuration engineer System maintenance engineer

Familiarity with the basic knowledge related to digital microwave communication technology will help you apply the information in this document.

Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Symbol Description Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury.

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Symbol

Description Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk, which if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury. Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss, performance degradation, or unexpected results. Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time. Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.

General Conventions
The general conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Convention Times New Roman Boldface Italic Courier New Description Normal paragraphs are in Times New Roman. Names of files, directories, folders, and users are in boldface. For example, log in as user root. Book titles are in italics. Examples of information displayed on the screen are in Courier New.

Update History
Updates between document issues are cumulative. Thus, the latest document issue contains all updates made in previous issues.

Updates in Issue 01 (2012-10-30) Based on Product Version V100R001C01


This document is the first issue for the V100R001C01 product version.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

Contents

Contents
About This Document.....................................................................................................................ii 1 Product Introduction.....................................................................................................................1
1.1 Network Application..........................................................................................................................................2 1.2 Basic Features.....................................................................................................................................................3 1.3 Site Configurations.............................................................................................................................................5 1.3.1 1+0 Sites....................................................................................................................................................5 1.3.2 2+0 Sites....................................................................................................................................................6 1.3.3 1+1 Sites....................................................................................................................................................8 1.3.4 XPIC Sites...............................................................................................................................................10 1.3.5 Multi-direction Sites................................................................................................................................12

2 Functions and Features...............................................................................................................15


2.1 Capacities..........................................................................................................................................................17 2.2 Adaptive Modulation........................................................................................................................................17 2.3 Cross-Polarization Interference Cancellation...................................................................................................19 2.4 Automatic Transmit Power Control.................................................................................................................19 2.5 Power over Ethernet.........................................................................................................................................20 2.6 Ethernet Service Processing Capability............................................................................................................21 2.7 QoS...................................................................................................................................................................23 2.8 Clock Features..................................................................................................................................................24 2.9 Protection Capabilities......................................................................................................................................25 2.10 Network Management....................................................................................................................................25 2.11 Zero Footprint Installation..............................................................................................................................26 2.12 Configuration-Free Deployment.....................................................................................................................26 2.13 Easy Maintenance...........................................................................................................................................28 2.13.1 Equipment-level OAM..........................................................................................................................28 2.13.2 Packet OAM (TP-Assist).......................................................................................................................30 2.14 Security Management.....................................................................................................................................31 2.15 Energy Saving.................................................................................................................................................34 2.16 Environmental Protection...............................................................................................................................34

3 Product Structure.........................................................................................................................35
3.1 System Architecture.........................................................................................................................................36 3.2 Service Signal Processing Flow.......................................................................................................................38 Issue 01 (2012-10-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. iv

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3.3 Ports and Indicators..........................................................................................................................................40 3.3.1 Ports.........................................................................................................................................................40 3.3.2 Indicators.................................................................................................................................................46 3.4 Labels................................................................................................................................................................48

4 Networking and Applications..................................................................................................52


4.1 Independent Networking..................................................................................................................................53 4.1.1 Chain Networks.......................................................................................................................................53 4.1.2 Ring Networks.........................................................................................................................................53 4.2 Networking with OptiX RTN 900s..................................................................................................................54

5 Network Management System..................................................................................................56


5.1 Network Management Solutions......................................................................................................................57 5.2 Web LCT..........................................................................................................................................................57 5.3 U2000...............................................................................................................................................................59

6 Technical Specifications.............................................................................................................62
6.1 RF Performance................................................................................................................................................63 6.1.1 Radio Working Modes.............................................................................................................................63 6.1.2 Frequency Band.......................................................................................................................................68 6.1.3 Receiver Sensitivity.................................................................................................................................70 6.1.4 Distortion Sensitivity...............................................................................................................................73 6.1.5 Transceiver Performance.........................................................................................................................73 6.1.6 Baseband Signal Processing Performance of the Modem.......................................................................75 6.2 Predicted Reliability.........................................................................................................................................75 6.2.1 Predicted Equipment Reliability..............................................................................................................76 6.2.2 Predicted Link Reliability........................................................................................................................76 6.3 Ethernet Interface Performance........................................................................................................................76 6.4 Clock Timing and Synchronization Performance............................................................................................77 6.5 Integrated System Performance........................................................................................................................78

7 Accessories....................................................................................................................................80
7.1 Outdoor Power Injector....................................................................................................................................81 7.1.1 Functions and Features............................................................................................................................81 7.1.2 Ports and Indicators.................................................................................................................................81 7.1.3 PI Labels..................................................................................................................................................86 7.1.4 Technical Specifications..........................................................................................................................89 7.2 Hybrid Coupler.................................................................................................................................................91 7.2.1 Types.......................................................................................................................................................91 7.2.2 Functions and Features............................................................................................................................91 7.2.3 Ports.........................................................................................................................................................91 7.2.4 Labels.......................................................................................................................................................92 7.2.5 Technical Specifications..........................................................................................................................94 7.3 OMT.................................................................................................................................................................95 7.3.1 Functions and Features............................................................................................................................96 Issue 01 (2012-10-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. v

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7.3.2 Ports.........................................................................................................................................................96 7.3.3 Technical Specifications..........................................................................................................................97 7.4 Extra Mounting Components............................................................................................................................98 7.4.1 Mounting Brackets..................................................................................................................................98 7.4.2 Flexible Waveguides...............................................................................................................................99 7.5 Antennas.........................................................................................................................................................101 7.5.1 Types.....................................................................................................................................................101 7.5.2 Functions and Features..........................................................................................................................103 7.5.3 Working Principles................................................................................................................................104 7.5.4 Ports.......................................................................................................................................................105 7.5.5 Antenna Diameters................................................................................................................................106 7.5.6 Technical Specifications........................................................................................................................107 7.6 Antenna Adapters...........................................................................................................................................107 7.7 USB Flash Drives...........................................................................................................................................110

8 Cables...........................................................................................................................................112
8.1 OptiX RTN 310 Power Cables.......................................................................................................................114 8.2 PI Power Cables..............................................................................................................................................114 8.3 P&E Cables.....................................................................................................................................................115 8.4 OptiX RTN 310 PGND Cables......................................................................................................................118 8.5 PI PGND Cables.............................................................................................................................................119 8.6 XPIC Cables...................................................................................................................................................119 8.7 RSSI Cables....................................................................................................................................................120 8.8 Optical Fibers.................................................................................................................................................120 8.9 Outdoor Network Cables................................................................................................................................121

A Appendix....................................................................................................................................125
A.1 Port Loopbacks..............................................................................................................................................126 A.2 Compliance Standards...................................................................................................................................126 A.2.1 ITU-R Standards...................................................................................................................................126 A.2.2 ITU-T Standards...................................................................................................................................127 A.2.3 ETSI Standards.....................................................................................................................................128 A.2.4 CEPT Standards....................................................................................................................................130 A.2.5 IEC Standards.......................................................................................................................................130 A.2.6 IETF Standards.....................................................................................................................................132 A.2.7 IEEE Standards.....................................................................................................................................133 A.2.8 Other Standards....................................................................................................................................133

B Glossary......................................................................................................................................135

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

1 Product Introduction

1
About This Chapter

Product Introduction

The OptiX RTN 310 is a full-outdoor product in the OptiX RTN radio transmission system series. 1.1 Network Application The OptiX RTN 310 facilities terminal access to mobile telecommunications networks or private networks. It provides a cost-effective solution for the terminal networks of massive micro base stations. 1.2 Basic Features The OptiX RTN 310 provides radio transmission channels for native Ethernet services. 1.3 Site Configurations OptiX RTN 310s, which can be cascaded, are not only able to form 1+0 sites, but also 2+0, XPIC, 1+1, and multi-direction sites.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

1 Product Introduction

1.1 Network Application


The OptiX RTN 310 facilities terminal access to mobile telecommunications networks or private networks. It provides a cost-effective solution for the terminal networks of massive micro base stations. The OptiX RTN 310 is a highly integrated full-outdoor radio transmission product (FO, for short). All its modules are integrated into an outdoor unit that supports zero-footprint installation, providing carriers with cost-effective full-outdoor radio solutions. The OptiX RTN 310 can independently form chain or ring backhaul networks for a variety of new IP base stations in either new or legacy networks. It supports 2048QAM modulation and cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC), which enable it to provide high-bandwidth backhaul links for large-capacity NodeBs and eNodeBs. See Figure 1-1. The OptiX RTN 310 can work with OptiX RTN 900 products to provide more functions and to leverage legacy radio equipment. The following is an example of how the two products can be used in conjunction: l l l The OptiX RTN 310 works with the OptiX RTN 900 to function as a multi-direction convergence node. The OptiX RTN 310 works with the OptiX RTN 900 to transmit TDM services through circuit emulation service pseudo wires (CES PWs). The OptiX RTN 310 works with the OptiX RTN 900 to provide 1+1 hot standby (HSB), 1 +1 frequency diversity (FD), or 1+1 space diversity (SD) protection.

See Figure 1-2. Figure 1-1 Independent networking


NodeB 1

GE

GE GE NodeB 2 Regional Backhaul Network RNC

NodeB 3
XPIC cable XPIC cable

GE

GE

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

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Figure 1-2 Networking with OptiX RTN 900s


NodeB FE/GE XPIC

GE

XPIC cable

XPIC cable

GE

NodeB

FE/GE

CES E1 E1 BTS BSC Regional network 1+1


1+1 cascading cable 1+1 cascading cable

RNC

NodeB

OptiX RTN 310

OptiX RTN 900

1.2 Basic Features


The OptiX RTN 310 provides radio transmission channels for native Ethernet services. Table 1-1 Basic features Item Dimensions (H x W x D) Number of radio directions Service ports Operating frequency band Description 290 mm x 265 mm x 98 mm 1 Two GE service ports l 13 GHz l 15 GHz l 18 GHz l 23 GHz l 38 GHz

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

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Item RF configuration modes

Description l 1+0 configuration l 2+0 configuration l 1+1 configuration l XPIC configuration l Multi-direction configuration
NOTE l In XPIC, 1+1 or 2+0 mode, two OptiX RTN 310s are required for each site. l In multi-direction mode, multiple OptiX RTN 310s are cascaded or network with OptiX RTN 900s.

Powering modes

l Power over Ethernet l Power over a dedicated DC power port


NOTE l Power over Ethernet applies to a maximum of 100 meters. l Power over a dedicated DC power port applies to a maximum of 300 meters.

Figure 1-3 Appearance of the OptiX RTN 310

Front side
W

H D

Rear side

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

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1.3 Site Configurations


OptiX RTN 310s, which can be cascaded, are not only able to form 1+0 sites, but also 2+0, XPIC, 1+1, and multi-direction sites.

1.3.1 1+0 Sites


A 1+0 site provides a one-direction working radio link. In 1+0 mode, one single-polarized antenna is used. Depending on antenna specifications, the OptiX RTN 310 can be directly mounted on an antenna or connected to an antenna using accessories (split mounting). Figure 1-4 Typical configurations at a 1+0 site (direct mounting)

GE COMBO

P&E

USB/RSSI/NMS PWR

To NodeB

Fiber

P&E cable

Power cable optional

To a power injector

To a power supply device

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

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Figure 1-5 Typical configurations at a 1+0 site (split mounting)

COMBO

USB/RSSI/NMS

GE

PWR

P&E

To NodeB
P&E cable Power cable optional

To a power injector

To a power supply device

1.3.2 2+0 Sites


A 2+0 site provides two one-direction unprotected radio links. At a 2+0 site, two OptiX RTN 310s are installed on a hybrid coupler. A hybrid coupler can be directly mounted on an antenna or connected to an antenna using accessories (split mounting), depending on antenna specifications. Generally, the two OptiX RTN 310s are cascaded using gigabit Ethernet (GE) optical ports for physical link aggregation (PLA) configuration.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

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Figure 1-6 Typical configurations at a 2+0 site (direct mounting)

2 1

3
Hybrid coupler

GE COMBO

P&E

USB/RSSI/NMS PWR

GE COMBO

P&E

USB/RSSI/NMS PWR

Fiber

To a power injector

To a power injector

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

1 Product Introduction

Figure 1-7 Typical configurations at a 2+0 site (split mounting)

1 2

Hybrid coupler

GE COMBO

P&E

USB/RSSI/NMS PWR

GE COMBO

P&E

USB/RSSI/NMS PWR

Fiber

To a power injector

To a power injector

1.3.3 1+1 Sites


A 1+1 site provides a radio link protection system that comprises one main radio link and one standby radio link in the same direction. Depending on configurations, a 1+1 site can provide 1 +1 hot standby (HSB), 1+1 frequency diversity (FD), or 1+1 space diversity (SD) protection for its radio links. For a 1+1 site configured with 1+1 HSB or 1+1 FD protection, two OptiX RTN 310s are installed on a hybrid coupler. Depending on antenna specifications, the hybrid coupler can be directly mounted on an antenna or connected to an antenna using accessories (split mounting). See Figure 1-8 and Figure 1-9. For a 1+1 site configured with 1+1 SD protection, two antennas are used. Depending on antenna specifications, an OptiX RTN 310 can be directly mounted on an antenna or connected to an antenna using accessories. Two OptiX RTN 310s at a 1+1 site must be cascaded using their 1+1 cascade ports, and work with an OptiX RTN 900 IDU or an LACP-supporting UNI-side device to implement NE-level protection using Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). When working with an OptiX
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RTN 900 IDU, the OptiX RTN 310s can connect to the power-over-Ethernet ports of an EG4P board on the IDU using P&E cables, which carry both power signals and Ethernet service signals. Figure 1-8 and Figure 1-9 illustrate typical configurations at a 1+1 site with 1+1 HSB or 1+1 FD configured. Figure 1-8 Typical configuration at a 1+1 site (1+1 HSB/FD, direct mounting)

2 1 1 2

3
Hybrid Coupler

GE COMBO

P&E

USB/RSSI/NMS PWR

GE COMBO

P&E

USB/RSSI/NMS PWR

1+1 cascading cable P&E cable

P&E cable

EG4P

EG4P

STAT SRV L/A1 L/A2 L/A3 L/A4 P1 P2

OUT1/IN1

OUT2/IN2 1

3/P1

4/P1

STAT SRV L/A1 L/A2 L/A3 L/A4 P1 P2

OUT1/IN1

OUT2/IN21

3/P1

4/P1

EG4P

STAT SRV L/A1 L/A2 L/A3 L/A4 P1 P2

OUT1/IN1

OUT2/IN21

3/P1

4/P1

3/P1

4/P2

3/P1

4/P2

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

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Figure 1-9 Typical configuration at a 1+1 site (1+1 HSB/FD, split mounting)

1 2

Hybrid coupler

GE COMBO

P&E

USB/RSSI/NMS PWR

GE COMBO

P&E

USB/RSSI/NMS PWR

1+1 cascading cable P&E cable

P&E cable

EG4P

EG4P

STAT SRV L/A1 L/A2 L/A3 L/A4 P1 P2

OUT1/IN1

OUT2/IN2 1

3/P1

4/P1

STAT SRV L/A1 L/A2 L/A3 L/A4 P1 P2

OUT1/IN1

OUT2/IN21

3/P1

4/P1

EG4P

STAT SRV L/A1 L/A2 L/A3 L/A4 P1 P2

OUT1/IN1

OUT2/IN21

3/P1

4/P1

3/P1

4/P2

3/P1

4/P2

1.3.4 XPIC Sites


Cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) sites are special 2+0 sites. The two radio links provided by an XPIC site operate at the same frequency, but their polarization directions are orthogonal. The interference between the two radio links is canceled by the XPIC function. At an XPIC site, two OptiX RTN 310s are installed on an orthogonal mode transducer (OMT). The OMT can be directly mounted on an antenna or connected to an antenna using accessories (split mounting), depending on antenna specifications. Generally, the two OptiX RTN 310s are cascaded using gigabit Ethernet (GE) optical ports for physical link aggregation (PLA) configuration.
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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

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Figure 1-10 Typical configurations at an XPIC site (direct mounting)

2 1 1 2

3
OMT

GE COMBO

P&E

USB/RSSI/NMS PWR

GE COMBO

P&E

USB/RSSI/NMS PWR

XPIC cable Fiber

P&E cable P&E cable

To a power injector

To a power injector

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Figure 1-11 Typical configurations at an XPIC site (split mounting)

GE COMBO

P&E

USB/RSSI/NMS PWR

GE COMBO

P&E

USB/RSSI/NMS PWR

XPIC cable Fiber P&E cable To a power injector To a power injector P&E cable

1.3.5 Multi-direction Sites


A multi-direction site provides multi-direction radio links. Multiple OptiX RTN 310s are cascaded using GE optical ports. Generally, multiple OptiX RTN 310s are used for 2x(1+0) configuration. At a site with 2x(1+0) configuration, two OptiX RTN 310s are connected back-to-back. They can independently perform service switching and scheduling with the help of built-in switching units.

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Figure 1-12 2x(1+0) multi-direction configurations


1

GE COMBO

P&E

USB/RSSI/NMS PWR

GE COMBO

P&E

USB/RSSI/NMS PWR

Fiber

P&E cable To a power injector

P&E cable

To a power injector

When multiple OptiX RTN 310s work with an OptiX RTN 900 IDU to form a multi-direction site, the maximum number of radio directions are the same as that supported by the IDU. During installation, an OptiX RTN 310 can connect to the power-over-Ethernet port of an EG4P board using a P&E cable, which carries both power signals and Ethernet service signals.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

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Figure 1-13 Typical configurations at a multi-direction site (OptiX RTN 310s networked with RTN 900)
1

P&E

P&E

P&E

P&E cable

P&E cable

P&E cable

EG4P

EG4P

STAT SRV L/A1 L/A2 L/A3 L/A4 P1 P2

OUT1/IN1

OUT2/IN2 1

3/P1

4/P1

STAT SRV L/A1 L/A2 L/A3 L/A4 P1 P2

OUT1/IN1

OUT2/IN21

3/P1

4/P1

EG4P

STAT SRV L/A1 L/A2 L/A3 L/A4 P1 P2

OUT1/IN1

OUT2/IN21

3/P1

4/P1

3/P1

4/P2

3/P1

4/P2

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

2 Functions and Features

2
About This Chapter

Functions and Features

The OptiX RTN 310 provides a variety of functions and features.It provides high-quality highefficient radio links for transmitting Ethernet service from base stations. 2.1 Capacities This section provides the Ethernet service switching capacity and air interface capacity of the OptiX RTN 310. 2.2 Adaptive Modulation Adaptive modulation (AM) technology adjusts the modulation scheme automatically based on channel quality. 2.3 Cross-Polarization Interference Cancellation Cross-polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) technology is used together with co-channel dual-polarization (CCDP) to double the radio link capacity over the same channel. 2.4 Automatic Transmit Power Control Automatic transmit power control (ATPC) is a method that uses received signal level (RSL) of the receiver to adjust transmit power within the ATPC control range. This feature reduces interference with neighboring systems and residual bit error rate (BER). 2.5 Power over Ethernet The OptiX RTN 310 supports power over Ethernet that can carry -48 V power signals, along with GE service signals, on Ethernet cables. 2.6 Ethernet Service Processing Capability The OptiX RTN 310 can process Native Ethernet services. 2.7 QoS The OptiX RTN 310 supports quality of service (QoS), including simple traffic classification, queue scheduling, and traffic shaping. 2.8 Clock Features The clock features of the OptiX RTN 310 satisfy clock transmission requirements of mobile communications networks and provide a complete selection of clock protection mechanisms. 2.9 Protection Capabilities The OptiX RTN 310 provides protection schemes for radio links and Ethernet networks.
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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

2 Functions and Features

2.10 Network Management The OptiX RTN 310 supports multiple network management modes and provides comprehensive management information exchange solutions. 2.11 Zero Footprint Installation The OptiX RTN 310 supports zero footprint installation. 2.12 Configuration-Free Deployment The OptiX RTN 310 can be quickly deployed and commissioned using a USB flash drive. 2.13 Easy Maintenance The OptiX RTN 310 adopts easy-to-manage and easy-to-maintain architectures in hardware and software design, and provides a variety of maintenance methods. 2.14 Security Management The OptiX RTN 310 works with its network management system (NMS) to prevent unauthorized logins and operations, ensuring equipment management security. 2.15 Energy Saving The OptiX RTN 310 uses various types of technologies to reduce the amount of energy that the device consumes, as follows: 2.16 Environmental Protection The OptiX RTN 310 is designed to meet or exceed environmental protection requirements. The product complies with restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) and waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) directives.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

2 Functions and Features

2.1 Capacities
This section provides the Ethernet service switching capacity and air interface capacity of the OptiX RTN 310.

Ethernet Service Switching Capacity


The OptiX RTN 310 with its built-in Ethernet switching unit has an Ethernet service switching capacity of 3 Gbit/s.

Air Interface Capacity


The maximum air-interface Ethernet throughput supported by the OptiX RTN 310 can be higher than 600 Mbit/s. The XPIC function can almost double the service capacity of a radio channel without changing the channel spacing. The OptiX RTN 310 supports Ethernet frame header compression at air interfaces. The equivalent throughput of Ethernet services at air interfaces can reach up to 1 Gbit/s.
NOTE

6.1.1 Radio Working Modes provide air interface capacities in various working modes.

2.2 Adaptive Modulation


Adaptive modulation (AM) technology adjusts the modulation scheme automatically based on channel quality. When AM technology is used, if using the same channel spacing, the radio service bandwidth varies according to the modulation scheme: the higher the modulation efficiency, the higher the bandwidth of the transmitted services. With QoS technology, packet services are groomed to queues with different priorities. Services in different queues are transmitted to the microwave port after the queue-scheduling algorithm has been run. Under all channel conditions, the service capacity varies according to the modulation scheme. l When conditions for channel quality are favorable good (such as on sunny days), the equipment uses a higher-order modulation scheme to transmit more user services. This improves transmission efficiency and spectrum utilization of the system. When conditions for channel quality are unfavorable (such as on stormy or foggy days), the equipment uses a lower-order modulation scheme to ensure that higher-priority services are transmitted first. If some lower-priority queues become congested due to a lack of available bandwidth, some or all interfaces in these queues are discarded. This method improves the anti-interference capabilities of a radio link and ensures link availability for high-priority services.

Figure 2-1, in which the guaranteed capacity modulation scheme is QPSK Strong and the full capacity modulation scheme is 256QAM, shows AM shifting step by step depending on weather changes, and how modulation schemes affect service throughput and reliability.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

2 Functions and Features

Figure 2-1 Adaptive modulation

256 QAM

128 64 32 QAM QAM QAM

16 16 32 16 16 QAM QAM QAM QPSK QAM Strong Strong QAM QPSK QPSK Strong

128 64 QAM QAM

256 QAM

Receive Signal
256 QAM 128 QAM 64 QAM 32 QAM 16 QAM 16 QAM strong QPSK QPSK strong

Availability
99.5%

99.9% 99.92% 99.96%

Low-priority service

Low-priority service

99.99% 99.995% 99.998% 99.999%

High-priority service Time

The AM technology used by the OptiX RTN 310 has the following features: l Uses QPSK Strong, QPSK, 16QAM Strong, 16QAM, 32QAM, 64QAM, 128QAM, 256QAM, 512QAM, 512QAM Light, 1024QAM, 1024QAM Light, and 2048QAM modulation schemes. Compared with QPSK/16QAM, QPSK Strong/16QAM Strong, using different parameters in forward error correction (FEC) coding, has stronger error correction capability, and therefore has better receiver sensitivity. It has, however, less air interface bandwidth. Compared with 512QAM/1024QAM, 512QAM Light/1024QAM Light, using different parameters in forward error correction (FEC) coding, has weaker error correction capability, and therefore has worse receiver sensitivity. It has, however, higher air interface bandwidth. Can configure both the lowest-order modulation scheme (also called reference scheme or guaranteed capacity modulation scheme) and the highest-order modulation scheme (also called nominal scheme or full capacity modulation scheme). Can switch modulation schemes without changing the transmit frequency, receive frequency, or channel spacing. Switches modulation schemes step-by-step. Features hitless switching. When the modulation scheme is downshifted, high-priority services are not affected while low-priority services are discarded. Switching is successful even when 100 dB/s channel fast fading occurs.
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l l l

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2.3 Cross-Polarization Interference Cancellation


Cross-polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) technology is used together with co-channel dual-polarization (CCDP) to double the radio link capacity over the same channel. CCDP transmission uses a horizontally polarized wave and a vertically polarized wave on a single channel to transmit two channels of signals. Ideally, for CCDP transmission, there should be no interference between the two orthogonal signals, even though they are of the same frequency. In actual practice, despite the orthogonal nature of the two signals, interference between the signals inevitably occurs due to cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) of the antenna and channel degradation. To eliminate this interference, XPIC technology is used to receive signals horizontally and vertically. The signals in the two directions are then processed and the original signals are recovered from interfered signals. Figure 2-2 shows the functional block diagram for a scenario where XPIC is used together with CCDP. Figure 2-2 CCDP channel configuration (with the application of the XPIC technology)
Cross interference f1 H V Service f1 Cross interference Service singnal H: horizontal polarization direction V: vertical polarization direction Cancellation signal Service

Service

Service

One XPIC site requires two OptiX RTN 310s, with their COMBO ports connected by an XPIC cable to transmit XPIC signals.

2.4 Automatic Transmit Power Control


Automatic transmit power control (ATPC) is a method that uses received signal level (RSL) of the receiver to adjust transmit power within the ATPC control range. This feature reduces interference with neighboring systems and residual bit error rate (BER). When ATPC is enabled: l If the RSL is 2 dB or more than 2 dB less than the value halfway between the upper and lower ATPC thresholds, the receiver instructs the transmitter to increase transmit power so that the RSL does not deviate more than 2 dB from the halfway value.

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If the RSL is 2 dB or more than 2 dB greater than the value halfway between the upper and lower ATPC thresholds, the receiver instructs the transmitter to decrease transmit power so that the RSL does not deviate more than 2 dB from the halfway value.

Figure 2-3 shows the relationship between the RSL and the transmit signal level (TSL). Figure 2-3 Relationship between the RSL and the TSL
TSL/RSL

TSL

Up-fading Central value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold 2dB RSL 2dB Down-fading

2.5 Power over Ethernet


The OptiX RTN 310 supports power over Ethernet that can carry -48 V power signals, along with GE service signals, on Ethernet cables. The OptiX RTN 310 works with a power injector (PI) or an OptiX RTN 900 IDU to implement power over Ethernet through its P&E port. l One PI can power only one OptiX RTN 310. See Figure 2-4. Figure 2-4 Working with a PI

Port P&E

Port P&E Power injector Injecting

-48 V

GE signal

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NOTE

2 Functions and Features

Besides power signals, network management signals can also be carried on the P&E cable that connects the OptiX RTN 310 to a PI, eliminating the need to climb up the tower for maintenance.

The OptiX RTN 310 can work with EG4P boards, which support power over Ethernet, on the OptiX RTN 900 IDU. One EG4P board can power a maximum of two OptiX RTN 310s. See Figure 2-5. Figure 2-5 Working with the OptiX RTN 900

Port P&E GE and -48 V signal EG4P

Port P&E

CSHx OptiX RTN 900 IDU

2.6 Ethernet Service Processing Capability


The OptiX RTN 310 can process Native Ethernet services. Table 2-1 Ethernet service processing capability Item Service port Description Two GE service ports l The first GE port can be a P&E electrical port or an optical port (SFP module). l The second GE port is an optical port (SFP module). Port attribute l The GE electrical port supports 10M fullduplex, 100M full-duplex, 1000M fullduplex, and auto-negotiation. l The GE optical port supports 1000M fullduplex and auto-negotiation. Ethernet service type l E-Line l E-LAN Range of maximum frame length 1518 bytes to 9600 bytes

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Item VLAN

Description l Adds, deletes, and swaps VLAN tags that comply with IEEE 802.1q/p, and forwards packets based on VLAN tags. l Processes packets based on the port tag attribute (Tag/Hybrid/Access). l The VLAN ID ranges from 1 to 4094.

MAC address

l The E-LAN service supports MAC address self learning in two learning modes: SVL and IVL. l MAC addresses can be filtered (blacklisted). l Static MAC address entries can be set. l The capacity of the MAC address table is 8 k (including static and blacklist entities). l The MAC address aging time is configurable.

Link aggregation group (LAG)

l Applies to GE ports and microwave ports. The microwave port must be the main port in a LAG. l Supports manual aggregation and static aggregation. l Supports load sharing and non-load sharing. l Supports the setting of the minimum number of active links.

Physical link aggregation (PLA)

Allows Ethernet channels in radio links provided by two OptiX RTN 310s to form a PLA group. Being the Layer 1 LAG technology, PLA aggregates links and achieves load sharing over these links based on physical-layer bandwidths.

ERPS Link state pass through (LPT)

Supports ITU-T G.8032-compliant ring network protection for Ethernet services. Supports simple LPT. When a radio link is faulty, the related OptiX RTN 310 automatically disables the remote Ethernet port that is connected to a UNI device. Supports QoS. For details, see 2.7 QoS. Supports IEEE 802.3x-compliant traffic control. l Supports IEEE 802.1ag- and IEEE 802.3ahcompliant ETH OAM. l Supports ITU-T Y.1731-compliant packet loss measurement, delay measurement, and delay variation measurement.

QoS Traffic control ETH OAM

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Item Ethernet performance monitoring

Description l Supports IETF RFC 2819-compliant RMON performance monitoring. l Supports measurement of real-time and historical traffic and bandwidth utilization for ports.

Synchronous Ethernet

Supported.

NOTE

l The OptiX RTN 310 supports a maximum of 64 E-Line services. The supported E-Line services fall into the following types: l Port-based E-Line services l Port+VLAN-based E-Line services l The OptiX RTN 310 supports only one E-LAN service. The supported E-LAN services fall into the following types: l IEEE 802.1d bridge-based E-LAN services l IEEE 802.1q bridge-based E-LAN services

2.7 QoS
The OptiX RTN 310 supports quality of service (QoS), including simple traffic classification, queue scheduling, and traffic shaping.

QoS Processing Flow


QoS minimizes network delay and delay variations by properly allocating and monitoring network resources, therefore guaranteeing quality of important services. Figure 2-6 shows how the OptiX RTN 310 performs QoS processing for Ethernet services. Figure 2-6 QoS processing
Ingress Packet switching Congestion avoidance Buffer queue Threshold Egress Queue traffic shaping Queue scheduling

Simple Traffic classification DiffServ Forwarding

...... ...... ...... ......

Port traffic shaping PIR Scheduling

...

Mapping

Token bucket

...... ......

...

CoS x Drop

...... ......

CoS z

...

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QoS Features
Table 2-2 QoS features Feature Simple traffic classification (DiffServ) Performance l Supports one DiffServ (DS) domain. l Maps Ethernet services into different per-hop behaviors (PHBs) based on the C-VLAN priority, IP DiffServ code point (DSCP), and MPLS experimental bits (EXP). Congestion avoidance l Ethernet ports support tail drop. l Microwave ports support tail drop and weighted random early detection (WRED). Queue scheduling l Each Ethernet port or microwave port supports eight levels of priority scheduling. l Flexibly sets the queue-scheduling scheme for each Ethernet port and microwave port. The queue scheduling modes include SP, SP +WRR, and WRR. Traffic shaping l Supports traffic shaping for outgoing queues and egress ports. l Supports setting of peak information rate (PIR) in a step of 64 kbit/s and peak burst size (PBS).

2.8 Clock Features


The clock features of the OptiX RTN 310 satisfy clock transmission requirements of mobile communications networks and provide a complete selection of clock protection mechanisms. Item Clock working mode Description l Tracing l Free-run Clock source l Radio link clock l Synchronous Ethernet clock SSM protocol/Extended SSM protocol Supported. SSM information can be transmitted in the following modes: l Radio link l Synchronous Ethernet

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Item IEEE 1588v2 time synchronization

Description Supports the following four modes: l OC l TC l BC l TC+BC

2.9 Protection Capabilities


The OptiX RTN 310 provides protection schemes for radio links and Ethernet networks. Table 2-3 Protection schemes Protected Object Radio link Protection Scheme 1+1 hot standby (HSB), 1+1 frequency diversity (FD), or 1+1 space diversity (SD), which provides radio linklevel protection and NElevel protection Physical link aggregation (PLA), which provides radio linklevel protection and NE-level protection Ethernet network Link aggregation group (LAG) for Ethernet links and radio links Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS) for Ethernet links and radio links

2.10 Network Management


The OptiX RTN 310 supports multiple network management modes and provides comprehensive management information exchange solutions.

Network Management Modes


The OptiX RTN 310 supports the following functions: l l Uses the iManager Web LCT to manage one local NE or one remote NE on a per-NE basis. Uses the iManager U2000 to manage Huawei OptiX RTN NEs and Huawei optical transmission products in a centralized manner. The iManager U2000 is also able to manage transport networks in a unified manner. Uses SNMP to query alarms, performance events, and some configuration data of OptiX RTN 310s on IP networks.

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Network Management Information Exchange Solutions


Table 2-4 DCN information exchange schemes Item DCN channel Data communications channel (DCC) bytes NMS port Inband DCN Radio link GE port Specifications Three Huawei-defined DCC bytes in microwave frames D1 to D3 bytes transmitted on 1+1 cascade ports One Ethernet network management port All inband DCN channels are marked by one VLAN ID. The bandwidth of each inband DCN channel is configurable. All inband DCN channels are marked by one VLAN ID. The bandwidth of each inband DCN channel is configurable. Supported Supported

Network management protocol

HWECC protocol IP protocol

2.11 Zero Footprint Installation


The OptiX RTN 310 supports zero footprint installation. Being compact, light, and supporting power over Ethernet, the OptiX RTN 310 is a full outdoor device that can be directly mounted onto a pole or the back of an antenna. That is, it supports zero footprint installation. The OptiX RTN 310 can be directly mounted on an antenna or connected to an antenna using mounting components.

2.12 Configuration-Free Deployment


The OptiX RTN 310 can be quickly deployed and commissioned using a USB flash drive. When deploying and commissioning an OptiX RTN 310 NE, you only need to insert a USB flash drive storing the NE's configuration data into its USB port. The NE then automatically imports data from the USB flash drive. That is, you do not need to configure data on site.

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Figure 2-7 Deployment process

Start

Perform network planning. (network planners)

Obtain a blank USB flash drive. (software commissioning personnel)

Copy data to the USB flash drive. (software commissioning personnel)

Obtain the USB flash drive with data. (hardware installation personnel)

Insert the USB flash drive. (hardware installation personnel)

End

Table 2-5 Deployment procedures Procedure Performing network planning Description Network planners provide network plans, which are archived in the network management center (NMC).

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Procedure Obtaining a blank USB flash drive Copying data to the USB flash drive

Description Software commissioning personnel obtain a blank USB flash drive, which can be reused, from warehouses. Software commissioning personnel at the NMC need to make the following preparations: l Convert network plan data into a script using a script generation tool, and copy the script to the \script directory of the USB flash drive. l Place the upgrade software on the USB flash drive if you need to upgrade the NE during the deployment. l Create an authentication file for the USB flash drive using the NMS, and copy the file to the root directory of the USB flash drive. Attach a label to the USB flash drive.

Obtaining the USB flash drive with the script Inserting the USB flash drive

Hardware installation personnel obtain the USB flash drive with the scripts from the customer' NMC. A USB flash drive contains the script for only one NE. After installing the OptiX RTN 310, hardware installation personnel insert the mapping USB flash drive into the USB port. The NE then automatically downloads data.

2.13 Easy Maintenance


The OptiX RTN 310 adopts easy-to-manage and easy-to-maintain architectures in hardware and software design, and provides a variety of maintenance methods.

2.13.1 Equipment-level OAM


The OptiX RTN 310 provides a variety of operation, administration and maintenance (OAM) functions that effectively reduce equipment maintenance costs. Table 2-6 describes the OAM functions supported by the OptiX RTN 310.

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Table 2-6 Equipment-level OAM functions Function Management and monitoring Description l Supports unified management of microwave transmission networks and optical transmission networks using the iManager U2000, and end-to-end service creation and management. l Reports a variety of alarms and performance events. l Supports remote monitoring (RMON) of performance events. l Measures real-time and historical traffic and bandwidth utilization for ports. l Measures congestion-caused packet loss information for flows. l Queries equipment temperatures. l Monitors key radio transmission performance counters, such as the microwave transmit power, received power, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and air-interface bit error rate (BER), and displays them graphically. l Supports frequency scanning to help identify co-channel interference and adjacent-channel interference. l Collects one-click fault diagnosis information. l Supports the connection of the Web LCT to the equipment's gigabit Ethernet (GE) port using a GE service cable or to the NMS port on a power injector (PI), eliminating the need to climb up the tower during equipment commissioning or maintenance. l Supports connectivity tests for P&E cables using the iManager U2000. Diagnosis tests l Supports pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) tests at microwave ports. l Simulates Ethernet meters to test the packet loss ratio, delay, and throughput. l Supports various loopback types at service ports and microwave ports. Packet OAM l Supports IEEE 802.1ag- and IEEE 802.3ah-compliant ETH OAM functions. l Supports ITU-T Y.1731-compliant packet loss measurement, delay measurement, and delay variation measurement. l Supports loopback tests for Ethernet services. Database management l Backs up and restores network element (NE) databases remotely using the iManager U2000. l Backs up and loads NE data using universal serial bus (USB) flash drives.

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Function Software management

Description l Supports remote loading of NE software and data using the iManager U2000 and provides a complete NE upgrade solution, allowing rapid upgrades of the entire network. l Upgrades NE software using USB flash drives. l Supports the not-stop forwarding (NSF) function, which prevents Ethernet services from being interrupted by warm NE software resets. l Supports hot patches so that users can upgrade software without interrupting services. l Supports software version rollback so that original system services are restored despite software upgrade failures.

2.13.2 Packet OAM (TP-Assist)


The OptiX RTN 310 works with the iManager U2000 to allow hierarchy operation, administration and maintenance (OAM) of packet services. Packet OAM supports end-to-end packet service configuration, acceptance tests, and fault locating, which simplifies packet OAM. Table 2-7 describes the packet OAM functions supported by the OptiX RTN 310. Table 2-7 Packet OAM functions (TP-Assist) OAM Stage End-to-end service configuration Function End-to-end packet service configuration Automatic deployment of alarm management Acceptance test Service connectivity test Service performance test Description l Supports end-to-end configuration of Native Ethernet line (E-Line) and Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) services. l Automatically configures end-to-end ETH OAM during Native Ethernet service configuration and supports connectivity tests and alarm reporting. l Supports one-click connectivity tests for Native E-Line and E-LAN services. l Supports one-click tests on the packet loss ratio, delay, and delay variation of Native E-Line and E-LAN services. l Simulates Ethernet meters to test the packet loss ratio, delay, and throughput. Fault locating Port monitoring l Reports alarms indicating Ethernet signal loss. l Reports alarms indicating Ethernet port autonegotiation failures (half-duplex alarms).

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OAM Stage

Function Service loop check

Description l Checks E-Line service loops. l Automatically disables service ports involved in a loop. l Checks the consistency of hardware, software, and configurations along a service path. l Checks for zero traffic and congestion-caused packet loss along a service path.

Intelligent fault diagnosis

Performance measurement Performance monitoring

l Measures real-time and historical performance for ports. l Reports port bandwidth utilization thresholdcrossing alarms. l Reports zero-traffic alarms for ports. l Reports traffic threshold-crossing alarms for ports.

2.14 Security Management


The OptiX RTN 310 works with its network management system (NMS) to prevent unauthorized logins and operations, ensuring equipment management security.

Overview of Hardware Security


The following hardware preventive measures are provided by the OptiX RTN 310: l Microwave interfaces: The FEC encoding mode is adopted and the adaptive time-domain equalizer for baseband signals is used. This enables the microwave interfaces to tolerate strong interference. Therefore, an interceptor cannot restore the contents in a data frame if coding details and service configurations are not obtained. Modular design: Control units are separated from service units and service units are separated from each other. In this manner, a fault on any unit can be properly isolated, minimizing the impact of the fault on other units in the system. CPU flow control: Data flow sent to the CPU for processing is classified and controlled to prevent the CPU from being attacked by a large number of packets. This ensures that the CPU operates properly under attacks. USB port control: The USB port is disabled when the USB port is not used, to avoid invalid access.

Overview of Software Security


Being posit ioned at the transport layer of a communications network, the OptiX RTN 310 provides high-capacity and high-reliability transparent transmission tunnels, and is almost invisible to end users. Therefore, the transmission tunnels are not easily exposed to external attacks.
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The OptiX RTN 310 processes two categories of data: O&M data and service data. The preceding data is transmitted over independent paths and does not affect each other. Therefore, services on the OptiX RTN 310 are processed on two planes: l l Management plane Data plane

The management plane provides access to the required equipment and management functions, such as managing accounts and passwords, communication protocols, and alarm reporting.Security features on the management plane implement security access, integrated security management, and all-round security audits. The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) features provide security access to the required equipment. The Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) feature implements centralized security authentication for the equipment on the entire network. The Syslog feature implements offline storage of more security-related logs for audits. The data plane processes the service data flow entering the equipment and forwards service packets according to the forwarding table. Security features on the data plane ensure confidentiality and integrat ion of user data by preventing malicious theft, modification, and removal of user service packets. They ensure stable and reliable operation of the forwarding plane by protecting forwarding entries against malicious attacks and falsification. The data plane provides: l l l User service separation methods Access control methods Methods for controlling and managing ingress and egress bandwidth of the equipment to ensure reliable operation, such as flow control and QoS.

Table 2-8 lists the security functions provided by the OptiX RTN 310. Table 2-8 Security functions Plane Management plane Function Account and password management Local authentication and authorization RADIUS authentication and authorization Description Manages and stores maintenance accounts. Authenticates and authorizes accounts. Authenticates and authorizes remote accounts in a centralized manner to reduce maintenance costs. Records events related to account management. Records non-query operations are recorded. Provides a standard solution for offline storage of logs.

Security log Operation log Syslog management

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Plane

Function TCP/IP attack defense

Description Provides defense against TCP/IP attacks, such as IP error packets, Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) ping attacks and Jolt attacks, and Dos attacks. Provides access control lists based on IP addresses and port IDs. Uses the SSL3.0 and TLS1.0 protocols to establish an encryption channel based on a security certificate. Provides SFTP services. Uses the OSPFv2 protocol for standard MD5 authentication. Uses the NTPv3 protocol for MD5 authentication and permission control. Uses the SNMPv3 protocol for authentication and data encryption. Controls traffic at ports. Broadcast packets are suppressed. Unknown unicast packets and multicast packets are discarded. QoS is used to limit the service traffic. Discards incorrect packets, such as an Ethernet packet shorter than 64 bytes. Detects self-loops at service ports and blocks self-looped ports.

Access control list

SSL/TLS encryption communication

Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Network Time Protocol (NTP) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Data plane Flow control

Discarding of incorrect packets Loop prevention

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Plane

Function Access control of Layer 2 services

Description Filters static MAC addresses in the static MAC address table, provides a blacklist, enables and disables the MAC address learning function, and filters packets based on traffic classification. Includes Layer 2 logical separation, split horizon, and physical path separation.

Service separation

2.15 Energy Saving


The OptiX RTN 310 uses various types of technologies to reduce the amount of energy that the device consumes, as follows: l l l Streamlined design with minimum components. High-efficiency power modules. Low-power components.

2.16 Environmental Protection


The OptiX RTN 310 is designed to meet or exceed environmental protection requirements. The product complies with restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) and waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) directives. l The OptiX RTN 310 complies with compulsory packing restrictions that limit the size of the package containing the equipment and accessories to three times that of the equipment dimensions. The product is designed for easy unpacking. In addition, all hazardous substances contained in the package decompose quickly. Every plastic component that weighs over 25 g is labeled according to the standards of ISO 11469 and ISO 1043-1 to ISO 1043-4. All components and packages of the equipment are provided with standard labels for recycling. Plugs and connectors are easy to find and the associated operations can be performed using standard tools. All the accompanying materials (such as labels) are easy to remove. Certain types of identifying information (such as silkscreens) are printed on chassis.

l l

l l

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3
About This Chapter

Product Structure

This chapter describes the system architecture, service signal processing flow, external ports, and indicator status explanation. 3.1 System Architecture The OptiX RTN 310 has one physical board, which is displayed as SHXA2 on the NMS and occupies logical slot 1. 3.2 Service Signal Processing Flow This section describes how the function units of the OptiX RTN 310 process GE signals. 3.3 Ports and Indicators The OptiX RTN 310 has most of its ports and indicators on one side for easy cabling and observation. 3.4 Labels Product nameplate labels, qualification card labels, electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection labels, radiation warning labels, grounding labels, laser safety class labels, high temperature warning labels, and other types of labels are affixed in their respective positions on chassis. Adhere to any warnings and instructions on the labels when performing various tasks to avoid any personal injury or damage to equipment.

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3.1 System Architecture


The OptiX RTN 310 has one physical board, which is displayed as SHXA2 on the NMS and occupies logical slot 1. Physically, the SHXA2 board is divided into multiple function units based on logical functions.

Block Diagram
Figure 3-1 Block diagram
OptiX RTN 310 SHXA2 -48 V NMS signal -48 V FE/GE signal GE signal PI P&E signal Ethernet access unit Ethernet switching unit
Baseband processing unit

Power unit

Supplies power to other units

HSM signal

XPIC signal

Antenna RF processing unit

MUX unit

Modem unit

Control signal

NMS signal Clock signal NMS port

Clock unit

Supplies clock signals to other units

SCC unit USB port RSSI port RSSI test level signal

Function Units
Function Unit Ethernet access unit Description l Receives/Transmits Ethernet service signals. l Converts serial Ethernet signals into parallel Ethernet signals. l Performs frame delimitation, preamble stripping, and cyclic redundancy checks (CRCs). l Transmits power signals received from the P&E port to the power unit.

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Function Unit Ethernet switching unit

Description l Processes VLAN tags in Ethernet service signals. l Performs quality of service (QoS) processing for Ethernet frames. l Grooms services and processes protocols.

Baseband processing unit

l The MUX unit maps/demaps service signals to/from microwave frame signals. l The MUX unit extracts overhead bytes from microwave frames and transmits the overhead bytes to the SCC unit. l If a frequency diversity (FD) or space diversity (SD) protection group is configured, the MUX unit of the standby NE sends hitless switch mode (HSM) service signals to the MUX unit of the main NE using the 1+1 cascade cable. The MUX unit of the main NE selects signals with better quality. l The modem unit modulates and demodulates digital signals. l If an XPIC group is configured, the modem unit performs cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) for IF signals. l The modem unit performs forward error correction (FEC). l The baseband processing unit performs conversion between analog and digital signals.

RF processing unit

l Performs frequency conversion and power amplification, and sends RF signals to antennas in the transmit direction. l Performs isolation, filtering, downconversion, and power amplification for RF signals, and converts RF signals into 140 MHz IF signals in the receive direction.

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Function Unit SCC unit

Description l Controls and manages other units, and collects alarms and performance events over the control bus. l Processes network management messages in data communications channels (DCCs). l Reads data from a USB flash drive through its USB port for simple initial configuration, data backup, or software upgrade. l If a 1+1 protection group is configured, the SCC units of the main and standby NEs exchange data communication network (DCN) information and 1+1 protection protocol information through the 1+1 cascade ports.

Clock unit

l Extracts clock signals and provides them to other units. l Receives and processes IEEE 1588v2 protocol messages for time synchronization. l If a 1+1 protection group is configured, the standby NE synchronizes its clock with that of the main NE through the 1+1 cascade ports.

Power unit

l Receives -48 V DC power signals. l Provides power signals to other units.

3.2 Service Signal Processing Flow


This section describes how the function units of the OptiX RTN 310 process GE signals. Figure 3-2 Signal processing flow
OptiX RTN 310

FE/GE service signal

Ethernet access unit

Service bus

Ethernet switching unit

Service Baseband processing unit Modulated RF bus signal MUX Modem processing unit unit unit

RF signal

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Table 3-1 Signal processing in the transmit direction St ep 1 Function Unit Ethernet access unit Processing Flow l Receives/Transmits Ethernet service signals. l Extracts Ethernet frames from FE/GE service signals. 2 Ethernet switching unit l Performs Layer 2 protocol processing and QoS processing for the Ethernet frames. l Transmits processed FE/GE service signals to the baseband processing unit. 3 Baseband processing unit l Receives FE/GE service signals from the Ethernet switching unit. l Turns FE/GE service signals and microwave frame overheads into microwave frames. l Performs forward error correction (FEC) coding. l Selects a proper modulation scheme based on the current channel quality. l Performs modulation and digital/analog conversion. l Transmits modulated signals to the RF processing unit. 4 RF processing unit l Performs up-conversion and power amplification to convert the modulated signals into RF signals. l Transmits the RF signals to the antenna through a flexible waveguide.

Table 3-2 Signal processing in the receive direction St ep 1 Function Unit RF processing unit Processing Flow l Isolates and filters RF signals. l Performs down-conversion and power amplification to convert the RF signals into 140 MHz modulated signals. l Transmits the modulated signals to the baseband processing unit. 2 Baseband processing unit l Receives modulated signals from the RF processing unit. l Performs analog/digital conversion. l Demodulates signals. l Performs FEC decoding. l Extracts overhead signals and Ethernet frames from microwave frames. l Transmits the Ethernet frames to the Ethernet switching unit.

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St ep 3

Function Unit Ethernet switching unit

Processing Flow l Receives Ethernet frames from the baseband processing unit. l Processes the Ethernet frames based on service configurations and Layer 2 protocols. l Transmits the Ethernet frames to the Ethernet access unit.

Ethernet access unit

Performs parallel/serial conversion and transmits the Ethernet signals.

3.3 Ports and Indicators


The OptiX RTN 310 has most of its ports and indicators on one side for easy cabling and observation.

3.3.1 Ports
The OptiX RTN 310 has one GE port, one COMBO port, one P&E port, one USB port, RSSI/ NMS port, and one antenna port.

Port Positions
Figure 3-3 Port positions

6. PGND ground point

1. GE port 2. COMBO port 3. P&E port 4. PWR port 5. USB/RSSI/NMS port

7. Antenna port

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Table 3-3 Ports No. 1 Port GE Description GE optical port Connector Type Small form-factor pluggable (SFP) optical module: supports 1000BASE-SX, and 1000BASELX. SFP module l SFP electrical module (provided by an XPIC cable) for an XPIC port l SFP optical module for a GE optical port l SFP optical module for a 1 +1 cascade port 3 P&E Power over Ethernet port, which can concurrently receive GE electrical signals, -48 V power signals, and NMS signals
NOTE You can select either the P&E port or the COMBO port to receive/transmit Ethernet services by setting software, because the COMBO port functioning as a GE optical port and the GE electrical sub-port of the P&E port share one service channel.

Cable 8.8 Optical Fibers

COMBO

Composite port that can function as either of the following ports through software setting: l XPIC port l GE optical port l 1+1 cascade port

l XPIC port: 8.6 XPIC Cables l GE optical port/1+1 cascade port: 8.8 Optical Fibers

P&E connector

8.3 P&E Cables

PWR

-48 V DC power port

Waterproof power connector

8.1 OptiX RTN 310 Power Cables

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No. 5

Port USB/RSSI/ NMS

Description There are three ports: USB port, RSSI port, and NMS port. l USB port: You can insert a USB flash drive into the USB port to import initial configuration data, to back up NE data, or to upgrade software. l RSSI port: You can obtain the received signal level (RSL) of an OptiX RTN 310 by testing the voltage at the RSSI port using a multimeter. l NMS port: The NMS port transmits network management signals, sharing an RJ45 connector with the RSSI port but using different pins from the RSSI port.

Connector Type USB port: USB connector RSSI port/NMS port: RJ45 connector

Cable -

PGND point

M5 screw

8.4 OptiX RTN 310 PGND Cables -

Antenna port

l An antenna port connects to an antenna, a hybrid coupler, or a flexible waveguide. l The OptiX RTN 310 allows the polarization direction to change automatically. Earlier versions allow the polarization direction to be changed by rotating the vertical/horizontal polarizer.

l 153IEC-R120, which can be connected to a PBR120 (for use at the frequency band 13 GHz) l 153IEC-R140, which can be connected to a PBR140 (for use at the frequency band 15 GHz) l 153IEC-R220, which can be connected to a PBR220 (for use at the frequency band 18 GHz or 23 GHz) l 154IEC-R320, which can be connected to a PBR320 (for use at the frequency band 38 GHz)

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NOTE

3 Product Structure

l On the NMS, the Ethernet service port that the P&E and COMBO ports share is displayed as GE1, and the GE optical port is displayed as GE2. l Unused ports must be capped.

GE Optical Port
A GE optical port receives/transmits Ethernet services using an SFP optical module. An SFP optical module provides one TX port and one RX port. For details, see Figure 3-4, in which TX represents the transmit port and RX represents the receive port. Figure 3-4 Ports of an SFP optical module

TX

RX

Table 3-4 lists the types of SFP optical modules that the GE optical port supports. Table 3-4 SFP optical modules supported by the GE optical port Part Number 34060321 34060290 Module Type 1000BASE-SX 1000BASE-LX Wavelength and Transmission Distance 850 nm, 0.5 km 1310 nm, 10 km

COMBO Port
A COMBO port is a composite port and can be configured as a GE optical port, a 1+1 cascade port or an XPIC port. l If a COMBO port is configured as a GE optical port, it supports the same types of SFP optical modules as the GE optical port, and the P&E port cannot receive Ethernet services. If a COMBO port is configured as a 1+1 cascade port, it uses a 1000BASE-SX optical module. Two OptiX RTN 310s can be configured as a 1+1 protection group by connecting their 1+1 cascade ports. If the COMBO port is configured as an XPIC port, two OptiX RTN 310s can be added into an XPIC workgroup after they are connected using an XPIC cable.

P&E Port
A P&E port is a power-over-Ethernet port and can simultaneously receive GE electrical signals, -48 V power signals, and NMS signals. It is either connected to a PI or an EG4P board on an OptiX RTN 900. A P&E port has 12 pins, as shown in Figure 3-5.
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Figure 3-5 Front view of the P&E port

Table 3-5 Pin assignments for the P&E port Pin No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Signal BIDA+/BGND BIDA-/BGND BIDB+/-48 V BIDB-/-48 V BIDC+/BGND BIDC-/BGND BIDD+/-48 V BIDD-/-48 V TX+ TXRX+ RXFunction Bidirectional data wire A (+)/ Power ground (0 V) Bidirectional data wire A (-)/ Power ground (0 V) Bidirectional data wire B (+)/ Power signal (-48 V) Bidirectional data wire B (-)/ Power signal (-48 V) Bidirectional data wire C (+)/ Power ground (0 V) Bidirectional data wire C (-)/ Power ground (0 V) Bidirectional data wire D (+)/ Power signal (-48 V) Bidirectional data wire D (-)/ Power signal (-48 V) Signal output (+) Signal output (-) Signal input (+) Signal input (-)

PWR Port
A PWR port supplies -48 V power signals to the OptiX RTN 310 and must be used if the OptiX RTN 310 is more than 100 meters away from a power supply device.

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Figure 3-6 Front view of the PWR port

USB/RSSI/NMS Ports
The USB and RSSI/NMS ports are independent from each other but share one protective cap. For details, see Figure 3-7. Figure 3-7 Front view of the USB/RSSI/NMS ports

USB port

RSSI/NMS port

The RSSI port shares an RJ45 connector with the NMS port, with pin assignments provided in Table 3-6. Table 3-6 Pin assignments for the RJ45 connector on the RSSI/NMS port Pin No. 1 2 3 4
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Signal Signal output (+) signal output (-) Signal input (+) Ground
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Pin No. 5 6 7 8

Signal Reserved Signal input (-) RSSI test level signal Reserved

NOTE

The NMS port inside the P&E port and the NMS port inside the RSSI/NMS port physically share the same port, so use only the P&E port or the RSSI/NMS port as an NMS port at one time. The RSSI/NMS port is used as an NMS port only when no 12core P&E cable is available to connect the equipment to the NMS for service commissioning or maintenance.

3.3.2 Indicators
The OptiX RTN 310 has one GE optical port indicator, one USB port indicator, and one system indicator. The indicators are on the inner sides of ports, and indicate the operating status of equipment during the installation, commissioning, and maintenance processes. Figure 3-8 Indicator positions
GE optical port indicator COMBO port indicator USB port indicator System indicator

Table 3-7 Status explanation for indicators Indicator GE optical port indicator Status On (green) Meaning The GE optical port is connected correctly, but is not receiving or transmitting data. The GE optical port is receiving or transmitting data.
46

Blinks (green)

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Indicator

Status Off

Meaning The GE optical port is not connected or is incorrectly connected. The GE optical port is connected correctly, but is not receiving or transmitting data. The GE optical port is receiving or transmitting data. The GE optical port is not connected or is incorrectly connected. The 1+1 cascade port is connected correctly. Backing up or recovering data is complete. Data is being backed up or recovered. l The USB flash drive is faulty, or the NE does not support the USB flash drive. l Backing up or recovering data has failed.

COMBO port indicator


NOTE The status and meaning of the COMBO port varies according to its function.

GE optical port

On (green)

Blinks (green)

Off

1+1 cascade port

On (green)

Other ports USB port indicator

Off On (green)

Blinks on (green) and off at 300 ms intervals On (red)

Off

No USB flash drive is connected to the USB port. Software is being loaded during the power-on or resetting process of the equipment.

System indicator

Blinks on (green) and off at 100 ms intervals

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Indicator

Status Blinks on (green) and off at 300 ms intervals

Meaning Software is in the BIOS boot state during the power-on or resetting process of the equipment. l The upper-layer software is being initialized during the power-on or resetting process of the equipment. l Software is running normally during the operating process of the equipment.

On (green)

On (red)

l The memory selfcheck has failed or loading the upper-layer software has failed during the power-on or resetting process of the equipment. l The logic file or upper-layer software has been lost during the operating process of the equipment.

NOTE

After you load script data to the OptiX RTN 310 using a USB flash drive, the OptiX RTN 310 automatically resets. All the indicates are off during the reset. After the reset is complete, observe the system indicator to learn about the status of the OptiX RTN 310.

3.4 Labels
Product nameplate labels, qualification card labels, electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection labels, radiation warning labels, grounding labels, laser safety class labels, high temperature warning labels, and other types of labels are affixed in their respective positions on chassis. Adhere to any warnings and instructions on the labels when performing various tasks to avoid any personal injury or damage to equipment.

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Label Positions
Figure 3-9 Label positions
Product nameplate label

Bar code MAC address label ESD protection label Radiation warning label

ESD

High temperature warning label

Grounding label

Label Description
Table 3-8 Label description Label Label Name Product nameplate label Description Indicates the product name and certification.

Bar code

Uniquely identifies a chassis. Indicates the equipment's MAC address. Indicates that the equipment is sensitive to static electricity.

MAC address label ESD protection label

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Label

Label Name Radiation warning label

Description Indicates that the equipment generates electromagnetic radiation. Indicates that the equipment surface temperature may exceed 70C when the ambient temperature is higher than 55 C. Wear protective gloves to handle the equipment. Indicates the grounding position of a chassis.

High temperature warning label

Grounding label

Product Nameplate Label


Figure 3-10 Product nameplate label

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Table 3-9 Description of the product nameplate label Label Information Product name Content Example Parameter Frequency band Parameter Meaning OptiX RTN 310s can operate at the following frequency bands: l 13 GHz l 15 GHz l 18 GHz l 23 GHz l 38 GHz ITEM T/R SPACING SUB BAND Identifies a product type. Indicates a T/R spacing (MHz). Indicates a sub-band, which is expressed in letters. l Hi: Tx high site l Lo: Tx low site 2: Tx frequency range Indicates a Tx frequency range (MHz).

TX

1: Tx high/low site

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4 Networking and Applications

4
About This Chapter

Networking and Applications

OptiX RTN 310s can independently form chain or ring networks at the tails of mobile backhaul networks, or work with OptiX RTN 900s at convergence links. 4.1 Independent Networking OptiX RTN 310s can independently form chain or ring networks. 4.2 Networking with OptiX RTN 900s OptiX RTN 310s can work with OptiX RTN 900s, which increases the service convergence capabilities of nodal NEs.

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4.1 Independent Networking


OptiX RTN 310s can independently form chain or ring networks.

4.1.1 Chain Networks


The OptiX RTN 310 supports point-to-point networks. Chain, tree, or star networks can be built by cascading NEs. Figure 4-1 shows a chain network solution. In this solution: l l l Medium-/Small-capacity radio links use 1+0 configuration. Large-capacity radio links use cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) or 2+0 configuration, so two OptiX RTN 310s must be installed at one site. Large-capacity radio links generally use both XPIC and physical link aggregation (PLA) configurations to improve bandwidths and reliability for Ethernet channels.

Figure 4-1 Chain network solution


NodeB 0 FE/GE 2+0

GE

XPIC NodeB 1 FE/GE

GE

XPIC cable

XPIC cable

GE RNC Regional Backhaul Network

1+0 NodeB 2 FE/GE GE

1+0

FE/GE NodeB 3

OptiX RTN 310

4.1.2 Ring Networks


The OptiX RTN 310 supports and provides protection for ring networks. In addition, ring networks and chain networks can be combined to form ring with chain networks. Figure 4-2 shows a ring network solution. In this solution:
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l l

Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS) can be configured to protect Ethernet services on the ring network. Two OptiX RTN 310s must be installed at one site.

Figure 4-2 Ring network solution


NodeB 1

FE/GE

GE RNC Regional Backhaul Network GE FE/GE GE

NodeB 2 OptiX RTN 310

4.2 Networking with OptiX RTN 900s


OptiX RTN 310s can work with OptiX RTN 900s, which increases the service convergence capabilities of nodal NEs. Figure 4-3 shows a network that combines OptiX RTN 310s and OptiX RTN 900s. l l l l l OptiX RTN 310s can work with OptiX RTN 900s , increasing the service convergence capabilities of nodal NEs Large-capacity radio links can use cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) or 2+0 configuration. Large-capacity radio links generally use both XPIC and physical link aggregation (PLA) configurations to improve bandwidths and reliability for Ethernet channels. For important links, OptiX RTN 310 can work with OptiX RTN 900 to provide 1+1 link protection. If packet networks need to backhaul a small number of E1 services from base stations, OptiX RTN 310s can work with OptiX RTN 910s to transparently transmit circuit emulation services (CESs), improving compatibility of legacy radio transmission networks. P&E ports of OptiX RTN 310s can be connected to EG4P boards so OptiX RTN 310s can form networks with OptiX RTN 900s.

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Figure 4-3 Hybrid network solution


NodeB FE/GE XPIC

GE

XPIC cable

XPIC cable

GE

NodeB

FE/GE

CES E1 E1 BTS BSC Regional network 1+1


1+1 cascading cable 1+1 cascading cable

RNC

NodeB

OptiX RTN 310

OptiX RTN 900

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5 Network Management System

5
About This Chapter

Network Management System

This chapter describes the network management solution and the network management system (NMS) software that constitutes this solution. 5.1 Network Management Solutions Huawei provides complete transport network management solutions that satisfy telecommunications management network (TMN) requirements of various function domains and customer groups on telecommunications networks. 5.2 Web LCT The Web LCT provides the following management functions at the NE layer: NE management, alarm management, performance management, configuration management, communication management, security management, and hop management. 5.3 U2000 The U2000 is a network-level network management system. A user can access the U2000 server through a U2000 client to manage Huawei transport subnets in a unified manner. The U2000 can provide NE-level and network-level management functions.

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5 Network Management System

5.1 Network Management Solutions


Huawei provides complete transport network management solutions that satisfy telecommunications management network (TMN) requirements of various function domains and customer groups on telecommunications networks. The network management solution consists of the following: l OptiX iManager U2000 Web LCT local maintenance terminal The Web LCT, a web-based local maintenance terminal, manages local and remote NEs on a per-NE/hop basis. l OptiX iManager U2000 unified network management system The iManager U2000 manages Huawei transport equipment, such as the OptiX RTN, PTN, MSTP, and WDM equipment. Figure 5-1 NM solutions for transport networks
iManager U2000

WAN/LAN

Backbone layer

Aggregation layer

Access layer

Web LCT

Web LCT

5.2 Web LCT


The Web LCT provides the following management functions at the NE layer: NE management, alarm management, performance management, configuration management, communication management, security management, and hop management.

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Function Overview
Table 5-1 Management functions of the Web LCT Function NE management Description l Searches for NEs. l Adds/Deletes NEs. l Logs in to or logs out of NEs. l Starts up the NE Explorer. Alarm management l Sets alarm monitoring strategies. l Browses alarms. l Deletes alarms. Performance management l Sets performance monitoring strategies. l Displays performance events. l Resets performance registers. l Graphically displays performance data. Configuration management l Configures basic NE information. l Configures radio links. l Configures ports. l Configures services. l Configures clocks. Software management Communication management Supports one-click importing of scripts. l Manages communication parameters. l Manages data communications channels (DCCs). l Manages inband data communication networks (DCNs). l Manages the HWECC protocol. l Manages the IP protocol. l Sends packets with a specified VLAN ID. Security management l Manages NE users. l Manages NE user groups. l Controls local craft terminal (LCT) access. l Manages online users. l Manages NE security parameters. l Manages NE security logs. l Allows the file transmission protocol to be specified as FTP or sFTP.

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Function Hop management

Description l Parameters on both ends of a hop can be set on the same interface. l After the parameters on one end of a hop are set, the settings are automatically duplicated on the other end.

5.3 U2000
The U2000 is a network-level network management system. A user can access the U2000 server through a U2000 client to manage Huawei transport subnets in a unified manner. The U2000 can provide NE-level and network-level management functions.

Function Overview
Table 5-2 Management functions of the U2000 Function Module NE management Description l Displays the NE panel. l Provides a built-in NE manager to implement allaround NE management. Network management Topology management l Provides physical topologies. l Manages service topologies in end-to-end mode. l Provides clock views. l Discovers topologies automatically. l Allows customization of topology views. l Backs up gateway configurations. Network-level alarm management l Monitors, counts, and manages network-wide alarms. l Customizes alarm query templates. l Analyzes alarm relevance. l Manages alarm time locally. l Supports alarm notification. l Dumps alarms.

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Function Module Network-level performance management

Description l Creates performance-monitoring templates. l Supports scheduled and real-time performance monitoring. l Views historical performance. l Graphically displays performance data. l Compares performance based on time or resources. l Dumps historical performance data.

Network-level configuration management Network-level diagnosing and testing

l Configures E-Line services in end-to-end mode. l Configures E-LAN services in end-to-end mode. l Supports one-click testing of Ethernet service connectivity. l Supports one-click testing of Ethernet service performance. l Supports one-click intelligent diagnosis of Ethernet service faults.

Network-level communication management

l Manages data communications channel (DCC) views. l Manages Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) communication. l Supports the access control list (ACL).

Network-level security management

l Manages account policies. l Manages user groups. l Manages rights. l Supports the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS). l Supports SSLv3 encrypted communication between the U2000 server and U2000 clients. l Supports SSLv3 encrypted communication between the U2000 server and gateway NEs. l Allows IP packets accessing the NE to be filtered based on the preset ACL rules. l Supports Syslog management. l Supports sFTP.

Inventory management

l Supports inventory management of NEs and ports. l Supports inventory management of fibers and links.

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Function Module Log management

Description l Manages U2000 operation logs, system logs, and security logs. l Manages NE security logs.

Database management

l Backs up and restores NMS databases. l Backs up and restores NE databases. l Synchronizes NE data with NMS data.

Software management

l Loads and upgrades software. l Manages NE software databases. l Saves, backs up, and restores NE databases.

Report management

l Manages alarm reports, log reports, license reports, or resource reports. l Displays reports using the Internet Explorer. l Exports reports.

Northbound interface

l Provides SNMP, CORBA, and XML northbound interfaces. l Provides performance text interfaces.

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6 Technical Specifications

6
About This Chapter

Technical Specifications

This chapter describes the technical specifications of the OptiX RTN 310. 6.1 RF Performance This chapter describes the radio frequency (RF) performance and various technical specifications related to microwaves. 6.2 Predicted Reliability Predicted reliability includes predicted equipment reliability and predicted link reliability. Reliability is measured by mean time between failures (MTBF), and predicated equipment reliability complies with the Bellcore TR-332 standard. 6.3 Ethernet Interface Performance Ethernet interface performance complies with IEEE 802.3. 6.4 Clock Timing and Synchronization Performance The clock timing performance and synchronization performance of the product meet relevant ITU-T recommendations. 6.5 Integrated System Performance Integrated system performance includes the dimensions, weight, power consumption, power supply, EMC, surge protection, safety, and environment.

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6.1 RF Performance
This chapter describes the radio frequency (RF) performance and various technical specifications related to microwaves.

6.1.1 Radio Working Modes


This section lists the radio working modes that the OptiX RTN 310 supports. Table 6-1 Overview of radio working modes Radio Type Channel Spacing 7 MHz 14 MHz 28 MHz Modulation Scheme Range XPIC Disabled QPSK Strong to 256QAM QPSK Strong to 256QAM QPSK Strong to 2048QAM (13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz, and 23 GHz) QPSK Strong to 1024QAM Light (38 GHz) 56 MHz QPSK Strong to 2048QAM (13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz, and 23 GHz) QPSK Strong to 1024QAM Light (38 GHz) XPIC Enabled QPSK Strong to 128QAM QPSK Strong to 256QAM QPSK Strong to 1024QAM (13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz, and 23 GHz) QPSK Strong to 512QAM (38 GHz) QPSK Strong to 1024QAM Light (13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz, and 23 GHz) QPSK Strong to 512QAM Light (38 GHz)

Packet radio

NOTE Strong/Light modulation schemes and common modulation schemes differ in FEC encoding parameters. The FEC capability of Strong modulation schemes is higher, resulting in improved receiver sensitivity and reduced air interface bandwidth. For Light modulation schemes, the opposite is true.

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Table 6-2 Radio working modes (XPIC disabled) Channel Spacing (MHz) Modulatio n Scheme Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressi on With L2 Frame Header Compressi on 8 to 13 10 to 16 17 to 26 20 to 32 25 to 39 33 to 50 38 to 59 43 to 66 18 to 27 22 to 33 36 to 55 42 to 65 53 to 81 66 to 102 78 to 120 89 to 137 37 to 57 43 to 66 74 to 114 86 to 133 110 to 170 136 to 210 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressi on (IPv4) 8 to 19 10 to 25 17 to 41 20 to 49 25 to 60 32 to 76 37 to 90 42 to 101 18 to 42 22 to 50 36 to 85 42 to 100 53 to 125 66 to 157 78 to 186 89 to 212 37 to 87 43 to 102 74 to 176 86 to 206 110 to 263 136 to 325 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressi on (IPv6) 8 to 24 11 to 31 18 to 51 22 to 61 26 to 75 33 to 95 39 to 112 43 to 125 18 to 51 22 to 62 36 to 104 43 to 123 53 to 154 66 to 194 78 to 229 89 to 262 37 to 107 43 to 126 74 to 218 87 to 255 110 to 325 136 to 402

QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

8 to 10 10 to 13 17 to 22 20 to 26 25 to 32 32 to 40 37 to 48 42 to 53 18 to 22 21 to 27 36 to 44 42 to 53 52 to 66 65 to 83 77 to 98 88 to 112 37 to 46 43 to 54 74 to 93 86 to 109 109 to 139 135 to 172

14

QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

28

QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM

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Channel Spacing (MHz)

Modulatio n Scheme

Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressi on With L2 Frame Header Compressi on 160 to 249 183 to 284 196 to 304 209 to 326 217 to 337 227 to 354 240 to 375 74 to 114 86 to 133 148 to 230 172 to 269 216 to 337 272 to 423 321 to 500 366 to 571 393 to 612 420 to 655 444 to 692 478 to 745 497 to 777 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressi on (IPv4) 160 to 384 183 to 438 196 to 470 210 to 503 217 to 520 228 to 546 240 to 578 74 to 176 86 to 206 148 to 355 173 to 415 216 to 519 272 to 653 322 to 773 367 to 882 394 to 945 421 to 1000 445 to 1000 479 to 1000 498 to 1000 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressi on (IPv6) 161 to 475 183 to 542 197 to 581 210 to 622 220 to 644 230 to 676 241 to 716 74 to 218 87 to 255 148 to 440 173 to 514 217 to 643 273 to 810 323 to 957 368 to 1000 395 to 1000 422 to 1000 446 to 1000 479 to 1000 499 to 1000

128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 512QAM Light 1024QAM 1024QAM Light 2048QAM 56 QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 512QAM Light 1024QAM 1024QAM Light 2048QAM

159 to 203 182 to 232 195 to 249 209 to 267 216 to 276 227 to 289 239 to 306 74 to 93 86 to 109 148 to 188 172 to 219 216 to 275 271 to 346 321 to 409 366 to 467 392 to 501 419 to 536 443 to 567 472 to 606 497 to 636

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Table 6-3 Radio working modes (XPIC enabled) Channel Spacing (MHz) Modulatio n Scheme Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressi on With L2 Frame Header Compressi on 8 to 12 10 to 15 16 to 26 20 to 31 24 to 38 31 to 48 36 to 56 16 to 26 20 to 31 34 to 53 40 to 62 50 to 78 63 to 98 74 to 116 84 to 131 37 to 57 43 to 66 74 to 114 86 to 133 110 to 170 136 to 210 160 to 249 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressi on (IPv4) 8 to 19 10 to 24 16 to 40 20 to 48 24 to 59 31 to 74 36 to 87 16 to 40 20 to 48 34 to 82 40 to 97 50 to 121 63 to 152 74 to 180 84 to 203 37 to 87 43 to 102 74 to 176 86 to 206 110 to 263 136 to 235 160 to 384 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressi on (IPv6) 8 to 24 10 to 30 16 to 49 20 to 59 24 to 73 31 to 92 36 to 108 16 to 49 20 to 60 34 to 101 40 to 102 50 to 149 63 to 188 75 to 223 84 to 251 37 to 107 43 to 126 87 to 255 87 to 255 110 to 325 136 to 402 161 to 475

QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM

8 to 10 10 to 12 16 to 21 19 to 25 24 to 31 31 to 39 36 to 46 16 to 21 20 to 25 34 to 43 40 to 51 50 to 64 63 to 80 74 to 95 84 to 107 37 to 46 43 to 54 74 to 93 86 to 109 109 to 139 135 to 172 159 to 203

14

QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

28

QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM

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Channel Spacing (MHz)

Modulatio n Scheme

Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressi on With L2 Frame Header Compressi on 180 to 281 187 to 291 200 to 312 213 to 333 74 to 114 86 to 133 148 to 230 172 to 269 216 to 337 272 to 423 321 to 500 362 to 565 376 to 586 402 to 627 429 to 670 450 to 703 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressi on (IPv4) 181 to 433 188 to 450 201 to 481 213 to 513 74 to 176 86 to 206 148 to 355 173 to 415 216 to 519 272 to 653 322 to 773 363 to 871 377 to 905 403 to 1000 429 to 1000 451 to 1000 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressi on (IPv6) 181 to 536 188 to 557 201 to 596 214 to 636 74 to 218 87 to 255 148 to 440 173 to 514 217 to 643 273 to 810 323 to 957 364 to 1000 378 to 1000 404 to 1000 431 to 1000 452 to 1000

256QAM 512QAM 512QAM Light 1024QAM 56 QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 512QAM Light 1024QAM 1024QAM Light

180 to 229 186 to 238 200 to 255 212 to 272 74 to 93 86 to 109 148 to 188 172 to 219 216 to 275 271 to 346 321 to 409 362 to 462 376 to 480 401 to 513 428 to 548 449 to 575

NOTE

l The throughput specifications listed in the tables are based on the following conditions. l Without compression: untagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes to 9600 bytes l With L2 frame header compression: untagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes to 9600 bytes l With L2+L3 frame header compression (IPv4): tagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes to 9600 bytes l With L2+L3 frame header compression (IPv6): tagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 90 bytes to 9600 bytes

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6.1.2 Frequency Band


The OptiX RTN 310 supports the 13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz, 23 GHz and 38 GHz frequency bands.

Frequency Band
Table 6-4 Frequency Band Frequency Band 13GHz 15GHz 18GHz 23GHz 38GHz Frequency Range (GHz) 12.751-13.248 14.400-15.358 17.685-19.710 21.200-23.618 37.044-39.452 T/R Spacing (MHz) 266 315/322, 420, 490, 644, 728 1010/1008, 1092.5, 1560 1008, 1200, 1232 1260

Frequency Information
Table 6-5 Information about the 13 GHz frequency band T/R Spacing (MHz) Sub-Band Lower Sub-band TX Frequency (MHz) Lower Limit A B 12,751.00 12,863.00 Upper Limit 12,870.00 12,982.00 Higher Sub-band TX Frequency (MHz) Lower Limit 13,017.00 13,129.00 Upper Limit 13,136.00 13,248.00

266 266

Table 6-6 Information about the 15 GHz frequency band T/R Spacing (MHz) Sub-Band Lower Sub-band TX Frequency (MHz) Lower Limit A B C A B 14,627.00 14,725.00 14,823.00 14,501.00 14,718.00 Upper Limit 14,746.00 14,844.00 14,942.00 14,725.00 14,928.00 Higher Sub-band TX Frequency (MHz) Lower Limit 14,942.00 15,040.00 15,138.00 14,921.00 15,138.00 Upper Limit 15,061.00 15,159.00 15,257.00 15,145.00 15,348.00
68

315/322 315/322 315/322 420 420


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T/R Spacing (MHz)

Sub-Band

Lower Sub-band TX Frequency (MHz) Lower Limit Upper Limit 14,634.00 14,858.00 14,708.00 14,625.00

Higher Sub-band TX Frequency (MHz) Lower Limit 14,893.00 15,117.00 15,044.00 15,228.00 Upper Limit 15,124.00 15,348.00 15,352.00 15,353.00

490 490 644 728

A B A A

14,403.00 14,627.00 14,400.00 14,500.00

Table 6-7 Information about the 18 GHz frequency band T/R Spacing (MHz) Sub-Band Lower Sub-band TX Frequency (MHz) Lower Limit A B C A B 17,685.00 18,180.00 17,700.00 17,712.50 17,987.50 Upper Limit 18,230.00 18,700.00 18,140.00 18,060.00 18,595.00 Higher Sub-band TX Frequency (MHz) Lower Limit 18,695.00 19,190.00 19,260.00 18,805.00 19,080.00 Upper Limit 19,240.00 19,710.00 19,700.00 19,152.50 19,687.50

1010/1008 1010/1008 1560 1092.5 1092.5

Table 6-8 Information about the 23 GHz frequency band T/R Spacing (MHz) Sub-Band Lower Sub-band TX Frequency (MHz) Lower Limit A B A B C A B 21,990.50 22,260.00 21,200.00 21,600.00 21,950.00 21,200.00 21,779.00 Upper Limit 22,330.00 22,610.00 21,600.00 22,000.00 22,400.00 21,786.00 22,386.00 Higher Sub-band TX Frequency (MHz) Lower Limit 22,998.50 23,268.00 22,400.00 22,800.00 23,150.00 22,432.00 23,011.00 Upper Limit 23,338.00 23,618.00 22,800.00 23,200.00 23,600.00 23,018.00 23,618.00

1008 1008 1200 1200 1200 1232 1232

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Table 6-9 Information about the 38 GHz frequency band T/R Spacing (MHz) Sub-Band Lower Sub-band TX Frequency (MHz) Lower Limit A B 37,044.00 37,604.00 Upper Limit 37,632.00 38,192.00 Higher Sub-band TX Frequency (MHz) Lower Limit 38,304.00 38,864.00 Upper Limit 38,892.00 39,452.00

1260 1260

6.1.3 Receiver Sensitivity


The receiver sensitivity reflects the anti-fading capability of the microwave equipment. Table 6-10 Typical receiver sensitivity (7 MHz) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 7 MHz) @13 GHz RSL@ BER = 106 (dBm) QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 95 93 88.5 86.5 83.5 80.5 77.5 74.5 95 93 88.5 86.5 83.5 80.5 77.5 74.5 95 93 -88.5 86.5 83.5 80.5 77.5 74.5 94.5 92.5 88 86 83 80 77 74 92.5 90.5 86 84 81 78 75 72 @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @38 GHz

NOTE When the XPIC function is enabled, 256QAM is not supported.

Table 6-11 Typical receiver sensitivity (14 MHz) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 14 MHz) @13 GHz RSL@ BER = 106 (dBm) @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @38 GHz

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Item

Performance (Channel Spacing: 14 MHz) @13 GHz @15 GHz 93 91 85.5 83.5 80.5 77.5 74.5 71.5 @18 GHz 93 91 85.5 83.5 80.5 77.5 74.5 71.5 @23 GHz 92.5 90.5 85 83 80 77 74 71 @38 GHz 90.5 88.5 83 81 78 75 72 69

QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

93 91 85.5 83.5 80.5 77.5 74.5 71.5

Table 6-12 Typical receiver sensitivity (28 MHz) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 28 MHz) @13 GHz RSL@ BER = 106 (dBm) QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 512QAM Light 1024QAM 1024QAM Light 89.5 88 82.5 81 78 74.5 71.5 68.5 66.5 65 63.0 61.5 89.5 88 82.5 81 78 74.5 71.5 68.5 66.5 65 63.0 61.5 89.5 88 82.5 81 78 74.5 71.5 68.5 66.5 65 63 61.5 89 87.5 82 80.5 77.5 74 71 68 66 64.5 62.5 61 87 85.5 80 78.5 75.5 72 69 66 64 62.5 60.5 59.0 @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @38 GHz

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Item

Performance (Channel Spacing: 28 MHz) @13 GHz @15 GHz 60 @18 GHz 60 @23 GHz 59.5 @38 GHz

2048QAM
NOTE

60

l The 38 GHz frequency band does not support 2048QAM. l When the XPIC function is enabled, the 13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz, and 23 GHz frequency bands do not support 1024QAM Light and 2048QAM, and the 38 GHz frequency band does not support 1024QAM and 1024QAM Light.

Table 6-13 Typical receiver sensitivity (56 MHz) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 56 MHz) @13 GHz RSL@ BER = 106 (dBm) QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 512QAM Light 1024QAM 1024QAM Light 2048QAM
NOTE l The 38 GHz frequency band does not support 2048QAM. l When the XPIC function is enabled, the 13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz, and 23 GHz frequency bands do not support 2048QAM, and the 38 GHz frequency band does not support 1024QAM and 1024QAM Light.

@15 GHz

@18 GHz

@23 GHz

@38 GHz

86.5 85 79.5 78 75 71.5 68.5 65.5 63.5 62 60 58.5 56.5

86.5 85 79.5 78 75 71.5 68.5 65.5 63.5 62 60 58.5 56.5

86.5 85 79.5 78 75 71.5 68.5 65.5 63.5 62 60 58.5 56.5

86 84.5 79 77.5 74.5 71 68 65 63 61.5 59.5 58 56

84 82.5 77 75.5 72.5 69 66 63 61 59.5 57.5 56

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6.1.4 Distortion Sensitivity


The distortion sensitivity reflects the anti-multipath fading capability of the OptiX RTN 310. The notch depth of the OptiX RTN 310 meets the requirements described in ETSI EN 302217-2-1. Table 6-14describes the anti-multipath fading capability of the OptiX RTN 310 in 28M/ 128QAM microwave working modes. Table 6-14 Anti-multipath fading capability Item 28M/128QAM W-curve 28M/128QAM dispersion fading margin Performance See Figure 6-1 51dB

Figure 6-1 W-curve

6.1.5 Transceiver Performance


The performance of the transceiver includes the maximum/minimum transmit power, maximum receive power, and frequency stability.

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Maximum transmit power


Table 6-15 Maximum transmit power Modulatio n Scheme QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 512QAM Light 1024QAM 1024QAM Light 2048QAM 16 16 15 15 18 18 17 17 12 23 22 22 21 20 23 22 22 21 20 22 21 21 20 19 22 21 21 20 19 17 16 16 15 14 23 23 22 22 17 Performance (dBm) 13GHz 24 15GHz 24 18GHz 23.5 23GHz 23.5 38GHz 19.5

Minimum transmit power


Table 6-16 Minimum transmit power Modulatio n Scheme QPSK Strong-1024 QAM Light 2048QAM Performance (dBm) 13GHz 10 15GHz 10 18GHz 5 23GHz 5 38GHz 10

10

10

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Maximum receive power


Table 6-17 Maximum receive power Modulatio n Scheme QPSK Strong-32Q AM 64QAM-128 QAM 256QAM-10 24QAM Light 2048QAM Performance (dBm) 13GHz 20 15GHz 20 18GHz 20 23GHz 20 38GHz 20

22 25

22 25

22 25

22 25

22 25

25

25

25

25

Frequency stability
Frequency stability : 5 ppm

6.1.6 Baseband Signal Processing Performance of the Modem


The baseband signal processing performance of the modem indicates the FEC coding scheme and the performance of the baseband time domain adaptive equalizer. Table 6-18 Baseband signal processing performance of the modem Item Encoding mode Performance Low-density parity check code (LDPC) encoding
NOTE Strong and Light modulation supports LDPC coding. Strong and Light indicate FEC coding strength. Strong FEC improves receiver sensitivity by increasing error-correcting codes. Light FEC expands service capacity by reducing errorcorrecting codes.

Adaptive time-domain equalizer for baseband signals

Supported.

6.2 Predicted Reliability


Predicted reliability includes predicted equipment reliability and predicted link reliability. Reliability is measured by mean time between failures (MTBF), and predicated equipment reliability complies with the Bellcore TR-332 standard.
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6.2.1 Predicted Equipment Reliability


The equipment reliability reflects the reliability of a single equipment. Table 6-19 Predicted equipment reliability Item MTBF (hour) MTBF (year) MTTR (hour) Availability Performance 31.95104 36.47 1 99.99969%

6.2.2 Predicted Link Reliability


The link reliability reflects the equipment reliability of a microwave hop and reflects the reliability of all the involved components. Table 6-20 Predicted equipment reliability for a single hop of link Item MTBF (hour) MTBF (year) MTTR (hour) Availability Performance 15.97104 18.24 1 99.99937%

6.3 Ethernet Interface Performance


Ethernet interface performance complies with IEEE 802.3.

GE Optical Interface Performance


The characteristics of GE optical interfaces comply with IEEE 802.3. Table 6-21-Table 6-22provide GE optical interface performance. Table 6-21 GE optical interface performance Item Classification code Nominal wavelength (nm)
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Performance 1000BASE-SX (0.55km) 850 1000BASE-LX (10km) 1310


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Item Classification code Nominal bit rate (Mbit/s) Fiber type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength (nm) Mean launched power (dBm) Receiver minimum sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB)

Performance 1000BASE-SX (0.55km) 1000 Multi-mode 0.55 830 to 860 -10.0 to -2.5 -17.0 0 9.0 1000BASE-LX (10km) 1000 Single-mode 10 1274 to 1360 -9.5 to -3.0 -20.0 -3.0 9.0

GE Electrical Interface Performance


The characteristics of GE electrical interfaces comply with IEEE 802.3. The following table provides GE electrical interface performance. Table 6-22 GE Electrical Interface Performance Item Nominal bit rate (Mbit/s) Performance 10(10BASE-T) 100(100BASE-TX) 1000(1000BASE-T) Code pattern Manchester encoding signal (10BASE-T) MLT-3 encoding signal (100BASE-TX) 4D-PAM5 encoding signal (1000BASE-T) Interface type P&E port

6.4 Clock Timing and Synchronization Performance


The clock timing performance and synchronization performance of the product meet relevant ITU-T recommendations.

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Table 6-23 Clock timing and synchronization performance Item Pull-in and pull-out ranges Noise generation Noise tolerance Performance Compliant with ITU-T G.813

6.5 Integrated System Performance


Integrated system performance includes the dimensions, weight, power consumption, power supply, EMC, surge protection, safety, and environment.

Mechanical performance and power consumption


Item Performance 13 GHz Dimensions (H x W x D) Weight Power Consumptio n Power Supply 15 GHz 18 GHz 23 GHz 38 GHz

290mm x 265mm x 98mm 6.2 kg 42 W 6.0 kg 42 W 6.0 kg 44 W 6.0 kg 44 W 6.0 kg 43 W

l Support power over Ethernet. l The power input voltage ranges from 38.4 V to 57.6 V.

Electromagnetic Compatibility
l l l l l Passes CE authentication. Compliant with ETSI EN 301 489-1. Compliant with ETSI EN 301 489-4. Compliant with ETSI EN 300 385. Compliant with ETSI EN 300 386.

Lightning Protection
l l Compliant with ITU-T K.27. Compliant with ETSI EN 300 253.

Safety
l
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l l l l l l l

Compliant with IEC 60825. Compliant with IEC 60215. Compliant with IEC 60950-1 Compliant with K.20. Compliant with K.21. Compliant with GB 12638-1990 Compliant with EN 41003

Environment
The OptiX RTN 310 is used outdoors. Table 6-24 Environment performance Item Major reference standards Operation Transport ation Storage Air temperature Operation Transport ation and storage Protection class Relative humidity Earthquake Mechanical stress Performance Compliant with EN 300 019-1-4(Class 4.1) Compliant with EN 300 019-1-2(Class 2.3) Compliant with EN 300 019-1-1(Class 1.2) -33C to +55C -40C to +70C

IP65 5% to 100% Compliant with ETSI 300 019-2-4. Compliant with ETSI EN 300 019-2-1.

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7
About This Chapter

Accessories

The OptiX RTN 310 has accessories including power injectors (PIs), USB flash drives, hybrid couplers, orthogonal mode transducers (OMTs), and mounting components. 7.1 Outdoor Power Injector An outdoor power injector (PI) supplies power outdoors to the OptiX RTN 310. 7.2 Hybrid Coupler A hybrid coupler (RF signal combiner/divider) is used for installing two OptiX RTN 310s on an antenna. The hybrid couplers in this document are adaptive to the OptiX RTN 310. 7.3 OMT An orthogonal mode transducer (OMT), which is a type of polarized hybrid coupler, helps mount one horizontally polarized OptiX RTN 310 and one vertically polarized OptiX RTN 310 directly on an antenna. 7.4 Extra Mounting Components If OptiX RTN 310s or hybrid couplers are not to be directly mounted on their antennas, extra mounting components, including mounting brackets and flexible waveguides, are required to mount and connect them to their antennas. 7.5 Antennas Radio equipment uses parabolic antennas to emit and receive electromagnetic waves. The antennas that are described in this document are parabolic antennas compatible with OptiX RTN 310s. 7.6 Antenna Adapters If OptiX RTN 310s need to be directly mounted on inapplicable antennas, antenna adapters are required. 7.7 USB Flash Drives Configuring, replacing, and upgrading OptiX RTN 310s is simple with USB flash drives, which store NE data and new software to be installed, and are also used to back up configuration data.

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7.1 Outdoor Power Injector


An outdoor power injector (PI) supplies power outdoors to the OptiX RTN 310.
NOTE

The OptiX RTN 310 of an earlier version provides indoor PIs, which have the same ports and functions as outdoor PIs. Indoor PIs and outdoor PIs have difference appearance and apply to different environments.

7.1.1 Functions and Features


PIs transmit GE electrical signals, -48 V power, and network management signals to OptiX RTN 310s through P&E cables.

Functions and Features


l Provides an NMS port to forward network management signals. The PI connects the OptiX RTN 310 is connected to the NMS, eliminating the need to climb the tower during commissioning. Receives/Transmits 1xGE electrical signals. Receives -48 V DC power signals. Couples -48 V power signals to eight pins of the GE electrical port and transmits them to the OptiX RTN 310 through a P&E cable. See Figure 7-1. Figure 7-1 -48 V power signal coupling
1 BIDA+ 2 BIDA4 BIDC+ 5 BIDC-48 V 3 BIDB+ 6 BIDB7 BIDD+ (PI) 8 BIDDBIDA+ 1 BIDA- 2 BIDC+ 4 BIDC- 5 BIDB+ 3 BIDB- 6 BIDD+ 7 BIDD- 8 ( RTN 310) BGND

l l l

DC converter -48 V

There is no interference between DC power signals and Ethernet service signals, which can be transmitted over the same twisted pair. An outdoor PI can be installed: l l l On an outdoor wall On a pole with a diameter ranging between 51 mm to 114 mm On a tower

7.1.2 Ports and Indicators


A PI has one GE service port, one NMS port, one P&E port, one power input port, indicators, and labels on its front panel.
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Front Panel
An outdoor PI has a protective cover, as shown in Figure 7-2 and Figure 7-3. Figure 7-2 Outdoor PI appearance

H D W

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Figure 7-3 Schematic drawing of an outdoor PI


Pins of port FE/GE P&E and To FO To NMS service port MGMT 1:2 1:1 peeling indicator

-48.0 V power

Cable ground point

Power cable through

Outdoor network cable through (GE service)

P&E cable through

Outdoor network cable through (NMS signals)

Ports
Table 7-1 Ports on a PI Port RTN (+) NEG (-) GE NMS Description 0 V power input port -48 V power input port GE electrical port NMS port (connected to the NMS) NMS port (connected to the OptiX RTN 310) RJ45 RJ45 8.9 Outdoor Network Cables Connector Type OT terminal block Corresponding Cable 8.2 PI Power Cables

MGMT

8.3 P&E Cables

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Port P&E

Description Ethernet service and -48 V power port

Connector Type

Corresponding Cable

The GE service port, NMS port, and P&E port use RJ45 connectors. Figure 7-4 shows the front view of an RJ45 connector. Figure 7-4 RJ45 connector front view
1 2 3 4 5 6 78

The GE electrical port is compatible with an FE electrical port and supports the MDI, MDI-X, and auto-MDI/MDI-X modes. Table 7-2 and Table 7-3 show pin assignments for an RJ45 port in MDI and MDI-X modes. Table 7-2 Pin assignments for an RJ45 connector in MDI mode Pin 10/100BASE-T(X) Signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TX+ TXRX+ Reserved Reserved RXReserved Reserved Function Transmitting data (+) Transmitting data (-) Receiving data (+) Receiving data (-) 1000BASE-T Signal BIDA+ BIDABIDB+ BIDC+ BIDCBIDBBIDD+ BIDDFunction Bidirectional data wire A (+)/Power ground (0 V) Bidirectional data wire A (-)/Power ground (0 V) Bidirectional data wire B (+)/Power signal (-48 V) Bidirectional data wire C (+)/Power ground (0 V) Bidirectional data wire C (-)/Power ground (0 V) Bidirectional data wire B (-)/Power signal (-48 V) Bidirectional data wire D (+)/Power signal (-48 V) Bidirectional data wire D (-)/Power signal (-48 V)

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Table 7-3 Pin assignments for an RJ45 connector in MDI-X mode Pin 10/100BASE-T(X) Signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 RX+ RXTX+ Reserved Reserved TXReserved Reserved Function Receiving data (+) Receiving data (-) Transmitting data (+) Transmitting data (-) 1000BASE-T Signal BIDB+ BIDBBIDA+ BIDD+ BIDDBIDABIDC+ BIDCFunction Bidirectional data wire B (+) Bidirectional data wire B (-) Bidirectional data wire A (+) Bidirectional data wire D (+) Bidirectional data wire D (-) Bidirectional data wire A (-) Bidirectional data wire C (+) Bidirectional data wire C (-)

NOTE

The P&E port can transmit -48 V power signals through pins 1, 2, 3, and 6.

The NMS and MGMT ports transmit network management signals. Table 7-4 lists their pin assignments. Table 7-4 Pin assignments for the NMS and MGMT ports Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Signal TX+ TXRX+ Reserved Reserved RXReserved Reserved Function Transmitting data (+) Transmitting data (-) Receiving data (+) Receiving data (-) -

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NOTE

7 Accessories

The NMS port supports the MDI, MDI-X, and auto-MDI/MDI-X modes; that is, the NMS port can transmit data through pins 3 and 6 and receive data through pins 1 and 2.

Indicators
Table 7-5 Status explanation for indicators Indicator DC IN State On continuously (green) Off P&E OUT On continuously (green) Off Meaning Power is supplied. Power is not supplied. Power over Ethernet is being output normally. Power over Ethernet is not being output.

7.1.3 PI Labels
This section lists the labels that are attached to a power injector (PI). Adhere to any warnings and instructions on the labels when performing various tasks to avoid any personal injury or damage to equipment.

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Figure 7-5 Label positions on an outdoor PI


Product nameplate
B

Operation warning label

Qualification card label


/QUALIFICATION CARD

HUAWEI
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD. MADE IN CHINA

Grounding label

Table 7-6 Label description Label


B

Label Name Product nameplate label

Description Indicates the product name and certification.

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Label

Label Name

Description Indicates that the equipment has been quality checked.

/ QUALIFICATION CARD

Qualification card label

HUAWEI

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD.

MADE IN CHINA

High temperature warning label

Indicates that the equipment surface temperature may exceed 70C when the ambient temperature is higher than 55 C. Wear protective gloves to handle the equipment. Indicates the grounding position of a PI. l Indicates the input of -48 V power. l Instructs you to check wire connections of a P&E cable. l Instructs you to check the connection of a P&E cable to a port.

Grounding label

Operation warning label

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Table 7-7 Product nameplate label description Label Information PI model Example of the Label Content Parameter 1: Product name 2: Power supply mode 3: Applicatio n environme nt 4: Number of channels Parameter Description DC: direct current l A: indoor l B: outdoor

OptiX RTN PI DC B 10 1 2 3 4

10: single channel. That is, one PI can provide power supply to only one OptiX RTN 310. PI power supply rated value

Power supply rated value

POWER RATING

-48V; 2.2A

7.1.4 Technical Specifications


The technical specifications of PIs include electromagnetic compatibility, anti-interference capability, safety, and environmental standards.

Power Supply
Item Input voltage range Power over Ethernet Specifications -38.4 V to -57.6 V Supports one power-over-Ethernet output.

Dimensions and Weight


Item Specifications Outdoor PI Dimensions (H x W x D)
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224mm x 156mm x 44mm


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Item

Specifications Outdoor PI

Weight

1.3 kg

Electromagnetic Compatibility
l l l l l Passes CE authentication. Compliant with ETSI EN 301 489-1. Compliant with ETSI EN 301 489-4. Compliant with ETSI EN 300 385. Compliant with ETSI EN 300 386.

Safety
l l l l l l l Passes CE authentication. Compliant with IEC 60825. Compliant with IEC 60215. Compliant with IEC 60950-1 Compliant with K.20. Compliant with K.21. Compliant with EN 41003

Environment
Table 7-8 Environment performance Item Major reference standards Operating Transportation Storage Temperature Operating Transportation and storage Relative humidity Earthquake Protection class Specifications Complies with ETSI EN 300 019-1-3 class 3.2. Complies with ETSI EN 300 019-1-2 class 2.3. Complies with ETSI EN 300 019-1-1 class 1.2. -33C to +55C -40C to +70C 5% to 100% Complies with ETSI 300 019-2-4. IP65 for outdoor PIs

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7.2 Hybrid Coupler


A hybrid coupler (RF signal combiner/divider) is used for installing two OptiX RTN 310s on an antenna. The hybrid couplers in this document are adaptive to the OptiX RTN 310.

7.2.1 Types
Hybrid couplers are available as 3 dB balanced and 6 dB unbalanced hybrid couplers. 3 dB balanced and 6 dB unbalanced hybrid couplers are described as follows: l l A 3 dB balanced hybrid coupler splits one RF signal into two almost equivalent RF branch signals. Each branch signal is attenuated by about 3 dB, compared to the original RF signal. A 6 dB unbalanced hybrid coupler splits one RF signal into two RF signals with different power levels. The lower-power branch signal is attenuated by about 6 dB and the higherpower branch signal is attenuated by about 2 dB, compared to the original RF signal.

7.2.2 Functions and Features


Hybrid couplers combine and divide RF signals. Hybrid couplers have the following functions and features: l l In the transmit direction, a hybrid coupler combines two RF signal routes from two OptiX RTN 310s into one and transmits the signals to an antenna. In the receive direction, the hybrid coupler divides the RF signals received from the antenna into two outputs and transmits the signals to OptiX RTN 310s.

7.2.3 Ports
A hybrid coupler has one antenna port, one main tributary port, and one extension tributary port. Figure 7-6 shows ports on a hybrid coupler. Figure 7-6 Ports on a hybrid coupler
2

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Table 7-9 describes the ports on a hybrid coupler. Table 7-9 Description of ports on a hybrid coupler N o. 1 Port Antenna port Mark Function Connects to an antenna, an antenna adapter, or a flexible waveguide. Connects to the extension tributary OptiX RTN 310. Connects to the main tributary OptiX RTN 310. Port Type l 153IEC-R120, which can be connected to a PBR120 (for use at the frequency band 13 GHz) l 153IEC-R140, which can be connected to a PBR140 (for use at the frequency band 15 GHz) l 153IEC-R220, which can be connected to a PBR220 (for use at the frequency band 18 GHz or 23 GHz) l 154IEC-R320, which can be connected to a PBR320 (for use at the frequency band 38 GHz)

Extensio n tributary port Main tributary port

STAND BY

MAIN

7.2.4 Labels
Labels are attached to a hybrid coupler and its packaging to provide the basic information of the device. Figure 7-7 shows the label of a hybrid coupler. Figure 7-7 Label of a hybrid coupler

Table 7-10 describes information provided on a hybrid coupler label.

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Table 7-10 Information provided on a hybrid coupler label Label Informati on Name Content Example Parameter Parameter Meaning Indicates that the component is a hybrid coupler. C indicates the hybrid coupler. Indicates the operating frequency of the hybrid coupler in GHz. For example, 15 indicates that the hybrid coupler operates at 15 GHz. A hybrid coupler can operate at 13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz, 23 GHz, or 38 GHz. 3: tributary features 4: coupling B: balanced U: unbalanced 03 indicates that the coupling of the tributary is 3 dB. 06 indicates that the coupling of the tributary is 6 dB. 5: type of the antenna port C: round waveguide R: rectangular waveguide C: round waveguide R: rectangular waveguide C: Matches OptiX RTN XMC ODUs.
NOTE The OptiX RTN 310 and OptiX RTN XMC ODUs are compatible with the same hybrid coupler.

Model (MODEL)

1: component type 2: frequency band

6: type of ports connected to OptiX RTN 310 7: adaptation relationship

Item code (ITEM)

Uniquely identifies the model of hybrid coupler.


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Label Informati on Descriptio n (DEP)

Content Example

Parameter

Parameter Meaning Indicates the operating frequency range of the hybrid coupler in GHz. Indicates coupling of the main and extension tributaries (dB). Matches OptiX RTN XMC ODUs.
NOTE The OptiX RTN 310 and OptiX RTN XMC ODUs are compatible with the same hybrid coupler.

1: operating frequency range

2: coupling

3: adaptation relationship

Serial number (S/N) Bar code area

Identifies a hybrid coupler uniquely.

Indicates bar code of the hybrid coupler serial number

7.2.5 Technical Specifications


The technical specifications of hybrid couplers include electrical and mechanical specifications. Table 7-11 lists the technical specifications of hybrid couplers.

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Table 7-11 Technical specifications of hybrid couplers Item Attenuation of the main tributary (dB) Specifications 3.8 (3 dB balanced hybrid coupler, for use at frequency bands 13 GHz and 15 GHz) 3.6 (3 dB balanced hybrid coupler, for use at frequency bands 18 GHz and 23 GHz) 4.1 (3 dB balanced hybrid coupler, for use at frequency band 38 GHz) 1.9 (6 dB unbalanced hybrid coupler, for use at frequency bands 13 GHz and 15 GHz) 1.7 (6 dB unbalanced hybrid coupler, for use at frequency band 18 GHz and 23 GHz) 2.1 (6 dB unbalanced hybrid coupler, for use at frequency band 38 GHz) Attenuation of the extension tributary (dB) Flatness of the main tributary (dB) Flatness of the extension tributary (dB) Isolation between the main tributary and the tributary path (dB) Standing wave ratio 3.30.3 (3 dB balanced hybrid coupler) 6.50.6 (6 dB unbalanced hybrid coupler) 1.0 (3 dB balanced hybrid coupler) 0.5 (6 dB unbalanced hybrid coupler) 1.0

20

1.3 (for use at frequency bands 13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz and 23 GHz) 1.4 (for use at frequency band 38 GHz)

Power capacity (W) Dimensions (H x W x D) Weight

8 < 270 mm x 140 mm x 415 mm 5 kg

7.3 OMT
An orthogonal mode transducer (OMT), which is a type of polarized hybrid coupler, helps mount one horizontally polarized OptiX RTN 310 and one vertically polarized OptiX RTN 310 directly on an antenna.
NOTE

OMTs are produced by Huawei's partner company Andrew and must work in conjunction with Andrew dualpolarized antennas. All copyrights and information about OMTs are the property of Andrew.

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7.3.1 Functions and Features


An orthogonal mode transducer (OMT) converts vertically and horizontally polarized waves into dually polarized RF signals in the transmit direction, and separates vertically polarized waves from horizontally polarized waves in the receive direction. An OMT has two rectangular waveguide cavities and one round waveguide cavity. One rectangular waveguide cavity transmits only vertically polarized waves and the other rectangular waveguide cavity transmits only horizontally polarized waves. The round waveguide cavity transmits both vertically and horizontally polarized waves. l In the transmit direction, an OMT converts the vertically and horizontally polarized waves from its two rectangular waveguide cavities into dually polarized RF signals, and transmits the RF signals to its round waveguide cavity and then to an antenna with a round waveguide port. In the receive direction, the OMT receives dually polarized waves from the round waveguide port of an antenna, separates the waves, and transmits the waves to their respective rectangular waveguide cavities.

7.3.2 Ports
An OMT has one antenna port, one V-polarized port, and one H-polarized port. l l The antenna port is a round recessed waveguide port. The V-polarized and H-polarized ports are rectangular protruding waveguide ports.

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Figure 7-8 Ports on an OMT

Table 7-12 Ports on an OMT Port Antenna port V-polarized port Mark V Function Connects to an antenna. Connects to a vertically polarized OptiX RTN 310. Connects to a horizontally polarized OptiX RTN 310. Connector Type Dedicated to interconnection with an antenna 153IEC-R120 (for use at frequency band 13 GHz) 153IEC-R140 (for use at frequency band 15 GHz) 153IEC-R220 (for use at frequency band 18 GHz and 23 GHz) 0.219" diameter (for use at frequency band 38 GHz)

H-polarized port

7.3.3 Technical Specifications


The technical specifications of OMTs include electrical and mechanical specifications.
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Table 7-13 Electrical specifications of OMTs Freque ncy Band (GHz) 13 15 18 23 38 Frequency Range (GHz) Minimum CrossPolarization Discrimination (dB) 35 35 35 35 35 Standing Wave Radio at Ports 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 Minimum Point-toPoint Isolation (dB)

12.75 to 13.25 14.4 to 15.35 17.7 to 19.7 21.2 to 23.6 37.0 to 40.0

38 38 38 38 38

Table 7-14 Mechanical specifications of OMTs Item Dimensions (H x W x D) Weight Value 450 mm x 360 mm x 269 mm 5.79 kg

7.4 Extra Mounting Components


If OptiX RTN 310s or hybrid couplers are not to be directly mounted on their antennas, extra mounting components, including mounting brackets and flexible waveguides, are required to mount and connect them to their antennas.

7.4.1 Mounting Brackets


Mounting brackets help fix OptiX RTN 310s or hybrid couplers onto poles.

Appearance
Figure 7-9 shows a mounting bracket.

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Figure 7-9 Mounting bracket


2 1 4

1. Main fixture

2. Conversion bracket

3. Stay bolt

4. Double-headed nut

5. Assistant fixture

Mounting brackets can fit onto poles with diameters ranging from 51 mm to 114 mm. Mounting brackets are fixed on poles using main fixtures, assistant fixtures, stay bolts, and double-headed nuts. Conversion brackets are used to attach OptiX RTN 310s or hybrid couplers to main fixtures.

7.4.2 Flexible Waveguides


Flexible waveguides are rectangular in form. They connect antennas to the flange ports on OptiX RTN 310s or hybrid couplers.

Appearance
Figure 7-10 shows a flexible waveguide.

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Figure 7-10 Flexible waveguide

Technical Specifications
Table 7-15 lists the technical specifications of flexible waveguides. Table 7-15 Technical specifications of flexible waveguides Item Length (m) Specifications 0.6/0.9/1.2/1.8 (for use at frequency band 13 GHz) 0.6/0.9 (for use at frequency bands 15 GHz, 18 GHz, 23 GHz, and 38 GHz) Attenuation (dB) 0.3/0.5/0.6/0.9 (for use at frequency band 13 GHz, corresponding to lengths of flexible waveguides 0.6 m/0.9 m/1.2 m/1.8 m) 0.4/0.8 (for use at frequency band 15 GHz, corresponding to lengths of flexible waveguides 0.6 m/0.9 m) 0.75/1.2 (for use at frequency band 18 GHz and 23 GHz corresponding to lengths of flexible waveguides 0.6 m/0.9 m) 1.2/1.8 (for use at frequency band 38 GHz, corresponding to lengths of flexible waveguides 0.6 m/0.9 m) Flatness (dB) 0.2 (for use at frequency band 13 GHz) 0.3 (for use at frequency band 15 GHz) 0.5 (for use at frequency band 18 GHz, 23 GHz, and 38 GHz)
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Item Standing wave ratio

Specifications 1.1 (for use at frequency bands 13 GHz and 15 GHz) 1.2 (for use at frequency band 18 GHz, 23 GHz, and 38 GHz)

Port

On the side of an OptiX RTN 310 or a hybrid coupler On the antenna side

154IEC-PBR120 (for use at frequency band 13 GHz) 154IEC-PBR140 (for use at frequency band 15 GHz) 154IEC-PBR220 (for use at frequency band 18 GHz and 23 GHz) 154IEC-PBR320 (for use at frequency band 38 GHz) 220/ 330/ 440/ 660 (for use at frequency band 13 GHz, corresponding to lengths of flexible waveguides 0.6 m/0.9 m/1.2 m/1.8 m) 270/ 405 (for use at frequency band 15 GHz, corresponding to lengths of flexible waveguides 0.6 m/0.9 m) 310/ 465 (for use at frequency band 18 GHz and 23 GHz, corresponding to lengths of flexible waveguides 0.6 m/0.9 m) 310/ 465 (for use at frequency band 38 GHz, corresponding to lengths of flexible waveguides 0.6 m/0.9 m)

Maximum twist degree (assuming that a whole flexible waveguide is uniformly twisted)

Minimum E-bend radius

64 mm (for use at frequency band 13 GHz) 52 mm (for use at frequency band 15 GHz) 38 mm (for use at frequency band 18 GHz, 23 GHz, and 38 GHz)

Minimum H-bend radius

115 mm (for use at frequency band 13 GHz) 102 mm (for use at frequency band 15 GHz) 76 mm (for use at frequency band 18 GHz, 23 GHz, and 38 GHz)

7.5 Antennas
Radio equipment uses parabolic antennas to emit and receive electromagnetic waves. The antennas that are described in this document are parabolic antennas compatible with OptiX RTN 310s.

7.5.1 Types
Antennas are classified into single-polarized antennas and dual-polarized antennas.
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Single-polarized antennas emit or receive electromagnetic waves in a specific polarization direction. A single-polarized antenna provides a feed port, which can be set to vertically or horizontally polarized. Single-polarized antennas can also be classified into directly mounted antennas and separately mounted antennas based on how OptiX RTN 310s are installed. Single-polarized antennas with diameters of 1.8 meters or less support both direct and separate mounting, whereas those with diameters of more than 1.8 meters support only separate mounting. Figure 7-11 and Figure 7-12 show the feeds of single-polarized antennas. Figure 7-11 Feed of a single-polarized antenna with a diameter of 1.8 meters or less

Figure 7-12 Feed of a single-polarized antenna with a diameter more than 1.8 meters

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Dual-polarized antennas concurrently emit or receive vertically and horizontally polarized electromagnetic waves. Dual-polarized antennas can also be classified into directly mounted antennas and separately mounted antennas based on how OptiX RTN 310s are installed. Figure 7-13 and Figure 7-14 show the feeds of dual-polarized antennas. Figure 7-13 Feed of a separately mounted, dual-polarized antenna

Figure 7-14 Feed of a directly mounted, dual-polarized antenna

7.5.2 Functions and Features


Antennas convert between RF signals received from OptiX RTN 310s and electromagnetic waves radiated in free space.
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l l

In the transmit direction, antennas convert RF signals received from OptiX RTN 310s into directional electromagnetic waves and emit these waves into free space. In the receive direction, antennas receive and assemble electromagnetic waves from free space, convert these waves into RF signals, and transmit the RF signals to OptiX RTN 310s.

7.5.3 Working Principles


An antenna consists of a reflector, a feed, a radome, a shield, and a mounting bracket. Figure 7-15 shows the structure of an antenna.
NOTE

This section considers a single-polarized antenna as an example. A dual-polarized antenna has two feed ports and can concurrently transmit electromagnetic waves in both the vertical and horizontal polarization directions. The working principles of each component of a dual-polarized antenna are almost the same as those of its counterpart of a single-polarized antenna.

Figure 7-15 Antenna structure

1. Feed 4. Radome

2. Reflector 5. Mounting bracket

3. Shield -

The functions of each component of an antenna are described as follows: l Feeds A feed receives RF signals from an OptiX RTN 310 at its input port and transmits those signals to its output port through its waveguide. Located at the focal spot of the reflector, the output port of the feed is equivalent to a preliminary horn antenna and emits electromagnetic waves towards the reflector. You can rotate the feed to change the polarization direction of an antenna. Here, polarization direction refers to the polarization direction of emitted electromagnetic waves or the direction of an electrical field. Figure 7-16 shows the polarization directions that rectangular waveguides support.
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Antennas must have the same polarization directions as their connected OptiX RTN 310s or hybrid couplers. Antennas of certain types use feeds with round waveguides. To adjust the polarization directions of these antennas, follow their installation instructions and check their polarization marks.

Figure 7-16 Polarization directions that rectangular waveguides support

Vertical polarization

Horizontal polarization

Direction of an electrical field

Reflectors Generally taking the form of rotatable paraboloids, antenna reflectors reflect electromagnetic waves and increase directive gain. In the transmit direction, reflectors reflect the electromagnetic waves emitted from feeds so the reflected electromagnetic waves are directional. In the receive direction, reflectors focus the electromagnetic waves from free space to feeds' output ports.

Radomes Radomes protect antennas from being damaged by wind, rain, snow, or ice. Radomes do not prevent electromagnetic waves penetrating to the reflector.

l l

Shields Shields are installed on high-performance antennas and help prevent side-lobe radiation. Mounting brackets Mounting brackets are used to attach antennas onto poles and help achieve fine elevation and azimuth adjustments. Large antennas generally require reinforcing rods besides mounting brackets. For details, see specific antenna documentation.

7.5.4 Ports
Directly mounted, single-polarized antennas use waveguide ports as feed ports, whereas dualpolarized antennas and separately mounted, single-polarized antennas use flange ports as feed ports. Table 7-16 lists specifications of feed ports on antennas compatible with OptiX RTN 310s.

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Table 7-16 Specifications of feed ports on antennas Frequen cy Band Port Type Feed Port on SinglePolarized Antenna (Diameter 1.8 meters) Feed Port on Directly Mounted, DualPolarized Antenna Feed Port on SinglePolarized Antenna (Diameter > 1.8 meters) or Separately Mounted, DualPolarized Antenna 154IEC-UBR120 154IEC-UBR140 154IEC-UBR220 154IEC-UBR320

13 GHz 15 GHz 18 GHz/ 23 GHz 38 GHz

153IEC-R120 153IEC-R140 153IEC-R220 154IEC-R320

153IEC-R120 153IEC-R140 153IEC-R220 154IEC-R320

7.5.5 Antenna Diameters


Antennas of different types or operating at different frequency bands are available in a wide variety of diameters. Table 7-17 to Table 7-19 list diameters that antennas of different types support. "Yes" indicates that the corresponding antenna diameter is supported. "NA" indicates that the corresponding antenna diameter is not supported. Table 7-17 Diameters of single-polarized antennas Freque ncy Band 13 GHz 15 GHz 18 GHz 23 GHz 38 GHz Antenna Diameter 0.3 m Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 0.6 m Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 0.9 m Yes Yes Yes Yes NA 1.0 m Y Y Y Y NA 1.2 m Yes Yes Yes Yes NA 1.8 m Yes Yes Yes Yes NA 2.4 m Yes NA NA NA NA 3.0 m Yes NA NA NA NA 3.7 m NA NA NA NA NA

Table 7-18 Diameters of separately mounted, dual-polarized antennas Freque ncy Band 13 GHz
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Freque ncy Band 15 GHz 18 GHz 23 GHz 38 GHz

Antenna Diameter 0.3 m NA NA NA Yes 0.6 m Yes Yes Yes Yes 0.9 m Yes Yes Yes NA 1.2 m Yes Yes Yes NA 1.8 m Yes Yes Yes NA 2.4 m NA NA NA NA 3.0 m NA NA NA NA 3.7 m NA NA NA NA

Table 7-19 Diameters of directly mounted, dual-polarized antennas Frequenc y Band 13 GHz 15 GHz 18 GHz 23 GHz 38 GHz Antenna Diameter 0.3 m Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 0.6 m Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 0.9 m Yes Yes Yes Yes NA 1m Yes Yes Yes Yes NA 1.2 m Yes Yes Yes Yes NA 1.8 m Yes Yes Yes Yes NA

7.5.6 Technical Specifications


The technical specifications of antennas include electrical and mechanical specifications. The electrical specifications of antennas include the antenna gain, half-power beamwidth, standing wave ratio, and front-to-back ratio. The mechanical specifications of antennas include the dimensions, weight, anti-wind capability, and anti-snow/ice capability. Huawei provides complete antenna portfolios. For information about antenna specifications, contact Huawei.

7.6 Antenna Adapters


If OptiX RTN 310s need to be directly mounted on inapplicable antennas, antenna adapters are required.

Appearance and Ports


Figure 7-17 shows the appearance and ports of an antenna adapter.

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Figure 7-17 Appearance and ports of an antenna adapter

1. Port on the OptiX RTN 310/hybrid coupler 2. Polarization mark 3. Port on the antenna side 4. Hook trough side

Technical Specifications
Table 7-20 lists the technical specifications of antenna adapters. Table 7-20 Technical specifications of antenna adapters Item Insertion loss Standing wave ratio Port On the antenna side Specifications 0.2 dB (for use at frequency bands 13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz, 23 GHz and 38 GHz) 1.2 (for use at frequency bands 13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz, 23 GHz and 38 GHz) 153IEC-R120 (for use at frequency band 13 GHz) 153IEC-R140 (for use at frequency band 15 GHz) 153IEC-R220 (for use at frequency band 18 GHz and 23 GHz) 0.219-inch dia Circular (for use at frequency band 38 GHz) On the OptiX RTN 310/hybrid coupler side 153IEC-R120, which can be connected to a PBR120 (for use at frequency band 13 GHz) 153IEC-R140, which can be connected to a PBR140 (for use at frequency band 15 GHz) 153IEC-R220, which can be connected to a PBR220 (for use at frequency band 18 GHz and 23 GHz) 154IEC-R320, which can be connected to a PBR320 (for use at frequency band 38 GHz) Weight 2.5 kg

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Labels
Antenna adapters have nameplate labels and bar codes providing adapter information. l Nameplate label Figure 7-18 shows a nameplate label attached to an antenna adapter. Figure 7-18 Nameplate label attached to an antenna adapter

Table 7-21 describes information provided on a nameplate label. Table 7-21 Description of a nameplate label Label Informatio n Name Content Example Parameter Parameter Meaning

1: frequency Indicates the band frequency band at which the antenna adapter operates: 13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz, 23 GHz or 38 GHz. 2: component name Indicates that the component is an antenna adapter. Identifies an antenna adapter type.

Item code (ITEM)

Bar code Table 7-22 shows the bar code of an antenna adapter and describes the meaning of the bar code.

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Table 7-22 Bar code Name Bar code Appearance Meaning Indicates the serial number of an antenna adapter and uniquely identifies the antenna adapter.

7.7 USB Flash Drives


Configuring, replacing, and upgrading OptiX RTN 310s is simple with USB flash drives, which store NE data and new software to be installed, and are also used to back up configuration data.

Functions and Features


USB flash drives prepared for OptiX RTN 310s store NE software, configuration data (including databases, system parameters, and scripts), and license files. l Equipment software, scripts, and license files stored in USB flash drives are installed on OptiX RTN 310s for deployment and commissioning. With this system, users do not need to configure data on site. Software, patch packages, license files, NE databases, and system parameters are backed up to USB flash drives. This avoids the need to reconfigure data when replacing a OptiX RTN 310. Software of target versions stored in USB flash drives are imported to OptiX RTN 310s.

Application Scenario
l For deployment and commissioning of the OptiX RTN 310, the license, scripts, and software are stored on a USB flash drive. After the USB flash drive is plugged in and functioning, the OptiX RTN 310 downloads software, scripts, and license in sequence. For an upgrade or downgrade of the OptiX RTN 310, only the software of the target version is stored on a USB flash drive. After the USB flash drive is plugged in and functioning, the OptiX RTN 310 compares the versions of the running software and the software stored on the USB flash drive. If the versions are not the same, the OptiX RTN 310 automatically downloads the software from the USB flash drive for an upgrade or downgrade. During OptiX RTN 310 replacement, an empty USB flash drive is inserted into a faulty device, which automatically backs up its data to the drive. After the faulty device is replaced, the drive holding the backup data is inserted into the new device, which automatically downloads the backed up NE data, software, license, and system parameters and restores the NE data.

Data uploading
A USB flash drive contains the following folders: l The root directory stores a RTN.CER file.
NOTE

The RTN.CER file, which stores administrator-level account and password information, is used for authenticating the USB flash drive. The file is generated by a system administrator at the NMC using a dedicated tool.

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l l l l l

pkg: stores the NE software. patch: stores the patch software. sysdata: stores system parameters. script: stores scripts. db: stores NE databases.

When a USB flash drive is connected to an OptiX RTN 310, the OptiX RTN 310 checks the folders on the USB flash drive in the following order: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Checks for the RTN.CER file in the root directory. If the file exists, the USB flash drive is authenticated. Otherwise, the USB flash drive fails to be identified. Checks the NE software folder pkg. If the NE software version is different from that of the local OptiX RTN 310, the OptiX RTN 310 upgrades its software. Checks the patch software folder patch. If the patch software version is different from that of the local OptiX RTN 310, the OptiX RTN 310 loads the patch software from the folder. Checks the system parameter folder sysdata. If the folder contains data, the OptiX RTN 310 imports system parameters from the folder. Checks the script folder script. If the folder contains data, the OptiX RTN 310 imports script data from the folder. Checks the database folder db. If the folder contains data, the OptiX RTN 310 loads the database from the folder. Checks the license folder license. If the folder contains the license, the OptiX RTN 310 loads the license from the folder. If any of the preceding folders contains no data or does not exist, the OptiX RTN 310 checks the next folder. If the OptiX RTN 310 finds none of the preceding folders, it exports its data to the USB flash drive.

Ensure that USB flash drives have only the preceding folders, as extra folders may lead to malfunctions. The following are working principles of USB flash drives in various scenarios:
NOTE

A device reads data from a USB flash drive at different rates in different scenarios. The user can check whether the device is reading data from a USB flash drive by observing the USB port or USB flash drive indicator.

Types of USB Flash Drives


Table 7-23 lists the types of USB flash drives supported by the OptiX RTN 310. Not all USB flash drives are supported by the OptiX RTN 310. If a USB flash drive of another model or capacity is required, confirm with the local Huawei representative office that the USB flash drive is supported by the OptiX RTN 310. Table 7-23 Types of USB flash drives No. 1 Manufacturer Netac Model U208 Capacity 4 GB

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8
About This Chapter

Cables

This chapter describes the purposes, appearances, and connections of various cables used with OptiX RTN 310s. 8.1 OptiX RTN 310 Power Cables Power cables connect OptiX RTN 310s to power supply devices and supply them with -48 V power. 8.2 PI Power Cables PI power cables connect PIs to power supply devices and supply them with -48 V power. 8.3 P&E Cables P&E cables connect OptiX RTN 310s to PIs and transmit GE service signals, -48 V power signals, and network management signals. 8.4 OptiX RTN 310 PGND Cables PGND cables are connected to ground screws and outdoor ground points (such as ground points on towers) so that the OptiX RTN 310 is connected to the outdoor ground grid. 8.5 PI PGND Cables PI PGND cables also connect outdoor PIs to outdoor ground points (for example, ground points on towers), so outdoor PIs connect to outdoor ground grids. 8.6 XPIC Cables An XPIC cable transmits reference IF signals between the two OptiX RTN 310s in an XPIC group to implement XPIC. 8.7 RSSI Cables Received signal strength indicator (RSSI) cables connect RSSI ports of OptiX RTN 310s to multimeters. 8.8 Optical Fibers OptiX RTN 310s use optical fibers with DLC/UPC connectors at both ends to transmit optical signals. 8.9 Outdoor Network Cables

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Fitted with RJ45 connectors at both ends, outdoor network cables connect outdoor power injectors (PIs) to indoor Ethernet equipment.

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8.1 OptiX RTN 310 Power Cables


Power cables connect OptiX RTN 310s to power supply devices and supply them with -48 V power. OptiX RTN 310 power cables are shielded outdoor cables with outdoor protection capabilities, such as water resistance.

Cable Diagram
Figure 8-1 OptiX RTN 310 power cable
Connector View A Cable jacket 0 V PGND cable (brown)

-48 V power cable (blue)

Cable Parameters
Table 8-1 Cable parameters Cable OptiX RTN 310 power cable Cable Parameter Power cable, 600 V/1000 V, ROV-K, 4 mm2, black jacket (core in blue/brown), 36 A, shielded outdoor cable Terminal Parameter Waterproof round connector, 2-pin, 500 V, 30 A, straight female, 4 mm2 (12 AWG), matching cables with external diameters ranging from 9.7 mm to 12.3 mm

NOTE

Power cables can extend for a maximum distance of 300 m.

8.2 PI Power Cables


PI power cables connect PIs to power supply devices and supply them with -48 V power.

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Cable Diagram
Figure 8-2 Outdoor-PI power cable

OT terminal

-48V power (blue)

0V power ground (brown)

Cable Parameters
Table 8-2 Cable parameters Cable Outdoor-PI power cable Cable Parameter Power cable, 600 V, ROV-K, 2.5 mm2, black jacket (the color of core is blue and brown), 27 A, shielded style outdoor cable Terminal Parameter OT terminal, M4, 2.5 mm2

8.3 P&E Cables


P&E cables connect OptiX RTN 310s to PIs and transmit GE service signals, -48 V power signals, and network management signals. P&E cables are available in 12-core and 8-core cables. l A 12-core P&E cable connects an OptiX RTN 310 to a PI. Four cores of the cable transmit network management signals and the other eight cores transmit GE electrical signals and -48 V power signals. An 8-core P&E cable connects an OptiX RTN 310 to an EG4P board on an OptiX RTN 900. All its eight cores transmit GE electrical signals and -48 V power signals.

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Cable Diagram
Figure 8-3 12-core P&E cable

Label 1 Main label P&E port connected to an OptiX RTN 310 A Label 2 H.S. tube

View B B

P&E port connected to a PI

MGMT port connected to a PI C

Label 1: P&E Label 2: MGMT

View C View A

Figure 8-4 8-core P&E cable


Main label P&E port connected to an OptiX RTN 310 A Label 1 P&E port connected to an OptiX RTN 900 B

Label 1: P&E

View B

View A

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Pin Assignments
Table 8-3 Pin assignments for P&E cables Connector X1 X1.1 Connector X2/X3 X2.1 Color White/ Orange Signal BIDA+/ BGND Function Bidirectional data wire A (+)/Power ground (0 V) Bidirectional data wire A (-)/Power ground (0 V) Bidirectional data wire B (+)/Power signal (-48 V) Twisted pair Relationsh ip Twisted pair

X1.2

X2.2

Orange

BIDA-/ BGND

X1.3

X2.3

White/Green

BIDB+/-48 V

X1.4

X2.6

Green

BIDB-/-48 V Bidirectional data wire B (-)/Power signal (-48 V) BIDC+/ BGND Bidirectional data wire C (+)/Power ground (0 V) Bidirectional data wire C (-)/Power ground (0 V) Bidirectional data wire D (+)/Power signal (-48 V) Bidirectional data wire D (-)/Power signal (-48 V) Transmitting data (+) Twisted pair Twisted pair Twisted pair

X1.5

X2.4

Blue

X1.6

X2.5

White/Blue

BIDC-/ BGND

X1.7

X2.7

White/ Brown

BIDD+/-48 V

X1.8

X2.8

Brown

BIDD-/-48 V

X1.9 (only for 12-core P&E cables)

X3.1 (only for 12-core P&E cables)

Red/Orange

TX+

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Connector X1 X1.10 (only for 12-core P&E cables) X1.11 (only for 12-core P&E cables) X1.12 (only for 12-core P&E cables) Shield layer

Connector X2/X3 X3.2 (only for 12-core P&E cables) X3.3 (only for 12-core P&E cables) X3.6 (only for 12-core P&E cables) Shield layer

Color Orange

Signal TX-

Function Transmitting data (-) Receiving data (+) Receiving data (-) -

Relationsh ip

Red/Green

RX+

Twisted pair

Green

RX-

Length
Both 12-core and 8-core P&E cables are available in four lengths: l l l l 30 m 50 m 70 m 100 m

Select among the preceding lengths depending on distances between OptiX RTN 310s and power supply devices, or make cables with site-specific lengths (a maximum length of 100 ms is allowed).

8.4 OptiX RTN 310 PGND Cables


PGND cables are connected to ground screws and outdoor ground points (such as ground points on towers) so that the OptiX RTN 310 is connected to the outdoor ground grid.

Cable Diagram
Figure 8-5 OptiX RTN 310 PGND cable
1 2

1500 mm

1. Bare crimp terminal, OT

2. Base of the ground clip

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8.5 PI PGND Cables


PI PGND cables also connect outdoor PIs to outdoor ground points (for example, ground points on towers), so outdoor PIs connect to outdoor ground grids.

Cable Diagram
Figure 8-6 Outdoor-PI PGND cable
1 2

1500 mm

1. Bare crimp terminal, OT

2. Base of a ground clip

8.6 XPIC Cables


An XPIC cable transmits reference IF signals between the two OptiX RTN 310s in an XPIC group to implement XPIC. OptiX RTN 310s use high-speed outdoor SFP cables as XPIC cables.

Cable Diagram
Figure 8-7 XPIC cable
View A

1. SFP20 male connector

2. Protective tube

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Cable Parameters
Table 8-4 Cable parameters Cable SFP high-speed cable Parameter 2 meters, SFP20M, CC2P0.5 black, SFP20M, low smoke, zero halogen, ultraviolet-resistant for outdoor use

8.7 RSSI Cables


Received signal strength indicator (RSSI) cables connect RSSI ports of OptiX RTN 310s to multimeters.

Cable Diagram
Figure 8-8 RSSI cable
Main label H.S. tube Tin W A Connected to a multimeter testing RSSI Connected to port RSSI on an OptiX RTN Smart X1 View A

Pin Assignments
An RSSI cable uses two cores to detect level signals. Table 8-5 Pin assignments for RSSI cables Connector X1 X1.4 X1.7 Signal Ground signal RSSI test level signal

8.8 Optical Fibers


OptiX RTN 310s use optical fibers with DLC/UPC connectors at both ends to transmit optical signals.

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Fiber Diagram
Figure 8-9 Optical fiber
Yellow Identifier

DLC/UPC

DLC/UPC Junction implement (With glue)(Black) Blue

NOTE

l Fiber connectors must be fit into outdoor protective tubes. l Optical fibers already have correct receive/transmit connections at both ends.

Technical Specifications
Table 8-6 Technical specifications of optical fibers Connector Type DLC/UPC Fiber Parameter Single-mode, GYFJH 2B1.3 (low smoke and zero halogen), 7.0 mm, 2-core, 0.03 m/0.34 m, 2 mm, outdoor protected branch cable Multi-mode, GYFJH 2A1a (low smoke zero halogen), 7.0 mm, 2-core, 0.03 m/0.34 m, 2 mm, outdoor protected branch cable

DLC/UPC

Optical fibers for GE optical ports are available in 10 lengths, ranging from 10 meters to 150 meters. Select optical fibers of appropriate lengths based on transmission distances. Optical fibers for 1+1 cascade ports are available in two lengths, 2 meters and 20 meters. A 2meter optical fiber is used when 1+1 hot standby (HSB) or 1+1 frequency diversity (FD) protection is configured. A 20-meter optical fiber is used when 1+1 space diversity (SD) protection is configured. You can use optical fibers of appropriate lengths if the two lengths cannot meet onsite requirements.

8.9 Outdoor Network Cables


Fitted with RJ45 connectors at both ends, outdoor network cables connect outdoor power injectors (PIs) to indoor Ethernet equipment. Two types of interfaces use RJ45 connectors: medium dependent interfaces (MDIs) and medium dependent interface crossovers (MDI-Xs). MDIs are used by terminal equipment (for example, network cards) and their pin assignments are provided in Table 8-7. MDI-Xs are used by network equipment and their pin assignments are provided in Table 8-8.
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Table 8-7 Pin assignments for MDIs Pin 10/100BASE-T(X) Signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TX+ TXRX+ Reserved Reserved RXReserved Reserved Function Transmitting data (+) Transmitting data (-) Receiving data (+) Receiving data (-) 1000BASE-T Signal BIDA+ BIDABIDB+ BIDC+ BIDCBIDBBIDD+ BIDDFunction Bidirectional data wire A (+) Bidirectional data wire A (-) Bidirectional data wire B (+) Bidirectional data wire C (+) Bidirectional data wire C (-) Bidirectional data wire B (-) Bidirectional data wire D (+) Bidirectional data wire D (-)

Table 8-8 Pin assignments for MDI-Xs Pin 10/100BASE-T(X) Signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RX+ RXTX+ Reserved Reserved TXReserved Function Receiving data (+) Receiving data (-) Transmitting data (+) Transmitting data (-) 1000BASE-T Signal BIDB+ BIDBBIDA+ BIDD+ BIDDBIDABIDC+ Function Bidirectional data wire B (+) Bidirectional data wire B (-) Bidirectional data wire A (+) Bidirectional data wire D (+) Bidirectional data wire D (-) Bidirectional data wire A (-) Bidirectional data wire C (+)

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Pin

10/100BASE-T(X) Signal Function -

1000BASE-T Signal BIDCFunction Bidirectional data wire C (-)

Reserved

Straight-through cables are used between MDIs and MDI-Xs, and crossover cables are used between MDIs or between MDI-Xs. The only difference between straight-through cables and crossover cables is with regard to their pin assignments. The NMS ports and GE electrical ports of PIs support the MDI, MDI-X, and auto-MDI/MDIX modes. Straight-through cables and crossover cables can be used to connect NMS ports and GE electrical ports to MDIs or MDI-Xs. Straight-through cables are recommended if network cables are made onsite.

Cable Diagram
Figure 8-10 Network cable
1 Label 1 Main Label Label 2 8 1

8 1

1. Network port connector, RJ45

Pin Assignments
Table 8-9 Pin assignments for straight-through cables Connector X1 X1.1 X1.2 X1.3 X1.6 X1.4 X1.5 X1.7 X1.8 Braided shield Connector X2 X2.1 X2.2 X2.3 X2.6 X2.4 X2.5 X2.7 X2.8 Color White/Orange Orange White/Green Green Blue White/Blue White/Brown Brown Twisted pair Twisted pair Twisted pair Relationship Twisted pair

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Table 8-10 Pin assignments for crossover cables Connector X1 X1.1 X1.2 X1.3 X1.6 X1.4 X1.5 X1.7 X1.8 Braided shield Connector X2 X2.3 X2.6 X2.1 X2.2 X2.4 X2.5 X2.7 X2.8 Color White/Green Green White/Orange Orange Blue White/Blue White/Brown Brown Twisted pair Twisted pair Twisted pair Relationship Twisted pair

NOTE

When an outdoor PI is installed indoors or connects to a personal computer, you can use a network cable without the braided shield.

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A Appendix

A
A.2 Compliance Standards

Appendix

A.1 Port Loopbacks The loopback capabilities of ports on the OptiX RTN 310 differ based on the port type.

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A.1 Port Loopbacks


The loopback capabilities of ports on the OptiX RTN 310 differ based on the port type. Table A-1 Port loopbacks Port Type Microwave port Loopback Capability l Inloops at the IF port l Outloops at the IF port l Inloops at the composite port l Outloops at the composite port l Inloops at the MAC layer GE port l Inloops at the MAC layer l Inloops at the PHY layer

A.2 Compliance Standards


A.2.1 ITU-R Standards
The OptiX RTN 310 complies with the ITU-R standards designed for microwave equipment. Table A-2 ITU-R standard Standard ITU-R F.497-7 ITU-R F.636-3 ITU-R F.749-2 ITU-R F.1191-2 ITU-R SM.329-10 ITU-R P.676-8 ITU-R P.530-13 ITU-R P.453-9 ITU-R P.525
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Description Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay systems operating in the 13 GHz frequency band Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay systems operating in the 15 GHz band Radio-frequency arrangements for systems of the fixed service operating in the 38 GHz band Bandwidths and unwanted emissions of digital radio-relay systems Unwanted emissions in the spurious domain Attenuation by atmospheric gases Propagation data and prediction methods required for the design of terrestrial line-of-sight systems The radio refractive index: its formula and refractivity data Calculation of free-space attenuation
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Standard ITU-R P.837-5 ITU-R P.838-3 ITU-R F.1093 ITU-R F.1101 ITU-R F.1102 ITU-R F.1605 ITU-R F.1703 ITU-R F.592 ITU-R F.746

Description Characteristics of precipitation for propagation modelling Specific attenuation model for rain for use in prediction methods Effects of multipath propagation on the design and operation of lineof-sight digital fixed wireless systems Characteristics of digital fixed wireless systems below about 17 GHz Characteristics of fixed wireless systems operating in frequency bands above about 17 GHz Error performance and availability estimation for synchronous digital hierarchy terrestrial fixed wireless systems Availability objectives for real digital fixed wireless links used in 27 500 km hypothetical reference paths and connections Vocabulary of terms for the fixed service Radio-frequency arrangements for fixed service systems Hypothetical reference digital path for radio-relay systems which may form part of an integrated services digital network with a capacity above the second hierarchical level Radiation pattern of reference antennas for fixed wireless systems used for coordination studies and interference assessment in the frequency range between 100 MHz and 70 GHz

ITU-R F.556

ITU-R F.699-7

A.2.2 ITU-T Standards


The OptiX RTN 310 complies with the ITU-T standards. Table A-3 ITU-T standard Standard ITU-T G.8011 ITU-T G.8011.1 ITU-T G.8011.2 ITU-T G.8261 ITU-T G.8262 ITU-T G.8264 Description Ethernet over Transport - Ethernet services framework Ethernet private line service Ethernet virtual private line service Timing and synchronization aspects in packet networks Timing characteristics of synchronous Ethernet equipment slave clock (EEC) Timing distribution through packet networks

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Standard ITU-T G.8031 ITU-T G.8032 ITU-T Y.1730 ITU-T Y.1731 ITU-T G.8010 ITU-T G.8021 ITU-T Y.1291 ITU-T K.20

Description Ethernet protection switching Ethernet ring protection switching Requirements for OAM functions in Ethernet based networks and Ethernet services OAM functions and mechanisms for Ethernet based networks Architecture of Ethernet layer networks Characteristics of Ethernet transport network equipment functional blocks An architectural framework for support of quality of service (QoS) in packet networks Resistibility of telecommunication equipment installed in a telecommunications centre to overvoltages and overcurrents Resistibility of telecommunication equipment installed in customer premises to overvoltages and overcurrents Bonding configurations and earthing inside a telecommunication building

ITU-T K.21

ITU-T K.27

A.2.3 ETSI Standards


The OptiX RTN 310 complies with the ETSI standards designed for microwave equipment. Table A-4 ETSI standard Standard ETSI EN 302 217-1 V1.3.1 ETSI EN 302 217-2-1 V1.3.1 Description Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-topoint equipment and antennas; Part 1: Overview and systemindependent common characteristics Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-topoint equipment and antennas; Part 2-1: System-dependent requirements for digital systems operating in frequency bands where frequency co-ordination is applied Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-topoint equipment and antennas; Part 2-2: Harmonized EN covering essential requirements of Article 3.2 of R&TTE Directive for digital systems operating in frequency bands where frequency co-ordination is applied

ETSI EN 302 217-2-2 V1.4.1

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Standard ETSI EN 302 217-3 V1.4.1

Description Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-topoint equipment and antennas; Part 3: Harmonized EN covering essential requirements of Article 3.2 of R&TTE Directive for equipment operating in frequency bands where no frequency coordination is applied Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-topoint equipment and antennas; Part 4-1: System-dependent requirements for antennas Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-topoint equipment and antennas; Part 4-2: Harmonized EN covering essential requirements of Article 3.2 of R&TTE Directive for antennas Fixed Radio Systems; Conformance testing; Part 1: Point-to-Point equipment - Definitions, general requirements and test procedures Fixed Radio Systems; Conformance testing; Part 3-1: Point-to-Point antennas; Definitions, general requirements and test procedures Fixed Radio Systems; Point-to-point and Multipoint Systems; Spurious emissions and receiver immunity limits at equipment/ antenna port of Digital Fixed Radio Systems Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard for fixed radio links and ancillary equipment Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Telecommunication network equipment; ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters(ERM); Electromagnetic Compatibility(EMC) standard for radio equipment and services; Part 1: Common technical requirements Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters(ERM); Electromagnetic Compatibility(EMC) standard for radio equipment and services; Part 4: Specific conditions for fixed radio links and ancillary equipment and services Transmission and Multiplexing (TM);Study on the electromagnetic radiated field in fixed radio systems for environmental issuesStudy on the electromagnetic radiated field in fixed radio systems for environmental issues Environmental Engineering (EE); Power supply interface at the input to telecommunications equipment; Part 2: Operated by direct current (dc) Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment; Part 1-1: Classification of environmental conditions;Storage Class 1.2

ETSI EN 302 217-4-1 V1.4.1 ETSI EN 302 217-4-2 V1.5.1

ETSI EN 301 126-1 V1.1.2 ETSI EN 301 126-3-1 V1.1.2 ETSI EN 301 390 V1.2.1 ETSI EN 300 385

ETSI EN 300 386

ETSI EN 301 489-1 V1.8.1 ETSI EN 301 489-4 V1.3.1

ETSI TR 102 457 V1.1.1

ETSI EN 300 132-2 V2.2.2 ETSI EN 300 019-1-1(Class 1.2) V2.1.4

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Standard ETSI EN 300 019-1-2(Class 2.3) V2.1.4 ETSI EN 300 019-2-4 V2.2.2

Description Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment;Part 1-2: Classification of environmental conditions; Transportation Class 2.3 Environmental Engineering (EE); Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment; Part 2-4: Specification of environmental tests; Stationary use at nonweatherprotected locations Thermal Management Guidance for equipment and its deployment Equipment Engineering; Earthing and bonding of telecommunication equipment in telecommunication centres

ETSI TR 102 489 V1.1.1 ETSI ETS 300 253 (1995)

A.2.4 CEPT Standards


OptiX RTN 310 complies with the CEPT standards. Table A-5 CEPT Standards Standard ERC/REC 74-01 ERC/REC 12-02 Description Unwanted Emissions in the Spurious Domain Harmonized radio frequency channel arrangements for analogue and digital terrestrial fixed systems operating in the band 12.75 GHz to 13.25 GHz Harmonized radio frequency channel arrangements for digital terrestrial fixed systems operating in the band 14.5 - 14.62 GHz paired with 15.23 - 15.35 GHz Harmonized radio frequency channel arrangements for analogue and digital terrestrial fixed systems operating in the band 37-39.5 GHz

ERC/REC 12-07

T/R 12-01

A.2.5 IEC Standards


The OptiX RTN 310 complies with the IEC standards related to the waveguide. Table A-6 IEC standards Standard IEC 60154-1 IEC 60154-2 Description Flanges for waveguides. Part 1: General requirements Flanges for waveguides. Part 2: Relevant specifications for flanges for ordinary rectangular waveguides
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Standard IEC 60154-3 IEC 60154-4 IEC 60154-6 IEC 60154-7 IEC 60153-1 IEC 60153-2 IEC 60153-3 IEC 60153-4 IEC 60153-6 IEC 60153-7 IEC 60215 IEC 60825 IEC 60950-1 IEC 60657 IEC 60297 IEC 60529 IEC 721-3-4

Description Flanges for waveguides. Part 3: Relevant specifications for flanges for flat rectangular waveguides Flanges for waveguides. Part 4: Relevant specifications for flanges for circular waveguides Flanges for waveguides. Part 6: Relevant specifications for flanges for medium flat rectangular waveguides Flanges for waveguides - Part 7: Relevant specifications for flanges for square waveguides Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 1 : General requirements and measuring methods Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 2 : Relevant specifications for ordinary rectangular waveguides Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 3 : Relevant specifications for flat rectangular waveguides Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 4 : Relevant specifications for circular waveguides Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 6 : Relevant specifications for medium flat rectangular waveguides Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 7 : Relevant specifications for square waveguides Safety requirements for radio transmitting equipment Safety of laser products Information technology equipment - Safety Non-ionizing radiation hazards in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 300 000 MHz Dimensions of mechanical structures of the 482.6 mm (19 in) series Degrees of protection provided by enclosures Classification of environmental conditions - Part 3: Classification of groups of environmental parameters and their severities - Section 4: Stationary use at non-weather protected locations. Classes 4K2/4Z5/4Z7/4B1/4C2(4C3)/4S2/4M5(Outdoor Unit) Electromagnetic compatibility(EMC) Part 2:Testing and measurement techniques Section 2:Electrostatic discharge immunity test Basic EMC Publication Electromagnetic compatibility; Part 3:Testing and measurement techniques Section 3 radio frequency electromagnetic fields; immunity test.

IEC 61000-4-2

IEC 61000-4-3

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Standard IEC 61000-4-4

Description Electromagnetic compatibility(EMC) Part 4:Testing and measurement techniques Section 4:Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test Basic EMC publication Electromagnetic compatibility(EMC) Part 5:Testing and measurement techniques Section 5:Sruge immunity test Electromagnetic compatibility: Part 6:Testing and measurement techniques: Section 6 conducted disturbances induced by radio-frequency fields; immunity test Electromagnetic compatibility: Part 29:Testing and measurement techniques Voltage dips, short interruptinns and voltage variations on DC input power port immunity tests

IEC 61000-4-5 IEC 61000-4-6

IEC 61000-4-29

A.2.6 IETF Standards


The OptiX RTN 310 complies with IETF standards. Table A-7 IETF standards Standard RFC 791 RFC 2819 draft-ietf-l2vpn-oam-reqfrmk-05 draft-ietf-l2vpn-signaling-08 RFC 4664 RFC 3916 RFC 3289 RFC 3644 RFC 3670 RFC 2212 RFC 2474 RFC 2475 Description Internet Protocol Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base L2VPN OAM requirements and framework Provisioning, autodiscovery, and signaling in L2VPNs Framework for layer 2 virtual private networks (L2VPNs) Requirements for pseudo-wire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) Management information base for the differentiated services architecture Policy quality of service (QoS) Information model Information model for describing network device QoS datapath mechanisms Specification of guaranteed quality of service Definition of the Differentiated Services Field(DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers An architecture for differentiated services

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Standard STD 0062

Description An Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks

A.2.7 IEEE Standards


The OptiX RTN 310 complies with the IEEE standards designed for Ethernet networks. Table A-8 IEEE standards Standard IEEE 802.1D IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.1Q IEEE 802.1ag IEEE 802.3ah IEEE 802.3x IEEE 802.3ad Description Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks Amendment 5: Connectivity Fault Management Media Access Control Parameters, Physical Layers, and Management Parameters for Subscriber Access Networks Supplements to Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications Link Aggregation Task Force

A.2.8 Other Standards


This section describes other standards with which the OptiX RTN 310 complies. Table A-9 Other standards Standard MEF 2 MEF 4 MEF 9 MEF 10 MEF 14 Description Requirements and framework for Ethernet service protection in metro Ethernet networks Metro Ethernet network architecture framework - Part 1: generic framework Abstract Test Suite for Ethernet Services at the UNI Ethernet services attributes phase 1 Abstract Test Suite for Traffic Management Phase 1

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A Appendix

Standard AF-PHY-0086.001 AF-TM-0121.000 CISPR 22(1997) CISPR 24(1998) EN 50383

Description AF-PHY-0086.001 Inverse Multiplexing for ATM Specification Version 1.1 Traffic Management Specification limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics of information Information Technology Equipment - Immunity characteristics Limits and methods measurement Basic standard for the calculation and measurement of electromagnetic field strength and SAR related to human exposure from radio base stations and fixed terminal stations for wireless telecommunications system (110 MHz - 40 GHz) Product standard to demonstrate the compliances of radio base stations and fixed terminal stations for wireless telecommunication systems with the basic restrictions or the reference levels related to human exposure to ratio frequency electromagnetic fields(110MHz-40GHz)General public Information technology equipment - Radio disturbance characteristics - Limits and methods of measurement (IEC/CISPR 22:1997, modified + A1:2000); German version EN 55022:1998 + Corrigendum:2001 + A1:2000 Information technology equipment - Immunity characteristics - Limits and methods of measurement Particular safety requirements for equipment to be connected to telecommunication networks; Safety of laser products Safety of information technology equipment Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP code) (IEC 60529:1989 + A1:1999): German version EN 60529:1991 + A1:2000

EN 50385

EN 55022

EN 55024 EN 41003 EN 60825 EN 60950-1 EN 60529

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B
Numerics 3G 3rd Generation (3G) See 3rd Generation. A ABR ACAP ACL AF AIS AM ARP ASBR ATM ATPC Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) access control list (ACL) adaptive modulation (AM) See area border router. See adjacent channel alternate polarization. See access control list. See assured forwarding. alarm indication signal See adaptive modulation. See Address Resolution Protocol. See autonomous system boundary router. asynchronous transfer mode See automatic transmit power control.

Glossary

The third generation of digital wireless technology, as defined by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Third generation technology is expected to deliver data transmission speeds between 144 kbit/s and 2 Mbit/s, compared to the 9.6 kbit/s to 19.2 kbit/s offered by second generation technology.

An Internet Protocol used to map IP addresses to MAC addresses. It allows hosts and routers to determine the link layer addresses through ARP requests and ARP responses. A list of entities, together with their access rights, which are authorized to have access to a resource. A technology that is used to automatically adjust the modulation mode according to the channel quality. When the channel quality is favorable, the equipment uses a highefficiency modulation mode to improve the transmission efficiency and the spectrum utilization of the system. When the channel quality is degraded, the equipment uses the low-efficiency modulation mode to improve the anti-interference capability of the link that carries high-priority services.

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adjacent channel alternate polarization (ACAP) air interface alarm suppression area border router (ABR) assured forwarding (AF)

A channel configuration method, which uses two adjacent channels (a horizontal polarization wave and a vertical polarization wave) to transmit two signals. The interface between the cellular phone set or wireless modem (usually portable or mobile) and the active base station. An alarm management method. Alarms that are set to be suppressed are not reported from NEs any more. A router that can belong to more than two areas of which one area must be a backbone area. One of the four per-hop behaviors (PHB) defined by the Diff-Serv workgroup of IETF. It is suitable for certain key data services that require assured bandwidth and short delay. For traffic within the bandwidth limit, AF assures quality in forwarding. For traffic that exceeds the bandwidth limit, AF degrades the service class and continues to forward the traffic instead of discarding the packets.

automatic transmit A method of adjusting the transmit power based on fading of the transmit signal detected power control (ATPC) at the receiver autonomous system boundary router (ASBR) B BE BIOS backup See best effort. See basic input/output system. A periodic operation performed on the data stored in the database for the purposes of database recovery in case that the database is faulty. The backup also refers to data synchronization between active and standby boards. A range of transmission frequencies that a transmission line or channel can carry in a network. In fact, it is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies the transmission line or channel. The greater the bandwidth, the faster the data transfer rate. A form of modulation in which the information is applied directly onto the physical transmission medium. A firmware stored in the computer mainboard. It contains basic input/output control programs, power-on self test (POST) programs, bootstraps, and system setting information. The BIOS provides hardware setting and control functions for the computer. A traditional IP packet transport service. In this service, the diagrams are forwarded following the sequence of the time they reach. All diagrams share the bandwidth of the network and routers. The amount of resource that a diagram can use depends of the time it reaches. BE service does not ensure any improvement in delay time, jitter, packet loss ratio, and high reliability. A method of filtering packets based on their source IP addresses. Compared with ACL, the match condition for the black list is much simpler. Therefore, the black list can filter packets at a higher speed and can effectively screen the packet sent from the specific IP address. A router that exchanges routing information with other ASs.

bandwidth

baseband basic input/output system (BIOS) best effort (BE)

blacklist

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bridge

A device that connects two or more networks and forwards packets among them. Bridges operate at the physical network level. Bridges differ from repeaters because bridges store and forward complete packets, while repeaters forward all electrical signals. Bridges differ from routers because bridges use physical addresses, while routers use IP addresses. A means of delivering information to all members in a network. The broadcast range is determined by the broadcast address. A process of forming data into a block of the proper size, uninterruptedly sending the block in a fast operation, waiting for a long time, and preparing for the next fast sending.

broadcast burst

C CC CCDP CSES CSMA/CD carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) See continuity check. See co-channel dual polarization. consecutive severely errored second See carrier sense multiple access with collision detection. Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) is a computer networking access method in which: l l A carrier sensing scheme is used. A transmitting data station that detects another signal while transmitting a frame, stops transmitting that frame, transmits a jam signal, and then waits for a random time interval before trying to send that frame again.

chain network channel spacing co-channel dual polarization (CCDP) congestion management continuity check (CC) cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) D DCC DCN DD DM

One type of network that all network nodes are connected one after one to be in series. The center-to-center difference in frequency or wavelength between adjacent channels in a WDM device. A channel configuration method, which uses a horizontal polarization wave and a vertical polarization wave to transmit two signals. The Co-Channel Dual Polarization has twice the transmission capacity of the single polarization. A flow control measure to solve the problem of network resource competition. When the network congestion occurs, it places packets into the queue for buffer and determines the packet forwarding order. Ethernet CFM can detect the connectivity between MEPs. The detection is achieved after MEPs transmit Continuity Check Messages (CCMs) periodically. A technology used in the case of the Co-Channel Dual Polarization (CCDP) to eliminate the cross-connect interference between two polarization waves in the CCDP.

See data communications channel. See data communication network. database description See delay measurement.

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DRDB DS DSCP data communication network (DCN) data communications channel (DCC)

dynamic random database data service differentiated services code point A communication network used in a TMN or between TMNs to support the data communication function. The data channel that uses the D1D12 bytes in the overhead of an STM-N signal to transmit information about operation, management, maintenance and provision (OAM&P) between NEs. The DCC channels that are composed of bytes D1D3 are referred to as the 192 kbit/s DCC-R channel. The other DCC channels that are composed of bytes D4D12 are referred to as the 576 kbit/s DCC-M channel. The time elapsed since the start of transmission of the first bit of the frame by a source node until the reception of the last bit of the loopbacked frame by the same source node, when the loopback is performed at the frame's destination node.

delay measurement (DM)

dual-polarized antenna An antenna intended to simultaneously radiate or receive two independent radio waves orthogonally polarized. E E-LAN E-Line E1 See Ethernet local area network. See Ethernet line. An European standard for high-speed data transmission at 2.048 Mbit/s. It provides thirty-two 64 kbit/s channels. A time division multiplexing frame is divided in to 32 timeslots numbered from 0 to 31. Timeslot 0 is reserved for frame synchronization, and timeslot 16 is reserved for signaling transmission. The rest 30 timeslots are use as speech channels. Each timeslot sends or receives an 8-bit data per second. Each frame sends or receives 256-bit data per second. 8000 frames will be sent or received per second. Therefore the line data rate is 2.048 Mbit/s. See embedded control channel. See expedited forwarding. See electromagnetic compatibility. Ethernet ring protection switching errored second electrostatic discharge European Telecommunication Standards See European Telecommunications Standards Institute. A type of Ethernet service that is based on a point-to-point EVC (Ethernet virtual connection). A type of Ethernet service that is based on a multipoint-to-multipoint EVC (Ethernet virtual connection). A standards-setting body in Europe. Also the standards body responsible for GSM.

ECC EF EMC ERPS ES ESD ETS ETSI Ethernet line (E-Line) Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)

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electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

A condition which prevails when telecommunications equipment is performing its individually designed function in a common electromagnetic environment without causing or suffering unacceptable degradation due to unintentional electromagnetic interference to or from other equipment in the same environment. A logical channel that uses a data communications channel (DCC) as its physical layer, to enable transmission of operation, administration, and maintenance (OAM) information between NEs. The highest order QoS in the Diff-Serv network. EF PHB is suitable for services that demand low packet loss ratio, short delay, and broad bandwidth. In all the cases, EF traffic can guarantee a transmission rate equal to or faster than the set rate. The DSCP value of EF PHB is "101110". The number of the subnet that an NE belongs to, for identifying different network segments in a WAN. The physical ID of an NE is comprised of the NE ID and extended ID. The serial number of a subnetwork where an NE resides, which is usually used to distinguish different network segments. An extended ID and an ID form the physical ID of an NE.

embedded control channel (ECC) expedited forwarding (EF)

extended ID

extended NE ID

F FE FEC FIFO FPGA FTP fast Ethernet (FE) See fast Ethernet. See forward error correction. See first in first out. See field programmable gate array. File Transfer Protocol Any network that supports transmission rate of 100 Mbit/s. The Fast Ethernet is 10 times faster than 10BaseT, and inherits frame format, MAC addressing scheme, MTU, and so on. Fast Ethernet is extended based on the IEEE802.3 standard, and it uses the following three types of transmission media: 100BASE-T4 (4 pairs of phone twisted-pair cables), 100BASE-TX (2 pairs of data twisted-pair cables), and 100BASE-FX (2-core optical fibers). A type of semi-customized circuit used in the application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) field. It is developed on the basis of the programmable components, such as the PAL, GAL, and EPLD. It not only remedies the defects of customized circuits but also overcomes the disadvantage of the original programmable components in terms of the limited number of gate arrays. A type of incident, such as insertion of a large volume of data, that results in denial of service. A bit error correction technology that adds the correction information to the payload at the transmit end. Based on the correction information, the bit errors generated during transmission are corrected at the receive end.

field programmable gate array (FPGA)

first in first out (FIFO) A stack management mechanism. The first saved data is first read and invoked. flooding forward error correction (FEC)

G GE
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See gigabit Ethernet.


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GNE gateway gateway network element (GNE) gigabit Ethernet (GE)

See gateway network element. A device that connects two network segments using different protocols. It is used to translate the data in the two network segments. A network element that is used for communication between the NE application layer and the NM application layer. A collection of technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of a gigabit per second, as defined by the IEEE 802.3z standard. GE is compatible with 10 Mbit/s and 100 Mbit/s Ethernet. It runs at 1000 Mbit/s. Gigabit Ethernet uses a private medium, and it does not support coaxial cables or other cables. It also supports the channels in the bandwidth mode. If Gigabit Ethernet is, however, deployed to be the private bandwidth system with a bridge (switch) or a router as the center, it gives full play to the performance and the bandwidth. In the network structure, Gigabit Ethernet uses full duplex links that are private, causing the length of the links to be sufficient for backbone applications in a building and campus.

H HSDPA HUAWEI Electronic Document Explorer (HedEx) HedEx High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) See High Speed Downlink Packet Access. The software used to view, search for, and upgrade electronic documentation of Huawei products. HedEx, pronounced as [hediks], has two editions, HedEx Lite and HedEx Server. See HUAWEI Electronic Document Explorer. A modulating-demodulating algorithm put forward in 3GPP R5 to meet the requirement for asymmetric uplink and downlink transmission of data services. It enables the maximum downlink data service rate to reach 14.4 Mbit/s without changing the WCDMA network topology.

I ICMP IDU IEEE IETF IP IP address See Internet Control Message Protocol. See indoor unit. See Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. See Internet Engineering Task Force. Internet Protocol A 32-bit (4-byte) binary digit that uniquely identifies a host (computer) connected to the Internet for communication with other hosts in the Internet by transferring packets. An IP address is expressed in dotted decimal notation, consisting of decimal values of its 4 bytes, separated by periods (,), for example, 127.0.0.1. The first three bytes of an IP address identify the network to which the host is connected, and the last byte identifies the host itself. See Internet Protocol version 4. See Internet Protocol version 6. International Organization for Standardization See International Telecommunication Union.

IPv4 IPv6 ISO ITU

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ITU-T Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) International Telecommunication Union (ITU) International Telecommunication UnionTelecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

See International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector. A society of engineering and electronics professionals based in the United States but boasting membership from numerous other countries. The IEEE focuses on electrical, electronics, computer engineering, and science-related matters. A United Nations agency, one of the most important and influential recommendation bodies, responsible for recommending standards for telecommunication (ITU-T) and radio networks (ITU-R). An international body that develops worldwide standards for telecommunications technologies. These standards are grouped together in series which are prefixed with a letter indicating the general subject and a number specifying the particular standard. For example, X.25 comes from the "X" series which deals with data networks and open system communications and number "25" deals with packet switched networks. A network-layer (ISO/OSI level 3) Internet protocol that provides error correction and other information relevant to IP packet processing. For example, it can let the IP software on one machine inform another machine about an unreachable destination. See also communications protocol, IP, ISO/OSI reference model, packet (definition 1). A worldwide organization of individuals interested in networking and the Internet. Managed by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), the IETF is charged with studying technical problems facing the Internet and proposing solutions to the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). The work of the IETF is carried out by various working groups that concentrate on specific topics such as routing and security. The IETF is the publisher of the specifications that led to the TCP/IP protocol standard. The current version of the Internet Protocol (IP). IPv4 utilizes a 32bit address which is assigned to hosts. An address belongs to one of five classes (A, B, C, D, or E) and is written as 4 octets separated by periods and may range from 0.0.0.0 through to 255.255.255.255. Each IPv4 address consists of a network number, an optional subnetwork number, and a host number. The network and subnetwork numbers together are used for routing, and the host number is used to address an individual host within the network or subnetwork. An update version of IPv4, which is designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and is also called IP Next Generation (IPng). It is a new version of the Internet Protocol. The difference between IPv6 and IPv4 is that an IPv4 address has 32 bits while an IPv6 address has 128 bits. The indoor unit of the split-structured radio equipment. It implements accessing, multiplexing/demultiplexing, and intermediate frequency (IF) processing for services.

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)

indoor unit (IDU)

J jitter Short waveform variations caused by vibration, voltage fluctuations, and control system instability.

L L2VPN LACP Layer 2 virtual private network See Link Aggregation Control Protocol.

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LAG LAN LB LBM LBR LCT LM LOS LSA LSDB LSR LT LTM LTR Layer 2 switching

See link aggregation group. See local area network. See loopback. See loopback message. See loopback reply. local craft terminal See loss measurement. See loss of signal. link-state advertisement link state database See label switching router. linktrace See linktrace message. See linktrace reply. A data forwarding method. In a LAN, a network bridge or 802.3 Ethernet switch transmits and distributes packet data based on the MAC address. Since the MAC address is at the second layer of the OSI model, this data forwarding method is called Layer 2 switching. A method of bundling a group of physical interfaces together as a logical interface to increase bandwidth and reliability. For related protocols and standards, refer to IEEE 802.3ad. Basic element of an MPLS network. All LSRs support the MPLS protocol. The LSR is composed of two parts: control unit and forwarding unit. The former is responsible for allocating the label, selecting the route, creating the label forwarding table, creating and removing the label switch path; the latter forwards the labels according to groups received in the label forwarding table.

Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) label switching router (LSR)

link aggregation group An aggregation that allows one or more links to be aggregated together to form a link (LAG) aggregation group so that a MAC client can treat the link aggregation group as if it were a single link. linktrace message (LTM) linktrace reply (LTR) The message sent by the initiator MEP of 802.1ag MAC Trace to the destination MEP. LTM includes the Time to Live (TTL) and the MAC address of the destination MEP2. For 802.1ag MAC Trace, the destination MEP replies with a response message to the source MEP after the destination MEP receives the LTM, and the response message is called LTR. LTR also includes the TTL that equals the result of the TTL of LTM minus 1. A network formed by the computers and workstations within the coverage of a few square kilometers or within a single building. It features high speed and low error rate. Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring are three technologies used to implement a LAN. Current LANs are generally based on switched Ethernet or Wi-Fi technology and running at 1,000 Mbit/ s (that is, 1 Gbit/s). A troubleshooting technique that returns a transmitted signal to its source so that the signal or message can be analyzed for errors. The loopback can be a inloop or outloop.

local area network (LAN)

loopback (LB)

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loopback message (LBM) loopback reply (LBR)

The loopback packet sent by the node that supports 802.2ag MAC Ping to the destination node. LBM message carries its own sending time. A response message involved in the 802.2ag MAC Ping function, with which the destination MEP replies to the source MEP after the destination MEP receives the LBM. The LBR carries the sending time of LBM, the receiving time of LBM and the sending time of LBR.

loss measurement (LM) A method used to collect counter values applicable for ingress and egress service frames where the counters maintain a count of transmitted and received data frames between a pair of MEPs. loss of signal (LOS) M MA MAC MAC address MD MDI ME MEP MIB MIP MP MPLS MSTP MTBF MTTR MTU Media Access Control (MAC) maintenance association See Media Access Control. A link layer address or physical address. It is six bytes long. See maintenance domain. medium dependent interface maintenance entity maintenance end point See management information base. maintenance intermediate point maintenance point See Multiprotocol Label Switching. See Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol. See mean time between failures. See mean time to repair. See maximum transmission unit. A protocol at the media access control sublayer. The protocol is at the lower part of the data link layer in the OSI model and is mainly responsible for controlling and connecting the physical media at the physical layer. When transmitting data, the MAC protocol checks whether to be able to transmit data. If the data can be transmitted, certain control information is added to the data, and then the data and the control information are transmitted in a specified format to the physical layer. When receiving data, the MAC protocol checks whether the information is correct and whether the data is transmitted correctly. If the information is correct and the data is transmitted correctly, the control information is removed from the data and then the data is transmitted to the LLC layer. A protocol that can be used in a loop network. Using an algorithm, the MSTP blocks redundant paths so that the loop network can be trimmed as a tree network. In this case, the proliferation and endless cycling of packets is avoided in the loop network. The protocol that introduces the mapping between VLANs and multiple spanning trees. This solves the problem that data cannot be normally forwarded in a VLAN because in STP/ RSTP, only one spanning tree corresponds to all the VLANs. No transitions occurring in the received signal.

Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)

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Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)

A technology that uses short tags of fixed length to encapsulate packets in different link layers, and provides connection-oriented switching for the network layer on the basis of IP routing and control protocols. It improves the cost performance and expandability of networks, and is beneficial to routing. The network or the part of the network for which connectivity is managed by connectivity fault management (CFM). The devices in a maintenance domain are managed by a single Internet service provider (ISP).

maintenance domain (MD)

management A type of database used for managing the devices in a communications network. It information base (MIB) comprises a collection of objects in a (virtual) database used to manage entities (such as routers and switches) in a network. maximum transmission The largest packet of data that can be transmitted on a network. MTU size varies, unit (MTU) depending on the network576 bytes on X.25 networks, for example, 1500 bytes on Ethernet, and 17,914 bytes on 16 Mbit/s token ring. Responsibility for determining the size of the MTU lies with the link layer of the network. When packets are transmitted across networks, the path MTU, or PMTU, represents the smallest packet size (the one that all networks can transmit without breaking up the packet) among the networks involved. mean time between failures (MTBF) mean time to repair (MTTR) microwave multicast The average time between consecutive failures of a piece of equipment. It is a measure of the reliability of the system. The average time that a device will take to recover from a failure. The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with much longer wavelengths than infrared radiation, typically above about 1 mm. A process of transmitting data packets from one source to many destinations. The destination address of the multicast packet uses Class D address, that is, the IP address ranges from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. Each multicast address represents a multicast group rather than a host.

N NAS NE NE Explorer network access server network element The main operation interface, of the network management system, which is used to manage the telecommunication equipment. In the NE Explorer, the user can query, manage and maintain the NE, boards, and ports on a per-NE basis. Network Time Protocol A part of an Ethernet or other network, on which all message traffic is common to all nodes, that is, it is broadcast from one node on the segment and received by all others. A phenomenon that occurs during data communication. To be specific, mass broadcast packets are transmitted in a short time; the network is congested; transmission quality and availability of the network decrease rapidly. The network storm is caused by network connection or configuration problems.

NTP network segment network storm

O OAM See operation, administration and maintenance.

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ODF ODU OSI OSPF Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

optical distribution frame See outdoor unit. See open systems interconnection. See Open Shortest Path First. A link-state, hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for network routing. Dijkstra's algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path tree. It uses cost as its routing metric. A link state database is constructed with the network topology which is identical on all routers in the area. A framework of ISO standards for communication between different systems made by different vendors, in which the communications process is organized into seven different categories that are placed in a layered sequence based on their relationship to the user. Each layer uses the layer immediately below it and provides a service to the layer above. Layers 7 through 4 deal with end-to-end communication between the message source and destination, and layers 3 through 1 deal with network functions. A group of network support functions that monitor and sustain segment operation, support activities that are concerned with, but not limited to, failure detection, notification, location, and repairs that are intended to eliminate faults and keep a segment in an operational state, and support activities required to provide the services of a subscriber access network to users/subscribers. The outdoor unit of the split-structured radio equipment. It implements frequency conversion and amplification for radio frequency (RF) signals.

open systems interconnection (OSI)

operation, administration and maintenance (OAM)

outdoor unit (ODU)

P P2P PBS PDU PHB PLL PPP PPPoE PRBS PSN PTP PWE3 packet loss packet switched network (PSN) peak burst size (PBS) See point-to-point service. See peak burst size. protocol data unit See per-hop behavior. See phase-locked loop. Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet See pseudo random binary sequence. See packet switched network. Precision Time Protocol See pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge. The discarding of data packets in a network when a device is overloaded and cannot accept any incoming data at a given moment. A telecommunications network that works in packet switching mode. A parameter that is used to define the capacity of token bucket P, that is, the maximum burst IP packet size when the information is transferred at the peak information rate. This parameter must be larger than 0. It is recommended that PBS should be not less than the maximum length of the IP packet that might be forwarded. See also CIR, CBS, and PIR.
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per-hop behavior (PHB)

IETF Diff-Serv workgroup defines forwarding behaviors of network nodes as per-hop behaviors (PHB), such as, traffic scheduling and policing. A device in the network should select the proper PHB behaviors, based on the value of DSCP. At present, the IETF defines four types of PHB. They are class selector (CS), expedited forwarding (EF), assured forwarding (AF), and best-effort (BE). A circuit that consists essentially of a phase detector which compares the frequency of a voltage-controlled oscillator with that of an incoming carrier signal or referencefrequency generator; the output of the phase detector, after passing through a loop filter, is fed back to the voltage-controlled oscillator to keep it exactly in phase with the incoming or reference frequency. Layer 1 in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) architecture; the layer that provides services to transmit bits or groups of bits over a transmission link between open systems and which entails electrical, mechanical and handshaking. A service between two terminal users. In P2P services, senders and recipients are terminal users. A kind of electromagnetic wave, the direction of whose electric field vector is fixed or rotates regularly. Specifically, if the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is perpendicular to the plane of horizon, this electromagnetic wave is called vertically polarized wave; if the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is parallel to the plane of horizon, this electromagnetic wave is called horizontal polarized wave; if the tip of the electric field vector, at a fixed point in space, describes a circle, this electromagnetic wave is called circularly polarized wave. A set of rules that are applied when the conditions for triggering an event are met.

phase-locked loop (PLL)

physical layer

point-to-point service (P2P) polarization

policy

pseudo random binary A sequence that is random in a sense that the value of an element is independent of the sequence (PRBS) values of any of the other elements, similar to real random sequences. pseudo wire emulation An end-to-end Layer 2 transmission technology. It emulates the essential attributes of a edge-to-edge (PWE3) telecommunication service such as ATM, FR or Ethernet in a packet switched network (PSN). PWE3 also emulates the essential attributes of low speed time division multiplexing (TDM) circuit and SONET/SDH. The simulation approximates to the real situation. Q QPSK QoS See quadrature phase shift keying. See quality of service.

quadrature phase shift A modulation method of data transmission through the conversion or modulation and keying (QPSK) the phase determination of the reference signals (carrier). It is also called the fourth period or 4-phase PSK or 4-PSK. QPSK uses four dots in the star diagram. The four dots are evenly distributed on a circle. On these phases, each QPSK character can perform twobit coding and display the codes in Gray code on graph with the minimum BER. quality of service (QoS) A commonly-used performance indicator of a telecommunication system or channel. Depending on the specific system and service, it may relate to jitter, delay, packet loss ratio, bit error ratio, and signal-to-noise ratio. It functions to measure the quality of the transmission system and the effectiveness of the services, as well as the capability of a service provider to meet the demands of users. R
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RADIUS RADIUS authentication RDI RED RF RFC RMON RNC RSL RSSI RTN

See Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service. An authentication mode in which the BRAS sends the user name and the password to the RADIUS server by using the RADIUS protocol. The RADIUS server authenticates the user, and then returns the result to the BRAS. remote defect indication See random early detection. See radio frequency. See Request For Comments. remote network monitoring See radio network controller. See received signal level. See received signal strength indicator. radio transmission node

Remote Authentication A security service that authenticates and authorizes dial-up users and is a centralized Dial-In User Service access control mechanism. RADIUS uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) as its (RADIUS) transmission protocol to ensure real-time quality. RADIUS also supports the retransmission and multi-server mechanisms to ensure good reliability. Request For Comments A document in which a standard, a protocol, or other information pertaining to the (RFC) operation of the Internet is published. The RFC is actually issued, under the control of the IAB, after discussion and serves as the standard. RFCs can be obtained from sources such as InterNIC. radio frequency (RF) A type of electric current in the wireless network using AC antennas to create an electromagnetic field. It is the abbreviation of high-frequency AC electromagnetic wave. The AC with the frequency lower than 1 kHz is called low-frequency current. The AC with frequency higher than 10 kHz is called high-frequency current. RF can be classified into such high-frequency current. A piece of equipment in the RNS which is in charge of controlling the use and the integrity of the radio resources.

radio network controller (RNC)

random early detection A packet loss algorithm used in congestion avoidance. It discards the packet according (RED) to the specified higher limit and lower limit of a queue so that global TCP synchronization resulting from traditional tail drop can be prevented. received signal level (RSL) The signal level at a receiver input terminal.

received signal strength The received wide band power, including thermal noise and noise generated in the indicator (RSSI) receiver, within the bandwidth defined by the receiver pulse shaping filter, for TDD within a specified timeslot. The reference point for the measurement shall be the antenna receiver sensitivity route routing table The minimum acceptable value of average received power at point R to achieve a 1 x 10-12 BER (The FEC is open). The path that network traffic takes from its source to its destination. In a TCP/IP network, each IP packet is routed independently. Routes can change dynamically. A mapping table that stores the relationship between the original address, destination address, SMS protocol type, and account. The SMSC delivers an SMS message to the designated account according to the information in the routing table.
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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

B Glossary

S SD SF SFP SNMP SNR SPF SSL SSM Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) See signal degrade. See signal fail. small form-factor pluggable See Simple Network Management Protocol. See signal-to-noise ratio. shortest path first See Secure Sockets Layer. See Synchronization Status Message. A security protocol that works at a socket level. This layer exists between the TCP layer and the application layer to encrypt/decode data and authenticate concerned entities. A network management protocol of TCP/IP. It enables remote users to view and modify the management information of a network element. This protocol ensures the transmission of management information between any two points. The polling mechanism is adopted to provide basic function sets. According to SNMP, agents, which can be hardware as well as software, can monitor the activities of various devices on the network and report these activities to the network console workstation. Control information about each device is maintained by a management information block.

Synchronization Status A message that carries quality levels of timing signals on a synchronous timing link. Nodes on an SDH network and a synchronization network acquire upstream clock Message (SSM) information through this message. Then the nodes can perform proper operations on their clocks, such as tracing, switching, or converting to holdoff, and forward the synchronization information to downstream nodes. service flow An MAC-layer-based unidirectional transmission service. It is used to transmit data packets, and is characterized by a set of QoS parameters, such as latency, jitter, and throughput. A process of delaying packets within a traffic stream to cause it to conform to specific defined traffic profile. A signal indicating that associated data has degraded in the sense that a degraded defect condition is active. A signal indicating that associated data has failed in the sense that a near-end defect condition (non-degrade defect) is active. The ratio of the amplitude of the desired signal to the amplitude of noise signals at a given point in time. SNR is expressed as 10 times the logarithm of the power ratio and is usually expressed in dB (Decibel). An antenna intended to radiate or receive radio waves with only one specified polarization. The technique used by the IP protocol to determine which network segment packets are destined for. The subnet mask is a binary pattern that is stored in the client machine, server or router matches with the IP address.

shaping signal degrade (SD) signal fail (SF) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) single-polarized antenna subnet mask

T
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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

B Glossary

TCP/IP TD-SCDMA Time DivisionSynchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA)

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol See Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access. A 3G mobile communications standard found in UMTS mobile telecommunications networks in China as an alternative to W-CDMA. TD-SCDMA integrates technologies of CDMA, TDMA, and FDMA, and makes use of technologies including intelligent antenna, joint detection, low chip rate (LCR), and adaptive power control. With the flexibility of service processing, a TD-SCDMA network can connect to other networks through the RNC. A congestion management mechanism, in which packets arrive later are discarded when the queue is full. This policy of discarding packets may result in network-wide synchronization due to the TCP slow startup mechanism. Permissible degree of variation from a pre-set standard. A function that enables you to classify traffic into different classes with different priorities according to some criteria. Each class of traffic has a specified QoS in the entire network. In this way, different traffic packets can be treated differently. A way of controlling the network traffic from a computer to optimize or guarantee the performance and minimize the delay. It actively adjusts the output speed of traffic in the scenario that the traffic matches network resources provided by the lower layer devices, avoiding packet loss and congestion.

tail drop

tolerance traffic classification

traffic shaping

U UAS UAT UDP UNI User Datagram Protocol (UDP) unavailable second See unavailable time event. See User Datagram Protocol. See user-to-network interface. A TCP/IP standard protocol that allows an application program on one device to send a datagram to an application program on another. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) uses IP to deliver datagram. UDP provides application programs with the unreliable connectionless packet delivery service. There is a possibility that UDP messages will be lost, duplicated, delayed, or delivered out of order. The destination device does not confirm whether a data packet is received.

unavailable time event An event that is reported when the monitored object generates 10 consecutive severely (UAT) errored seconds (SES) and the SESs begin to be included in the unavailable time. The event will end when the bit error ratio per second is better than 10-3 within 10 consecutive seconds. unicast user-to-network interface (UNI) V VB VLAN VM virtual bridge virtual local area network virtual memory The process of sending data from a source to a single recipient. The interface between user equipment and private or public network equipment (for example, ATM switches).

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Product Description

B Glossary

W WAN WEEE WRED WRR WTR Web LCT wait to restore (WTR) See wide area network. waste electrical and electronic equipment See weighted random early detection. weighted round robin See wait to restore. The local maintenance terminal of a transport network, which is located at the NE management layer of the transport network. The number of minutes to wait before services are switched back to the working line.

weighted random early A packet loss algorithm used for congestion avoidance. It can prevent the global TCP detection (WRED) synchronization caused by traditional tail-drop. WRED is favorable for the high-priority packet when calculating the packet loss ratio. wide area network (WAN) window X XPIC See cross polarization interference cancellation. A network composed of computers which are far away from each other which are physically connected through specific protocols. WAN covers a broad area, such as a province, a state or even a country. General method for speech preprocessing, like Haming window.

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