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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System V100R001C00

Maintenance Guide
Issue Date 02 2012-07-30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions


and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information, and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind, either express or implied. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address: Huawei Industrial Base Bantian, Longgang Shenzhen 518129 People's Republic of China http://www.huawei.com support@huawei.com

Website: Email:

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Maintenance Guide

About This Document

About This Document

Related Versions
The following table lists the product versions related to this document. Product Name OptiX RTN 310 iManager U2000 Version V100R001C00 V100R006C02

Intended Audience
This document provides the guidelines to maintaining the OptiX RTN 310. It also describes the alarms and performance events that are required for troubleshooting during the maintenance. This document is intended for: l l l Network planning engineer Data configuration engineer System maintenance engineer

Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Symbol Description Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk, which if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury.

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About This Document

Symbol

Description Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss, performance degradation, or unexpected results. Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time. Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.

General Conventions
The general conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Convention Times New Roman Boldface Italic Courier New Description Normal paragraphs are in Times New Roman. Names of files, directories, folders, and users are in boldface. For example, log in as user root. Book titles are in italics. Examples of information displayed on the screen are in Courier New.

Command Conventions
The command conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Convention Boldface Italic [] { x | y | ... } [ x | y | ... ] Description The keywords of a command line are in boldface. Command arguments are in italics. Items (keywords or arguments) in brackets [ ] are optional. Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by vertical bars. One item is selected. Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by vertical bars. One item is selected or no item is selected.

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About This Document

Convention { x | y | ... }*

Description Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by vertical bars. A minimum of one item or a maximum of all items can be selected. Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by vertical bars. Several items or no item can be selected.

[ x | y | ... ]*

GUI Conventions
The GUI conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Convention Boldface > Description Buttons, menus, parameters, tabs, window, and dialog titles are in boldface. For example, click OK. Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">" signs. For example, choose File > Create > Folder.

Change History
Updates between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document issue contains all updates made in previous issues.

Updates in Issue 02 (2012-07-30) Based on Product Version V100R001C00


This document is the second issue of the V100R001C00 product version. Update A.1 Alarm List Description Added the SSL_CERT_NOENC alarm.

Updates in Issue 01 (2012-04-25) Based on Product Version V100R001C00


This document is the first issue of the V100R001C00 product version.

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Contents

Contents
About This Document.....................................................................................................................ii 1 Safety Precautions.........................................................................................................................1
1.1 General Safety Precautions.................................................................................................................................2 1.2 Warning and Safety Symbols.............................................................................................................................3 1.3 Electrical Safety..................................................................................................................................................4 1.4 Environment of Flammable Gas.........................................................................................................................6 1.5 Storage Batteries.................................................................................................................................................6 1.6 Radiation.............................................................................................................................................................8 1.6.1 Safe Usage of Optical Fibers.....................................................................................................................8 1.6.2 Electromagnetic Exposure.........................................................................................................................9 1.6.3 Forbidden Areas........................................................................................................................................9 1.6.4 Laser..........................................................................................................................................................9 1.6.5 Microwave...............................................................................................................................................10 1.7 Working at Heights...........................................................................................................................................10 1.7.1 Hoisting Heavy Objects...........................................................................................................................11 1.7.2 Using Ladders..........................................................................................................................................12 1.8 Mechanical Safety............................................................................................................................................13 1.9 Other Precautions.............................................................................................................................................14

2 Routine Maintenance..................................................................................................................16 3 Emergency Maintenance Guide................................................................................................18


3.1 Definition of Emergency..................................................................................................................................19 3.2 Purposes of Emergency Maintenance...............................................................................................................19 3.3 Procedure for Emergency Maintenance............................................................................................................19

4 Troubleshooting..........................................................................................................................26
4.1 General Troubleshooting Procedure.................................................................................................................27 4.2 Troubleshooting the Radio Link.......................................................................................................................28 4.3 Troubleshooting Ethernet Service Faults.........................................................................................................35

5 Part Replacement.........................................................................................................................41
5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310..........................................................................................................................42 5.2 Replacing an SFP Module................................................................................................................................44

6 Database Backup and Restoration...........................................................................................46


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6.1 NE Database.....................................................................................................................................................47 6.2 Backing Up the Database Manually.................................................................................................................48 6.3 Setting the Database Backup Policy.................................................................................................................49 6.3.1 Setting the User-Defined Backup Policy.................................................................................................49 6.3.2 Executing the Backup Policy of the Device............................................................................................51 6.3.3 Suspending the Backup Policy of the Device..........................................................................................52 6.4 Restoring the Database by NMS......................................................................................................................53 6.5 Recovering Databases from a USB Flash Drive..............................................................................................56

7 Supporting Task..........................................................................................................................60
7.1 Browsing Alarms, Abnormal Events, and Performance Events.......................................................................62 7.1.1 Checking the NE Status(U2000).............................................................................................................62 7.1.2 Checking the NE Status(Web LCT)........................................................................................................64 7.1.3 Browsing Current Alarms(U2000)..........................................................................................................65 7.1.4 Browsing Current Alarms(Web LCT).....................................................................................................67 7.1.5 Browsing History Alarms(U2000)..........................................................................................................69 7.1.6 Browsing History Alarms(Web LCT).....................................................................................................70 7.1.7 Browsing Current Performance Events(U2000)......................................................................................72 7.1.8 Browsing Current Performance Events(Web LCT)................................................................................73 7.1.9 Browsing History Performance Events(U2000)......................................................................................74 7.1.10 Browsing History Performance Events(Web LCT)...............................................................................74 7.1.11 Browsing Current Alarms of the radio link(U2000).............................................................................76 7.1.12 Browsing Current Alarms of the radio link(Web LCT)........................................................................76 7.1.13 Browsing Current Performance Events of the radio link(Web LCT)....................................................77 7.1.14 Browsing Historical Performance Data of a Radio Link(Web LCT)....................................................78 7.1.15 Browsing the Performance Event Threshold-Crossing Records(U2000)..............................................79 7.1.16 Browsing the Performance Event Threshold-Crossing Records(Web LCT)........................................80 7.1.17 Browsing Abnormal Events(U2000).....................................................................................................81 7.1.18 Browsing Abnormal Events(Web LCT)................................................................................................82 7.1.19 Browsing UAT Events(U2000).............................................................................................................83 7.1.20 Browsing UAT Events(Web LCT)........................................................................................................84 7.2 Setting Alarm and Performance Management Functions.................................................................................85 7.2.1 Configuring the Performance Monitoring Status of NEs........................................................................85 7.2.2 Suppressing Alarms.................................................................................................................................86 7.2.3 Reversing Alarms for Ports.....................................................................................................................87 7.2.4 Setting Bit Error Thresholds for Microwave Ports..................................................................................88 7.2.5 Setting Monitoring and Auto-Report Status of Performance Events......................................................89 7.2.6 Setting Performance Thresholds..............................................................................................................89 7.2.7 Resetting Performance Registers.............................................................................................................90 7.3 Querying a Report............................................................................................................................................91 7.3.1 Querying the Board Information Report(U2000)....................................................................................91 7.3.2 Querying the Board Information Report(Web LCT)...............................................................................92 7.3.3 Querying the Board Manufacturing Information Report(U2000)...........................................................93 Issue 02 (2012-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. vi

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7.3.4 Querying the Board Manufacturing Information Report(Web LCT)......................................................94 7.3.5 Querying the Microwave Link Information Report.................................................................................95 7.3.6 Querying the Network-wide License Report...........................................................................................96 7.4 Software Loopback...........................................................................................................................................97 7.4.1 Setting Loopbacks for Ethernet Ports......................................................................................................97 7.4.2 Setting Loopback for the IF Board..........................................................................................................98 7.5 Reset...............................................................................................................................................................101 7.5.1 Cold Reset..............................................................................................................................................101 7.5.2 Warm Reset...........................................................................................................................................102 7.6 Detecting Consecutive Waves........................................................................................................................104 7.7 PRBS Test.......................................................................................................................................................104 7.8 Querying the License Capacity.......................................................................................................................106 7.9 Scanning Interfering Signals..........................................................................................................................107 7.10 Setting the Automatic Release Function......................................................................................................107 7.11 Querying Power Consumption of NE...........................................................................................................108 7.12 Querying the Attributes of an Ethernet Port.................................................................................................109 7.13 Setting Traffic, Physical Bandwidth, or Bandwidth Utilization of Ethernet Ports.......................................110 7.14 Querying Traffic, Physical Bandwidth, or Bandwidth Utilization of Ethernet Ports...................................111 7.15 End-to-End Management on Fibers, Tunnels, and PWE3 Services.............................................................112 7.15.1 Expanding/Collapsing Fibers and Cables............................................................................................112 7.15.2 Querying the Radio Link Information.................................................................................................112 7.15.3 Querying the Radio Link Performance................................................................................................113

A Alarm Reference.......................................................................................................................115
A.1 Alarm List......................................................................................................................................................116 A.2 Alarms and Handling Procedures..................................................................................................................120 A.2.1 AM_DOWNSHIFT..............................................................................................................................120 A.2.2 BDTEMP_SENSOR_FAIL..................................................................................................................121 A.2.3 BOOTROM_BAD................................................................................................................................122 A.2.4 CLK_LOCK_FAIL...............................................................................................................................123 A.2.5 DBMS_DELETE..................................................................................................................................124 A.2.6 DBMS_ERROR....................................................................................................................................125 A.2.7 DBMS_PROTECT_MODE.................................................................................................................126 A.2.8 DCNSIZE_OVER.................................................................................................................................126 A.2.9 ERPS_IN_PROTECTION....................................................................................................................127 A.2.10 ETH_CFM_AIS..................................................................................................................................128 A.2.11 ETH_CFM_LOC................................................................................................................................130 A.2.12 ETH_CFM_MISMERGE...................................................................................................................132 A.2.13 ETH_CFM_RDI.................................................................................................................................134 A.2.14 ETH_CFM_UNEXPERI....................................................................................................................135 A.2.15 ETH_EFM_DF...................................................................................................................................136 A.2.16 ETH_EFM_EVENT...........................................................................................................................138 A.2.17 ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK...................................................................................................................139 Issue 02 (2012-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. vii

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A.2.18 ETH_EFM_REMFAULT...................................................................................................................140 A.2.19 ETH_LOS...........................................................................................................................................141 A.2.20 ETH_NO_FLOW...............................................................................................................................142 A.2.21 ETHOAM_SELF_LOOP...................................................................................................................143 A.2.22 FLOW_OVER....................................................................................................................................145 A.2.23 HARD_BAD.......................................................................................................................................146 A.2.24 IN_PWR_ABN...................................................................................................................................149 A.2.25 LAG_DOWN......................................................................................................................................150 A.2.26 LAG_MEMBER_DOWN..................................................................................................................150 A.2.27 LASER_MOD_ERR...........................................................................................................................152 A.2.28 LCS_LIMITED...................................................................................................................................153 A.2.29 LICENSE_LOST................................................................................................................................154 A.2.30 LOOP_ALM.......................................................................................................................................155 A.2.31 LSR_NO_FITED................................................................................................................................156 A.2.32 LTI......................................................................................................................................................157 A.2.33 MAC_EXT_EXC...............................................................................................................................158 A.2.34 MAC_FCS_EXC................................................................................................................................160 A.2.35 MULTI_RPL_OWNER......................................................................................................................161 A.2.36 MW_AM_TEST.................................................................................................................................162 A.2.37 MW_BER_EXC.................................................................................................................................162 A.2.38 MW_BER_SD....................................................................................................................................165 A.2.39 MW_CFG_MISMATCH....................................................................................................................168 A.2.40 MW_CONT_WAVE..........................................................................................................................169 A.2.41 MW_FEC_UNCOR............................................................................................................................170 A.2.42 MW_LIM............................................................................................................................................173 A.2.43 MW_LOF...........................................................................................................................................174 A.2.44 MW_RDI............................................................................................................................................177 A.2.45 NB_UNREACHABLE.......................................................................................................................178 A.2.46 NESF_LOST.......................................................................................................................................179 A.2.47 NESOFT_MM....................................................................................................................................181 A.2.48 NTP_SYNC_FAIL.............................................................................................................................183 A.2.49 PASSWORD_NEED_CHANGE.......................................................................................................184 A.2.50 PATCH_ACT_TIMEOUT.................................................................................................................184 A.2.51 PATCH_DEACT_TIMEOUT............................................................................................................185 A.2.52 PATCH_PKGERR.............................................................................................................................186 A.2.53 PORT_EXC_TRAFFIC......................................................................................................................187 A.2.54 PORTMODE_MISMATCH...............................................................................................................188 A.2.55 POWER_ALM...................................................................................................................................189 A.2.56 PTP_TIMESTAMP_ABN..................................................................................................................190 A.2.57 RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF.............................................................................................191 A.2.58 RADIO_MUTE..................................................................................................................................193 A.2.59 RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH..............................................................................................................194 Issue 02 (2012-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. viii

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A.2.60 RADIO_RSL_HIGH..........................................................................................................................195 A.2.61 RADIO_RSL_LOW...........................................................................................................................196 A.2.62 RADIO_TSL_HIGH...........................................................................................................................197 A.2.63 RADIO_TSL_LOW...........................................................................................................................198 A.2.64 S1_SYN_CHANGE...........................................................................................................................198 A.2.65 SEC_RADIUS_FAIL.........................................................................................................................199 A.2.66 SECU_ALM.......................................................................................................................................201 A.2.67 SSL_CERT_NOENC.........................................................................................................................201 A.2.68 STORM_CUR_QUENUM_OVER....................................................................................................202 A.2.69 SWDL_ACTIVATED_TIMEOUT....................................................................................................203 A.2.70 SWDL_COMMIT_FAIL....................................................................................................................204 A.2.71 SWDL_INPROCESS.........................................................................................................................205 A.2.72 SWDL_NEPKGCHECK....................................................................................................................205 A.2.73 SWDL_PKGVER_MM......................................................................................................................206 A.2.74 SWDL_ROLLBACK_FAIL...............................................................................................................207 A.2.75 SYNC_C_LOS...................................................................................................................................208 A.2.76 SYSLOG_COMM_FAIL...................................................................................................................209 A.2.77 TEMP_ALARM.................................................................................................................................209 A.2.78 TIME_LOCK_FAIL...........................................................................................................................210 A.2.79 TIME_LOS.........................................................................................................................................211 A.2.80 TIME_NO_TRACE_MODE..............................................................................................................212 A.2.81 USB_PROCESS_FAIL......................................................................................................................213 A.2.82 XPIC_LOS..........................................................................................................................................214

B Performance Event Reference.................................................................................................217


B.1 Performance Event List..................................................................................................................................218 B.1.1 Microwave Performance Events...........................................................................................................218 B.1.2 Other Performance Events....................................................................................................................220 B.2 Performance Events and Handling Procedures..............................................................................................222 B.2.1 AMDOWNCNT and AMUPCNT........................................................................................................222 B.2.2 ATPC_P_ADJUST and ATPC_N_ADJUST.......................................................................................223 B.2.3 MAXMEANPATHDELAY, MINMEANPATHDELAY, and AVGMEANPATHDELAY...............223 B.2.4 BDTEMPMAX, BDTEMPMIN, and BDTEMPCUR..........................................................................224 B.2.5 FEC_BEF_COR_ER and FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT....................................................................225 B.2.6 IF_BBE, IF_ES, IF_SES, IF_CSES, and IF_UAS...............................................................................226 B.2.7 IF_SNR_MAX, IF_SNR_MIN, and IF_SNR_AVG............................................................................227 B.2.8 MAXPHASEOFFSET, MINPHASEOFFSET, and AVGPHASEOFFSET.........................................227 B.2.9 OSPITMPMAX, OSPITMPMIN, and OSPITMPCUR........................................................................228 B.2.10 PATEMPMAX, PATEMPMIN, and PATEMPCUR.........................................................................229 B.2.11 QPSKWS, QPSK_S_WS, QAMWS16, QAM_S_WS16, QAMWS32, QAMWS64, QAMWS128, QAMWS256, QAMWS512, QAM_L_WS512, QAMWS1024, and QAM_L_WS1024..............................229 B.2.12 RLHTT, RLLTT, TLHTT, and TLLTT..............................................................................................230 B.2.13 RSL_MAX, RSL_MIN, RSL_CUR, and RSL_AVG........................................................................231 Issue 02 (2012-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ix

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B.2.14 TLBMAX, TLBMIN, and TLBCUR..................................................................................................231 B.2.15 TPLMAX, TPLMIN, and TPLCUR...................................................................................................232 B.2.16 RPLMAX, RPLMIN, and RPLCUR..................................................................................................233 B.2.17 TSL_MAX, TSL_MIN, TSL_CUR, and TSL_AVG.........................................................................233 B.2.18 XPIC_XPD_VALUE..........................................................................................................................234

C RMON Event Reference..........................................................................................................235


C.1 RMON Alarm Entry List...............................................................................................................................236 C.2 RMON Performance Entry List.....................................................................................................................237 C.3 RMON Events and Handling Procedures......................................................................................................242 C.3.1 ETHDROP............................................................................................................................................242 C.3.2 ETHFCS................................................................................................................................................243 C.3.3 ETHFRG...............................................................................................................................................243 C.3.4 ETHJAB................................................................................................................................................244 C.3.5 ETHOVER............................................................................................................................................245 C.3.6 ETHUNDER.........................................................................................................................................246 C.3.7 RXBBAD..............................................................................................................................................246

D Alarm Suppression Relationship..........................................................................................248 E Glossary......................................................................................................................................250

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1
About This Chapter

Safety Precautions

This topic describes the safety precautions that you must follow when installing, operating, and maintaining Huawei devices. 1.1 General Safety Precautions This topic describes essential safety precautions that instruct you in the selection of measuring and testing instruments when you install, operate, and maintain Huawei devices. 1.2 Warning and Safety Symbols Before using the equipment, note the following warning and safety symbols on the equipment. 1.3 Electrical Safety This topic describes safety precautions for high voltage, lightning strikes, high leakage current, power cables, fuses, and ESD. 1.4 Environment of Flammable Gas This topic describes safety precautions for the operating environment of a device. 1.5 Storage Batteries This topic describes safety precautions for operations of storage batteries. 1.6 Radiation This topic describes safety precautions for electromagnetic exposure and lasers. 1.7 Working at Heights This topic describes safety precautions for working at heights. 1.8 Mechanical Safety This topic describes safety precautions for drilling holes, handling sharp objects, operating fans, and carrying heavy objects. 1.9 Other Precautions This topic describes safety precautions for removing and inserting boards, binding signal cables, and routing cables.

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1.1 General Safety Precautions


This topic describes essential safety precautions that instruct you in the selection of measuring and testing instruments when you install, operate, and maintain Huawei devices.

All Safety Precautions


To ensure the safety of humans and a device, follow the marks on the device and all the safety precautions in this document when installing, operating, and maintaining a device. The "CAUTION", "WARNING", and "DANGER" marks in this document do not cover all the safety precautions that must be followed. They are supplements to the safety precautions.

Local Laws and Regulations


When operating a device, always comply with the local laws and regulations. The safety precautions provided in the documents are in addition/supplementary to the local laws and regulations.

Basic Installation Requirements


The installation and maintenance personnel of Huawei devices must receive strict training and be familiar with the proper operation methods and safety precautions before any operation. l l l l Only trained and qualified personnel are permitted to install, operate, and maintain a device. Only certified professionals are permitted to remove the safety facilities, and to troubleshoot and maintain the device. Only the personnel authenticated or authorized by Huawei are permitted to replace or change the device or parts of the device (including software). The operating personnel must immediately report the faults or errors that may cause safety problems to the person in charge.

Grounding Requirements
The grounding requirements are applicable to the device that needs to be grounded. l l l l When installing the device, always connect the grounding facilities first. When removing the device, always disconnect the grounding facilities last. Ensure that the grounding conductor is intact. Do not operate the device in the absence of a suitably installed grounding conductor. The device must be connected to the protection ground (PGND) permanently. Before operating the device, check the electrical connections of the device, and ensure that the device is properly grounded.

Human Safety
l l When there is a risk of a lightning strike, do not operate the fixed terminal or touch the cables. When there is risk of a lightning strike, unplug the AC power connector. Do not use the fixed terminal or touch the terminal or antenna connector.
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NOTE

1 Safety Precautions

The preceding requirements apply to wireless fixed station terminals.

l l l

To avoid electric shocks, do not connect safety extra-low voltage (SELV) circuits to telephone-network voltage (TNV) circuits. Do not look into optical ports without eye protection. Otherwise, human eyes may be hurt by laser beams. Before operating the device, wear an ESD protective coat, ESD gloves, and an ESD wrist strap. In addition, you need to get off the conductive objects, such as jewelry and watches, to prevent electric shock and burn. In case of fire, escape from the building or site where the device is located and press the fire alarm bell or dial the telephone number for fire alarms. Do not enter the burning building again in any situation.

Device Safety
l l l l Before any operation, install the device firmly on the ground or other rigid objects, such as on a wall or in a rack. When the system is working, ensure that the ventilation hole is not blocked. When installing the front panel, use a tool to tighten the screws firmly, if required. After installing the device, clean up the packing materials.

1.2 Warning and Safety Symbols


Before using the equipment, note the following warning and safety symbols on the equipment. Table 1-1 lists the warning and safety symbols of the OptiX RTN 310 and their meanings. Table 1-1 Warning and safety symbols of the OptiX RTN 310 Label Label Name ESD protection label Description Indicates that the equipment is sensitive to static electricity. Indicates that the equipment generates electromagnetic radiation.

Radiation warning label

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Label

Label Name High temperature warning label

Description Indicates that the equipment surface temperature may exceed 70C when the ambient temperature is higher than 55 C. Wear protective gloves to handle the equipment. Indicates the grounding position of a chassis.

Grounding label

1.3 Electrical Safety


This topic describes safety precautions for high voltage, lightning strikes, high leakage current, power cables, fuses, and ESD.

High Voltage

DANGER
l A high-voltage power supply provides power for device operations. Direct human contact with the high voltage power supply or human contact through damp objects can be fatal. l Unspecified or unauthorized high voltage operations could result in fire or electric shock, or both.

Thunderstorm
The requirements apply only to wireless base stations or devices with antennas and feeders.

DANGER
Do not perform operations on high voltage, AC power, towers, or backstays in stormy weather conditions.

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High Leakage Current

WARNING
Before powering on a device, ground the device. Otherwise, the safety of humans and the device cannot be ensured. If a high leakage current mark is labeled near the power connector of the device, you must connect the PGND terminal on the shell to the ground before connecting the device to an A/C input power supply. This is to prevent the electric shock caused by leakage current of the device.

Power Cables

DANGER
Do not install or remove the power cable with a live line. Transient contact between the core of the power cable and the conductor may generate electric arc or spark, which may cause fire or eye injury. l l Before installing or removing power cables, you must power off the device. Before connecting a power cable, you must ensure that the label on the power cable is correct.

Device with Power On

DANGER
Installing or removing a device is prohibited if the device is on.

DANGER
Do not install or remove the power cables of the equipment when it is powered on.

Short Circuits
When installing and maintaining devices, place and use the associated tools and instruments in accordance with regulations to avoid short-circuits caused by metal objects.

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Fuse

WARNING
If the fuse on a device blows, replace the fuse with a fuse of the same type and specifications to ensure safe operation of the device.

1.4 Environment of Flammable Gas


This topic describes safety precautions for the operating environment of a device.

DANGER
Do not place or operate devices in an environment of flammable or explosive air or gas. Operating an electronic device in an environment of flammable gas causes a severe hazard.

1.5 Storage Batteries


This topic describes safety precautions for operations of storage batteries.

DANGER
Before operating a storage battery, you must read the safety precautions carefully and be familiar with the method of connecting a storage battery. l l l Incorrect operations of storage batteries cause hazards. During operation, prevent any shortcircuit, and prevent the electrolyte from overflowing or leakage. If the electrolyte overflows, it causes potential hazards to the device. The electrolyte may corrode metal parts and the circuit boards, and ultimately damage the circuit boards. A storage battery contains a great deal of energy. Misoperations may cause a short-circuit, which leads to human injuries.

Basic Precautions
To ensure safety, note the following points before installing or maintaining the storage battery: l l l Use special insulation tools. Wear an eye protector and take effective protection measures. Wear rubber gloves and a protection coat to prevent the hazard caused by the overflowing electrolyte.
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l l

When handling the storage battery, ensure that its electrodes are upward. Leaning or reversing the storage battery is prohibited. Before installing or maintaining the storage battery, ensure that the storage battery is disconnected from the power supply that charges the storage battery.

Short-Circuit

DANGER
A battery short-circuit may cause human injuries. Although the voltage of an ordinary battery is low, the instantaneous high current caused by a short-circuit emits a great deal of energy. Avoid any short-circuit of batteries caused by metal objects. If possible, disconnect the working battery before performing other operations.

Hazardous Gas

CAUTION
Do not use any unsealed lead-acid storage battery. Lay a storage battery horizontally and fix it properly to prevent the battery from emitting flammable gas, which may cause fire or device erosion. Working lead-acid storage batteries emit flammable gas. Therefore, ventilation and fireproofing measures must be taken at the sites where lead-acid storage batteries are placed.

Battery Temperature

CAUTION
If a battery overheats, the battery may be deformed or damaged, and the electrolyte may overflow. When the temperature of the battery is higher than 60C, you need to check whether the electrolyte overflows. If the electrolyte overflows, take appropriate measures immediately.

Battery Leakage

CAUTION
In the event of acid overflow or spillage, neutralize the acid and clean it up appropriately.

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When handling a leaky battery, protect against the possible damage caused by the acid. When you find the electrolyte leaks, you can use the following substances to counteract and absorb the leaking electrolyte: l l Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)

In the event of acid overflow or spillage, neutralize the acid and clean it up as recommended by the battery manufacturer and any local regulations for acid disposal. If a person contacts battery electrolyte, clean the skin that contacts the battery electrolyte immediately by using water. In case of a severe situation, the person must be sent to a hospital immediately.

1.6 Radiation
This topic describes safety precautions for electromagnetic exposure and lasers.

1.6.1 Safe Usage of Optical Fibers


The laser beam can cause damage to your eyes. Hence, you must exercise caution when using optical fibers.

DANGER
When installing or maintaining optical fibers, avoid direct eye exposure to the laser beams launched from the optical interface or fiber connectors. The laser beam can cause damage to your eyes.

Cleaning Fiber Connectors and Optical Interfaces

CAUTION
If fiber connectors or flanges are contaminated, optical power commissioning is seriously affected. Therefore, the two endfaces and flange of every external fiber must be cleaned before the fiber is led into the equipment through the optical distribution frame (ODF) for being inserted into an optical interface on the equipment. The fiber connectors and optical interfaces of the lasers must be cleaned with the following special cleaning tools and materials: l l l l
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Special cleaning solvent: It is preferred to use isoamylol. Propyl alcohol, however, can also be used. It is prohibited that you use alcohol and formalin. Non-woven lens tissue Special compressed gas Cotton stick (medical cotton or long fiber cotton)
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l l

Special cleaning roll, used with the recommended cleaning solvent Special magnifier for fiber connectors

1.6.2 Electromagnetic Exposure


This topic describes safety precautions for electromagnetic exposure. If multiple transmit antennas are installed on a tower or backstay, keep away from the transmit directions of the antennas when you install or maintain an antenna locally.

CAUTION
Ensure that all personnel are beyond the transmit direction of a working antenna.

1.6.3 Forbidden Areas


The topic describes requirements for a forbidden area. l Before entering an area where the electromagnetic radiation is beyond the specified range, the associated personnel must shut down the electromagnetic radiator or stay at least 10 meters away from the electromagnetic radiator, if in the transmit direction. A physical barrier and an eye-catching warning flag should be available in each forbidden area.

1.6.4 Laser
This topic describes safety precautions for lasers.

WARNING
When handling optical fibers, do not stand close to, or look into the optical fiber outlet directly without eye protection. Laser transceivers are used in the optical transmission system and associated test tools. The laser transmitted through the bare optical fiber produces a small beam of light, and therefore it has very high power density and is invisible to human eyes. When a beam of light enters eyes, the eyes may be damaged. In normal cases, viewing an un-terminated optical fiber or a damaged optical fiber without eye protection at a distance greater than 150 mm does not cause eye injury. Eye injury may occur, however, if an optical tool such as a microscope, magnifying glass, or eye loupe is used to view an un-terminated optical fiber.

Safety Instructions Regarding Lasers


To avoid laser radiation, obey the following instructions: l All operations should be performed by authorized personnel who have completed the required training courses.
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l l l l l l

Wear a pair of eye-protective glasses when you are handling lasers or fibers. Ensure that the optical source is switched off before disconnecting optical fiber connectors. Do not look into the end of an exposed fiber or an open connector when you are not sure whether the optical source is switched off. Use an optical power meter to measure the optical power and ensure that the optical source is switched off. Before opening the front door of an optical transmission device, ensure that you are not exposed to laser radiation. Do not use an optical tool such as a microscope, a magnifying glass, or an eye loupe to view the optical connector or fiber that is transmitting optical signals.

Instructions Regarding Fiber Handling


Read and abide by the following instructions before handling fibers: l l Only trained personnel are permitted to cut and splice fibers. Before cutting or splicing a fiber, ensure that the fiber is disconnected from the optical source. After disconnecting the fiber, cap to the fiber connectors.

1.6.5 Microwave
When installing and maintaining the equipment of Huawei, follow the safety precautions of microwave to ensure the safety of the human body and the equipment.

WARNING
Strong radio frequency can harm the human body. When installing or maintaining an aerial on the tower or mast that is installed with multiple aerials, switch off the transmitter in advance.

1.7 Working at Heights


This topic describes safety precautions for working at heights.

WARNING
When working at heights, be cautious to prevent objects from falling down. The requirements for working at heights are as follows: l l l
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The personnel who work at heights must be trained. Carry and handle the operating machines and tools with caution to prevent them from falling down. Safety measures, such as wearing a helmet and a safety belt, must be taken.
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l l

Wear cold-proof clothes when working at heights in cold areas. Check all lifting appliances thoroughly before starting the work, and ensure that they are intact.

1.7.1 Hoisting Heavy Objects


This topic describes the safety precautions for hoisting heavy objects that you must follow when installing, operating, and maintaining Huawei devices.

WARNING
When heavy objects are being hoisted, do not walk below the cantilever or hoisted objects. l l l l l Only trained and qualified personnel can perform hoisting operations. Before hoisting heavy objects, check that the hoisting tools are complete and in good condition. Before hoisting heavy objects, ensure that the hoisting tools are fixed to a secure object or wall with good weight-bearing capacity. Issue orders with short and explicit words to ensure correct operations. Ensure that the angle between the two cables is less than or equal to 90 degrees during the lifting, as shown in Figure 1-1.

Figure 1-1 Hoisting heavy objects

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1.7.2 Using Ladders


This topic describes safety precautions for using ladders.

Checking Ladders
l l Before using a ladder, check whether the ladder is damaged. After checking that the ladder is in good condition, you can use the ladder. Before using a ladder, you should know the maximum weight capacity of the ladder. Avoid overweighing the ladder.

Placing Ladders
The proper slant angle of the ladder is 75 degrees. You can measure the slant angle of the ladder with an angle square or your arms, as shown in Figure 1-2. When using a ladder, to prevent the ladder from sliding, ensure that the wider feet of the ladder are downward, or take protection measures for the ladder feet. Ensure that the ladder is placed securely. Figure 1-2 Slanting a ladder

Climbing Up a Ladder
When climbing up a ladder, pay attention to the following points: l l l Ensure that the center of gravity of your body does not deviate from the edges of the two long sides. Before operations, ensure that your body is stable to reduce risks. Do not climb higher than the fourth rung of the ladder (counted from up to down).

If you want to climb up a roof, ensure that the ladder top is at least one meter higher than the roof, as shown in Figure 1-3.
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Figure 1-3 Ladder top being one meter higher than the roof

1.8 Mechanical Safety


This topic describes safety precautions for drilling holes, handling sharp objects, operating fans, and carrying heavy objects.

Drilling Holes

WARNING
Do not drill holes on the cabinet without prior permission. Drilling holes without complying with the requirements affects the electromagnetic shielding performance of the cabinet and damages the cables inside the cabinet. In addition, if the scraps caused by drilling enter the cabinet, the printed circuit boards (PCBs) may be short-circuited. l l l l Before drilling a hole on the cabinet, remove the cables inside the cabinet. Wear an eye protector when drilling holes. This is to prevent eyes from being injured by the splashing metal scraps. Wear protection gloves when drilling holes. Take measures to prevent the metallic scraps from falling into the cabinet. After the drilling, clean up the metallic scraps.

Sharp Objects

WARNING
Wear protection gloves when carrying the device. This is to prevent hands from being injured by the sharp edges of the device.

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Fans
l l When replacing parts, place the objects such as the parts, screws, and tools properly. This is to prevent them from falling into the operating fans, which damages the fans or device. When replacing the parts near fans, keep your fingers or boards from touching operating fans before the fans are powered off and stop running. Otherwise, the hands or the boards are damaged.

Carrying Heavy Objects


Wear protection gloves when carrying heavy objects. This is to prevent hands from being hurt.

WARNING
l The carrier must be prepared for load bearing before carrying heavy objects. This is to prevent the carrier from being strained or pressed by the heavy objects. l When you pull a chassis out of the cabinet, pay attention to the unstable or heavy objects on the cabinet. This is to prevent the heavy objects on the cabinet top from falling down, which may hurt you. l Generally, two persons are needed to carry a chassis. It is prohibited that only one person carries a heavy chassis. When carrying a chassis, the carriers should stretch their backs and move stably to avoid being strained. When moving or lifting a chassis, hold the handles or bottom of the chassis. Do not hold the handles of the modules installed in the chassis, such as the power modules, fan modules, and boards.

1.9 Other Precautions


This topic describes safety precautions for removing and inserting boards, binding signal cables, and routing cables.

Removing and Inserting a Board

CAUTION
When inserting a board, wear an ESD wrist strap or ESD gloves, and handle the board gently to avoid distorting pins on the backplane. l l l Slide the board along the guide rails. Do not contact one board with another to avoid short-circuits or damage. When holding a board in hand, do not touch the board circuits, components, connectors, or connection slots of the board to prevent damage caused by ESD of the human body to the electrostatic-sensitive components.
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Binding Signal Cables

CAUTION
Bind the signal cables separately from the high-current or high-voltage cables.

Routing Cables
In the case of extremely low temperature, heavy shock or vibration may damage the plastic skin of the cables. To ensure the construction safety, comply with the following requirements: l l When installing cables, ensure that the environment temperature is above 0C. If the cables are stored in a place where the ambient temperature is below 0C, transfer them to a place at room temperature and store the cables for more than 24 hours before installation. Handle the cables gently, especially in a low-temperature environment. Do not perform any improper operations, for example, pushing the cables down directly from a truck.

High Temperature

WARNING
If the ambient temperature exceeds 55C, the temperature of the front panel surface marked the flag may exceed 70C. When touching the front panel of the board in such an environment, you must wear the protection gloves.

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2
Maintenance Item

Routine Maintenance

Routine maintenance operations are performed to detect and rectify hidden faults before the hidden faults cause damage to equipment and affect services.

Routine Maintenance Items Carried Out on the NMS


Table 2-1 Routine maintenance items carried out on the NMS Recomm ended Mainten ance Cycle Every day Every day Every week Every week Every week Every week Every week Remarks

7.1.1 Checking the NE Status (U2000) 7.1.3 Browsing Current Alarms (U2000) 7.1.5 Browsing History Alarms (U2000) 7.1.17 Browsing Abnormal Events (U2000) 7.1.7 Browsing Current Performance Events(U2000) 7.1.9 Browsing History Performance Events(U2000) 7.1.14 Browsing Historical Performance Data of a Radio Link (Web LCT)

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Field Maintenance Items for Indoor Equipment


Table 2-2 Field maintenance items for indoor equipment Maintenance Item Checking the telecommunications room Maintaining the environment of outdoor cabinets Recommended Maintenance Cycle Every two months Half a year Remarks -

Field Maintenance Items for Outdoor Equipment


Table 2-3 Field maintenance items for outdoor equipment Maintenance Item Checking the appearance of the OptiX RTN 310a Checking the appearance and azimuth of the antenna Checking the appearance of the hybrid coupler Checking the appearance and connection of the flexible waveguide Checking the appearance and connection of outdoor cables Recommended Maintenance Cycle Half a year Half a year Half a year Half a year Remarks Perform a complete check after a level-8 or higher-level hurricane, an earthquake, or other unexpected circumstances.

Half a year

NOTE
a:

An area close to a pollution source refers to the area that covers a radius within any of the following values: l 3.7 km away from salty waters (such as an ocean and salty water) l 3 km away from severe pollution sources (such as iron refinery works, and coal mines) l 2 km away from intermediate pollution sources (such as chemical plants, rubber processing works, and electroplating workshops) l 1 km away from light pollution sources (such as food processing works, leather working plants, and heating boilers).

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3 Emergency Maintenance Guide

3
About This Chapter

Emergency Maintenance Guide

3.1 Definition of Emergency For the microwave equipment, an emergency situation is depicted as a situation where the microwave services are interrupted. 3.2 Purposes of Emergency Maintenance Emergency maintenance operations are performed to restore the services quickly. This is different from troubleshooting, whose purposes are to locate and rectify the faults. 3.3 Procedure for Emergency Maintenance The procedure of emergency maintenance consists of a main procedure and a sub-procedure that handles faults on site.

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3.1 Definition of Emergency


For the microwave equipment, an emergency situation is depicted as a situation where the microwave services are interrupted.

3.2 Purposes of Emergency Maintenance


Emergency maintenance operations are performed to restore the services quickly. This is different from troubleshooting, whose purposes are to locate and rectify the faults.

3.3 Procedure for Emergency Maintenance


The procedure of emergency maintenance consists of a main procedure and a sub-procedure that handles faults on site.
NOTE

In the case of emergency events, the customers in China can contact the 24-hour technical support center of Huawei at 400-830-2118, and the customers in areas outside China can contact the local Huawei offices.

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Main Process of Emergency Maintenance


Figure 3-1 Main process of emergency maintenance
Start 1

Is there an incorrect operation?

Yes

Undo the operation.

No 2
Are services Yes interrupted by external causes?

Contact related departments to handle the problem.

No

Query NE status and alarms by using the NMS.

Can the NMS Yes connect to the NE and can alarms be cleared using the NMS?

Clear the alarm.

No
Rectify the fault onsite. Go to the next step.

No

Is the service restored?

Is the service restored?

No

Contact Huawei engineers.

Yes

Yes

Check the troubleshooting result.

End

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Table 3-1 Description of the main process of emergency maintenance Mark 1 Description The common maloperations are as follows: l Modifying the data configurations l Loopback l Muting the radio transmitter l Shutting down the laser l Resetting the NE l Loading the software 2 Check whether any external fault occurs (for example, the power supply or the service equipment such as base stations are faulty, or the environment of the equipment room is abnormal). Checking the NE status l If the NE is unreachable to the NMS, 1. Check the status of the upstream NE. Clear alarms reported on the upstream NE. Alarms on the upstream NE may cause downstream NEs to be unreachable to the NMS. 2. If the fault cannot be rectified by using the NMS, follow instructions in Figure 3-2 to handle the fault on site. l If the NE is reachable to the NMS, browse the current alarms, analyze the alarm causes, and check whether the alarms need to be handled on site.
NOTE Before handling the alarms on site, prepare desired spare parts and NE configuration data. The NE configuration data could be the network planning parameters or backup NE database. If the protection trail is available, switch the services to the protection trail, therefore minimizing the network interruption duration.

Generally, the following alarms can be cleared by using the NMS: l RADIO_MUTE, LOOP_ALM, MW_CFG_MISMATCH, MW_CONT_WAVE l ETH_CFM_UNEXPERI, ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK

After rectifying the fault, proceed as follows: 1. Check the alarms and ensure that the system is running smoothly. 2. Arrange personnel to watch and guard the system during the peak service hours, and be sure to solve the problems promptly, if any. 3. Fill in the sheet for on-site operations, record the fault symptoms and handling results, and then send them to Huawei. Table 3-2 shows the sheet for on-site operations.

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Table 3-2 Sheet for on-site operations Maintained on Actual Step Step in the Whole Procedure Maintenance Personnel Handling Result Remarks

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On-Site Fault Handling Sub-Process


Figure 3-2 On-site fault handling sub-process
Start 1

Is the power system faulty? No

Yes Rectify the fault.

2 Obvious equipment damage? 3 No

Yes

Repair or replace the equipment.

Browse alarms locally by using the LCT 4 Yes Equipment alarm? No 5 Radio link alarm? No 6 Other alarms? No 7
Is the interconnected equipment faulty?

Rectify the fault.

Yes Rectify the fault.

Yes Clear the alarms.

Yes Rectify the fault.

No
Troubleshoot the fault by performing loopbacks section by section and replacing the suspected faulty parts.

Go to the next step.

No

Is the service restored? Yes

End

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Table 3-3 On-site fault handling sub-process Comment 1 Description The process are as follows: 1. If a PI device is used to supply power to the OptiX RTN 310, check whether the PI indicator states are correct. If the PI indicator states are normal, skip to the next step on the process flow. 2. Check whether the circuit breaker on the power supply device connected to the OptiX RTN 310 is disconnected. If the circuit breaker is automatically disconnected, identify the cause (such as short circuits or insufficient fuse capacity), and handle the fault accordingly. 3. Check whether the power supply equipment is functional.
NOTE For the OptiX RTN 310, the rated voltage of the input power is -48 V, the allowed power range is -38.4 V to -57.6 V, the fuse capacity is proposed to be 6 A.

Obvious equipment damages include: l The outdoor equipment is damaged or tilts, or cables are disconnected. l The indoor equipment is damaged or wet, or cables are disconnected.

The operations are as follows: 1. Connecting the Web LCT to the Equipment 2. Creating NEs Using the Search Method 3. Logging In to an NE 4. 7.1.3 Browsing Current Alarms(U2000)

Equipment alarms include: l HARD_BAD, POWER_ALM, TEMP_ALARM l RADIO_TSL_HIGH, RADIO_TSL_LOW l ETH_LOS l XPIC_LOS

Radio link alarms include: l MW_LOF, MW_LIM, MW_BER_EXC l RADIO_RSL_HIGH, RADIO_RSL_LOW l MW_CFG_MISMATCH l AM_DOWNSHIFT

Alarms of other types do not cause service interruption and NE unreachability at the same time. Handle the alarms (if any) according to the alarm reference document. If a service fault is not caused by a fault on the OptiX RTN 310, check for and handle faults on the opposite equipment.

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Comment 8

Description Locate the fault by performing loopbacks section by section, replace the faulty parts, and check whether the fault is rectified. l The OptiX RTN 310 supports software loopbacks including inloops at Ethernet ports and inloops/outloops at IF ports. l Hardware loopbacks include optical fiber loopbacks and network cable loopbacks.

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4 Troubleshooting

4
About This Chapter

Troubleshooting

This guide describes the general troubleshooting procedure and the methods of rectifying the common faults. 4.1 General Troubleshooting Procedure When handling a fault, make a detailed record of the fault phenomena. The customers in China can contact our 24-hour technical support center at 400-830-2118, and the customers in areas outside China can contact the local Huawei offices. 4.2 Troubleshooting the Radio Link Radio link faults include radio link unavailability and radio link performance degrade. 4.3 Troubleshooting Ethernet Service Faults An Ethernet service fault may be the Ethernet service interruption or Ethernet service deterioration.

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4.1 General Troubleshooting Procedure


When handling a fault, make a detailed record of the fault phenomena. The customers in China can contact our 24-hour technical support center at 400-830-2118, and the customers in areas outside China can contact the local Huawei offices.

General Troubleshooting Procedure


Figure 4-1 General troubleshooting procedure
Start 1 Record fault symptoms Rectify external faults 2 Caused by external factors? No Yes

4 Report to Huawei

Diagnose, locate and handle the fault

Is the fault rectified? Yes

No

Work out solutions together

Is the fault rectified? Write a troubleshooting report Yes

No

End

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Table 4-1 General troubleshooting procedure Comment No. 1 Description When recording the fault phenomena, make a true and detailed record of the entire process of the fault. Record the exact time when the fault occurs and the operations performed before and after the fault occurs. Save the alarms, performance events, and other important information. You can use the click-to-collect function on the U2000 to collect data. For the OptiX RTN 310, the common external cause is a fault on the power supply. l If a radio link is faulty, follow instructions in 4.2 Troubleshooting the Radio Link to handle the fault. l If an Ethernet service is faulty, follow instructions in 4.3 Troubleshooting Ethernet Service Faults to handle the fault. l For faults of other types, handle alarms in descending order of their severities according to the alarm reference document. 4 To provide feedbacks or obtain technical support, customers in China can contact the 24-hour technical support center at 400-830-2118, and the customers in areas outside China can contact the local Huawei offices.

2 3

4.2 Troubleshooting the Radio Link


Radio link faults include radio link unavailability and radio link performance degrade.

Radio Link Faults


Radio link faults are classified into: l l l Equipment faults, including outdoor component faults, cable faults, and power supply faults Propagation faults, including fading, interference, and poor line of sight (LOS) Poor construction quality, including poor antenna/component installation, poor grounding, and poor waterproofing

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Figure 4-2 Radio link faults


Causes of radio link faults

Propagation faults

Poor construction quality

Equipment faults

Interference

Fading

Poor LOS

Antenna installation

Cables

External interference Over-reach interference

Rain fading Multipath fading Reflection

LOS not achieved Near-field blocking

Antennas not aligned Antennas loosened or offset

Poor grounding

Hardware Faults Power faults

Poor waterproofing

Damaged cable components

Fading Phenomena and Causes


During microwave network maintenance, link fading is the main cause for radio link faults. Link fading is more difficult to locate and handle than hardware faults. Table 4-2 Fading phenomena and causes Fading Type Classifie d by RSL Down fading Fading Phenomena The RSL is lower than the RSL after free space fading. The difference can be tens of decibels. The RSL is higher than the RSL in the free space. The difference can be 10-odd decibels. The fading lasts from several milliseconds to tens of seconds. Generally, fast fading is caused by multipath fading. It occurs periodically. To be specific, fast fading occurs in the period from 18:00 to 20:00 of a day or in a certain season of a year. Fading Cause l Multi-path fading l Duct-type fading l Rain fading l Interference l Long delay caused by terrain reflection l Multi-path fading l Duct-type fading l Long delay caused by terrain reflection

Up fading

Classifie d by fading duration

Fast fading

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Fading Type Slow fading

Fading Phenomena The fading lasts from tens of seconds to several hours.

Fading Cause l Generally, slow up fading is caused by interference. l Slow down fading is caused by rain, and therefore is also called rain fading. Rain fading occurs on links working at a frequency of 10 GHz or in areas where heavy rain occurs.

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Troubleshooting Procedure

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Figure 4-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the radio link


Start

Is there an incorrect operation? No

Yes

Undo the operation.

Hardware alarms exist? No

Yes Rectify equipment faults.

Are there IF or RF alarms on the link? No

Yes

4 Analyze the historical RSL records and the current RSL value 5 Co-channel or adjacentchannel interference Long delay caused by terrain reflection The link is blocked. 6 Is the RSL value always less than the designed value? No 7 Yes Yes The antennas are offset. Passive components like hybrid couplers or flexible waveguides are faulty. Rain fading

Troubleshoot the fault as a non-radio link fault.

Does up-fading occur? No

Yes

Is it raining when the fault occurs? No

Does the fault occur regularly? No Troubleshoot the fault by replacing the suspected faulty parts.

Yes

Multipath fading Terrain reflection

Is the fault rectified? No

Yes

End

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Table 4-3 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting the radio link Mark 1 Description Check whether any maloperations have been performed: l Shutting down the power supply, which caused the local or remote NE to be unreachable to the NMS l Muting the radio transmitter, which caused the RADIO_MUTE alarm to be reported l Looping back IF ports, which caused the LOOP_ALM alarm to be reported l Configuring incorrect radio link data, which caused the MW_CFG_MISMATCH alarm to be reported l Enabling an AM self-check l Enabling a PRBS test l Enabling IF consecutive wave output 2 Hardware fault alarms include: l HARD_BAD l RADIO_TSL_HIGH, RADIO_TSL_LOW When a hardware fault occurs, replace the OptiX RTN 310. 3 IF and RF alarms include: l MW_LOF, MW_LIM, MW_RDI l MW_BER_EXC, MW_BER_SD, MW_FEC_UNCOR l RADIO_RSL_HIGH, RADIO_RSL_LOW l RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH l AM_DOWNSHIFT 4 RSL is the major reference for locating and handling propagation faults. Follow instructions in 7.1.14 Browsing Historical Performance Data of a Radio Link (Web LCT) and 7.1.13 Browsing Current Performance Events of the radio link (Web LCT) to browse and analyze the historical RSL records and the current RSL value.

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Mark 5

Description If the RSL value is larger than the current receiver sensitivity but the radio link is still unavailable or degrades, up fading occurs. Mute the opposite NE and check the RSL at the local NE. l If the RSL value is larger than 90 dBm, there may be co-channel interference that affects long-term availability and error-second performance of the system. Follow instructions in 7.9 Scanning Interfering Signals or use a frequency spectrum analyzer to locate the possible interfering frequencies. If a third-party RF device is the interfering source, contact the local frequency spectrum management department to clear the interference. If interference is caused due to improper route planning, modify the frequency plan to minimize the interference impacts. l If the RSL value is not larger than 90 dBm, there may be a fault caused by terrain reflection. Check whether there are rivers or lakes on the propagation trail. If there is an intensively reflective terrain, adjust the mounting height of the antenna to change the link elevation, therefore minimizing reflection impacts. Alternatively, replan the route to avoid the intensively reflective terrain.

If the RSL value had been smaller than the designed value for a long time before the fault occurred, the propagation trail is faulty. Proceed as follows: l Check whether the antenna connection is loose or the antenna is unaligned. If yes, re-align the antenna. l Check whether there are any blocks in the radio transmission trail or in the near field of the antenna. If yes, adjust the mounting height of the antenna to avoid blocks, replan the radio link route. l Check whether loss increases because the antenna, hybrid coupler, and flexible waveguide are not intact or are wet. If yes, replace the faulty components.

If a radio link fault occurred in poor weather conditions (such as rainy, snowy, or foggy) and was rectified after the conditions disappeared, the fault cause was weather fading. For a fault caused by weather fading, check whether the link fading margin is insufficient. 1. Calculate the actual link availability. Calculate the total link fault time within one year or half a year. Calculate the actual link availability using the following formula: <Link availability> = <Total fault time>/<Calculation period>. l If the actual link availability is lower than the designed value by an order of magnitude, the link fading margin is insufficient. Re-plan the radio link parameters. l If the difference between the actual link availability and the designed value is small, no special handling operations are required. 2. Before re-planning a radio link, check whether the rain zone parameters, the refractivity gradient, and the planning algorithm are incorrect. The practicable measure could be as follows: l Increase the transmit power or replace the original antenna with a new one having a larger diameter to increase the system gain and the fading margin. l Use a frequency band on which rain fading has smaller impacts.

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Mark 7

Description If the receive power fluctuates greatly and fast (by more than 10 dB or several 10 dB within several seconds or several 10 seconds), fast fading occurs. Fast fading may occur due to: l Multi-path fading: Faults occur periodically, for example, at the day-and-night alternating time period. l Duct-type fading: random fast fading To handle fast fading, proceed as follows: l Increase the path inclination: That is, adjust the antenna mount heights at both ends to increase the height differences between the antennas at both ends. l Reduce surface reflection. For apparent strong reflection surfaces, for example, large areas of water, flat lands, and bold mountain tops, adjust antennas to move reflection points out of the strong reflection areas or mask the reflection by using landforms. l Reduce the path clearance. With LOS conditions guaranteed, lower antenna mount heights as much as possible.

If all preceding actions cannot rectify the fault, replace the OptiX RTN 310 at both ends. Then, check whether services are functional. If the fault persists, replan the radio link by changing the operating frequency, using antennas with a larger diameter, changing the antenna heights, or changing the routes.

4.3 Troubleshooting Ethernet Service Faults


An Ethernet service fault may be the Ethernet service interruption or Ethernet service deterioration.

Fault Phenomena
The Ethernet service interruption indicates that the Ethernet service is interrupted. The Ethernet service deterioration indicates that the Ethernet service is abnormal. For example, the network access speed is low, the equipment delay is long, the packet loss occurs, or incorrect packets exist in the received or transmitted data. Table 4-4 Common faults of Ethernet services Symptom Ethernet services are interrupted. Alarm HARD_BAD, TEMP_ALARM ETH_LOS, ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK, LOOP_ALM LASER_MOD_ERR Ethernet services are degraded. HARD_BAD, TEMP_ALARM FLOW_OVER, LAG_MEMBER_DOWN AM_DOWNSHIFT
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Fault Causes
l The possible human factors are as follows: An Ethernet board loopback or a transmission line loopback occurs. The parameter settings of the Ethernet ports, such as the port enabled state, working mode, and flow control, are different from the parameter settings of the Ethernet ports on the interconnected equipment. The service configuration is incorrect. l l l l l l The equipment at the local end is faulty. A link fault or bit errors occur. When the AM function is enabled, the Ethernet service bandwidth decreases due to the downward AM switch. The interconnected equipment is faulty. The network cable is faulty. The external electromagnetic interference is severe.

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Troubleshooting Procedure
Figure 4-4 Procedure for troubleshooting Ethernet service faults
Start

Incorrect operation? No

Yes

Cancel this operation

An equipment alarm or radio link alarm? No An Ethernet alarm? No

Yes

Clear the alarm

Yes

Clear the alarm

Query the port and service traffic and analyze the fault causes No

Any abnormal RMON performance events? No

Yes

Troubleshoot the fault according to the flow of handling RMON performance events No Is the fault rectified? Yes

Troubleshoot equipment faults by performing loopbacks section by section or replacing parts

Proceed with the next step

End

Table 4-5 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting Ethernet service faults No. 1 Description Check the following points: l Whether a loopback is set for the Ethernet port l Whether a loopback is set for the transmission line l Whether the parameter settings of the Ethernet port, such as the port enabled state, working mode, and flow control, are the same as the parameter settings of the Ethernet port on the interconnected equipment l Check whether the Ethernet protocol and the Ethernet service configuration (especially the attributes of the Ethernet port) are correct.

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No. 2

Description Pay special attention to the following equipment alarms: l POWER_ALM, HARD_BAD, TEMP_ALARM l LASER_MOD_ERR, ETH_LOS Pay special attention to the following radio link alarms: l RADIO_RSL_HIGH, RADIO_RSL_LOW, RADIO_TSL_HIGH, RADIO_TSL_LOW l MW_LOF, MW_LIM, MW_BER_EXC, MW_BER_SD, MW_FEC_UNCOR, MW_RDI l AM_DOWNSHIFT

Pay special attention to the following alarms: l ETH_LOS, LAG_DOWN, LAG_MEMBER_DOWN l ETH_NO_FLOW, FLOW_OVER

Query the Ethernet traffic, bandwidth, or bandwidth utilization of Ethernet ports. Diagnose faults by analyzing the traffic rate at the Ethernet ports. l If the receive rate of an Ethernet port is out of range, the peer equipment is faulty. l If the transmit rate of an Integrated IP radio port is close to or equal to the service bandwidth supported by the current IF working mode, the service bandwidth of the radio link is insufficient. Contact network planning personnel to replan the service bandwidth for a radio link. If the replanned service bandwidth exceeds the limit specified by the license, apply to Huawei for a license that allows higher service bandwidth. l If the traffic at the ingress port is markedly different from the traffic at the egress port (for an OptiX RTN 310, the ingress port is usually an Ethernet port and the egress port is usually an Integrated IP radio port), check whether the service and QoS configurations on the equipment are proper. l If the transmitted traffic is equal to the received traffic, query the traffic on the same port in each VLAN to check whether bandwidth preemption occurs.

For RMON performance events, see the C RMON Event Reference.

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Figure 4-5 Procedure for troubleshooting an RMON performance event


Start 1 View the statistics gro up performance on an Ethernet port 2 Is there any FCS error? No Is there any collision or fragment? No Are broadcast packets excessive? No Use a meter to perform the test Yes Yes Yes Rectify the fault of line bit errors 3 Check the working mode of the port 4 Handle the problem on excessive broadcast packets

Is the test passed? No 5 Is it a MTU setting problem? No Rectify the equipment fault by loopback section by section or replacing the board

Yes

Rectify the fault of the interconnected equipment

Yes

Modify the MTU value

Proceed with the next step

No

Is the fault rectified? Yes

End

Table 4-6 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting an RMON performance event No. 1 Description Query the real-time performance statistics of Ethernet ports.

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No. 2

Description The troubleshooting procedure is as follows: l Check the Ethernet cable. If the Ethernet cable is not qualified, replace it with a new one. l Change the Ethernet port that accesses the services on the Ethernet board. If the new port does not have the RMON performance of an FCS error, it indicates that the hardware of the original port is faulty. Otherwise, the hardware of the Ethernet port on the equipment at the opposite end is faulty.

Ensure that: l The negotiation results are the same at both ends if both ends use the autonegotiation mode. l The working rate and full-duplex/half-duplex settings are the same at both ends if the working modes at both ends are set manually. l The working modes at both ends are autonegotiation or are set manually.

Find out the cause of excessive broadcast packets (check whether loopbacks are configured at Ethernet ports by referring to 7.4.1 Setting Loopbacks for Ethernet Ports, or check whether the VB filtering table is configured correctly by referring to Managing a Native Ethernet Service), and rectify the fault. If the fault is caused by the opposite equipment, you can reduce the number of broadcast packets by setting a broadcast packet suppression threshold at the Ethernet port on the local equipment. The maximum frame length that is set for a port should be longer than the maximum transmission unit (MTU) of the network. The MTU must be set according to the network plan. For the OptiX RTN 310, the MTU is equal to the total length of the maximum payload, encapsulation labels, and frame header. The maximum payload length is usually 1500 bytes. You can obtain the MTU supported by the network using a test instrument.

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5 Part Replacement

5
About This Chapter

Part Replacement

Part replacement is a method frequently used to locate faults. The replacement operation varies according to the specific part type. 5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310 When an OptiX RTN 310 is being replaced, services on it are interrupted. 5.2 Replacing an SFP Module When a small form pluggable (SFP) module at a port is being replaced, unprotected services on the port are interrupted.

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5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310


When an OptiX RTN 310 is being replaced, services on it are interrupted.

Prerequisites
l l l You are aware of the impact of replacing an OptiX RTN 310. The spare OptiX RTN 310 is at hand, whose model is the same as that of the OptiX RTN 310 to be replaced. The RTN.CER file of the new NE has been copied to the root directory of the USB flash drive.
NOTE

A RTN.CER file, which stores the account and password information at the system administration level (the password is MD5 encrypted), is generated by the system administrator of a network management center using dedicated tools.

NE data has been obtained. The backup NE data has been imported to a laptop where the Web LCT is installed, if there is a backup of the NE database on the NMS. The network plan document has been obtained if there is no backup of the NE database on the NMS.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l l l l Wrench (Adjustable wrench, Hex key) Silicon Waterproof tape USB flash drive The USB flash drive must be compatible with the OptiX RTN 310 and have a capacity no less than 4 GB. l Web LCT

Precautions
l If OptiX RTN 310s are installed on a hybrid coupler, power off only the OptiX RTN 310 to be replaced, but do not power off or mute the other OptiX RTN 310. This can prevent services from being affected. The port of the hybrid coupler ejects little microwave radiation, meeting the safety standards for microwave radiation. Do not damage the paint of the OptiX RTN 310 during the replacement. If the paint is damaged, repaint the damaged areas.

Procedure
Step 1 Optional: If the NE is running, back up the NE data to the USB flash drive. 1. 2.
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Set USB Access Control to Enabled on the Web LCT. Insert the blank USB flash drive into the USB port on the OptiX RTN 310.
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The indicator beside the USB port is blinking green during the data backup. The backup may last for about 2 minutes based on the content to be backed up. The indicator will be steady green after the data backup is complete. 3. Remove the USB flash disk after the data backup is complete.

Step 2 Power off the OptiX RTN 310. l If power is supplied to the OptiX RTN 310 by the power injector (PI), switch off the circuit breaker, on the power cabinet, connected to the PI, or disconnect the fuse on the power cabinet. If power is supplied to the OptiX RTN 310 through a DC port, switch off the circuit breaker, on the power cabinet, to which the DC power cable is connected, or disconnect the fuse on the power cabinet.

Step 3 Remove the faulty OptiX RTN 310. 1. Remove all the cables connected to the OptiX RTN 310.
NOTE

Remove XPIC cables by pulling rings attached on them.

2.

Loosen the four captive screws in a diagonal sequence, and remove the OptiX RTN 310 from the antenna, hybrid coupler, or mounting bracket.

Step 4 Ensure that the model of the spare OptiX RTN 310 is the same as that of the OptiX RTN 310 to be replaced. Step 5 Install the spare OptiX RTN 310 by following instructions in the OptiX RTN 310 Quick Installation Guide. The main steps are as follows: 1. Verify the polarization of the OptiX RTN 310 and change the polarization if it is necessary, to ensure the polarization of the OptiX RTN 310 is the same as that of the antenna or hybrid coupler/OMT. Mount the OptiX RTN 310 on the antenna, hybrid coupler, or mounting bracket. Tighten the four captive screws in a diagonal sequence. Connect cables to the OptiX RTN 310 and waterproof them.

2. 3. 4.

Step 6 Connect the fuse or switch on the circuit breaker on the power cabinet of the OptiX RTN 310. The system indicator on OptiX RTN 310 is blinking green when the OptiX RTN 310 is being powered on and started, and is steady green after the OptiX RTN 310 is started. Step 7 Restore the NE data according to the onsite situations. l If you have performed Step 1 to back up the NE data on the USB flash disk, restore the NE data using the backup data. 1. 2. Set USB Access Control to Enabled on the Web LCT. Insert the USB flash disk with the NE data backup into the USB port on the OptiX RTN 310. The indicator beside the USB port is blinking green during the data restoration The restoration may last for 2 to 12 minutes based on the content to be restored. The indicator will be steady green after the data is restored. 3. l 1.
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After the data is restored, remove the USB flash drive. If there is a backup file in the NMS, restore the NE database using the backup file.
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If you have no NE data backup on the USB flash disk.

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2. l

See Changing an NE ID and Setting NE Communication Parameters to modify the NE ID and IP.

If there is no backup file, re-configure the NE data by referring to the Commissioning Guide and network plan document.

Step 8 Query the current alarms on the OptiX RTN 310. Ensure that the faults disappear and no alarm is generated after the replacement. ----End

5.2 Replacing an SFP Module


When a small form pluggable (SFP) module at a port is being replaced, unprotected services on the port are interrupted.

Prerequisites
l l l You are aware of the impact of replacing an SFP module. You are aware of the position of the SFP module to be replaced. You are aware of whether protection has been configured for services on the SFP module to be replaced. If no protection is configured, the services will be interrupted during the replacement. A spare SFP module with the same version and model as the SFP module to be replaced is available. To obtain information about the SFP module to be replaced, query the board manufacturing information.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l l ESD wrist strap U2000

Precaution

DANGER
When handling optical fibers, do not stand close to, or look into the optical fiber outlet directly without eye protection.

Procedure
Step 1 Remove the cables connected to the SFP module. Step 2 Remove the SFP module.

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Step 3 Ensure that the model of the spare SFP module is the same as that of the SFP module to be replaced. Step 4 Insert the spare SFP module. Step 5 Connect cables to the SFP module. Step 6 Query the current alarms. Alarms on the SFP module have been cleared. ----End

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6 Database Backup and Restoration

Database Backup and Restoration

About This Chapter


The OptiX RTN 310 supports database backup and restoration through the NMS. 6.1 NE Database An NE database stores communication data, security data, alarm data, performance data, and configuration data of an NE in a certain structure, to facilitate data query and modification and to ensure that the data can be restored after the NE is reset. 6.2 Backing Up the Database Manually NE configuration data is stored in the database of an NE. To prevent the database from being damaged due to hardware faults or potentially service-affecting operations such as upgrading software, you need to manually back up the database periodically and before these operations. 6.3 Setting the Database Backup Policy 6.4 Restoring the Database by NMS If the database is damaged, you can restore the NE database by using the database file that is saved previously. 6.5 Recovering Databases from a USB Flash Drive When NE data is lost or becomes abnormal and NE DCN communication fails, you can recover NE databases from a USB flash drive.

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6.1 NE Database
An NE database stores communication data, security data, alarm data, performance data, and configuration data of an NE in a certain structure, to facilitate data query and modification and to ensure that the data can be restored after the NE is reset.

NE Database Type
Three types of NE databases are available: l Memory database (MDB) The data in the MDB varies according to the configuration and is lost when the system control unit is reset or when the NE is powered off. l Dynamic random database (DRDB) The DRDB automatically stores the data that is checked successfully. The DRDB is resident in the reserved memory. Hence, the data in the DRDB is not lost when a warm reset is performed on the system control unit. The data, however, is lost when a cold reset is performed on the system control unit or when the NE is powered off. l Flash database (FDB) The FDB includes FDB0 and FDB1. The FDB is resident in the flash memory on the board. Hence, the data in the FDB is permanently stored.

NE Database Backup
NE configuration data, after being delivered to the system control unit, is stored in the MDB. Upon successful verification of the configuration data, the system control unit copies the data from the MDB to DRDB and delivers the data to boards. Two modes are available to back up DRDB data to the FDB:
NOTE

During back up DRDB data to the FDB process, do not recover or backup NE data by USB flash drive.

l l

An NE backs up DRDB data to the FDB within five minutes after NE configuration data is modified. An NE backs up DRDB data to the FDB every 24 hours.

The following modes are available to back up FDB data: l l l Upon a scheduled backup of DRDB data to the FDB, the NE backs up FDB data to a dedicated partition of the flash memory (other than FDB0 and FDB1). On the NMS, FDB data can be backed up to an NMS server manually or at specified intervals. If a USB flash drive is connected to the USB port and the FDB data in the flash memory is later than that in the USB flash drive, the NE backs up FDB data from flash memory to \db in the USB flash drive.

NE Database Restoration
l When an NE is warm reset, the system control unit checks whether configuration data is available in the DRDB. If configuration data is available in the DRDB, the system control
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unit restores data from the DRDB. If the configuration data in the DRDB is damaged, the system control unit restores data from FDB0 and FDB1. l l l When the NE is cold reset, the system control unit restores data from FDB0 and FDB1. When the data in both FDB0 and FDB1 is corrupted, data can be restored from the dedicated partition of the flash memory. If a USB flash drive is connected to the USB port and the FDB data in the USB flash drive is newer than that in the flash memory, the NE backs up FDB data from the USB flash drive to a dedicated directory in the flash memory.
NOTE

During the database recovering by the NMS, do not recover or backup data by USB flash drive.

6.2 Backing Up the Database Manually


NE configuration data is stored in the database of an NE. To prevent the database from being damaged due to hardware faults or potentially service-affecting operations such as upgrading software, you need to manually back up the database periodically and before these operations.

Prerequisites
l l You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher. You have logged in to the NE.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Precautions
NOTE

During the database backup by the NMS, do not recover or backup data by USB flash drive.

Procedure
Step 1 On the NMS, choose Administration > NE Software Management > NE Data Backup/ Restoration from the Main Menu. Step 2 In NE View, click Find. Step 3 In the Find NE dialog box, set the search conditions and search for the NE that requires database backup. Step 4 Select the NE whose database needs to be backed up, and click Backup.
NOTE

By holding down Ctrl, you can select multiple NEs to back up their data at one time.

Step 5 Set the data backup path to NMS Server or NMS Client according to the requirements.
NOTE

If NMS Client is selected, you can click

to set the path in which the client data is stored.

----End
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6.3 Setting the Database Backup Policy


6.3.1 Setting the User-Defined Backup Policy
Through this task, you can set the backup policy for a specific NE.

Prerequisites
l l You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher. You must log in to the NE.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Background Information
Each NE has a default data backup policy. l l l l Database packages are backed up once at 2:00. The default backup policy is disabled by default. A maximum of five database packages can be backed up at a time. Data changes do not trigger any backup operations.

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Administration > NE Software Management > NE Backup Policy Management from the Main Menu.

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Then, the NE Backup Policy Management dialog box is displayed. Step 2 In Auto Backup Policy window, set NE type. The version, name, and IP address of the selected NE are displayed. Step 3 Click New Policy. Step 4 Optional: Click to import the information of the NEs.

Step 5 Optional: Click to export the information of the NEs. The information of the selected NEs is stored in the specified location. Step 6 In NE Table, select one or more NEs. Step 7 Click Next.

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Then, the Setting Policy dialog box is displayed. Step 8 Set Policy Name, Period Backup Policy, and Period Save Policy.
NOTE

l If The Added NE's Policy Status is set to Enable, the NMS performs the backup operation within the specified period, day, and time. l If The Added NE's Policy Status is set to Disable, the backup policy is still in the Disable state although the policy period reaches the specified period, day, and time.

Step 9 Click Advanced Settings, and set Backup Type, Max Backup Num, and Configuration Change Backup for a certain type of NEs. Step 10 Click OK. Step 11 Click OK. ----End

6.3.2 Executing the Backup Policy of the Device


Through this task, you can set the backup policy of a device to the running state.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Administration > NE Software Management > NE Backup Policy Management from the Main Menu.
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Then, the NE Backup Policy Management dialog box is displayed. Step 2 In Auto Backup Policy window, set NE type. The version, name, and IP address of the selected NE are displayed. Step 3 Right click the selected NE, Click Enable Backup Policy. ----End

6.3.3 Suspending the Backup Policy of the Device


Through this task, you can set the backup policy of a device to the suspended state.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Administration > NE Software Management > NE Backup Policy Management from the Main Menu.
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Then, the NE Backup Policy Management dialog box is displayed. Step 2 In Auto Backup Policy window, set NE type. The version, name, and IP address of the selected NE are displayed. Step 3 Right click the selected NE, Click Disable Backup Policy. ----End

6.4 Restoring the Database by NMS


If the database is damaged, you can restore the NE database by using the database file that is saved previously.

Prerequisites
l l l You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher. NE data has been backed up. You have logged in to the NE.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

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Precautions

CAUTION
Exercise caution when activating the database because this operation may interrupt services. Activate the database within 5 minutes after the NE data is restored. Otherwise, the database automatically rolls back. Ensure that the database file used for backing up the database is correct. Otherwise, services will be interrupted.
NOTE

During the database recovering by the NMS, do not recover or backup data by USB flash drive.

Procedure
Step 1 On the NMS, choose Administration > NE Software Management > NE Data Backup/ Restoration from the Main Menu.
NOTE

The equivalent operations on the Web LCT are as follows: In NE List, click In Login, click OK. For the DC, the default user name is szhw and the default password is nesoft. For the license tool, the default user name is lct and the default password is password. If the user name or password has been changed, use the latest one. .

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The NE Data Backup/Restoration window is displayed. Step 2 In NE View, click Find. Then, the Find NE dialog box is displayed. Step 3 In the Find NE dialog box, set the search conditions to search for the NEs that need to restore databases. Step 4 Click OK. Step 5 Select the NE whose data needs to be recovered, and click Recover.

NOTE

You can select multiple NEs to recover the data at one time.

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Then, the Recover dialog box is displayed. Step 6 Select Browse in File Name. Then, the Select File dialog box is displayed. Step 7 Select files from NMS Server or NMS Client, and then choose the files to be recovered. Click OK. Step 8 In the Recover dialog box, click Start. Step 9 Click Yes in the prompt dialog box. The system starts recovering the selected data files on the specified NE. In the NE list of NE View, Operation Status indicates the progress of recovering the data. After the data is recovered, Operation Status displays a message, indicating that the operation is successful. Step 10 In NE View, right-click the NE and choose Active Database from the shortcut menu. The Active Database dialog box is displayed. Step 11 Click Start to start activating the database.
NOTE

If the NE transmits data services, select Deliver to Board. Services are interrupted during the activation of databases.

In NE View, Operation Status indicates the progress of activating the database. After the database is activated, Operation Status indicates that the operation is successful. ----End

6.5 Recovering Databases from a USB Flash Drive


When NE data is lost or becomes abnormal and NE DCN communication fails, you can recover NE databases from a USB flash drive.

Prerequisites
l l l You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher. The NE database has been backed up. You have logged in to the NE on the NMS.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000 USB flash drive

Procedure
Step 1 Copy the NE databases to be recovered from the NMS server to the \db directory in the USB flash drive.
NOTE

There should be no contents in the other directories of the USB flash drive.

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Step 2 Insert the USB flash drive to the USB port on the OptiX RTN 310.
USB/RSSI/NMS (bottom view)
USB indicator System indicator

USB interface

USB/RSSI/NMS

NOTE

During the database recovering process, do not perform operations such as data configuration, NE resets, and software loading.

Step 3 Check the data-loading status based on the USB indicator.

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Status of the USB Indicator The indicator blinks green, goes off, blinks green, and turns steady green.

Data-Loading Status The loading of commissioning data is complete.


NOTE l When the indicator is blinking green, do not remove the USB flash drive. Otherwise, the data loading may be interrupted. l After the data loading is complete, the NE will automatically reset, which takes 2 minutes to 3 minutes. After the reset is complete, the USB indicator and the system indicator on the NE are both steady green, indicating that the data loading is successful. l If only the script files are loaded using the USB flash drive, the indicator blinks green for 1 to 2 seconds and the NE will reset automatically. In this case, you may fail to notice that the indicator has blinked green because the blinking duration is too short. l If the script files and software package are to be loaded using the USB flash drive, the loading time may last up to more than 10 minutes.

Operation Remove the USB flash drive.

The indicator turns off after the USB flash drive is inserted.

The USB flash drive is faulty and has failed to get online.
NOTE Another possible cause is that the USB flash drive is not properly inserted.

l Copy the commissioning data to another USB flash drive. l Repeat 2 to load the data to the NE. l Copy the commissioning data to another USB flash drive. l Repeat 2 to load the data to the NE.

The indicator blinks red.

An incorrect type of USB flash drive is being used. An error occurred when the NE attempted to read/write the USB flash drive.
NOTE Preparing Documents and Tools lists the types of USB flash drives supported by that the OptiX RTN 310.

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Status of the USB Indicator The indicator is steady red.

Data-Loading Status The loaded data is incorrect.

Operation Reload the data: l Save the correct NE software and commissioning scripts in the correct directories of the USB flash drive. l Repeat 2 to load the data to the NE.

----End

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7 Supporting Task

7
About This Chapter

Supporting Task

This chapter describes the common maintenance operations. 7.1 Browsing Alarms, Abnormal Events, and Performance Events The U2000 is used to browse alarms, abnormal events, and performance events at the network layer. The Web LCT is used to browse alarms, abnormal events, and performance events at the NE layer. 7.2 Setting Alarm and Performance Management Functions The OptiX RTN 310 supports various alarm and performance management functions. 7.3 Querying a Report You can obtain the version, manufacture, and microwave link information of all the boards by querying the corresponding report. 7.4 Software Loopback Software loopback refers to the loopback operation that is implemented by using the NMS. During software loopback, you need not visit the engineering site. Hence, software loopback is used more widely than hardware loopback. 7.5 Reset Reset is an important method of troubleshooting software faults. Reset is classified into cold reset, warm reset. 7.6 Detecting Consecutive Waves The consecutive wave detection function is used to check whether the transmit frequency deviates. 7.7 PRBS Test The OptiX RTN 310 supports the PRBS test function, allowing PRBSs to be transmitted to microwave ports. 7.8 Querying the License Capacity You can check whether the loaded license file meets the requirements by querying the license capacity. 7.9 Scanning Interfering Signals
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You can learn whether intra-frequency or inter-frequency interference exists by scanning frequency spectra in microwave channels. 7.10 Setting the Automatic Release Function To protect the communication between the NMS and NE against improper operations, an NE supports the automatic release of the RF muting, software loopback, and other operations that require you to exercise caution. The automatic release time is five minutes by default. You can set whether to enable the automatic release function and the automatic release time through the NMS. 7.11 Querying Power Consumption of NE This section describes how to query power consumption of NE. 7.12 Querying the Attributes of an Ethernet Port This section describes how to learn about Ethernet service flow rates and physical bandwidth parameters of Ethernet ports. 7.13 Setting Traffic, Physical Bandwidth, or Bandwidth Utilization of Ethernet Ports To query the traffic, physical bandwidth, or bandwidth utilization of Ethernet ports within a certain period, you need to enable the monitoring for the object before that period starts. 7.14 Querying Traffic, Physical Bandwidth, or Bandwidth Utilization of Ethernet Ports This section describes how to query the change curve of the traffic, physical bandwidth, or bandwidth utilization of Ethernet ports within a certain period. 7.15 End-to-End Management on Fibers, Tunnels, and PWE3 Services This section describes the common maintenance operations for end-to-end management on fibers, MPLS tunnels, and PWE3 services.

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7.1 Browsing Alarms, Abnormal Events, and Performance Events


The U2000 is used to browse alarms, abnormal events, and performance events at the network layer. The Web LCT is used to browse alarms, abnormal events, and performance events at the NE layer.

7.1.1 Checking the NE Status(U2000)


You can learn about the basic information such as whether the NE fails to communicate with the NMS and whether any alarms are reported by checking the NE status.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Precautions
NOTE

By default, the color of the NE icon on the NMS indicates the NE status.

Procedure
Step 1 In Main Topology, select the required NE. Step 2 In Main Topology, click Step 3 Click the Attribute tab. Step 4 View the NE status and alarm status. .

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You can also determine the NE status based on the comparison between the NE icon and the description at the Legend tab.

----End

7.1.2 Checking the NE Status(Web LCT)


You can learn about the basic information such as whether the NE fails to communicate with the NMS by checking the NE status.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 In NE List, check Communication Status of the NE. In normal cases, Communication Status is Normal. Step 2 If Login Status of the NE is Not Logged In, log in to the NE. 1. 2.
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Select the desired NE, and choose NE Login. The NE Login dialog box is displayed. Specify User Name and Password.
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l The user name is lct by default. l The password of user lct is password by default.
NOTE

User lct has the authority at the system level.

3.

Click OK. The Login Status column switches to Logged In.

Step 3 Click NE Explorer. Step 4 Check NE STATE above NE Panel.

In normal cases, NE STATE is Running. ----End

7.1.3 Browsing Current Alarms(U2000)


You can find the faults that occur on the equipment by browsing current alarms.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Fault > Browse Current Alarm from the Main Menu. Step 2 Optional: In the Filter dialog box, click the Basic Settings tab.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

In Severity, select the alarm severity to be queried. In Status, select the alarm status to be queried. In Type, select the alarm type. In Last Occurrence Time Segment, specify the alarm generation time. In Clearance Time Segment, specify the alarm clearance time.

Step 3 In the Filter dialog box, click the Alarm Source tab. Step 4 Select the object to be queried. Option Browse all alarms on the NE. Description Select All Objects. 2. Choose Add > Object below NE. 3. Select the required NE in the left pane of Object below NE, and click 4. Click OK. Alarm Source displays Selected Alarm Source. Step 5 Click OK. Step 6 Browse the displayed alarms. .

Browse certain alarms on the NE. 1. Select Custom.

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Step 7 Select the newly generated alarms, record the details of the alarms, and click Acknowledge. The Confirm dialog box is displayed. Step 8 Click Yes. Step 9 Notify the troubleshooting personnel to clear the alarms in time. For the details, see A.2 Alarms and Handling Procedures. ----End

Related Information
A current alarm refers to an alarm that is not cleared. You can browse the network-wide alarms based on the alarm severity by clicking the alarm indicators in the upper right corner. l l l l You can click You can click You can click You can click
NOTE

(red) to browse the network-wide critical alarms. (orange) to browse the network-wide major alarms. (yellow) to browse the network-wide minor alarms. (light-blue) to browse the network-wide warning alarms.

By default, the number shown by each indicator indicates the number of current network-wide alarms, which are not cleared, of the specific severity.

7.1.4 Browsing Current Alarms(Web LCT)


You can find the faults that occur on the equipment by browsing current alarms.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object Tree, and then click the the toolbar. icon on

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You can also click an alarm indicator on the toolbar to display the alarms of the specific severity.

From left to right, the alarm indicators and corresponding alarm severities are as follows: l Red: critical alarm l Orange: major alarm l Yellow: minor alarm l Purple: warning l Light blue: abnormal event

The Browse Current Alarms tab is displayed by default. Step 2 Browse the displayed alarms.

Step 3 Optional: Click Filter.

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The Filter dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Optional: Set filtering conditions and click Filter. Step 5 Optional: Click Save As. A text file that lists the current alarms is displayed in Internet Explorer.
NOTE

You can save and archive the text file as required.

----End

7.1.5 Browsing History Alarms(U2000)


You can know the faults that occur on the equipment in a past period of time by browsing historical alarms. A historical alarm refers to an alarm that is already cleared.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Fault > Browse History Alarm from the Main Menu. Step 2 Optional: In the Filter dialog box, click the Basic Settings tab.

1. 2. 3.
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In Severity, select the alarm severity to be queried. In Type, select the alarm type. In Occurrence Time Segment, specify the alarm generation time.
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4.

In Clearance Time Segment, specify the alarm clearance time. The time span starts from the time when the last historical alarm browsing operation was performed to the current time.

Step 3 In the Filter dialog box, click the Alarm Source tab. Step 4 Select the object to be queried. Option Browse all alarms on the NE. Description Select All Objects. 2. Choose Add > Object below NE. 3. Select the required NE in the left pane of Object below NE, and click 4. Click OK. Alarm Source displays Selected Alarm Source. Step 5 Click OK. Step 6 Browse the displayed historical alarms. ----End .

Browse certain alarms on the NE. 1. Select Custom.

7.1.6 Browsing History Alarms(Web LCT)


You can know the faults that occur on the equipment in a past period of time by browsing historical alarms. A historical alarm refers to an alarm that is already cleared.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object Tree, and then click the the toolbar. Step 2 Click the Browse History Alarms tab. icon on

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Step 3 Click Filter.

The Filter dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Specify Rising Time and Cleared Time, and then click Filter. The time span starts from the time when the last historical alarm browsing operation was performed to the current time. Step 5 Browse the filtered historical alarms. Step 6 Click Save As. A text file that lists the historical alarms is displayed in Internet Explorer.
NOTE

You can save and archive the text file as required.

----End
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7.1.7 Browsing Current Performance Events(U2000)


You can know the running status of the equipment by browsing current SDH/PDH performance events. The counter of current performance events measures all the performance events that arise between the start time of the monitoring period and the current time.

Prerequisites
l The performance monitoring function must be enabled. For details about how to enable the performance monitoring function, see 7.2.1 Configuring the Performance Monitoring Status of NEs. You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Performance > Browse SDH Performance from the Main Menu, and then click the Current Performance Data tab. Step 2 Select one or more NEs from the left pane, and click Step 3 Select All in Monitored Object Filter Condition. Step 4 Select 15-Minute in the Monitor Period field. Step 5 Click the Count tab, and then select Display Continuous Severely Errored Seconds. Step 6 Click Query to browse the current performance events. .

Step 7 Click the Measure tab, select All Step 8 Click Query to browse the displayed performance events. Step 9 Re-define the time span by setting Monitor Period to 24-Hour. Step 10 Repeat Step 5 through Step 8 to query the current performance events in a period of 24 hours. ----End
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7.1.8 Browsing Current Performance Events(Web LCT)


You can know the running status of the equipment by browsing current SDH/PDH performance events. The counter of current performance events measures all the performance events that arise between the start time of the monitoring period and the current time.

Prerequisites
l The performance monitoring function must be enabled. For details about how to enable the performance monitoring function, see 7.2.1 Configuring the Performance Monitoring Status of NEs. You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 Select the 1-SHXA2 in the NE Explorer and choose Performance > Current Performance from the Function Tree.

Step 2 Select the object to be monitored from the Monitored Object Filter Condition drop-down list. Step 3 Set Monitor Period. Step 4 Select the performance events to be queried in Count. Set Consecutive Severely Errored Second in Display Options. Step 5 Click Query. Step 6 Browse the displayed performance events. Step 7 Select the performance events to be queried in Gauge. Set Current Value and Maximum/ Minimum Value in Display Options. Step 8 Click Query. Step 9 Browse the displayed performance events. ----End
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7.1.9 Browsing History Performance Events(U2000)


You can know the faults that occur on the equipment in a past period of time by browsing historical performance events.

Prerequisites
l The performance monitoring function must be enabled. For details about how to enable the performance monitoring function, see 7.2.1 Configuring the Performance Monitoring Status of NEs. You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Performance > Browse SDH Performance from the main menu, and then click the History Performance Data tab. Step 2 Select one or more NEs from the left pane, and click .

Step 3 Set the parameters, such as Monitored Object Filter Criteria, Monitor Period, Data Source. Step 4 Click the Measure tab, and set Performance Event Type. Step 5 Click the Count tab, and set Performance Event Type. Step 6 Click Query.

----End

7.1.10 Browsing History Performance Events(Web LCT)


You can know the faults that occur on the equipment in a past period of time by browsing historical performance events.
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Prerequisites
l The performance monitoring function must be enabled. For details about how to enable the performance monitoring function, see 7.2.1 Configuring the Performance Monitoring Status of NEs. You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select 1-SHXA2, and then choose Performance > History Performance from the Function Tree.

Step 2 Set Monitored Object Filter Condition. Step 3 Set Monitor Period. Step 4 Specify the start time and the end time of a specific time span. The time span starts from the time when the last historical performance event browsing operation was performed to the current time. Step 5 Select all the available performance events in Count. Step 6 Click Query to browse the historical performance events. Step 7 Click Save As. A text file that lists the historical performance events is displayed in Internet Explorer.
NOTE

You can save and archive the text file as required.

Step 8 Select all the available performance events in Gauge, and select Current Value and Maximum/ Minimum Value in Display Options. Step 9 Click Query to browse the historical performance events. Step 10 Click Save As. A text file that lists the historical performance events is displayed in the IE system.
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NOTE

7 Supporting Task

You can save and archive the text file as required.

----End

7.1.11 Browsing Current Alarms of the radio link(U2000)


You can learn about the current exceptions on a radio link by browsing its current alarms.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 In the Main topology, right click the desired radio link, choose Browse Current Alarm.

Step 2 Browse the displayed alarms. ----End

7.1.12 Browsing Current Alarms of the radio link(Web LCT)


You can learn about the current exceptions on a radio link by browsing its current alarms.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 Select the desired radio link from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer, and choose Configuration > Radio Link Alarm from the Function Tree.
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Step 2 Optional: Deselect Auto Refresh. Select Auto Refresh only after the update period is changed to a non-default value. ----End

7.1.13 Browsing Current Performance Events of the radio link(Web LCT)


You can learn about the current operating status of a radio link by browsing its current performance data.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 Select the desired radio link from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer, and choose Configuration > Radio Link Performance from the Function Tree.

Step 2 Optional: Deselect Auto Refresh and click Save As... to save the exported performance data in a text format. ----End
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7.1.14 Browsing Historical Performance Data of a Radio Link(Web LCT)


You can learn about the operating status of a radio link by browsing its historical performance data over a specific period.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 Select the desired radio link from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer, and choose Configuration > Radio Link Performance from the Function Tree. Step 2 Click the History Performance tab. Step 3 Optional: Select the Display Format for the query result. The default value is Chart.

Step 4 Select Link Tx/Rx Power or Link Errors.

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Step 5 Optional: Click Save As... to save the exported data as a .jpg file or in a text format. ----End

7.1.15 Browsing the Performance Event Threshold-Crossing Records(U2000)


You can learn about the threshold-crossing information of the performance events of an NE by browsing the performance event threshold-crossing records.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Performance > Browse SDH Performance from the Main Menu. Step 2 Click the Performance Threshold-Crossing Record tab. Step 3 Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Click .

Step 4 Set the parameters such as Monitored Object Filter Condition, Monitor Period, and Performance Event Type. Step 5 Click Query.

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----End

7.1.16 Browsing the Performance Event Threshold-Crossing Records(Web LCT)


You can learn about the threshold-crossing information of the performance events of an NE by browsing the performance event threshold-crossing records.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 Select the1-SHXA2 from the NE Explorer and choose Performance > Performance Threshold-Crossing from the Function Tree.

Step 2 Set Monitored Object Filter Condition. Step 3 Set Monitor Period.
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Step 4 Specify the start time and the end time of a specific time span. The time span starts from the time when the last historical performance event browsing operation was performed to the current time. Step 5 Specify Performance Event Type. Step 6 Optional: Specify Display Options. Step 7 Click Query. Step 8 Browse the performance event threshold-crossing records that are displayed. Step 9 Optional: Click Save As. A text file that lists the historical performance events is displayed in the IE system.
NOTE

You can save and archive the text file as required.

----End

7.1.17 Browsing Abnormal Events(U2000)


You can find the faults that occur on the equipment in a specific time by browsing abnormal events. An abnormal event refers to an exception that occurs on the system at a particular time rather than an exception that persists for a certain time of period.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Fault > Browse Event Logs from the Main Menu. Step 2 In the Filter dialog box, click the Event Source tab. Step 3 Select the object to be queried. Option Description

Browse all performance events on the NE. Select All Objects. Browse certain performance events on the 1. Select Custom. NE. 2. Choose Add > Object below NE. 3. Select the required NE in the left pane of Object below NE, and click 4. Click OK. Event Source displays Selected Event Source.
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Step 4 Click OK. Step 5 Browse the abnormal events.

----End

Related Information
Being different from an alarm that has both the occurrence time and the clearance time, an abnormal event has only the occurrence time.

7.1.18 Browsing Abnormal Events(Web LCT)


You can find the faults that occur on the equipment in a specific time by browsing abnormal events. An abnormal event refers to an exception that occurs on the system at a particular time rather than an exception that persists for a certain time of period.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object Tree, and then choose Alarm > Browse Abnormal Events from the Function Tree.

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In the NE Explorer, you can also select the required NE from the Object Tree and click the to navigate to the Browse Abnormal Events tab.

icon

Step 2 Click Filter.

Step 3 In the Abnormal Event Name combo box, select Select All, and then click OK. Step 4 Browse the displayed abnormal events. Step 5 Optional: Click Save As. A text file that lists the abnormal events is displayed in Internet Explorer.
NOTE

You can save and archive the text file as required.

----End

Related Information
Being different from an alarm that has both the occurrence time and the clearance time, an abnormal event has only the occurrence time.

7.1.19 Browsing UAT Events(U2000)


Learn about the severe abnormalities on the transmission line by browsing UAT events.
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Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000

Context
UAT refers to a period of 10 consecutive seconds during which the bit error ratio per second of the digital signal in either of the transmission directions of a transmission system is inferior to 10-3. These 10 seconds are considered to be part of the unavailable time.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select 1-SHXA2. Step 2 Choose Performance > UAT Event from the Function Tree. Step 3 Set Monitored Object Filter Criteria, From, To, and Data Source. Step 4 Set Function Block Type and Display Options. Step 5 Click Query.

l If you select Query from NMS, the query result displays UAT events currently stored on the NMS. l If you select Query from NE, the query result displays UAT events currently stored on the NE, which are updated to the NMS database at the same time. Step 6 Close the dialog box that is displayed. ----End

7.1.20 Browsing UAT Events(Web LCT)


Learn about the severe abnormalities on the transmission line by browsing UAT events.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


Web LCT
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Context
UAT refers to a period of 10 consecutive seconds during which the bit error ratio per second of the digital signal in either of the transmission directions of a transmission system is inferior to 10-3. These 10 seconds are considered to be part of the unavailable time.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select 1-SHXA2, and then choose Performance > UAT Event from the Function Tree.

Step 2 Set the relevant parameters, such as Monitored Object Filter Condition. Step 3 Set Function Block Type and Display Options. Step 4 Click Query. Step 5 Click Save As. The system displays a text file that lists the queried UAT events in an IE window.
NOTE

You can save and archive the text file.

----End

7.2 Setting Alarm and Performance Management Functions


The OptiX RTN 310 supports various alarm and performance management functions.

7.2.1 Configuring the Performance Monitoring Status of NEs


By performing this operation task, you can manually enable or disable performance monitoring for NEs, or set the performance monitoring period.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.
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Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree, and then choose Performance > NE Performance Monitoring Time from the Function Tree.
NOTE

If you configure the performance monitoring status of NEs using the Web LCT, perform the following steps: In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree, and then choose Performance > NE Performance Monitor Time from the Function Tree.

Step 2 Configure the performance monitoring parameters of the NEs. 1. 2. 3. Select 15-Minute or 24-Hour. Select Enabled or Disabled in Set 15-Minute Monitoring or Set 24-Hour Monitoring. Set the start time and end time of the performance monitoring of NEs.
NOTE

l Generally, both Set 15-Minute Monitoring and Set 24-Hour Monitoring are enabled. l You can specify the start time of the performance monitoring function, only after selecting Enabled in the Set 15-Minute Monitoring or Set 24-Hour Monitoring area. l You can specify the end time of the performance monitoring function, only after selecting Enabled and then selecting To in the Set 15-Minute Monitoring or Set 24-Hour Monitoring area.

4.

Click Apply. Close the displayed dialog box.

----End

7.2.2 Suppressing Alarms


This section describes how to suppress specific alarms.
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Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the NE. Step 2 Choose Alarm > Alarm Suppression from the Function Tree.

Step 3 Set Status in Alarm Suppression. Step 4 Click Apply. ----End

7.2.3 Reversing Alarms for Ports


This section describes how to reverse alarms for ports.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the NE. Step 2 Choose Alarm > NE Alarm Attribute from the Function Tree. Step 3 Set Alarm Reversion to Enable (Manually Restore).
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Step 4 Click Apply. Step 5 Close the dialog box that is displayed. Step 6 In the NE Explorer, select the desired board. Step 7 Choose Alarm > Alarm Reversion from the Function Tree. Step 8 Set Reversion Status for the required port.

Step 9 Click Apply. Step 10 Close the dialog box that is displayed. ----End

7.2.4 Setting Bit Error Thresholds for Microwave Ports


This section describes how to set bit error thresholds for microwave ports.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select 1-SHXA2. Step 2 Choose Alarm > QoS Alarm > Bit Error Alarm Threshold from the Function Tree. Step 3 Set bit error thresholds. Step 4 Click Apply.

----End

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7.2.5 Setting Monitoring and Auto-Report Status of Performance Events


This section describes how to set the monitoring and auto-report status of specific performance events for monitored objects.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select 1-SHXA2. Step 2 Choose Performance > Performance Monitor Status from the Function Tree. Step 3 Set the following parameters: Monitor Status, 15-Minute Auto-Report, and 24-Hour AutoReport. Step 4 Click Apply.

----End

7.2.6 Setting Performance Thresholds


This section describes how to set the thresholds of specific performance events for monitored objects.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.
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Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the desired board. Step 2 Choose Performance > Performance Threshold from the Function Tree. Step 3 Set Threshold Value.

Step 4 Click Apply. Step 5 Close the dialog box that is displayed. ----End

7.2.7 Resetting Performance Registers


This section describes how to reset performance registers. After performance registers are reset, their counts are cleared and they immediately start a new counting period.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

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Tools, Instruments and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select 1-SHXA2. Step 2 Choose Performance > Reset Board Performance Register from the Function Tree. Step 3 Set Monitored Object and register types.

Step 4 Click Reset. Step 5 In the Hint dialog box that is displayed, click Yes. Step 6 Close the dialog box that is displayed. ----End

7.3 Querying a Report


You can obtain the version, manufacture, and microwave link information of all the boards by querying the corresponding report.

7.3.1 Querying the Board Information Report(U2000)


You can obtain the software version of each board by querying the board information report.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.
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Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Inventory > Physical Inventory from the Main Menu. Step 2 Select Board from Physical Inventory Type in the Physical Inventory window. Step 3 In Physical Inventory, click the Board List tab. Step 4 Click Filter. In Filter window, set the board or board attributes that need to be queried. Click OK. Step 5 The board information displayed in the Board List.

Step 6 Optional: Click Save As. Set the parameters in Saving Options. Step 7 Click OK. Then, you can save and archive the board information as a text file. Step 8 Close the dialog box that is displayed. ----End

7.3.2 Querying the Board Information Report(Web LCT)


You can obtain the software version of each board by querying the board information report.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 Select the NE in the NE Explorer.
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Step 2 Choose Report > Board Information Report from the Function Tree. Step 3 All the board version information about the NE is displayed on the Board Information Report tab.

Step 4 Optional: Click Save As. The text file that describes the board information is displayed on Internet Explorer.
NOTE

You can save the text file as required.

----End

7.3.3 Querying the Board Manufacturing Information Report (U2000)


You can obtain the manufacturing information about each board and the SFP module by querying the board manufacturing information report.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Inventory > Project Document > Board Manufacturer Information from the Main Menu. Step 2 In Board Manufacturer Information, click the Board Manufacturer Information tab. Step 3 Select one or multiple NEs from the left pane, and click Step 4 Close the dialog box that is displayed. Step 5 Click Query. The Query processing bar is displayed. Step 6 Close the dialog box that is displayed. .

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Step 7 Optional: Click Save As. Step 8 Set the parameters in Saving Options. Step 9 Click OK. Then, you can save and archive the board manufacturing information as a text file. ----End

7.3.4 Querying the Board Manufacturing Information Report(Web LCT)


You can obtain the manufacturing information about each board and the SFP module by querying the board manufacturing information report.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 Select the NE in the NE Explorer. Step 2 Choose Report > Board Detail Information Report from the Function Tree. Step 3 All the board manufacture information about the NE is displayed on the Board Detail Information Report tab.

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Step 4 Optional: Click Save As. The text file that describes the detailed board information is displayed on Internet Explorer.
NOTE

You can save the text file as required.

----End

7.3.5 Querying the Microwave Link Information Report


You can obtain the current and recent transmit/receive power of microwave links by querying the microwave link information report.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 In Main Menu, choose Inventory > Microwave Report > Microwave Link Report.

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Step 2 In the left pane of the Microwave Link Report tab page, choose one or more NEs, and click . Step 3 Close the dialog box that is displayed. Step 4 Optional: Click Save As. Step 5 Set the parameters in Saving Options. Step 6 Click OK. Then, you can save and archive the microwave link information as a text file. ----End

7.3.6 Querying the Network-wide License Report


By querying the network-wide license report, you can check the license information of each NE.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Inventory > Microwave Report > Microwave License Capacity Report from the Main Menu. Step 2 Select one or more NEs in the left pane, and click Step 3 Close the dialog box that is displayed. .

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Step 4 Optional: Click Save As. Save the license report as a file and archive the file properly. Step 5 Set the parameters in Saving Options. Step 6 Click OK. Then, the license report is saved and archived as a file. ----End

7.4 Software Loopback


Software loopback refers to the loopback operation that is implemented by using the NMS. During software loopback, you need not visit the engineering site. Hence, software loopback is used more widely than hardware loopback.

7.4.1 Setting Loopbacks for Ethernet Ports


The OptiX RTN 310 supports PHY-layer inloops and MAC-layer inloops at Ethernet ports.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Context
l l A MAC-layer inloop is an inloop where the Ethernet switching unit loops back the Ethernet physical signals towards the baseband processing unit at the MAC layer. A PHY-layer inloop is an inloop where the Ethernet access unit loops back the Ethernet frame signals towards the baseband processing unit at the PHY layer.

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Figure 7-1 Ethernet port inloop


OptiX RTN 310 Ethernet access unit FE/GE service signal PHY Ethernet switching Service unit bus Baseband processing unit Modulated RF signal MUX Modem MAC processing unit unit unit

Service bus

RF signal

Precautions

CAUTION
l A loopback operation results in service interruption. l A software loopback may be released automatically after a certain period (five minutes, by defaults). For details, see 7.10 Setting the Automatic Release Function.

Procedure
Step 1 Select the desired NE. Step 2 Choose Configuration > Interface Management > Ethernet Interface from the Function Tree. Step 3 Click the Advanced Attributes tab. Step 4 Set the loopback status of the port based on the requirements.

Step 5 Click Apply. Then, the Confirm dialog box is displayed. Step 6 Click OK. Step 7 Close the dialog box that is displayed. ----End

7.4.2 Setting Loopback for the IF Board


The OptiX RTN 310 supports inloops/outloops at IF ports and composite ports.
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Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Context
The IF port inloop is a process wherein the IF signals are looped back at the modem unit towards the MUX unit. Figure 7-2 IF port inloop
OptiX RTN 310
Baseband processing unit

FE/GE service signal

Ethernet access unit

Service bus

Ethernet switching unit

Service bus

MUX unit

Modem unit

Modulated signal

RF processing unit

RF signal

The IF port outloop is a process wherein the IF signals are looped back at the modem unit towards the RF processing unit. Figure 7-3 IF port outloop
OptiX RTN 310
Baseband processing unit

FE/GE service signal

Ethernet access unit

Service bus

Ethernet switching unit

Service bus

MUX unit

Modem unit

Modulated signal RF processing unit

RF signal

The composite port inloop is a process wherein the microwave baseband signal is looped back at the MUX/DEMUX unit towards the Ethernet switching unit.

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Figure 7-4 Composite port inloop


OptiX RTN 310
Baseband processing unit

Service bus FE/GE service signal Ethernet access unit Ethernet switching unit

Service bus

MUX unit

Modem unit

Modulated signal RF processing unit

RF signal

The composite outloop is a process wherein the microwave baseband signal is looped back at the MUX/DEMUX unit towards the modem unit. Figure 7-5 Composite port outloop
OptiX RTN 310
Baseband processing unit

Service bus FE/GE service signal Ethernet access unit Ethernet switching unit

Service bus

MUX unit

Modem unit

Modulated signal RF processing unit

RF signal

Precautions

CAUTION
l The services may be interrupted at the port or on the path where the loopback is performed. l A software loopback may be released automatically after a certain period (five minutes, by defaults). For details, see 7.10 Setting the Automatic Release Function.

Procedure
Step 1 Select the desired navigation path based on the loopback type.

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To Perform... Choose... IF port loopback 1. Select 1-SHXA2 in the NE Explorer. 2. Choose Configuration > IF Interface from the Function Tree. 3. Select IF Attributes tab. 4. Select the port where the loopback needs to be performed and set IF Port Loopback.

Composite 1. Select NE in the NE explorer. port loopback 2. Choose Configuration > Ethernet Interface Management > Microwave Interface from the Function Tree. 3. Select Loopback Attributes tab.
NOTE NOTE Skip this step when the Web LCT is used for configuration.

4. Select the port where the loopback needs to be performed and set Composite Port Loopback.

Step 2 Click Apply. Then, the Confirm dialog box is displayed. Step 3 Close the dialog box that is displayed. ----End

7.5 Reset
Reset is an important method of troubleshooting software faults. Reset is classified into cold reset, warm reset.

7.5.1 Cold Reset


During a cold reset, software is reset, hardware is initialized, and the FPGA file is reloaded.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
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NOTE

7 Supporting Task

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Precautions

CAUTION
During a cold reset, services are interrupted, and NE configuration data that was configured within five minutes before the cold reset may be lost.

Procedure
Step 1 In NE Panel, right-click 1-SHXA2. Step 2 Choose Cold Reset from the shortcut menu.

Then, the Warning dialog box is displayed. Step 3 Click OK. Step 4 Close the dialog box that is displayed. ----End

7.5.2 Warm Reset


During a warm reset, only software is reset, hardware is not initialized, and the FPGA file is not reloaded.
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Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Precautions
During warm reset, the board software is reset but the services are not interrupted.

Procedure
Step 1 In NE Panel, right-click 1-SHXA2. Step 2 Choose Warm Reset from the shortcut menu.

Then, the Warning dialog box is displayed. Step 3 Click OK. Step 4 Close the dialog box that is displayed. ----End
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7.6 Detecting Consecutive Waves


The consecutive wave detection function is used to check whether the transmit frequency deviates.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Select 1-SHXA2 in the NE explorer. Step 2 Choose Configuration > IF Interface from the Function Tree. Step 3 Select IF Attributes tab. Step 4 Select the port to be tested. Step 5 Set Consecutive Wave Status to Start.

Step 6 Click Apply. ----End

7.7 PRBS Test


The OptiX RTN 310 supports the PRBS test function, allowing PRBSs to be transmitted to microwave ports.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

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Precautions
Figure 7-6 PRBS test on the OptiX RTN 310
Baseband processing unit PRBS transmitter 1 PRBS receiver 1 1 RF processing unit RF processing unit Baseband processing unit

Local NE

Opposite NE 1 Outloop at an IF port

CAUTION
l During the PRBS test, the services in the tested path are interrupted. l The PRBS test can be performed only in one path and in one direction at one time.

Procedure
Step 1 Select the desired radio link in the NE Explorer, and choose Diagnosis&Maintenance > Radio Link Loopback from the Function Tree. Step 2 Perform an outloop at the opposite IF port.

Step 3 Select 1-SHXA2 from the NE Explorer. Step 4 Choose Configuration > PRBS Test from the Function Tree. Step 5 Select the port to be tested. Step 6 Set Duration and Measured in Time.
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NOTE

7 Supporting Task

The time unit of the PRBS test can be one second, 10 minutes, or one hour.

Step 7 Optional: Select Accumulating Mode. Step 8 Click Start to Test. A prompt is displayed. Step 9 Click OK. Step 10 When Process is displayed as 100%, click Query to check the test result.
NOTE

The result of a PRBS test can be normal, error, or invalid. l Invalid: indicates that no bit is received. In this case, the curve is yellow. l Normal: indicates that the path is in normal state. In this case, the number of PRBSs is zero, and the curve is green. l Error: indicates that the path has errors. In this case, the number of total PRBSs is a non-zero number, and the curve is red.

----End

7.8 Querying the License Capacity


You can check whether the loaded license file meets the requirements by querying the license capacity.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Select the NE in the NE Explorer. Step 2 Choose Configuration > License Management. Step 3 Click Query, browse the license capacity of the NE.

----End
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7.9 Scanning Interfering Signals


You can learn whether intra-frequency or inter-frequency interference exists by scanning frequency spectra in microwave channels.

Prerequisites
l l You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher. The opposite OptiX RTN 310 is muted before you scan interfering signals.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Select an NE from the NE Explorer. Step 2 Choose Diagnosis&Maintenance > RF Scan from the Function Tree.
NOTE

If you configure scanning interfering signals using the Web LCT, perform the following steps: 1. Choose Diagnosis&Maintenance > ODU Frequency Scan from the Function Tree. 2. Select ODU Frequency Scan tab.

Step 3 Set related parameters and click Start to Scan.

----End

7.10 Setting the Automatic Release Function


To protect the communication between the NMS and NE against improper operations, an NE supports the automatic release of the RF muting, software loopback, and other operations that require you to exercise caution. The automatic release time is five minutes by default. You can set whether to enable the automatic release function and the automatic release time through the NMS.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.
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Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Configuration > NE Batch Configuration > Automatic Disabling of NE Function from the Main Menu.
NOTE

If you setting the automatic release function of NEs using the Web LCT, perform the following steps: 1. In the NE Explorer, select the desired NE. 2. Choose Configuration > Interface Management > Automatic Disabling of NE Function from the Function Tree.

Step 2 Select the desired NE from the Object Tree. Click


NOTE

Skip this step when the Web LCT is used for configuration.

Step 3 In Automatic Disabling of NE Function, set Auto Disabling and Auto Disabling Time (min). Step 4 Click Apply to complete the settings for the automatic release function.

----End

7.11 Querying Power Consumption of NE


This section describes how to query power consumption of NE.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

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Procedure
Step 1 Choose Configuration > NE Batch Configuration > Power Management from the Main Menu. Step 2 In the NE Power dialog box, select the NE Power tab. Step 3 Select the required NE from the object tree, and then click Step 4 Click Query. The Query progress bar is displayed. Step 5 Close the dialog box that is displayed. Step 6 On the NE Power tab page, browse NE Nominal Power Consumption and NE Current Power Consumption of the selected board. .

----End

7.12 Querying the Attributes of an Ethernet Port


This section describes how to learn about Ethernet service flow rates and physical bandwidth parameters of Ethernet ports.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Select an NE from the NE Explorer. Step 2 Choose Configuration > Interface Management > Ethernet Interface from the Function Tree. Step 3 Click the Advanced Attributes tab. Step 4 Click Query. Step 5 Check the parameters such as Port Physical Parameters, Transmitting Rate, and Receiving Rate.
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----End

7.13 Setting Traffic, Physical Bandwidth, or Bandwidth Utilization of Ethernet Ports


To query the traffic, physical bandwidth, or bandwidth utilization of Ethernet ports within a certain period, you need to enable the monitoring for the object before that period starts.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Background Information
After the flow monitoring function is enabled, the system saves the statistics about the received traffic and transmitted traffic with an interval of 15 minutes. In normal cases, the system stores the statistics that are collected in the last 30 days. In the system, every measurement entry shows the average transmit rate and average receive rate within a period of 15 minutes. You can query the statistics in the last 30 days.

Procedure
Step 1 Select 1-SHXA2 from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Step 2 Choose Performance > Ethernet Port Flow Monitoring from the Function Tree. Step 3 Select the Set Monitoring tab. Set Flow Monitoring, Physical Bandwidth Monitoring, Bandwidth Usage Monitoring to Enabled for the Ethernet port. Step 4 Click Apply.

Step 5 Close the displayed Result dialog box. ----End

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7.14 Querying Traffic, Physical Bandwidth, or Bandwidth Utilization of Ethernet Ports


This section describes how to query the change curve of the traffic, physical bandwidth, or bandwidth utilization of Ethernet ports within a certain period.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher. The flow monitoring function is enabled on the Ethernet port. To enable the flow monitoring function on a port, see 7.13 Setting Traffic, Physical Bandwidth, or Bandwidth Utilization of Ethernet Ports.

Tools, Instruments, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Background Information
After the flow monitoring function is enabled, the system saves the statistics about the received traffic and transmitted traffic with an interval of 15 minutes. In normal cases, the system stores the statistics that are collected in the last 30 days. In the system, every measurement entry shows the average transmit rate and average receive rate within a period of 15 minutes. You can query the statistics in the last 30 days.

Procedure
Step 1 Select 1-SHXA2 from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Step 2 Choose Performance > Ethernet Port Flow Monitoring from the Function Tree. Step 3 Select the Query Flow tab. Step 4 Set the Monitored Object, Monitored Indicator, Start Time, End Time, and Display Mode. Step 5 Click Query.

The system displays the query result in a table or in a graph.


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Step 6 Close the displayed Result dialog box. ----End

7.15 End-to-End Management on Fibers, Tunnels, and PWE3 Services


This section describes the common maintenance operations for end-to-end management on fibers, MPLS tunnels, and PWE3 services.

7.15.1 Expanding/Collapsing Fibers and Cables


If multiple fibers, cables, or tunnels are available between network elements (NEs), you can collapse them to form a link, which is displayed in the topology. You can also expand the link to display the fibers, cables, or tunnels.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 Optional: Expand fibers and cables. 1. In the main topology, if an NE link is displayed as

, select the link and right-click it. Then choose Expand Link from the shortcut menu. Step 2 Optional: Collapse fibers and cables.

1.

, In the main topology, if an NE link is displayed as select the link and right-click it. Then choose Collapse Link from the shortcut menu.

----End

7.15.2 Querying the Radio Link Information


When fiber links are available between network elements (NEs), you can query the relevant information about radio links.
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Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 In the main topology, select the required radio link and right-click it. Then choose Microwave Link Information from the shortcut menu. The Microwave Link Report dialog box is displayed. Step 2 Select the required NE or board from the object tree, and then click Step 3 Click Query. Step 4 In the Result dialog box that is displayed, click Close. ----End .

7.15.3 Querying the Radio Link Performance


When fiber links are available between network elements (NEs), you can query the relevant performance information about radio links.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 In the main topology, select the required radio link and right-click it. Then choose Radio Link Performance Statistics from the shortcut menu.
NOTE

The equivalent operations on the Web LCT are as follows: In the NE Explorer, choose the sink NE or source NE, choose Configuration > Radio Link Performance Statistics in the function.

The Radio Link Performance Statistics dialog box is displayed. Step 2 In the Radio Link Performance Statistics dialog box, choose Current Performance tab.
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Step 3 In the Current Performance dialog box, choose Auto Refresh to see the current performance of the radio link. Step 4 In the Radio Link Performance Statistics dialog box, choose History Performance tab. Step 5 In the Radio Link Performance Statistics dialog box, set Monitor Period, Ended From, To, and Options. Then click OK below Options. Step 6 Click Query. Step 7 Click Save as, and save the data displayed in the current dialog box. ----End

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Alarm Reference

Alarms are important indicators when exceptions occur on the equipment. This section describes all the possible alarms on the OptiX RTN 310 and how to handle these alarms. A.1 Alarm List The following table lists all the possible alarms on the OptiX RTN 310 in alphabetical order. A.2 Alarms and Handling Procedures This section describes the alarms that frequently occur on the OptiX RTN 310 in alphabetic order and how to handle these alarms.

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A.1 Alarm List


The following table lists all the possible alarms on the OptiX RTN 310 in alphabetical order. Table A-1 Alarm list Alarm Name AM_DOWNSHIFT BDTEMP_SENSOR_FAI L BOOTROM_BAD CLK_LOCK_FAIL DBMS_DELETE DBMS_ERROR DBMS_PROTECT_MOD E DCNSIZE_OVER ERPS_IN_PROTECTION ETH_CFM_AIS ETH_CFM_LOC ETH_CFM_MISMERGE ETH_CFM_RDI ETH_CFM_UNEXPERI ETH_EFM_DF ETH_EFM_EVENT ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK ETH_EFM_REMFAULT ETH_LOS ETH_NO_FLOW ETHOAM_SELF_LOOP Description AM downshifts Board temperature sensor failure BOOTROM data check fails. Clock locking fails A database is being deleted. Database error Database in protected mode The DCN network is oversized. ERPS in protected mode A local MEP_AIS occurs Loss of connectivity Misconnection An opposite MEP_RDI occurs. Errored frames Discovery failure Performance events at the opposite end A loopback occurs. Faults occur at the opposite end. The Ethernet port connection is lost. No flow on the Ethernet port Point-to-point OAM detects a port loopback. Alarm Severity Major Major Major Major Critical Major Critical Major Minor Major Critical Critical Minor Minor Major Major Major Critical Critical Major Major

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Alarm Name FLOW_OVER HARD_BAD IN_PWR_ABN LAG_DOWN LAG_MEMBER_DOWN LASER_MOD_ERR

Description Received flow at a port exceeds the threshold. The hardware is faulty. Abnormal input power A LAG is unavailable. A member port of the LAG is unavailable. The pluggable optical module on the board does not match the optical port. An NE is configured with a service capacity or function beyond the permission of the installed license. A license file is lost or corrupted. A loopback occurs. Laser not installed Loss of the synchronous source The number of bit errors at the MAC layer crosses the threshold. The software detects that the number of bit errors at the MAC layer crosses the threshold. The ring network contains multiple RPL owner nodes. An IF port is in the AM testing state. Excessive errors on radio links Signal degrade due to excessive errors on radio links Configuration mismatch on the radio link

Alarm Severity Minor Critical Major Major Minor Major

LCS_LIMITED

Major

LICENSE_LOST LOOP_ALM LSR_NO_FITED LTI MAC_EXT_EXC

Major Minor Critical Major Major

MAC_FCS_EXC

Major

MULTI_RPL_OWNER MW_AM_TEST MW_BER_EXC MW_BER_SD

Minor Minor Minor Minor

MW_CFG_MISMATCH

Critical

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A Alarm Reference

Alarm Name MW_CONT_WAVE MW_FEC_UNCOR

Description Continuous wave Microwave frames contain the errors that cannot be corrected by using the forward error correction (FEC) technology. Mismatched radio link ID Loss of microwave frames Remote defect indication on radio links A neighboring NE is unreachable to the local NE. The NE software is lost. The software in the main area is different from that in the standby area. NTP time synchronization fails. Password of the user who logs in is unchanged Patch package activation times out. Patch package deactivation times out. Patch package errors The traffic is higher than the port bandwidth threshold. The working mode of the remote FE port does not match that of the local FE port. Power module alarm Abnormal PTP timestamps Insufficient radio fading margin The radio transmitter is muted.

Alarm Severity Minor Minor

MW_LIM MW_LOF MW_RDI NB_UNREACHABLE NESF_LOST NESOFT_MM

Major Critical Minor Minor Critical Major

NTP_SYNC_FAIL PASSWORD_NEED_CH ANGE PATCH_ACT_TIMEOUT PATCH_DEACT_TIMEOUT PATCH_PKGERR PORT_EXC_TRAFFIC PORTMODE_MISMATCH

Minor Major Minor Minor Minor Warning Minor

POWER_ALM PTP_TIMESTAMP_ABN RADIO_FADING_MARG IN_INSUFF RADIO_MUTE

Major Major Minor Warning

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Alarm Name RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH RADIO_RSL_HIGH RADIO_RSL_LOW RADIO_TSL_HIGH RADIO_TSL_LOW S1_SYN_CHANGE SEC_RADIUS_FAIL SECU_ALM SSL_CERT_NOENC STORM_CUR_QUENUM _OVER SWDL_ACTIVATED_TI MEOUT SWDL_COMMIT_FAIL SWDL_INPROCESS SWDL_NEPKGCHECK SWDL_PKGVER_MM SWDL_ROLLBACK_FAI L SYNC_C_LOS SYSLOG_COMM_FAIL TEMP_ALARM

Description The received signal level exceeds the threshold. Over high radio received signal level Over low radio received signal level Over high radio transmitted signal level Over low radio transmitted signal level Clock source switching in S1 mode Excessive RADIUS authentication failures Logins attempts of unauthorized users The certificate file of SSL is not encrypted Alarm storms The activation operation times out. The submit operation fails. The NE is in the process of package loading. Loss of package files Inconsistent package versions The version rollback on an NE fails. Loss of synchronization clock sources Communication between the NE and the syslog server fails The current temperature exceeds the lower/higher threshold.

Alarm Severity Minor Critical Critical Critical Critical Major Major Major Major Minor Critical Minor Warning Critical Minor Minor Warning Major Minor

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Alarm Name TIME_LOCK_FAIL TIME_LOS TIME_NO_TRACE_MO DE USB_PROCESS_FAIL XPIC_LOS

Description Time locking fails. The time source level is lost. The NE time enters the nontracing state. Data restoration from a USB flash drive fails. Loss of XPIC compensation signals

Alarm Severity Major Major Minor Minor Critical

A.2 Alarms and Handling Procedures


This section describes the alarms that frequently occur on the OptiX RTN 310 in alphabetic order and how to handle these alarms.

A.2.1 AM_DOWNSHIFT
Description
The AM_DOWNSHIFT alarm indicates the downshift of the AM scheme. This alarm occurs after the AM mode is downshifted from the highest-order modulation scheme to the lower-order modulation scheme. After the AM mode is upshifted from the lower-order modulation scheme to the highest-order modulation scheme, this alarm is cleared.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the AM_DOWNSHIFT alarm occurs, the service transmission capacity over the radio link decreases.

Possible Causes
The microwave channel performance deteriorates. l Cause 1: External factors (for example, the climate) cause the degradation of the working channel.
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l l l

Cause 2: There are interferences around the working channel. Cause 3: The OptiX RTN 310 at the transmit end has abnormal transmit power. Cause 4: The OptiX RTN 310 at the receive end has abnormal receive power.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: External factors (for example, the climate) cause the degradation of the working channel. 1. When external factors (for example, the climate) cause the degradation of the working channel, the downshift of the AM scheme is normal. Therefore, this alarm does not need to be handled. Eliminate the interferences around the working channel. Use the NMS to check whether the transmit power of the OptiX RTN 310 at the transmit end is abnormal. For details on troubleshooting the fault at the transmit end, see Troubleshooting Radio Links. Use the NMS to check whether the receive power of the OptiX RTN 310 at the receive end is abnormal. For details on troubleshooting the fault at the receive end, see Troubleshooting Radio Links.

Step 2 Cause 2: There are interferences around the working channel. 1. 1. Step 3 Cause 3: The OptiX RTN 310 at the transmit end has abnormal transmit power.

Step 4 Cause 4: The OptiX RTN 310 at the receive end has abnormal receive power. 1.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.2 BDTEMP_SENSOR_FAIL
Description
The BDTEMP_SENSOR_FAIL alarm indicates that the temperature sensor on the board fails.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the BDTEMP_SENSOR_FAIL alarm occurs, the board temperature data cannot be collected. As a result, the TMEP_ALARM alarm is absent when the board temperature is too high.
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Possible Causes
Cause 1: The OptiX RTN 310 is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Replace the OptiX RTN 310. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.3 BOOTROM_BAD
Description
The BOOTROM_BAD alarm indicates that the BOOTROM data verification fails. This alarm occurs when the BOOTROM data is found damaged during a periodical system check.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Parameters 2 and 3 Meaning The value is always 0x01. Indicates the type of the BOOTROM damage. l 0x00 0x01: damage to basic BIOS l 0x00 0x02: damage to extended BIOS Parameters 4 and 5 The values are always 0xff 0xff.

Impact on the System


If the NE is cold reset when the BOOTROM_BAD alarm occurred, BIOS loading fails and the NE fails to be started.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The OptiX RTN 310 is faulty.
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Procedure
Step 1 Replace the OptiX RTN 310. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.4 CLK_LOCK_FAIL
Description
The CLK_LOCK_FAIL alarm indicates that clock locking fails.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the CLK_LOCK_FAIL alarm occurs, the slave clock is not coordinated with the master clock, and bit errors may occur.

Possible Causes
l l l Cause 1: Physical-layer synchronization is used but the clock priority table is not configured. Cause 2: Physical-layer synchronization is used but the frequency deviation of the clock source is too large. Cause 3: Physical-layer synchronization is used but the physical link of the clock source is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Physical-layer synchronization is used but the clock priority table is not configured. 1. Query the current clock priority table to check whether this table contains only internal clock sources. If yes, reconfigure the clock priority table, ensuring this table contains other available clock sources in addition to internal clock sources. Then, the alarm will be automatically cleared. If the current clock priority table contains other clock sources, the possible causes are as follows: l The SYNC_C_LOS alarm is reported.
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l The SSM protocol is enabled on the local NE but is disabled on its upstream NE. Enable the SSM protocol for its upstream NE. Step 2 Cause 2: Physical-layer synchronization is used but the frequency deviation of the clock source is too large. 1. 2. 3. Check whether there are higher-level BER alarms or performance events. If yes, handle the alarms or performance events and check whether this alarm is cleared. If the traced clock source is an external clock source, check whether the external clock signal is functional. If not, replace the external clock source. Check whether the clock configuration data is correct, for example, whether the clock input mode and the clock output mode are the same. If any configuration is incorrect, rectify it. Then, check whether the alarm is cleared. If the alarm persists, the clock unit is faulty. Replace the local OptiX RTN 310.

4.

Step 3 Cause 3: Physical-layer synchronization is used but the physical link of the clock source is faulty. 1. 2. 3. Check whether the ETH_LOS alarm is reported. If yes, clear this alarm. If the alarm persists, query the transmit optical power at the opposite end on the NMS. If the transmit power is abnormal, replace the optical module used at the opposite end. If the alarm persists, check whether the local receive port is faulty. If yes, replace the local OptiX RTN 310.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.5 DBMS_DELETE
Description
The DBMS_DELETE alarm indicates that a database is being deleted. This alarm is reported when a user runs a command to delete the database and the NE is in the Deleting Database state.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the DBMS_DELETE alarm occurs, configuration data cannot be delivered or stored within 48 hours.
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Possible Causes
Cause 1: A database is deleted.

Procedure
Step 1 Follow instructions in 6.4 Restoring the Database by NMS to restore the database. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.6 DBMS_ERROR
Description
The DBMS_ERROR alarm indicates that an error occurred in the processing of the system database on the system control unit.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the DBMS_ERROR alarm occurs, the system configuration may be lost. As a result, a failure indication is returned for some query and setting commands, and some system functions are unavailable.

Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: The database processing fails or the database is damaged. Cause 2: The NE is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The database processing fails or the database is damaged. 1. Reset the NE. If... The alarm is cleared after the board is reset The alarm persists after the board is reset
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Then... End the fault handling. Go to Cause 2.


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Step 2 Cause 2: The NE is faulty. 1. 5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.7 DBMS_PROTECT_MODE
Description
The DBMS_PROTECT_MODE is an alarm indicating that the system database is in protection mode.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the DBMS_PROTECT_MODE alarm occurs, the system configuration may be lost. As a result, the failure indication is returned for some query and setting commands, and some system functions are unavailable.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The NE software is frequently reset due to a hardware problem.

Procedure
Step 1 Cold reset the OptiX RTN 310. Step 2 If the alarm is not cleared, replace the OptiX RTN 310. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.8 DCNSIZE_OVER
Description
The DCNSIZE_OVER alarm indicates an over-sized DCN network.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameters 1 and 2 Meaning Indicate the size of the DCN network.

Impact on the System


l l CPU resources are insufficient. As a result, DCN packets cannot be forwarded immediately and some NEs are unreachable from the NMS. The DCN is over-sized, resulting in route flapping or network storms.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The size of the DCN network crosses the preset threshold.

Procedure
Step 1 Replan the DCN subnets as required. ----End

Related Information
The DCNSIZE_OVER alarm occurs when the number of nodes (NEs, NMS servers, and NMS clients in a network segment) on an DCN subnet is greater than 150. The solution is to divide the DCN subnet.

A.2.9 ERPS_IN_PROTECTION
Description
The ERPS_IN_PROTECTION alarm indicates that a fault on an Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS) ring causes an ERPS switchover.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor
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Alarm Type Equipment alarm

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Parameters Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning

Parameter 1, Parameter 2 Indicate the ERPS ID. Parameter 3 Indicates the direction where the fault locates on the ERPS ring against the ring protection link (RPL) owner. l 0x00: west l 0x01: east Parameters 4 to 9 Indicate the MAC address of the faulty node.

Impact on the System


Configured services may be interrupted because at least one node on the ERPS ring has lost connectivity.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: A node on the EPRS ring is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Identify the faulty node based on the alarm parameters. Step 2 Identify the blocked port on the faulty node. Step 3 Rectify the fault related to the blocked port. ----End

Related Information
None

A.2.10 ETH_CFM_AIS
Description
The ETH_CFM_AIS alarm indicates local MEP AIS. This alarm occurs when the system receives AIS messages, indicating that a fault occurred at the server layer.

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Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameters 1 to 4 (Port) Meaning Indicate the ID of the alarmed port.

Parameters 5 and 6 (VLAN ID) Indicate the VLAN ID of the MEP. Parameter 7 (Direction) Indicate the direction of the local MEP. l 0x01: The port is in the ingress direction. l 0x02: The port is in the egress direction. Parameter 8 (Level) Indicates the maintenance domain (MD) level of the local MEP. l 0x00: operator MEP level (low) l 0x01: operator MEP level (medium) l 0x02: operator MEP level (high) l 0x03: provider MEP level (low) l 0x04: provider MEP level (high) l 0x05: consumer MEP level (low) l 0x06: consumer MEP level (medium) l 0x07: consumer MEP level (high)
NOTE Consumer indicates the user, provider indicates the supplier, and operator indicates the carrier.

Parameters 9 and 10 (RMEPID) Indicate the ID of the remote MEP.

Impact on the System


l l The LoopBack (LB) and LinkTrace (LT) detection functions of Ethernet service OAM are unavailable. The services between relevant standard MEPs may be interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The upstream AIS-activated NE detected a fault in the Ethernet server layer.

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Procedure
Step 1 Rectify the detected fault in the Ethernet server layer. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.11 ETH_CFM_LOC
Description
The ETH_CFM_LOC alarm indicates the loss of continuity. This alarm occurs when the system fails to receive CCMs from the remote MEP in 3.5 continuity check (CC) periods successively.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameters 1 to 4 (Port) Meaning Indicate the ID of the alarmed port.

Parameters 5 and 6 (VLAN ID) Indicate the VLAN ID of the MEP. Parameter 7 (Direction) Indicate the direction of the local MEP. l 0x01: The port is in the ingress direction. l 0x02: The port is in the egress direction.

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Name Parameter 8 (Level)

Meaning Indicates the maintenance domain (MD) level of the local MEP. l 0x00: operator MEP level (low) l 0x01: operator MEP level (medium) l 0x02: operator MEP level (high) l 0x03: provider MEP level (low) l 0x04: provider MEP level (high) l 0x05: consumer MEP level (low) l 0x06: consumer MEP level (medium) l 0x07: consumer MEP level (high)
NOTE Consumer indicates the user, provider indicates the supplier, and operator indicates the carrier.

Parameters 9 and 10 (RMEPID) Indicate the ID of the remote MEP.

Impact on the System


l l The LoopBack (LB) and LinkTrace (LT) detection functions of Ethernet service OAM are unavailable. The services between relevant standard MEPs may be interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l l Cause 1: The line between the local standard MEP and the remote standard MEP is interrupted. Cause 2: The Ethernet service in the maintenance association (MA) to which the local MEP belongs is faulty. Cause 3: Serious congestion occurs on the network.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The line between the local standard MEP and the remote standard MEP is interrupted. 1. Check whether the physical link between the two standard MEPs is normal. If... The physical link is abnormal The physical link is normal Then... Rectify the link fault. Go to Cause 2.

Step 2 Cause 2: The Ethernet service in the maintenance association (MA) to which the local MEP belongs is faulty. 1. Check whether the Ethernet service in the MA to which the alarmed MEP belongs is configured correctly.

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If...

Then...

The service is configured incorrectly Reconfigure the Ethernet service to ensure consistency at both ends. The service is configured correctly Go to Cause 3.

Step 3 Cause 3: Serious congestion occurs on the network. 1. Check the bandwidth utilization. If the bandwidth is exhausted, increase the bandwidth or eliminate the source that illegally sends a large amount of data.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.12 ETH_CFM_MISMERGE
Description
The ETH_CFM_MISMERGE alarm indicates incorrect connection. This alarm occurs when the system receives the CCMs with a mismatched MA ID or a lower priority.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameters 1 to 4 (Port) Meaning Indicate the ID of the alarmed port.

Parameters 5 and 6 (VLAN ID) Indicate the VLAN ID of the MEP. Parameter 7 (Direction) Indicates the direction of the local MEP. l 0x01: The port is in the ingress direction. l 0x02: The port is in the egress direction.

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Name Parameter 8 (Level)

Meaning Indicates the maintenance domain (MD) level of the local MEP. l 0x00: operator MEP level (low) l 0x01: operator MEP level (medium) l 0x02: operator MEP level (high) l 0x03: provider MEP level (low) l 0x04: provider MEP level (high) l 0x05: consumer MEP level (low) l 0x06: consumer MEP level (medium) l 0x07: consumer MEP level (high)
NOTE Consumer indicates the user, provider indicates the supplier, and operator indicates the carrier.

Parameters 9 and 10 (RMEPID) Indicate the ID of the remote MEP.

Impact on the System


The services between relevant standard MEPs may be interrupted or the dataflow may be incorrectly routed.

Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: The names of the MD/MA that the standard MEPs correspond to are not the same. Cause 2: The physical connection is incorrect.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The names of the MD/MA that the standard MEPs correspond to are not the same. 1. Check whether the names of the MD/MA that the standard MEPs correspond to are the same. If... Then...

They are not the same Reconfigure the names of the MD/MA to ensure consistency at both ends. They are the same Go to Cause 2.

Step 2 Cause 2: The physical connection is incorrect. 1. Check the physical connection of the Ethernet service route and rectify the connection fault.

----End

Related Information
None.
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A.2.13 ETH_CFM_RDI
Description
The ETH_CFM_RDI alarm indicates that the remote maintenance end point (MEP) receives incorrect continuity check messages (CCMs). This alarm occurs when the system receives CCMs with remote defect indication (RDI).

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameters 1 to 4 (Port) Meaning Indicate the ID of the alarmed port.

Parameters 5 and 6 (VLAN ID) Indicate the VLAN ID of the MEP. Parameter 7 (Direction) Indicates the direction of the local MEP. l 0x01: The port is in the ingress direction. l 0x02: The port is in the egress direction. Parameter 8 (Level) Indicates the maintenance domain (MD) level of the local MEP. l 0x00: operator MEP level (low) l 0x01: operator MEP level (medium) l 0x02: operator MEP level (high) l 0x03: provider MEP level (low) l 0x04: provider MEP level (high) l 0x05: consumer MEP level (low) l 0x06: consumer MEP level (medium) l 0x07: consumer MEP level (high)
NOTE Consumer indicates the user, provider indicates the supplier, and operator indicates the carrier.

Parameters 9 and 10 (RMEPID) Indicate the ID of the remote MEP.

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Impact on the System


l l When the ETH_CFM_RDI alarm occurred, the LoopBack (LB) and LinkTrace (LT) detection functions of Ethernet service OAM are unavailable. The services between relevant standard MEPs may be interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The remote MEP receives incorrect CCMs.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The remote MEP receives incorrect CCMs. 1. 2. Determine the alarmed port according to the alarm parameters. Check whether the remote MEP connected to the port reported the ETH_CFM_LOC alarm.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.14 ETH_CFM_UNEXPERI
Description
The ETH_CFM_UNEXPERI alarm indicates errored frames. This alarm occurs when the system receives incorrect CCMs.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameters 1 to 4 (Port) Meaning Indicate the ID of the alarmed port.

Parameters 5 and 6 (VLAN ID) Indicate the VLAN ID of the MEP. Parameter 7 (Direction) Indicates the direction of the local MEP. l 0x01: The port is in the ingress direction. l 0x02: The port is in the egress direction.
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Name Parameter 8 (Level)

Meaning Indicates the maintenance domain (MD) level of the local MEP. l 0x00: operator MEP level (low) l 0x01: operator MEP level (medium) l 0x02: operator MEP level (high) l 0x03: provider MEP level (low) l 0x04: provider MEP level (high) l 0x05: consumer MEP level (low) l 0x06: consumer MEP level (medium) l 0x07: consumer MEP level (high)
NOTE Consumer indicates the user, provider indicates the supplier, and operator indicates the carrier.

Parameters 9 and 10 (RMEPID) Indicate the ID of the remote MEP.

Impact on the System


l l When the ETH_CFM_UNEXPERI alarm occurred, the LoopBack (LB) and LinkTrace (LT) detection functions of Ethernet service OAM are unavailable. Services may become abnormal owing to the loop.

Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: The configurations of the MEPs at both ends are different. Cause 2: The service is looped back.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The configurations such as the CC periods of the MEPs at both ends are different. 1. Check whether the settings of the MEPs at both ends are the same. if not, modify the settings to ensure consistency at both ends. Check whether any IP ports on the service path are looped back. If yes, release the loop and clear the alarm.

Step 2 Cause 2: The service is looped back. 1.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.15 ETH_EFM_DF
Description
The ETH_EFM_DF alarm indicates a port discovery failure. This alarm occurs when the pointto-point OAM protocol negotiation fails at the Ethernet port.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning

Parameter 1 Indicates the reason why the negotiation fails. l 0x01: A connection fault occurs at the local end. l 0x02: The local end fails to receive any OAM packets in the specified period. l 0x03: The OAM settings of the remote end do not meet the requirements of the local end. l 0x04: The OAM settings of the local end do not meet the requirements of the remote end. l 0x05-0xff: Reserved.

Impact on the System


When the ETH_EFM_DF alarm occurs, the services at the port may be interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l l Cause 1: The physical port at the local end is faulty. Cause 2: The point-to-point OAM protocol is not enabled at the remote end. Cause 3: The OAM configuration at both ends is inconsistent.

Procedure
Step 1 Clear the alarm according to the alarm parameters. If... The value of Parameter 1 is 0x01 The value of Parameter 1 is 0x02 The value of Parameter 1 is 0x03 or 0x04 Step 2 Cause 1: The physical port at the local end is faulty. 1. 2. Check whether the link connected to the alarmed port is faulty. If the link is normal, check whether the alarmed port is faulty. If yes, replace the OptiX RTN 310.
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Then... Go to Cause 1. Go to Cause 2. Go to Cause 3.

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Step 3 Cause 2: The point-to-point OAM protocol is not enabled at the remote end. 1. Enable the point-to-point OAM protocol at the remote end. Step 4 Cause 3: The OAM configuration at both ends is inconsistent. 1. Reconfigure the point-to-point OAM protocol to ensure the consistency at both ends.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.16 ETH_EFM_EVENT
Description
The ETH_EFM_EVENT alarm indicates that an event occurred on the opposite NE. This alarm occurs when the local end receives a link error indication packet (OAMPDU) from the opposite end.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the type of the link event. l 0x01: errored symbol period l 0x02: errored frame l 0x03: errored frame period l 0x04: errored frame seconds

Impact on the System


When the ETH_EFM_EVENT alarm occurs, the services at the port may be degraded or interrupted.

Possible Causes
l
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Cause 1: The link is faulty.


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Cause 2: The local NE is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The link is faulty. 1. 1. Rectify the link fault. Replace the OptiX RTN 310. Step 2 Cause 2: The local NE is faulty.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.17 ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK
Description
The ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK alarm indicates a loopback. This alarm occurs when the local end initiates a loopback or responds to a loopback request from the opposite end.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the state of the loopback. l 0x01: The local end initiates a loopback. l 0x02: The local end responds to a loop request from the opposite end.

Impact on the System


When the ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK alarm occurs, the services at the port may be looped back.

Possible Causes
l l
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Cause 1: The local end initiates a loopback. Cause 2: The opposite end initiates a loopback.
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Procedure
Step 1 Determine the loopback initiation end according to the alarm parameters. Step 2 Cause 1: The local end initiates a loopback. 1. According to the alarm parameter, it is confirmed that the local end initiates a loopback. Find out the cause of the loopback at the local end and release the loopback.

Step 3 Cause 2: The opposite end initiates a loopback. 1. According to the alarm parameter, it is confirmed that the opposite end initiates a loopback. Determine the cause of the loopback at the opposite end and release the loopback.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.18 ETH_EFM_REMFAULT
Description
The ETH_EFM_REMFAULT alarm indicates that the opposite NE is faulty. This alarm occurs when the local end receives the fault indication packet (OAMPDUM) from the opposite end.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the fault type at the opposite end. l 0x01: link fault l 0x02: dying gasp l 0x03: critical event

Impact on the System


When the ETH_EFM_REMFAULT alarm occurs, the services at the port may be interrupted.
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Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: The opposite NE is reset frequently. Cause 2: The opposite NE is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The opposite NE is reset frequently. 1. Check whether the opposite NE is reset frequently. If... The opposite NE is reset frequently Then... Rectify the fault on the opposite NE.

The opposite NE is not reset frequently Reset the opposite NE, and the alarm is cleared. Step 2 Cause 2: The opposite NE is faulty. 1. Rectify the fault on the opposite NE. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.19 ETH_LOS
Description
The ETH_LOS alarm indicates the loss of Ethernet port connection.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the ETH_LOS alarm occurs, the services at the port may be interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l l l
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Cause 1: The working modes of the ports at the local and opposite ends are different. Cause 2: The link is faulty. Cause 3: The local NE is faulty. Cause 4: The opposite NE is faulty.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The working modes of the ports at the local and opposite ends are different. 1. Check for the PORTMODE_MISMATCH alarm by referring to 7.1.3 Browsing Current Alarms(U2000). If... The PORTMODE_MISMATCH alarm exists The PORTMODE_MISMATCH alarm does not exist Step 2 Cause 2: The link is faulty. 1. Check the network cable or optical fiber connected to the alarmed port. If... Then... Then... Clear the PORTMODE_MISMATCH alarm. Go to Cause 2.

The network cable is loose or damaged Reconnect the network cable or replace the network cable. The optical fiber is loose The SFP module is faulty. The connection is correct Step 3 Cause 3: The local NE is faulty. 1. Check whether the alarmed port is faulty. If... The port is faulty The port is not faulty Step 4 Cause 4: The opposite NE is faulty. 1. 2. Check whether the opposite NE connected to the alarmed port is faulty. Rectify the fault on the opposite NE. Then... Replace the local OptiX RTN 310. Go to Cause 4. Reconnect the optical fiber. Replace the SFP module. Go to Cause 3.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.20 ETH_NO_FLOW
Description
The ETH_NO_FLOW alarm indicates that the Ethernet port bears no traffic. This alarm occurs when an enabled Ethernet port is in link up state but has no traffic.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the direction in which there is no traffic. l 0x00: receive direction l 0x01: transmission direction

Impact on the System


When the ETH_NO_FLOW alarm occurs, the port bears no traffic.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: There is no traffic.

Procedure
Step 1 Determine which direction bears no traffic according to the alarm parameter. If... Then...

There is no traffic in the transmit direction Check whether the service is normal at the local end. There is no traffic in the receive direction ----End Check whether the opposite NE is normal.

Related Information
None.

A.2.21 ETHOAM_SELF_LOOP
Description
The ETHOAM_SELF_LOOP alarm indicates the MAC port that runs the point-to-point OAM protocol is looped back. This alarm occurs if a MAC port receives OAM protocol packets sent by itself or the local NE after the loop detection function is enabled.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Environment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the loopback type. l 0x01: self-loop of the port l 0x02: self-loop of the board l 0x03-0xff: reserved

Impact on the System


When the ETHOAM_SELF_LOOP alarm occurs, a network storm may occur due to loopback.

Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: The cable connected to the port is self-looped, the port joins a looped LAN, or a PHY/MAC loopback is manually configured at the port. Cause 2: Two ports on the NE are connected through a cable or join the same LAN.

Procedure
Step 1 Determine the loopback type according to Parameter 1, and then handle the loopback accordingly. If... The value of Parameter 1 is 0x01 The value of Parameter 1 is 0x02 Then... Go to Cause 1. Go to Cause 2.

Step 2 Cause 1: The cable connected to the port is self-looped, the port joins a looped LAN, or a PHY/ MAC loopback is manually configured at the port. If... The PHY/MAC loopback is manually configured at the port Then... Manually release the PHY/MAC loopback at the port. If the loopback automatically released function is enabled, wait five minutes for the automatic release.
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If... The cable connected to the port is selflooped The port joins a looped LAN

Then... Reconnect the cables. Eliminate the loop on the LAN, or disconnect the port from the LAN.

Step 3 Cause 2: Two ports on the NE are connected through a cable or join the same LAN. 1. Check whether two ports on the NE are connected through a cable or join the same LAN. If... Then...

The two ports on the NE are connected through a Disconnect the cable. cable The two ports on the NE join the same LAN ----End Disconnect a port from the LAN.

Related Information
None.

A.2.22 FLOW_OVER
Description
The FLOW_OVER alarm indicates that the data traffic at the Ethernet port crosses the threshold.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the direction in which the traffic crosses the threshold. l 0x00: receive direction l 0x01: transmit direction

Impact on the System


When the FLOW_OVER alarm occurs, some data at the port may be discarded.
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Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: The traffic threshold at the local port is too low. Cause 2: The opposite port transmits heavy data traffic.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The traffic threshold at the local port is too low. 1. Follow instructions in Setting the Advanced Attributes for an Ethernet Port to raise the traffic threshold at the local port. Note that the traffic threshold cannot exceed the rate of the local port. Configure the QoS policies at the opposite port to reduce the data traffic from the opposite port.

Step 2 Cause 2: The opposite port transmits heavy data traffic. 1.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.23 HARD_BAD
Description
The HARD_BAD alarm indicates that the hardware is faulty.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table.

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Name

Meaning

Parameter 1 Indicates the cause of the fault. l 0x06: The digital phase-locked loop is abnormal. l 0x0A: The primary crystal oscillator stops oscillating. l 0x0D: The processor (CPU/DSP/coprocessor) is faulty. l 0x0E: The storage component is faulty. l 0x0F: The programmable logic device is faulty. l 0x11: The data communication component is faulty. l 0x12: The clock component is faulty. l 0x15: Other components are faulty. l 0x16: The analog phase-locked loop is abnormal. l 0x1C: The chip of the detection laser fails. l 0x1D: The chip of the compensation laser fails. l 0x25: The PHY chip self-check fails. l 0x26: The port status of the PHY chip cannot be detected.

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Name

Meaning

Parameter 2 Indicates the location of the fault. When the value of Parameter 1 is 0x06, Parameter 2 has the following meanings: l 0x01: Phase-locked loop 1 of the system clock is unlocked. l 0x02: Phase-locked loop 2 of the system clock is unlocked. l 0x03: Phase-locked loop 3 of the system clock is unlocked. l 0x04: Phase-locked loop 4 of the system clock is unlocked. When the value of Parameter 1 is 0x0D, Parameter 2 has the following meanings: l 0x03: The modem chip is faulty. l 0x04: The RF CPU is faulty. When the value of Parameter 1 is 0x12, Parameter 2 has the following meanings: l 0x01: The system clock component is faulty. l 0x02: The IF clock component is faulty. l 0x03: The 50 MHz IF clock is lost. l 0x04: The 50 MHz associated clock of the modem is lost. l 0x05: The modem fails to restore the DDS clock. l 0x06: The 125 MHz master clock is lost. l 0x07: The 50 MHz master clock is lost. When the value of Parameter 1 is 0x15, Parameter 2 has the following meanings: l 0x01: The TR module is faulty. l 0x02: The IF AD chip is faulty. l 0x03: The IF QMC AD chip is faulty. l 0x04: The IF DA chip is faulty. When the value of Parameter 1 is 0x16, Parameter 2 has the following meanings: l 0x01: The phase-locked loop of the IF clock is unlocked. l 0x02: The transmit phase-locked loop of the TR module is unlocked. l 0x03: The receive phase-locked loop of the TR module is unlocked. When the value of Parameter 1 is 0x25, Parameter 2 has the following meanings: l 0x01: The GE1 PHY chip is faulty. l 0x02: The GE2 PHY chip is faulty.

Impact on the System


When the HARD_BAD alarm occurs, the NE cannot work.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The NE hardware is faulty.
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Procedure
Step 1 Replace the OptiX RTN 310. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.24 IN_PWR_ABN
Description
The IN_PWR_ABN alarm indicates that the input optical power is abnormal.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the IN_PWR_ABN alarm occurs, bit errors occur in the services at the port, which may lead to service interruption.

Possible Causes
l l l Cause 1: The transmit optical power of the opposite NE is too high or low. Cause 2: The model of the optical module is improper. Cause 3: The receive optical module of the local NE is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The transmit optical power of the opposite NE is too high or low. 1. Check whether the transmit optical power of the opposite NE is proper. If no, replace the optical module. Query the board manufacturing information report, and check whether the models of the SFP optical modules used at both ends are proper. If... The models are improper The models are proper
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Step 2 Cause 2: The model of the optical module is improper. 1.

Then... Replace the optical module. Go to Cause 3.


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Step 3 Cause 3: The receive optical module of the local NE is faulty. 1. Use an optical power meter to measure the receive optical power, and check whether the receive optical power meets the requirement. If yes, replace the SFP module.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.25 LAG_DOWN
Description
The LAG_DOWN alarm indicates that the link aggregation group (LAG) is unavailable. This alarm occurs when no member port in a LAG is activated.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the LAG_DOWN alarm occurs, services at all ports in the LAG are interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: All member ports in the LAG fail.

Procedure
Step 1 Follow instructions in LAG_MEMBER_DOWN to troubleshoot each member port in the LAG. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.26 LAG_MEMBER_DOWN
Description
The LAG_MEMBER_DOWN alarm indicates that a member port in a LAG is unavailable. This alarm occurs when a member port in a LAG cannot be activated or standby.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning

Parameters 1 and 2 Indicate the slot ID of the alarmed board. Parameter 3 Indicates the subslot ID of the alarmed subboard. The value of this parameter is always 0xff.

Parameters 4 and 5 Indicate the ID of the alarmed port. Parameter 6 Indicates the cause of the fault. l 0x01: The port is in the link-down or disabled state. l 0x02: The port receives no LACP packet. l 0x03: The port works in half-duplex mode. l 0x04: The port is self-looped.

Impact on the System


When the LAG_MEMBER_DOWN alarm occurs, the alarmed port in the LAG cannot share any service load. The port does not receive or transmit any services.

Possible Causes
l l l Cause 1: The link connected to the port is faulty or blocked. Cause 2: The port receives no LACP packet. Cause 3: The port is self-looped.

Procedure
Step 1 Determine the alarmed port and the cause according to the alarm parameters. If... The value of Parameter 6 is 0x01 The value of Parameter 6 is 0x02 The value of Parameter 6 is 0x04 Then... Go to Step 2. Go to Step 3. Go to Step 4.

Step 2 Cause 1: The link connected to the alarmed port is faulty or blocked. 1. Follow instructions in Querying the Protocol Information About a LAG to check whether the port is enabled.
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If... The port is disabled The port is enabled 2.

Then... Enable the port in the LAG. Go to the next step.

Check the links connected to all member ports. See whether the ETH_LOS or MW_LOF alarm exists. If... The ETH_LOS or MW_LOF alarm exists Then... Handle the ETH_LOS or MW_LOF alarm.

The ETH_LOS or MW_LOF alarm does Go to Cause 2. not exist Step 3 Cause 2: The port receives no LACP packet. 1. Follow instructions in Querying the Protocol Information About a LAG to check whether the local and remote ports transmit any LACP packets. If no, reconfigure the ports at both ends so LACP packets can be normally transmitted.

Step 4 Cause 3: The port is self-looped. 1. Follow instructions in Setting the Advanced Attributes for an Ethernet Port to check whether the port is self-looped. If yes, release the loopback at the port by referring to 7.4.1 Setting Loopbacks for Ethernet Ports.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.27 LASER_MOD_ERR
Description
The LASER_MOD_ERR alarm indicates that the SFP module mismatches the optical port.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the LASER_MOD_ERR alarm occurs, the performance of the optical port degrades, which even causes service interruption.
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Possible Causes
l l l Cause 1: The NE does not support the type of the installed SFP module. Cause 2: The optical module is faulty. Cause 3: The NE is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The NE does not support the type of the installed SFP module. 1. Follow instructions in 7.3.3 Querying the Board Manufacturing Information Report (U2000) to check whether the optical module of the optical port matches the rate of the optical port. If... The optical module of the optical port does not match the rate of the optical port The optical module of the optical port matches the rate of the optical port Step 2 Cause 2: The optical module is faulty. 1. Replace the optical module. If... The alarm clears after the optical module is replaced The alarm persists after the optical module is replaced Step 3 Cause 3: The NE is faulty. 1. Replace the OptiX RTN 310. Then... End the alarm handling. Go to Cause 3. Then... Contact Huawei engineers to replace the optical module. Go to Cause 2.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.28 LCS_LIMITED
Description
The LCS_LIMITED alarm indicates that an NE is configured with a service capacity or function beyond the license permission.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major
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Alarm Type Equipment alarm

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Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning

Parameter 1 Indicates the license alarm type. l 0x01: The service capacity is beyond the license permission. l 0x02: The AM license is not loaded. l 0x04: The IEEE 1588v2 license is not loaded. l 0x09: The license for air-interface frame header compression is not loaded. l 0x0d: The license for the GE2 port is not loaded. l 0x0e: The XPIC license is not loaded. l 0x0f: The ERPS license is not loaded.

Impact on the System


When the LCS_LIMITED alarm occurs, the NE is configured with a service capacity or function beyond the license permission.

Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: The purchased license is not loaded. Cause 2: The service capacity or function is beyond the license permission.

Procedure
Step 1 Query the license capacity on the NMS. Determine the license alarm type according to the alarm parameter. Step 2 If the value of Parameter 1 is 0x01, see Setting Traffic Shaping for Egress Queues to check whether the PIR is beyond the license permission. If yes, decrease the service capacity, or purchase and load a new license to support the service capacity. Step 3 If the current license does not support a function, purchase and load a new license, too. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.29 LICENSE_LOST
Description
The LICENSE_LOST alarm indicates that the NE fails to detect the license file.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the type of the license file. l 0x06: NE license l 0x07: Ethernet license

Impact on the System


When the LICENSE_LOST alarm occurs, the functions authorized by the license file cannot take effect.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The license file is lost or is not loaded.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The license file is lost or is not loaded. 1. Contact Huawei engineers to load the license file.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.30 LOOP_ALM
Description
The LOOP_ALM alarm indicates loopback.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor
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Alarm Type Equipment alarm

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Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the type of loopback. l 0x00: optical/electrical port inloop l 0x01: optical/electrical port outloop l 0x0A: PHY layer inloop l 0x0C: MAC layer inloop l 0x14: IF outloop l 0x15: IF inloop l 0x16: RF inloop

Impact on the System


When the LOOP_ALM alarm occurs, services at the alarmed port are interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: Loopback is performed on the NE.

Procedure
Step 1 Determine the type of loopback according to the alarm parameter. Step 2 Find out why loopback was performed, and set the loopback status of the alarmed port to NonLoopback. For details of loopback operations, see Software Loopback. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.31 LSR_NO_FITED
Description
The LSR_NO_FITED alarm indicates that the SFP optical module is not installed.

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Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the LSR_NO_FITED alarm occurs, the port cannot bear services.

Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: The SFP optical module on the local NE is not installed. Cause 2: The optical module is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The SFP optical module on the local NE is not installed. 1. 1. Find out why the SFP optical module is not installed, and install it as soon as possible. Replace the SFP optical module. Step 2 Cause 2: The optical module is faulty. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.32 LTI
Description
The LTI alarm indicates that the synchronization sources are lost. This alarm occurs when an NE loses all synchronization sources.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table.
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Name Parameter 1

Meaning 0x01: system clock priority table

Impact on the System


When the LTI alarm occurs, the system clock quality is not high. The bit error rate will increase when the NEs are not synchronized.

Possible Causes
l l l Cause 1: The clock configuration is incorrect. Cause 2: All the clock sources in the clock source priority table fail. Cause 3: The synchronization source is set to the manual reversion mode.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The clock configuration is incorrect. 1. Follow instructions in Configuring Clock Sources to check the clock source priority table according to the network plan. If... The clock source priority table is configured incorrectly The clock source priority table is configured correctly Then... Reconfigure the clock source priority table. Go to Cause 2.

Step 2 Cause 2: All the clock sources in the clock source priority table fail. 1. Check whether the SYNC_C_LOS alarm exists. If yes, handle the SYNC_C_LOS alarm.

Step 3 Cause 3: The synchronization source is set to the manual reversion mode. 1. Follow instructions in Changing Clock Source Reversion Parameters to set the clock source to the automatic reversion mode.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.33 MAC_EXT_EXC
Description
The MAC_EXT_EXC alarm indicates that the number of bit errors at the MAC layer crosses the threshold.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the threshold crossing type. l 0x01: ETHDROP threshold crossing l 0x03: RXBBAD threshold crossing

Impact on the System


When the MAC_EXT_EXC alarm occurs, the service performance deteriorates.

Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: ETHDROP threshold crossing. The number of packet loss events crosses the upper threshold. Cause 2: RXBBAD threshold crossing. The number of received bad packets crosses the upper threshold.

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the working modes of the ports at the transmit and receive ends are the same. 1. On the NMS, query the working modes of the ports at both ends. If... Then...

The ports at both ends work in different Set the working modes of the two ports to modes or in half-duplex mode both full-duplex or auto-negotiation by referring to Setting the Basic Attributes for an Ethernet Port. The ports at both ends work in the same Go to the next step. mode and are not working in halfduplex mode Step 2 Handle the packet transmission errors at the opposite end. Step 3 Handle the line quality problem. Check whether the local end reports the alarms (ETH_LOS, for example) due to the damage to or large attenuation over the external line. If yes, clear these alarms.
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Step 4 Replace the OptiX RTN 310. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.34 MAC_FCS_EXC
Description
The MAC_FCS_EXC alarm indicates that the number of bit errors at the MAC layer crosses the threshold. The software periodically computes whether the number of bit errors crosses the threshold by comparing the number of service bytes and the number of bit errors received on the MAC chip. The MAC_FCS_EXC alarm occurs when the number of bit errors crosses the threshold.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the MAC_FCS_EXC alarm occurs, the service performance deteriorates.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: ETHFCS threshold crossing. The number of received Ethernet data frames with FCS check errors crosses the threshold.

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the working modes of the ports at both ends are the same. 1. On the NMS, query the working modes of the ports at both ends. If... Then...

The ports at both ends work in different Set the working modes of the two ports to modes or in half-duplex mode both full-duplex or auto-negotiation by referring to Setting the Basic Attributes for an Ethernet Port. The ports at both ends work in the same Go to the next step. mode and are not working in halfduplex mode
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Step 2 Replace the OptiX RTN 310. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.35 MULTI_RPL_OWNER
Description
The MULTI_RPL_OWNER alarm indicates that the Ethernet ring network contains several RPL owner nodes.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Maloperation alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameters 1 and 2 Meaning Indicate the ID of the ERPS instance.

Impact on the System


The MULTI_RPL_OWNER alarm occurs, ERPS protection fails and the services on the Ethernet ring are interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause: The ERPS protection is configured incorrectly.

Procedure
Step 1 See Querying the Status of the ERPS Protocol to check the ERPS protection configuration at each node. Ensure that there is only one RPL owner node on the Ethernet ring network. ----End

Related Information
None.
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A.2.36 MW_AM_TEST
Description
The MW_AM_TEST alarm indicates that the IF port is in the AM testing state.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Other alarms

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the MW_AM_TEST alarm occurs, the service transmission capacity decreases during the AM test.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The AM test is being performed.

Procedure
Step 1 This alarm automatically clears after the AM test is complete. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.37 MW_BER_EXC
Description
The MW_BER_EXC is an alarm of excessive bit errors on a radio link. This alarm is reported when bit errors on a radio link exceed the specified MW_BER_EXC threshold (10-3 by default).

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.
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Impact on the System


Services at the alarmed port are interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l l l Cause 1: Signal attenuation on the radio link is too heavy. Cause 2: The transmit unit of the opposite site is faulty. Cause 3: The receive unit of the local site is faulty. Cause 4: An interference source exists around the radio link.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Signal attenuation on the radio link is too heavy. 1. With reference to Querying History Transmit Power and Receive Power, check whether the receive power of the OptiX RTN 310 at the local site is normal. If no, diagnose the fault and take proper measures. Then... Follow the steps: 1. Check the installation of the antenna to ensure that the azimuth angle of the antenna meets the requirement. 2. Check the antenna direction. Especially, check whether the received signal is from the main lobe. If the antenna direction does not meet the requirement, adjust the antenna in a wide range. 3. Check the polarization direction of antennas and adjust the incorrect polarization direction. 4. Check the antenna gain at the two ends and replace the antennas that do not provide required antenna gain. 5. Check whether transmission is blocked by any mountains or buildings. If yes, contact the network planning department for avoiding the block.

If... The RSL is lower than the receiver sensitivity

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If...

Then...

The RSL is higher than the specified RSL Slow up fading occurs. Follow the steps: of the network. The offset value is tens of 1. Check for interference. For details, see 7.9 decibels. The duration is from tens of Scanning Interfering Signals. seconds to several hours 2. Use a spectrum analyzer to analyze interference sources. 3. Contact the spectrum management department for clearing the interference spectrum, or change plans to minimize the interference. The RSL is lower than the specified RSL of the network. The offset value is tens of decibels. The duration is from tens of seconds to several hours Slow down fading occurs. Generally, the radio link may be faulty in both directions, because slow down fading is imposed by the transmission path. Contact the network planning department to make the following changes: l Increase the installation heights of antennas. l Reduce the transmission distance. l Increase the antenna gain. l Increase the transmit power. The RSL is lower than or higher than the Fast fading occurs. Contact the network specified RSL of the network and the planning department to make the following duration is from several milliseconds to changes: tens of seconds l Adjust the position of the antenna to block the reflected wave or make the reflection point fall on the ground that has a small reflection coefficient, reducing multipath fading. l Increase the fading margin. Step 2 Cause 2: The transmit unit of the opposite site is faulty. 1. Perform an inloop on the IF port at the opposite end. For details, see 7.4.2 Setting Loopback for the IF Board. Check whether the fault at the opposite site is rectified. If... The alarm persists The alarm clears Then... Replace the OptiX RTN 310 at the opposite site. Go to the next step.

Step 3 Cause 3: The receive unit of the local site is faulty. Locate the fault by looping back the opposite site and excluding the position one by one. Follow the steps: 1. Perform an inloop on the IF port at the local end. For details, see 7.4.2 Setting Loopback for the IF Board. Check whether the fault at the local site is rectified after the loopback.
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If... The alarm persists The alarm clears

Then... Replace the OptiX RTN 310 at the local site. Go to the next step.

Step 4 Cause 4: An interference source exists around the radio link. 1. 2. 3. With reference to 7.9 Scanning Interfering Signals, scan the frequency spectrum around the radio link and check for co-frequency interference and bias-frequency interference. Use a spectrum analyzer to analyze interference sources. Contact the spectrum management department for clearing the interference spectrum, or change plans to minimize the interference.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.38 MW_BER_SD
Description
The MW_BER_SD is an alarm of signal degrade on a radio link. This alarm is reported when bit errors on a radio link exceed the MW_BER_SD threshold (10-6 by default) but does not reach the MW_BER_EXC alarm threshold (10-3 by default).

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The service performance on the alarmed port deteriorates.

Possible Causes
l l l l l
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Cause 1: Signal attenuation on the radio link is too heavy. Cause 2: The transmit unit of the opposite site is faulty. Cause 3: The receive unit of the local site is faulty. Cause 4: An interference source exists around the radio link. Cause 5: A loop is performed on the composite port.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Signal attenuation on the radio link is too heavy. 1. With reference to Querying History Transmit Power and Receive Power, check whether the receive power of the OptiX RTN 310 at the local site is normal. If no, diagnose the fault and take proper measures. Then... Follow the steps: 1. Check the installation of the antenna to ensure that the azimuth angle of the antenna meets the requirement. 2. Check the antenna direction. Especially, check whether the received signal is from the main lobe. If the antenna direction does not meet the requirement, adjust the antenna in a wide range. 3. Check the polarization direction of antennas and adjust the incorrect polarization direction. 4. Check the antenna gain at the two ends and replace the antennas that do not provide required antenna gain. 5. Check whether transmission is blocked by any mountains or buildings. If yes, contact the network planning department for avoiding the block. The RSL is higher than the specified RSL Slow up fading occurs. Follow the steps: of the network. The offset value is tens of 1. Check for interference. For details, see 7.9 decibels. The duration is from tens of Scanning Interfering Signals. seconds to several hours 2. Use a spectrum analyzer to analyze interference sources. 3. Contact the spectrum management department for clearing the interference spectrum, or change plans to minimize the interference.

If... The RSL is lower than the receiver sensitivity

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If... The RSL is lower than the specified RSL of the network. The offset value is tens of decibels. The duration is from tens of seconds to several hours

Then... Slow down fading occurs. Generally, the radio link may be faulty in both directions, because slow down fading is imposed by the transmission path. Contact the network planning department to make the following changes: l Increase the installation heights of antennas. l Reduce the transmission distance. l Increase the antenna gain. l Increase the transmit power.

The RSL is lower than or higher than the Fast fading occurs. Contact the network specified RSL of the network and the planning department to make the following duration is from several milliseconds to changes: tens of seconds l Adjust the position of the antenna to block the reflected wave or make the reflection point fall on the ground that has a small reflection coefficient, reducing multipath fading. l Increase the fading margin. Step 2 Cause 2: The transmit unit of the opposite site is faulty. 1. Perform an inloop on the IF port at the opposite end. For details, see 7.4.2 Setting Loopback for the IF Board. Check whether the fault at the opposite site is rectified. If... The alarm persists The alarm clears Then... Replace the OptiX RTN 310 at the opposite site. Go to the next step.

Step 3 Cause 3: The receive unit of the local site is faulty. Locate the fault by looping back the opposite site and excluding the position one by one. Follow the steps: 1. Perform an inloop on the IF port at the local end. For details, see 7.4.2 Setting Loopback for the IF Board. Check whether the fault at the local site is rectified after the loopback. If... The alarm persists The alarm clears Then... Replace the OptiX RTN 310 at the local site. Go to the next step.

Step 4 Cause 4: An interference source exists around the radio link. 1. 2.


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With reference to 7.9 Scanning Interfering Signals, scan the frequency spectrum around the radio link and check for co-frequency interference and bias-frequency interference. Use a spectrum analyzer to analyze interference sources.
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3.

Contact the spectrum management department for clearing the interference spectrum, or change plans to minimize the interference. Find out the cause of the loopback, and wait five minutes for the automatic release. Otherwise, you can manually release the loopback.

Step 5 Cause 5: A loop is performed on the composite port. 1.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.39 MW_CFG_MISMATCH
Description
The MW_CFG_MISMATCH is an alarm of configuration mismatch on radio links. This alarm is reported when an NE detects inconsistent settings of AM status, 1588 overhead status, modulation scheme, or other parameters on the two ends of a radio link.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning

Parameter 1 Indicates the cause of the alarm. l 0x02: The AM status is configured differently. l 0x03: The 1588 overhead status is configured differently. l 0x04: The modulation scheme is configured differently. l 0x09: The IP frame header compression is configured differently. Parameter 2 If Parameter 1 takes the value of 0x09, Parameter 2 has the following meanings. l 0x01: The L2 frame header compression is configured differently. l 0x02: The L3 frame header compression is configured differently.

Impact on the System


This alarm indicates that service configurations do not take effect or services are interrupted. After the NE is power cycled or reset, the services may still be affected.
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Possible Causes
l l l l Cause 1: The AM status is configured differently at the two ends. Cause 2: The 1588 overhead status is configured differently at the two ends. Cause 3: The modulation scheme is configured differently at the two ends. Cause 4: The IP frame header compression is configured differently at the two ends.

Procedure
Step 1 Determine the cause of the alarm by querying the alarm parameters. Step 2 Check the configurations on both ends of the radio link. Ensure that the configurations are consistent. For details, see Configuring a Single-Hop Radio Link or Creating VLAN Forwarding Table Entries. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.40 MW_CONT_WAVE
Description
The MW_CONT_WAVE is an alarm of the enabled continuous wave function. This alarm occurs if the continuous wave is output by the IF unit.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


If the continuous wave function is enabled, radio links cannot transmit services.

Possible Causes
l l l
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Cause 1: The continuous wave function is enabled. Cause 2: The MW_LOF alarm exists on the radio link and an outloop is performed on the IF port. Cause 3: The IF unit is faulty.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The continuous wave function is enabled. 1. Disable the continuous wave function. For details, see 7.6 Detecting Consecutive Waves.

Step 2 Cause 2: The MW_LOF alarm exists on the radio link and an outloop is performed on the IF port. 1. 2. Release the loopback by referring to 7.4.2 Setting Loopback for the IF Board. Clear the MW_LOF alarm.

Step 3 Cause 3: The IF unit is faulty. 1. Replace the OptiX RTN 310.

----End

Related Information
The continuous wave function tests the frequency stability and frequency consistency and should be disabled after a test is completed.

A.2.41 MW_FEC_UNCOR
Description
The MW_FEC_UNCOR is an alarm indicating that errors in the microwave frames cannot be corrected by using FEC.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


This alarm indicates that services contain bit errors.

Possible Causes
l l l l
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Cause 1: Signal attenuation on the radio link is too heavy. Cause 2: The transmit unit of the opposite site is faulty. Cause 3: The receive unit of the local site is faulty. Cause 4: An interference source exists around the radio link.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Signal attenuation on the radio link is too heavy. 1. With reference to Querying History Transmit Power and Receive Power, check whether the receive power of the OptiX RTN 310 at the local site is normal. If no, diagnose the fault and take proper measures. Then... Follow the steps: 1. Check the installation of the antenna to ensure that the azimuth angle of the antenna meets the requirement. 2. Check the antenna direction. Especially, check whether the received signal is from the main lobe. If the antenna direction does not meet the requirement, adjust the antenna in a wide range. 3. Check the polarization direction of antennas and adjust the incorrect polarization direction. 4. Check the antenna gain at the two ends and replace the antennas that do not provide required antenna gain. 5. Check whether transmission is blocked by any mountains or buildings. If yes, contact the network planning department for avoiding the block. The RSL is higher than the specified RSL Slow up fading occurs. Follow the steps: of the network. The offset value is tens of 1. Check for interference. For details, see 7.9 decibels. The duration is from tens of Scanning Interfering Signals. seconds to several hours 2. Use a spectrum analyzer to analyze interference sources. 3. Contact the spectrum management department for clearing the interference spectrum, or change plans to minimize the interference.

If... The RSL is lower than the receiver sensitivity

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If... The RSL is lower than the specified RSL of the network. The offset value is tens of decibels. The duration is from tens of seconds to several hours

Then... Slow down fading occurs. Generally, the radio link may be faulty in both directions, because slow down fading is imposed by the transmission path. Contact the network planning department to make the following changes: l Increase the installation heights of antennas. l Reduce the transmission distance. l Increase the antenna gain. l Increase the transmit power.

The RSL is lower than or higher than the Fast fading occurs. Contact the network specified RSL of the network and the planning department to make the following duration is from several milliseconds to changes: tens of seconds l Adjust the position of the antenna to block the reflected wave or make the reflection point fall on the ground that has a small reflection coefficient, reducing multipath fading. l Increase the fading margin. Step 2 Cause 2: The transmit unit of the opposite site is faulty. 1. Perform an inloop on the IF port at the opposite end. For details, see 7.4.2 Setting Loopback for the IF Board. Check whether the fault at the opposite site is rectified. If... The alarm persists The alarm clears Then... Replace the OptiX RTN 310 at the opposite site. Go to the next step.

Step 3 Cause 3: The receive unit of the local site is faulty. Locate the fault by looping back the opposite site and excluding the position one by one. Follow the steps: 1. Perform an inloop on the IF port at the local end. For details, see 7.4.2 Setting Loopback for the IF Board. Check whether the fault at the local site is rectified after the loopback. If... The alarm persists The alarm clears Then... Replace the OptiX RTN 310 at the local site. Go to the next step.

Step 4 Cause 4: An interference source exists around the radio link. 1. 2.


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With reference to 7.9 Scanning Interfering Signals, scan the frequency spectrum around the radio link and check for co-frequency interference and bias-frequency interference. Use a spectrum analyzer to analyze interference sources.
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3.

Contact the spectrum management department for clearing the interference spectrum, or change plans to minimize the interference.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.42 MW_LIM
Description
The MW_LIM is an alarm indicating that a mismatched radio link identifier is detected. This alarm is reported if an IF board detects that the link ID in the microwave frame overheads is inconsistent with the specified link ID.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The IF board inserts the AIS alarm into the received signal, causing service interruption on the radio link.

Possible Causes
l l l l Cause 1: The link ID of the local site does not match the link ID of the opposite site. Cause 2: The services on other radio links are received due to the incorrect configuration of the radio link receive frequency at the local or opposite site. Cause 3: The antenna receives microwave signals from another site, because the direction of the antenna is set incorrectly. Cause 4: The polarization direction of the XPIC is incorrect.

Procedure
Step 1 With reference to Browsing the Performance of a Hop of Radio Link, check the settings of link ID, receive/transmit frequency, polarization direction of the XPIC working group at the two ends. If any setting is incorrect, modify it according to the network planning information. Step 2 Cause 3: The antenna receives microwave signals from another site, because the direction of the antenna is set incorrectly. 1. Adjust the direction of the antenna and ensure that the antennas at both ends are aligned.

----End
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Related Information
The MW_LIM alarm is generated due to the inconsistency between the specified link ID and the received link ID. If the MW-LOF alarm exists on the link, the received link ID is a random value and therefore is invalid. In this case, the MW-LIM alarm is suppressed.

A.2.43 MW_LOF
Description
The MW_LOF is an alarm indicating the loss of microwave frames.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


This alarm indicates that services are interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l l l l Cause 1: Certain other alarms occur. Cause 2: Settings of channel spacing, modulation scheme, and operating frequency are different at the two ends of the radio link. Cause 3: The transmit unit of the opposite site is faulty. Cause 4: The receive power of the OptiX RTN 310 is abnormal. Cause 5: An interference source exists around the radio link.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Certain other alarms occur. 1. Check whether any equipment-related alarms are reported at the local site. If yes, clear them immediately. The possible alarms are as follows: l HARD_BAD l RADIO_RSL_LOW l TEMP_ALARM Step 2 Cause 2: Settings of channel spacing, modulation scheme, and operating frequency are different at the two ends of the radio link.
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1.

With reference to Browsing the Performance of a Hop of Radio Link, check the settings of channel spacing, modulation scheme, and operating frequency at the two ends of the radio link. With reference to Configuring a Single-Hop Radio Link, modify the different settings. Check whether any equipment-related alarms are reported at the opposite site. If yes, clear them immediately. The possible alarms are as follows: l HARD_BAD l RADIO_RSL_LOW l TEMP_ALARM

2. 1.

Step 3 Cause 3: The transmit unit of the opposite site is faulty.

2.

Locate the fault by performing loopbacks at the opposite site. Follow the steps: a. Perform an inloop on the IF port at the opposite site. For details, see 7.4.2 Setting Loopback for the IF Board. Check whether the fault at the opposite site is rectified. If... The alarm persists The alarm clears Then... Replace the OptiX RTN 310 at the opposite site. Go to the next step.

Step 4 Cause 4: The receive power of the OptiX RTN 310 is abnormal. 1. With reference to Querying History Transmit Power and Receive Power, check whether the receive power of the OptiX RTN 310 at the local site is normal. If no, diagnose the fault and take proper measures.

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If... The RSL is lower than the receiver sensitivity

Then... Follow the steps: a. Check the installation of the antenna to ensure that the azimuth angle of the antenna meets the requirement. b. Check the antenna direction. Especially, check whether the received signal is from the main lobe. If the antenna direction does not meet the requirement, adjust the antenna in a wide range. c. Check the polarization direction of antennas and adjust the incorrect polarization direction. d. Check the antenna gain at the two ends and replace the antennas that do not provide required antenna gain. e. Check whether transmission is blocked by any mountains or buildings. If yes, contact the network planning department for avoiding the block.

The RSL is higher than the specified Slow up fading occurs. Follow the steps: RSL of the network. The offset value is tens of decibels. The duration is from a. Check for co-channel interference. For details, see 7.9 Scanning Interfering tens of seconds to several hours Signals. b. Use a spectrum analyzer to analyze interference sources. c. Contact the spectrum management department for clearing the interference spectrum, or change plans to minimize the interference. The RSL is lower than the specified RSL of the network. The offset value is tens of decibels. The duration is from tens of seconds to several hours Slow down fading occurs. Generally, the radio link may be faulty in both directions, because slow down fading is imposed by the transmission path. Contact the network planning department to make the following changes: l Increase the installation heights of antennas. l Reduce the transmission distance. l Increase the antenna gain. l Increase the transmit power.

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If... The RSL is lower than or higher than the specified RSL of the network and the duration is from several milliseconds to tens of seconds

Then... Fast fading occurs. Contact the network planning department to make the following changes: l Adjust the position of the antenna to block the reflected wave or make the reflection point fall on the ground that has a small reflection coefficient, reducing multipath fading. l Increase the fading margin.

Step 5 Cause 5: Interference exists. 1. 2. 3. With reference to 7.9 Scanning Interfering Signals, scan the frequency spectrum around the radio link and check for co-frequency interference and bias-frequency interference. Use a spectrum analyzer to analyze interference sources. Contact the spectrum management department for clearing the interference spectrum, or change plans to minimize the interference.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.44 MW_RDI
Description
The MW_RDI is an alarm indicating that there are defects at the remote end of the radio link. This alarm is reported when the IF board detects an RDI in the radio frame overheads.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


This alarm indicates that services are interrupted in the receive direction of the opposite site.

Possible Causes
Cause: The opposite site detects service alarms in the receive direction.
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Procedure
Step 1 Handle the microwave alarms at the opposite site. The possible alarms are as follows: l MW_LOF l XPIC_LOS l MW_BER_SD l MW_BER_EXC ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.45 NB_UNREACHABLE
Description
The NB_UNREACHABLE is an alarm indicating that a neighboring NE is unreachable to the local NE.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The XPIC working group is abnormal.

Possible Causes
l l l Cause 1: The XPIC cable is loose. Cause 2: Configurations on the neighboring OptiX RTN 310 are inconsistent. Cause 3: The neighboring NE is abnormal.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The XPIC cable is loose. 1. Check whether the XPIC cable is loose. If yes, connect the cable correctly. Step 2 Cause 2: Configurations on the neighboring OptiX RTN 310 are inconsistent. 1. Check whether the XPIC function is enabled on the COMBO ports of the OptiX RTN 310. If no, enable the XPIC function.
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Step 3 Cause 3: The neighboring NE is abnormal. 1. Troubleshoot the faulty on the neighboring NE. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.46 NESF_LOST
Description
The NESF_LOST is an alarm indicating that the NE software is lost. This alarm is reported when the system control unit detects the loss of NE software.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning The value is always 0x01.

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Name Parameters 2 and 3

Meaning Indicate the file code. l 0x01: FPGA of the system control board in the OFS1 area l 0x02: FPGA of the system control board in the OFS2 area l 0x03: ofs1/hwx/nesoft.hwx l 0x04: ofs2/hwx/nesoft.hwx l 0x05: ofs1/hwx/ne.ini l 0x06: ofs2/hwx/ne.ini l 0x07: ofs1/hwx/ocp.ini l 0x08: ofs2/hwx/ocp.ini l 0x1f: ofs1/hwx/extbios.hwx l 0x20: ofs2/hwx/extbios.hwx l 0x23: ofs1/hwx/trsoft.hwx l 0x24: ofs2/hwx/trsoft.hwx l 0x25: ofs1/hwx/ifmodem.hwx l 0x26: ofs2/hwx/ifmodem.hwx l 0x27: ofs1/fpga/ifmodem.pga l 0x28: ofs2/fpga/ifmodem.pga

Parameter 4

Indicates the cause of the alarm. l 0x01: The file does not exist. l 0x02: The file check fails.

Impact on the System


If the NE software is lost, the system cannot reboot after it is powered off or reset.

Possible Causes
l l l Cause 1: No new NE software is loaded after the existing NE software is erased. Cause 2: Loading the NE software is unsuccessful. Cause 3: The NE is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the alarm is caused by the loading operation. If... The alarm is caused by the loading operation The alarm is not caused by the loading operation ----End
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Then... Contact the Huawei technical support engineers for loading the NE software. 5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310.

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Related Information
None.

A.2.47 NESOFT_MM
Description
The NESOFT_MM is an alarm indicating that the software files in the OFS1 and OFS2 areas of the system control unit are inconsistent. This alarm is reported when the software files in the OFS1 and OFS2 areas of the system control unit are inconsistent.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the location of the file. l 0x01: files in the flash memory l 0x02: software that is currently running

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Name

Meaning

Parameters 2 and 3 If Parameter 1 takes the value of 0x01, Parameters 2 and 3 indicate the inconsistent files in the flash memory. l 0x01: FPGA of the system control board in the OFS1 area l 0x02: FPGA of the system control board in the OFS2 area l 0x03: ofs1/hwx/nesoft.hwx l 0x04: ofs2/hwx/nesoft.hwx l 0x05: ofs1/hwx/ne.ini l 0x06: ofs2/hwx/ne.ini l 0x07: ofs1/hwx/ocp.ini l 0x08: ofs2/hwx/ocp.ini l 0x1f: ofs1/hwx/luexbios.hwx l 0x20: ofs2/hwx/luexbios.hwx l 0x23: ofs1/hwx/trsoft.hwx l 0x24: ofs2/hwx/trsoft.hwx l 0x25: ofs1/hwx/ifmodem.hwx l 0x26: ofs2/hwx/ifmodem.hwx l 0x27: ofs1/fpga/ifmodem.pga l 0x28: ofs2/fpga/ifmodem.pga If Parameter 1 takes the value of 0x02, Parameters 2 and 3 indicate the inconsistent files in the currently running software. l 0x01: NeSoft(D) l 0x02: Platform(D) l 0x04: ExtBios l 0x05: Logic l 0x06: Dsp Parameter 4 Indicates the cause of the alarm. l 0x04: The software files in the OFS1 and OFS2 areas of the system control unit are inconsistent.

Impact on the System


After the system is powered off or reset, the system may fail to reboot or work correctly.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: Software files in the OFS1 and OFS2 areas of the system control unit are inconsistent.

Procedure
Step 1 Contact Huawei technical support engineers for loading the software. ----End
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Related Information
None.

A.2.48 NTP_SYNC_FAIL
Description
The NTP_SYNC_FAIL is an alarm indicating that NTP time synchronization fails.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


Time on the alarmed NE is different from time on the NTP server. The records on the NE, such as performance events, alarms, and operations, cannot be kept with exact time.

Possible Causes
l l l Cause 1: The NTP server is not configured or is configured incorrectly. Cause 2: The NTP server cannot communicate with the NE. Cause 3: The NTP server fails.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The NTP server is not configured or is configured incorrectly. 1. 2. 1. 2. Configure the NTP server correctly. Configure the NTP parameters for the NE. Check whether the cable connecting the gateway NE to the NTP server is normal. If no, rectify the connection fault. Check whether the DCN communication between the NTP server and the NE is normal. If no, configure the DCN communication correctly. Troubleshoot the NTP server.

Step 2 Cause 2: The NTP server cannot communicate with the NE.

Step 3 Cause 3: The NTP server fails. 1. ----End

Related Information
None.
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A.2.49 PASSWORD_NEED_CHANGE
Description
The PASSWORD_NEED_CHANGE alarm indicates that the password of the user who logs in is unchanged. This alarm is reported if any one default user's default password is not changed in time.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The default user's default password must be changed to reduce risks.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The default user's default password must be changed to reduce risks.

Procedure
Step 1 Modify the default user's password. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.50 PATCH_ACT_TIMEOUT
Description
The PATCH_ACT_TIMEOUT is an alarm indicating that patch package activation times out. This alarm occurs when a patch package stays in the activate state for a period longer than the preset threshold. In this case, users need to handle the patch package.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor
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Alarm Type Equipment alarm

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Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


This alarm does not affect the system.

Possible Causes
Cause: A patch package stays in the activate state for a period longer than the preset threshold.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause: A patch package stays in the activate state for a period longer than the preset threshold. 1. 2. Check whether the patch package is normal. If yes, run the patch package. If no, deactivate and delete the patch package. The alarm will clear.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.51 PATCH_DEACT_TIMEOUT
Description
The PATCH_DEACT_TIMEOUT is an alarm indicating that patch package deactivation times out. This alarm occurs when a patch package stays in the deactivate state for a period longer than the preset threshold. In this case, users need to handle the patch package.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


This alarm does not affect the system.

Possible Causes
Cause: A patch package stays in the deactivate state for a period longer than the preset threshold.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause: A patch package stays in the deactivate state for a period longer than the preset threshold. 1. 2. If the patch package is expected to take effect, activate the patch package. Otherwise, delete the patch package and the alarm will clear.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.52 PATCH_PKGERR
Description
The PATCH_PKGERR is an alarm indicating that a patch package is abnormal.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The patch package cannot be loaded, activated, or ran correctly. This alarm does not affect services.

Possible Causes
l l l Cause 1: The patch package is incorrect. Cause 2: The patch package is corrupted. Cause 3: The patch package is deleted.

Procedure
Step 1 Load the correct patch package. ----End

Related Information
None.
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A.2.53 PORT_EXC_TRAFFIC
Description
The PORT_EXC_TRAFFIC is an alarm indicating that the bandwidth utilization ratio of a port exceeds the threshold. This alarm is reported when the bandwidth utilization ratio of a port exceeds the preset threshold.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Warning Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the transmit or receive direction. l 0x00: receive l 0x01: transmit

Impact on the System


Excessive service traffic may cause service congestion.

Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: The configured bandwidth limit is too low. Cause 2: The port handles excessive traffic.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The configured bandwidth limit is too low. 1. 2. 3. With reference to Setting Traffic Shaping for Egress Queues, check the configured bandwidth limit. If the bandwidth limit of the Ethernet port is too low, increase the bandwidth limit according to Configuring Port Shaping or expand the network. If the bandwidth of the IF port is too low, use a higher order modulation scheme and increase the channel spacing according to Configuring a Single-Hop Radio Link. With reference to 7.14 Querying Traffic, Physical Bandwidth, or Bandwidth Utilization of Ethernet Ports, query the bandwidth utilization ratio of the alarmed port.
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Step 2 Cause 2: The port handles excessive traffic. 1.

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2.

If the port bandwidth utilization is higher than the threshold, check whether a network storm occurs. If a network storm occurs, eliminate the source that transmits a large amount of invalid data.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.54 PORTMODE_MISMATCH
Description
The PORTMODE_MISMATCH is an alarm indicating that the working mode of the opposite Ethernet port mismatches that of the local Ethernet port. For example, if the local Ethernet port works in auto-negotiation mode and the opposite Ethernet port works in another mode, the PORTMODE_MISMATCH alarm will be reported.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameters 1 and 2 Meaning Indicate the current working mode. l 0x01: auto-negotiation l 0x02: 10M full-duplex l 0x03: 100M full-duplex l 0x04: 1000M full-duplex

Impact on the System


This alarm does not affect services.

Possible Causes
Cause: The local Ethernet port and opposite Ethernet port work in different modes.
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Procedure
Step 1 With reference to Setting the Basic Attributes for an Ethernet Port, disable the local port. With reference to Setting the Basic Attributes for an Ethernet Port, enable the local port and set the working mode to auto-negotiation. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.55 POWER_ALM
Description
The POWER_ALM is an alarm indicating that the voltage of the power module is out of the normal range.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning

Parameter 1 Indicates the power channel with abnormal voltage. l 0x01: 1.0 V power channel of the baseband processing unit l 0x02: 1.2 V power channel of the baseband processing unit l 0x03: 1.8 V power channel of the baseband processing unit l 0x04: FPGA_SERDES 1.2 V power channel of the baseband processing unit l 0x05: 2.5 V power channel of the baseband processing unit l 0x06: 3.3 V power channel of the baseband processing unit l 0x07: 3.7 V power channel of the baseband processing unit l 0x08: 5.4 V power channel of the baseband processing unit l 0x09: 15 V power channel of the radio frequency processing unit l 0x0A: -6 V power channel of the radio frequency processing unit l 0x0B: 5.4 V power channel of the radio frequency processing unit l 0x0C: 3.7 V power channel of the radio frequency processing unit

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Name

Meaning l 0x02: overvoltage

Parameter 2 l 0x01: undervoltage

Impact on the System


This alarm may cause the NE to work incorrectly.

Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: The input power is abnormal. Cause 2: The power module is abnormal.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The input power is abnormal. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Test the input power with a multimeter and check whether the input power is within the normal range (-57.6 V to -38.4 V). If the input power is out of the normal range, check whether the power supply and power cable are normal. Change the abnormal power supply or power cable. If the power is supplied through the P&E port, check whether the Ethernet power supply device and P&E cable are normal. Change the abnormal device or cable.

Step 2 Cause 2: The power module is abnormal. 1. 5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.56 PTP_TIMESTAMP_ABN
Description
The PTP_TIMESTAMP_ABN is an alarm indicating that PTP timestamps are abnormal. This alarm is reported when PTP (1588v2) timestamps are abnormal.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major
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Alarm Type Equipment alarm

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Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The slave node cannot trace the time of the master node and services contain bit errors.

Possible Causes
l l l l Cause 1: The opposite end is faulty. Cause 2: The local end is faulty. Cause 3: The physical-layer synchronization and 1588v2 time synchronization are configured, and the upstream node transmits less than one SYNC packet per second. Cause 4: The PTP ports at the two ends have different P/E attributes.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The opposite end is faulty. 1. Troubleshoot the opposite end or change the clock source of the local end.

Step 2 Cause 2: The local end is faulty. 1. 5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310.

Step 3 Cause 3: The physical-layer synchronization and 1588v2 time synchronization are configured, and the upstream node transmits less than one SYNC packet per second. 1. With reference to Setting Parameters for IEEE 1588v2 Clock Packets, modify the SYNC packet transmission rate of the upstream node.

Step 4 Cause 4: The PTP ports at the two ends have different P/E attributes. 1. With reference to Setting the PTP NE Attributes, re-set the P/E attributes.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.57 RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF
Description
The RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF is an alarm indicating that the mean receive power of the OptiX RTN 310 is lower than the threshold (receiver sensitivity plus 14 dB). When the mean receive power of the OptiX RTN 310 in six consecutive hours is lower than the threshold, the system reports the alarm. After the alarm is reported, if the mean receive power of the OptiX RTN 310 becomes normal and maintains the state for three minutes, the alarm clears.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


This alarm does not affect services if it is not accompanied by MW_BER_EXC, MW_BER_SD, MW_LOF, or MW_FEC_UNCOR.

Possible Causes
l l l l Cause 1: The transmit power is abnormal due to the faulty OptiX RTN 310 at the opposite site. Cause 2: The direction of the antenna is deflected. Cause 3: Transmission environment changes. Cause 4: The fading margin planned for rain and fog is insufficient.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The transmit power is abnormal due to the faulty OptiX RTN 310 at the opposite site. 1. If... The RADIO_TSL_LOW alarm is reported Check whether the OptiX RTN 310 at the opposite site reports the RADIO_TSL_LOW alarm. Then... Handle the RADIO_TSL_LOW alarm.

The RADIO_TSL_LOW alarm is not reported Go to Cause 2. Step 2 Cause 2: The direction of the antenna is deflected. 1. Check whether the direction of the antenna is deflected. If... The direction of the antenna is deflected The direction of the antenna is not deflected Step 3 Cause 3: Transmission environment changes. 1. If... The transmission environment changes Check whether the transmission environment changes. For example, check whether any building blocks the transmission and increases the link fading significantly. Then... Contact the network planning department for replanning the transmission trail.
192

Then... Adjust the direction of the antenna. Go to Cause 3.

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If... The transmission environment does not change

Then... Go to Cause 4.

Step 4 Cause 4: The fading margin planned for rain and fog is insufficient. 1. If the alarm is frequently reported in rainy or foggy weather, contact the network planning department for increasing the fading margin.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.58 RADIO_MUTE
Description
The RADIO_MUTE is an alarm indicating that the radio transmitter is muted.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Warning Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


This alarm indicates that the radio transmitter does not transmit signals.

Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: The transmitter of the local site is muted manually. Cause 2: The OptiX RTN 310 at the local site is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The transmitter of the local site is muted manually. 1. With reference to Configuring a Single-Hop Radio Link, check whether the OptiX RTN 310 at the local site is muted. If yes, unmute the OptiX RTN 310.

Step 2 Cause 2: The OptiX RTN 310 at the local site is faulty. 1. 5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310.

----End
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Related Information
None.

A.2.59 RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH
Description
The RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH is an alarm indicating that antennas are not aligned. When the receivable power is set on an NE, the NE automatically enables the antenna alignment indication function. The RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH alarm is reported if the actual receive power of the OptiX RTN 310 is 3 dB lower than the receivable power. After the antennas are aligned for 30 minutes, the antenna alignment indication function is disabled automatically and the RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH alarm clears. Afterwards, the RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH alarm is reported only when the RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF alarm is reported.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


This alarm does not affect services if it is not accompanied by MW_BER_EXC, MW_BER_SD, MW_LOF, or MW_FEC_UNCOR.

Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: Antennas are not aligned during the equipment commissioning. Cause 2: The RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF is reported when the NE is running.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Antennas are not aligned during the equipment commissioning. 1. Align the antennas, and ensure that the actual receive power is within the range of receivable power +3 dB. Handle the RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF alarm. After the RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF alarm clears, the RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH alarm clears.

Step 2 Cause 2: The RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF is reported when the NE is running. 1.

----End

Related Information
None.
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A.2.60 RADIO_RSL_HIGH
Description
The RADIO_RSL_HIGH is an alarm indicating that the radio received signal level (RSL) is very high. This alarm is reported if the detected RSL is higher than or equal to the upper threshold of the OptiX RTN 310 (-20 dBm).

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


This alarm affects service transmission.

Possible Causes
l l l Cause 1: The OptiX RTN 310 at the local site is faulty. Cause 2: There is a strong interference source nearby. Cause 3: The transmit power of the OptiX RTN 310 at the opposite site is very high.

Procedure
Step 1 With reference to Configuring a Single-Hop Radio Link, check whether the transmit power settings on the local and opposite NEs are consistent with the network planning documents. Step 2 If no, set the transmit power according to the network planning documents. Step 3 With reference to 7.1.3 Browsing Current Alarms(U2000), check whether the alarm is cleared. If... The alarm is cleared The alarm persists Then... End the alarm handling. Go to the next step.

Step 4 With reference to 7.9 Scanning Interfering Signals, scan interference signals. Step 5 Use a spectrum analyzer to scan interference signals nearby. If any interference signal is detected, shut down or remove the signal source. If the signal source cannot be shut down or removed, contact the network planning department for changing the frequency plan. Step 6 With reference to 7.1.3 Browsing Current Alarms(U2000), check whether the alarm is cleared. If... The alarm is cleared
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If... The alarm persists Step 7 5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310. ----End

Then... Go to the next step.

Related Information
None.

A.2.61 RADIO_RSL_LOW
Description
The RADIO_RSL_LOW is an alarm indicating that the radio received signal level (RSL) is very low. This alarm is reported when the detected RSL is lower than or equal to the lower threshold of the OptiX RTN 310 (-90 dBm).

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


This alarm does not affect services if it is not accompanied by the MW_BER_EXC, MW_BER_SD, MW_LOF, or MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm.

Possible Causes
l l l l Cause 1: Certain other alarms occur at the opposite site. Cause 2: The transmitted signal level (TSL) at the opposite site is over low. Cause 3: The OptiX RTN 310 at the local site is faulty. Cause 4: Signal attenuation on the radio link is heavy.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Certain other alarms occur at the opposite site. Check whether any of the following alarms is reported at the opposite site. If yes, clear the alarm immediately. l RADIO_MUTE l RADIO_TSL_LOW Step 2 Cause 2: The transmitted signal level (TSL) at the opposite site is over low.
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1.

With reference to Configuring a Single-Hop Radio Link, check whether the preset transmit power and actual transmit power at the opposite site are normal. If... Then...

The preset transmit power is abnormal Change the transmit power according to the network planning information. The actual transmit power is abnormal Replace the OptiX RTN 310 at the opposite site. Step 3 Cause 3: The OptiX RTN 310 at the local site is faulty. 1. 1. Replace the OptiX RTN 310 at the local site. With reference to 4.2 Troubleshooting the Radio Link, handle the signal attenuation. Step 4 Cause 4: Signal attenuation on the radio link is heavy. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.62 RADIO_TSL_HIGH
Description
The RADIO_TSL_HIGH is an alarm indicating that the radio transmitted signal level (TSL) is very high. This alarm is reported when the detected TSL is higher than the upper threshold of the OptiX RTN 310.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


This alarm affects service transmission.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The OptiX RTN 310 is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Replace the OptiX RTN 310. ----End
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Related Information
None.

A.2.63 RADIO_TSL_LOW
Description
The RADIO_TSL_LOW is an alarm indicating that the radio transmitted signal level (TSL) is very low. This alarm is reported when the detected TSL is lower than the lower threshold of the OptiX RTN 310.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


This alarm affects service transmission.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The OptiX RTN 310 is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Replace the OptiX RTN 310. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.64 S1_SYN_CHANGE
Description
The S1_SYN_CHANGE is an alarm indicating that the clock source is switched in S1 byte mode.

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Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning 0x01: system clock priority table

Impact on the System


If the new clock source degrades, service quality will degrade due to pointer justifications and bit errors.

Possible Causes
The precondition is that the SSM or extended SSM is enabled. l l Cause 1: The original clock source is lost. Cause 2: The upstream NE reports the S1_SYN_CHANGE alarm.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The original clock source is lost. 1. Handle the SYNC_C_LOS alarm reported by the original clock source. Step 2 Cause 2: The upstream NE reports the S1_SYN_CHANGE alarm. 1. Handle the S1_SYN_CHANGE alarm on the upstream NE.

----End

Related Information
S1 byte mode refers to the SSM or extended SSM clock protection mode.

A.2.65 SEC_RADIUS_FAIL
Description
The SEC_RADIUS_FAIL is an alarm indicating that consecutive RADIUS authentication failures are too many. This alarm is reported when the number of consecutive RADIUS authentication failures reaches five.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameters 1 to 5 Meaning Indicate the first five user accounts.

Impact on the System


A user cannot log in to an NE.

Possible Causes
l l l l Cause 1: The active period of the user account expires. Cause 2: Configurations on the RADIUS server such as passwords and access policies are incorrect. Cause 3: There are unauthenticated login attempts. Cause 4: The shared key for the NE and the RADIUS server is configured incorrectly.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The active period of the user account expires. 1. Use an active account. Step 2 Cause 2: Configurations on the RADIUS server such as passwords and access policies are incorrect. 1. 2. Enter the correct password. Set correct access policies.

Step 3 Cause 3: There are unauthenticated login attempts. 1. Eliminate the source that initiates unauthenticated login attempts. Step 4 Cause 4: The shared key for the NE and the RADIUS server is configured incorrectly. 1. Set the shared key correctly.

----End

Related Information
None.
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A.2.66 SECU_ALM
Description
The SECU_ALM is an alarm indicating that login attempts of unauthorized users fail.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


This alarm is reported transiently and does not affect services.

Possible Causes
Cause: Unauthorized users attempt to log in to the NE.

Procedure
Step 1 Query the NE logs and check the users that have attempted to log in. ----End

Related Information
If a user fails in more than five consecutive login attempts (two login attempts within three minutes are considered consecutive), the SECU_ALM alarm will be reported at every failed attempt since the sixth one. In addition, the user account will be locked for 60 seconds. The locked user account cannot be used for logins.

A.2.67 SSL_CERT_NOENC
Description
SSL_CERT_NOEN indicates the certificate file of SSL is not encrypted.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major
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Alarm Type Equipment Alarm

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Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


Plaintext certificate file is stored on device, private key of the file maybe be get illegally.

Possible Causes
Certificate file of SSL is not encrypted.

Procedure
Step 1 Download and verify the encrypted SSL certificate by NMS. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.68 STORM_CUR_QUENUM_OVER
Description
The STORM_CUR_QUENUM_OVER is an alarm of alarm storms. This alarm is reported when the current alarm queue length is one smaller than the maximum. This alarm clears when the number of current alarms reduces to 950.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The earliest alarms in the current alarm queue will be overwritten and cannot be queried.

Possible Causes
Cause: More than 1000 current alarms are stored in the current alarm queue.

Procedure
Step 1 Check the current alarms and clear the frequently reported ones. ----End
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Related Information
The STORM_CUR_QUENUM_OVER alarm will not be overwritten. Registers store alarm data in discard or overwrite mode. The default mode is overwrite. l l In discard mode, registers discard the later alarm data if they are full. In overwrite mode, registers store the later alarm data in place of the earlier alarm data if they are full. To be specific, later alarm data is stored in the initial addresses of registers.

A.2.69 SWDL_ACTIVATED_TIMEOUT
Description
The SWDL_ACTIVATED_TIMEOUT is an alarm indicating that the commit operation is not performed in a package diffusion task. During package diffusion, the system reports the alarm if the commit operation is not performed within 30 minutes after activation of the NE software.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


Software files in the OFS1 and OFS2 areas of the system control unit are inconsistent.

Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: The commit operation is not performed within 30 minutes after activation of the NE software. Cause 2: NEs included in the package diffusion task fail to receive the commit command due to radio link failures.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The commit operation is not performed within 30 minutes after activation of the NE software. 1. Proceed the task with the commit operation.

Step 2 Cause 2: NEs included in the package diffusion task fail to receive the commit command due to radio link failures. 1. Check whether any radio link is faulty.

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If... The links are faulty

Then... Rectify the faults on the radio links and ensure that the links along which the package is diffused are normal.

The links are normal Perform the commit operation for the alarmed NE. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.70 SWDL_COMMIT_FAIL
Description
The SWDL_COMMIT_FAIL is an alarm indicating that the commit operation on an NE fails. This alarm is reported when the commit operation fails in a package diffusion task.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


This alarm indicates that the software versions in the OFS1 and OFS2 areas of the system control unit are inconsistent.

Possible Causes
Cause: Software backup fails.

Procedure
Step 1 Check and ensure the loaded software package is correct. Step 2 Perform another package diffusion task for the alarmed NE. ----End

Related Information
None.
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A.2.71 SWDL_INPROCESS
Description
The SWDL_INPROCESS is an alarm indicating that the NE is performing a package diffusion task.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Warning Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


Do not change NE configurations, download/upload files, back up databases, or perform other similar operations before the task is completed.

Possible Causes
Cause: The NE is performing a package diffusion task.

Procedure
Step 1 Wait until the alarm clears. The alarm clears after the package diffusion task is completed or after a rollback is completed in the case of a diffusion failure. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.72 SWDL_NEPKGCHECK
Description
The SWDL_NEPKGCHECK is an alarm indicating that a file in the loaded software package is lost or cannot be recovered after a file check failure. The SWDL_NEPKGCHECK is an alarm indicating that a file in the loaded software package is lost or cannot be recovered after a file check failure. This alarm is reported when the NE software initiates a package file check, detects the loss of a file, and fails to recover the file from any complete package in other areas.

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Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


l l If this alarm occurs in the process of package loading, the loading task fails. If this alarm occurs in other cases, automatic software matching fails.

Possible Causes
Cause: A file in the software package is lost and cannot be recovered.

Procedure
Step 1 Load the correct software package onto the alarmed NE. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.73 SWDL_PKGVER_MM
Description
The SWDL_PKGVER_MM is an alarm indicating that the consistency check on the software package version fails. This alarm is reported when the consistency check on the software package version fails.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The version of the software package is inconsistent with that described in the software package. As a result, certain functions of the NE may be affected.
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Possible Causes
Cause: The software version information in the description file of the software package is inconsistent with the actual information about the software version.

Procedure
Step 1 Ensure that the loaded software package is correct. Perform package diffusion for the NEs that report the SWDL_PKGVER_MM alarm. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.74 SWDL_ROLLBACK_FAIL
Description
The SWDL_ROLLBACK_FAIL is an alarm indicating that an NE rollback fails.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


This alarm affects some functions of the system.

Possible Causes
Cause: The files for certain function modules are not loaded during software package loading.

Procedure
Step 1 Add the required files to the software package and load the software package. ----End

Related Information
None.
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A.2.75 SYNC_C_LOS
Description
The SYNC_C_LOS is an alarm indicating that the synchronization source level is lost. This alarm is reported when a clock source in the clock source priority list is lost.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Warning Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning

Parameters 1 and 2 Clock source l If the local NE traces the clock of another NE through a certain port, Parameter 1 indicates the slot ID and Parameter 2 indicates the port ID. l The value 0xf1 0x01 indicates the internal clock source.

Impact on the System


The clock source is lost because it degrades and cannot be traced. This alarm has limited impacts on services.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: A clock source is lost.

Procedure
Step 1 Check the clock source priority list and determine the synchronization source corresponding to the lost clock source. Step 2 Handle the link interruption alarms, if any, on the physical link that transmits the synchronization source. ----End

Related Information
None.
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A.2.76 SYSLOG_COMM_FAIL
Description
The SYSLOG_COMM_FAIL is an alarm indicating that the communication between the NE and the syslog server fails.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The syslog information of the NE cannot be sent to the syslog server.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: In the TCP mode, the connection between the NE and syslog server is interrupted, or the session between the NE and server is abnormal.

Procedure
Step 1 Rectify the fault of the link between the NE and syslog server, or rectify the fault of the protocol. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.77 TEMP_ALARM
Description
The TEMP_ALARM is an alarm indicating that the temperature crosses the lower/upper threshold.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Environment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the
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following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning l 0x01: The temperature crosses the upper threshold. l 0x02: The temperature crosses the lower threshold. Parameter 2 Indicates the alarmed location. l 0x01: overall system l 0x02: power amplifier

Impact on the System


Services or the equipment may be affected, and the NE cannot work normally.

Possible Causes
l l l Cause 1: The ambient temperature crosses the upper/lower threshold. Cause 2: The temperature detection circuit of the NE is faulty. Cause 3: The NE is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 If the ambient temperature is over high, take appropriate measures (for example, installing a sunshade) to control the temperature. Step 2 Remove the materials that cover or shelter the equipment. Step 3 If the ambient temperature is normal and no heat dissipation problem exists, 5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.78 TIME_LOCK_FAIL
Description
The TIME_LOCK_FAIL is an alarm indicating that time locking fails.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major
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Alarm Type Equipment alarm

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Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The slave node cannot trace the time of the master node and services contain bit errors.

Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: Certain other alarms occur. Cause 2: Time adjustments occur at the upstream node.

Procedure
Step 1 On the NMS, check whether the CLK_LOCK_FAIL, LTI, or TIME_NO_TRACE_MODE alarm occurs. If yes, clear these alarms. Step 2 Check whether time adjustments occur at the upstream node. If yes, the TIME_LOCK_FAIL will be cleared after the time adjustments are completed. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.79 TIME_LOS
Description
The TIME_LOS is an alarm indicating loss of the time source level. This alarm is reported when the high precision time function is enabled but the traced time source does not exist.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Clock alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table.

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Name

Meaning

Parameters 1 and 2 Indicate ID of the time source. Parameter 1 indicates the slot number and Parameter 2 indicates the optical port number.

Impact on the System


The local NE cannot trace the time of its upstream NE.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The link between the local NE and its upstream NE is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 With reference to 7.1.3 Browsing Current Alarms(U2000), check whether any of the following alarms exists: Ethernet link alarms ETH_LOS, MAC_EXT_EXC, and MAC_FCS_EXC; radio link alarms MW_LOF, MW_BER_EXC, and MW_BER_SD. Step 2 If yes, clear these alarms before you proceed. Step 3 If no, check for link-related alarms on the upstream NE. Clear these alarm if any. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.80 TIME_NO_TRACE_MODE
Description
The TIME_NO_TRACE_MODE is an alarm indicating that the high precision time of an NE is in the non-tracing state. This alarm is reported when the high precision time function is enabled on an NE but the currently traced source is the internal source.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The local NE may not be time synchronized with its upstream NE.
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Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: The link between the local NE and its upstream NE is faulty. Cause 2: BMC attributes are configured incorrectly.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The link between the local NE and its upstream NE is faulty. 1. Check whether the TIME_LOS alarm is reported by referring to 7.1.3 Browsing Current Alarms(U2000). If yes, clear this alarm.

Step 2 Cause 2: BMC attributes are configured incorrectly. 1. Check the clock tracing relationship on the network according to the network planning information.

----End

Related Information
The best master clock (BMC) algorithm is applied to clock source selection. IEEE 1588v2 dynamically determines the master-slave hierarchy by using the BMC algorithm. The BMC algorithm consists of: l l Data set comparison algorithm State decision algorithm

A.2.81 USB_PROCESS_FAIL
Description
The USB_PROCESS_FAIL is an alarm indicating that databases cannot be recovered from or backed up to the USB flash drive.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning l 0x01: data recovery l 0x02: data backup
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Name Parameter 2

Meaning Indicates the file type. l 0x01: software package l 0x02: patch package l 0x03: system parameter area l 0x04: script file l 0x05: database file l 0x06: license file

Impact on the System


Database backup/recovery fails, and the system remains in the original state.

Possible Causes
l l Cause 1: Databases cannot be recovered from the USB flash drive. Cause 2: Databases cannot be backed up to the USB flash drive.

Procedure
Step 1 Query parameter 2 for the file type. Step 2 In a recovery failure, verify that the data in the USB flash drive is correct, and perform another recovery attempt. Step 3 In a backup failure, verify that the NE data is correct, and perform another backup attempt. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.2.82 XPIC_LOS
Description
The XPIC_LOS is an alarm indicating that XPIC compensation signals are lost.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.
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Impact on the System


At the alarmed port, the service may generate bit errors and even become interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l l l Cause 1: Configuration data is incorrect. Cause 2: The radio link is faulty. Cause 3: The XPIC cable is faulty. Cause 4: The OptiX RTN 310 is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Configuration data is incorrect. 1. Check whether the XPIC function needs to be enabled. If no, disable the XPIC function by referring to Configuring a Single-Hop Radio Link.

Step 2 Cause 2: The radio link is faulty. 1. Check whether the MW_LOF alarm is reported in the other polarization direction of the XPIC function. If yes, clear the MW_LOF alarm.

Step 3 Cause 3: The XPIC cable is faulty. 1. Check the connection of the XPIC cable. If... The cable is connected incorrectly The cable is properly connected Then... Connect the XPIC cable properly. Go to the next step.

2.

Test the connectivity of the XPIC cable by using the multimeter. If the XPIC cable is damaged, replace it.
NOTE

Remove XPIC cables by pulling rings attached on them.

Step 4 Cause 4: The OptiX RTN 310 is faulty. 1. Replace the OptiX RTN 310 that works with the XPIC function at the alarmed port. If... The alarm clears after the OptiX RTN 310 is replaced The alarm persists after the OptiX RTN 310 is replaced Then... End the alarm handling. Go to the next step.

2.

Replace the local OptiX RTN 310.

----End
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Related Information
None.

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Performance Event Reference

Performance events are important indicators when the equipment performance changes. This section describes all the possible performance events on the OptiX RTN 310 and how to handle these performance events. B.1 Performance Event List The performance event list includes all the performance events of the OptiX RTN 310 and classifies them into different types. B.2 Performance Events and Handling Procedures This section describes all the possible performance events on the OptiX RTN 310 and how to handle these events.

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B.1 Performance Event List


The performance event list includes all the performance events of the OptiX RTN 310 and classifies them into different types.

B.1.1 Microwave Performance Events


Microwave performance events include performance events associated with microwave bit errors, ATPC, AM, XPIC, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and power. Table B-1 Microwave power performance events Performance Event Name TSL_MAX TSL_MIN TSL_CUR TSL_AVG RSL_MAX RSL_MIN RSL_CUR RSL_AVG TLHTT TLLTT RLHTT RLLTT Description Maximum radio transmitted signal level Minimum radio transmitted signal level Current radio transmitted signal level Average radio transmitted signal level Maximum radio received signal level Minimum radio received signal level Current radio received signal level Average radio received signal level Duration when the transmit power is higher than the upper threshold Duration when the transmit power is higher than the lower threshold Duration when the receive power is lower than the upper threshold Duration when the receive power is lower than the lower threshold

Table B-2 FEC performance events Performance Event Name FEC_BEF_COR_ER FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT Description BER before the FEC is performed Number of frames that cannot be corrected through the FEC

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Table B-3 Radio link bit error performance events Performance Event Name IF_BBE IF_ES IF_SES IF_UAS IF_CSES Description Radio link background block error Radio link errored second Radio link severely errored second Radio link unavailable second Radio link consecutive severely errored second

Table B-4 ATPC performance events Performance Event Name ATPC_P_ADJUST ATPC_N_ADJUST Description Positive ATPC adjustment event Negative ATPC adjustment event

Table B-5 AM performance events Performance Event Name QPSK_S_WS QPSKWS QAM_S_WS16 QAMWS16 QAMWS32 QAMWS64 QAMWS128 QAMWS256 QAMWS512 QAM_L_WS512 QAMWS1024 QAM_L_WS1024 AMDOWNCNT
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Description Working duration of the QPSK Strong mode Working duration of the QPSK mode Working duration of the 16QAM Strong mode Working duration of the 16QAM mode Working duration of the 32QAM mode Working duration of the 64QAM mode Working duration of the 128QAM mode Working duration of the 256QAM mode Working duration of the 512QAM mode Working duration of the 512QAM Light mode Working duration of the 1024QAM mode Working duration of the 1024QAM Light mode Count of AM downshifts
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Performance Event Name AMUPCNT

Description Count of AM upshifts

Table B-6 XPIC performance events Performance Event Name XPIC_XPD_VALUE Description Value of XPIC XPD

Table B-7 SNR performance events Performance Event Name IF_SNR_MAX IF_SNR_MIN IF_SNR_AVG Description Maximum SNR Minimum SNR Average SNR

B.1.2 Other Performance Events


Other performance events include performance events associated with power of Ethernet optical ports, lasers, radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers, board temperature, and clock. Table B-8 Optical power performance events Performance Event Name TPLMAX TPLMIN TPLCUR RPLMAX RPLMIN RPLCUR Description Maximum transmit power of a laser Minimum transmit power of a laser Current transmit power of a laser Maximum receive power of a laser Minimum receive power of a laser Current receive power of a laser

Table B-9 Transmitted bias current performance events Performance Event Name TLBMAX Description Maximum transmitted bias current of the laser
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Performance Event Name TLBMIN TLBCUR

Description Minimum transmitted bias current of the laser Current transmitted bias current of the laser

Table B-10 Board temperature performance events Performance Event Name BDTEMPMAX BDTEMPMIN BDTEMPCUR Description Maximum temperature of a board Minimum temperature of a board Current temperature of a board

Table B-11 Laser temperature performance events Performance Event Name OSPITMPMAX OSPITMPMIN OSPITMPCUR Description Maximum laser temperature Minimum laser temperature Current laser temperature

Table B-12 RF power amplifier temperature performance events Performance Event Name PATEMPMAX PATEMPMIN PATEMPCUR Description Maximum temperature of an RF power amplifier Minimum temperature of an RF power amplifier Current temperature of an RF power amplifier

Table B-13 Clock performance events Performance Event Name MAXPHASEOFFSET MINPHASEOFFSET AVGPHASEOFFSET Description Maximum phase offset Minimum phase offset Average phase offset

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Performance Event Name MAXMEANPATHDELAY MINMEANPATHDELAY AVGMEANPATHDELAY

Description Maximum path delay Minimum path delay Average path delay

B.2 Performance Events and Handling Procedures


This section describes all the possible performance events on the OptiX RTN 310 and how to handle these events.

B.2.1 AMDOWNCNT and AMUPCNT


Description
l l AMDOWNCNT indicates the count of AM downshifts in the current performance monitoring period. AMUPCNT indicates the count of AM upshifts in the current performance monitoring period.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description ACMDCNT (AMDOWNCNT), ACMUCNT (AMUPCNT) None

Impact on System
l l A large value of this event indicates frequent AM shifts. If there is no factor that can affect a communication link such as sudden weather changes but the AM shift count is very large, the communication link may be faulty. You must check the communication link to prevent link failures.

Relevant Alarms
AM_DOWNSHIFT This alarm is not reported by default. If you need the reporting of this alarm, change the setting according to 7.2.5 Setting Monitoring and Auto-Report Status of Performance Events.

Possible Causes
When the AM function is enabled on an IF board, the modulation scheme of the IF port changes with the link quality. If the modulation scheme is changed from a lower order one to a higher
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order one, the system counts one AM upshift in the AMUPCNT event; if the modulation scheme is changed from a higher order one to a lower order one, the system counts one AM downshift in the AMDOWNCNT event.

B.2.2 ATPC_P_ADJUST and ATPC_N_ADJUST


Description
l ATPC_P_ADJUST indicates the positive ATPC adjustment event. This performance event indicates that the quality of a communication link degrades. If this event occurs, you need to increase the transmit power of the OptiX RTN 310 to maintain the communication quality. l ATPC_N_ADJUST indicates the negative ATPC adjustment event. This performance event indicates that the quality of a communication link improves or the transmit power of the OptiX RTN 310 is very high. If this event occurs, you need to decrease the transmit power of the OptiX RTN 310.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description ATPCPADJUST (ATPC_P_ADJUST) and ATPCNADJUST (ATPC_N_ADJUST) None

Impact on System
The ATPC adjustment indicates only the stability of a communication link and does not affect services. A large value of this event indicates frequent ATPC adjustments. If there is no factor that can affect a communication link such as sudden weather changes but the ATPC adjustment count is very large, the communication link may be faulty. You must check the communication link to prevent link failures.

Relevant Alarms
None.

B.2.3 MAXMEANPATHDELAY, MINMEANPATHDELAY, and AVGMEANPATHDELAY


Description
l l MAXMEANPATHDELAY indicates the maximum path delay between the master clock and the slave clock. MINMEANPATHDELAY indicates the minimum path delay between the master clock and the slave clock.
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AVGMEANPATHDELAY indicates the average path delay between the master clock and the slave clock.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Description MAXMEANPATHDELAY (MAXMEANPATHDELAY) MINMEANPATHDELAY (MINMEANPATHDELAY) AVGMEANPATHDELAY (AVGMEANPATHDELAY) Unit ns

Impact on System
The difference between MAXMEANPATHDELAY and MINMEANPATHDELAY reflects the variation of path delay. If the difference is too large, the clock performance will be affected.

Relevant Alarms
None.

B.2.4 BDTEMPMAX, BDTEMPMIN, and BDTEMPCUR


Description
l l l BDTEMPMAX indicates the maximum temperature of a board. BDTEMPMIN indicates the minimum temperature of a board. BDTEMPCUR indicates the current temperature of a board.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description XCS_TEMP 0.1C

Impact on System
If the temperature of a board is very high or very low, the performance of the board degrades and bit errors or other faults occur.

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Relevant Alarms
The TEMP_ALARM alarm is reported if the temperature of a board exceeds the specified threshold.

B.2.5 FEC_BEF_COR_ER and FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT


Description
l l FEC_BEF_COR_ER indicates the BER before FEC is performed. This event reflects the impact of the external environment on transmission. FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT indicates the number of frames that cannot be corrected through FEC. This event presents the number of errored blocks after FEC is performed.
NOTE

If a radio link is interrupted, the performance events FEC_BEF_COR_ER cannot be counted and therefore are shown as 0 upon queries.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Description FECBEFCORER (FEC_BEF_COR_ER) FECUNCORBLOCKCNT (FEC_UNCOR_BYTE_CNT) Unit None (FEC_BEF_COR_ER)
NOTE If FEC_BEF_COR_ER shows 8, the BER before FEC functions is 10-8.

Block (FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT)

Impact on System
If the value of FEC_BEF_COR_ER is very large, residual bit errors will exist in services after FEC is performed. If the value of FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT is not zero, services will contain bit errors.

Relevant Alarms
The MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is reported if any bytes cannot be corrected. This alarm is not reported by default. If you need the reporting of this alarm, change the setting according to 7.2.5 Setting Monitoring and Auto-Report Status of Performance Events.

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B.2.6 IF_BBE, IF_ES, IF_SES, IF_CSES, and IF_UAS


Description
l IF_BBE indicates the radio link background block error. BBE refers to the errored blocks excluding those in the unavailable seconds and severely errored seconds. l l IF_ES indicates the radio link errored second. An ES refers to a second in which one or more errored blocks are detected. IF_SES indicates the radio link severely errored second. An SES refers to a second in which 30% or more errored blocks are detected or at least one serious disturbance period (SDP) exists. The SDP refers to a period of at least four consecutive blocks or 1 ms (taking the longer one) in which the BER of all the consecutive blocks is higher than or equal to 10-2 or the signal is lost. l IF_CSES indicates the radio link consecutive severely errored second. A CSES refers to a second in a period (shorter than 10 seconds) when severely errored seconds occur continuously. l IF_UAS indicates the radio link unavailable second. A UAS period starts from the first second of 10 consecutive SESs. These ten seconds are a part of the unavailable time. A new available second period starts from the first second of ten consecutive non-SESs. These ten seconds are a part of the available time.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description IF_BIP8 None

Impact on System
A small number of bit errors do not affect services. Excessive bit errors, however, cause service interruptions. Generally, the BER requirement is less than 10-3 for voice services, and less than 10-6 for data services.

Relevant Alarms
The MW_BER_SD or MW_BER_EXC alarm is reported if the BER exceeds the specified threshold.

Possible Causes
The system detects bit errors on the radio link by using the bit error detection overheads in microwave frames.

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Procedure
Step 1 See the MW_BER_SD or MW_BER_EXC alarm. ----End

B.2.7 IF_SNR_MAX, IF_SNR_MIN, and IF_SNR_AVG


Description
l l l IF_SNR_MAX indicates the maximum signal-to-noise ratio. IF_SNR_MIN indicates the minimum signal-to-noise ratio. IF_SNR_AVG indicates the average signal-to-noise ratio.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Description IF_SNR (IF_SNR_MAX, IF_SNR_MIN) IF_SNR_AVG_15M and IF_SNR_AVG_24H (IF_SNR_AVG) Unit dB

Impact on System
A higher signal-to-noise ratio indicate better link performance and a lower signal-to-noise ratio indicates worse link performance such as bit errors or service interruptions.

Relevant Alarms
None.

B.2.8 MAXPHASEOFFSET, MINPHASEOFFSET, and AVGPHASEOFFSET


Description
l l l MAXPHASEOFFSET indicates the maximum phase offset between the master clock and the slave clock. MINPHASEOFFSET indicates the minimum phase offset between the master clock and the slave clock. AVGPHASEOFFSET indicates the average phase offset between the master clock and the slave clock.

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Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Description MAXPHASEOFFSET (MAXPHASEOFFSET), MINPHASEOFFSET (MINPHASEOFFSET), AVGPHASEOFFSET (AVGPHASEOFFSET) ns

Unit

Impact on System
This performance event reflects the phase offset between the local NE and the upstream NE. If the phase offset is larger than 100 ns for a while, the local NE cannot lock the time of the upstream NE. That is, time synchronization fails between the local NE and the upstream NE.

Relevant Alarms
The TIME_LOCK_FAIL is reported if this performance event takes a value greater than 100 ns.

B.2.9 OSPITMPMAX, OSPITMPMIN, and OSPITMPCUR


Description
l l l OSPITMPMAX indicates the maximum temperature of a laser. OSPITMPMIN indicates the minimum temperature of a laser. OSPITMPCUR indicates the current temperature of a laser.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description TEMMN 0.1C

Impact on System
If the temperature of a laser is excessively high or low, the performance of the laser degrades and bit errors or other faults occur.

Relevant Alarms
None.
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B.2.10 PATEMPMAX, PATEMPMIN, and PATEMPCUR


Description
l l l PATEMPMAX indicates the maximum temperature of the radio frequency signal power amplifier. PATEMPMIN indicates the minimum temperature of the radio frequency signal power amplifier. PATEMPCUR indicates the current temperature of the radio frequency signal power amplifier.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description XCS_TEMP 0.1C

Impact on System
If the temperature of the radio frequency signal power amplifier is over low/high, the output of radio frequency signal will become unstable, causing bit errors in services or other faults.

Relevant Alarms
The TEMP_ALARM alarm is reported if the temperature of the radio frequency signal power amplifier exceeds the lower/upper threshold.

B.2.11 QPSKWS, QPSK_S_WS, QAMWS16, QAM_S_WS16, QAMWS32, QAMWS64, QAMWS128, QAMWS256, QAMWS512, QAM_L_WS512, QAMWS1024, and QAM_L_WS1024
Description
l l l l l l l l l l l
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QPSKWS indicates the working duration of the QPSK mode. QPSK_S_WS indicates the working duration of the QPSKW Strong mode. QAMWS16 indicates the working duration of the 16QAM mode. QAM_S_WS16 indicates the working duration of the 16QAM Strong mode. QAMWS32 indicates the working duration of the 32QAM mode. QAMWS64 indicates the working duration of the 64QAM mode. QAMWS128 indicates the working duration of the 128QAM mode. QAMWS256 indicates the working duration of the 256QAM mode. QAMWS512 indicates the working duration of the 512QAM mode. QAM_L_WS512 indicates the working duration of the 512QAM Light mode. QAMWS1024 indicates the working duration of the 1024QAM mode.
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QAM_L_WS1024 indicates the working duration of the 1024QAM Light mode.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Description QPSKWSSECOND (QPSKWS) QPSK_S_WSSECOND (QPSK_S_WS) QAMWS16SECOND (QAMWS16) QAM_S_WS16SECOND (QAM_S_WS16) QAMWS32SECOND (QAMWS32) QAMWS64SECOND (QAMWS64) QAMWS128SECOND (QAMWS128) QAMWS256SECOND (QAMWS256) QAMWS512SECOND (QAMWS512) QAM_L_WS512SECOND (QAM_L_WS512) QAMWS1024SECOND (QAMWS1024) QAM_L_WS1024SECOND (QAM_L_WS1024) Unit Second

Impact on System
When the AM function is disabled, these performance events do not affect the system. When the AM function is enabled, the working duration of the highest order modulation mode should account for a large proportion of the total. In favorable weather, if the working duration of the low order modulation modes account for a large proportion of the total, the performance of the radio link may be abnormal.

Relevant Alarms
None.

B.2.12 RLHTT, RLLTT, TLHTT, and TLLTT


Description
l l l l RLHTT indicates the duration when the receive power is lower than the upper threshold. RLLTT indicates the duration when the receive power is lower than the lower threshold. TLHTT indicates the duration when the transmit power is higher than the upper threshold. TLLTT indicates the duration when the transmit power is lower than the lower threshold.

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Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description RLHTS (RLHTT), RLLTS (RLLTT), TLHTS (TLHTT), and TLLTS (TLLTT) Second

Impact on System
None.

Relevant Alarms
None.

B.2.13 RSL_MAX, RSL_MIN, RSL_CUR, and RSL_AVG


Description
l l l l RSL_MAX indicates the maximum radio received signal level. RSL_MIN indicates the minimum radio received signal level. RSL_CUR indicates the current radio received signal level. RSL_AVG indicates the average radio received signal level.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description RSL 0.1 dBm

Impact on System
When the radio received signal level is very low or very high, bit errors occur and even services are interrupted.

Relevant Alarms
If the radio received signal level exceeds the specified threshold, the RADIO_RSL_HIGH or RADIO_RSL_LOW alarm is reported.

B.2.14 TLBMAX, TLBMIN, and TLBCUR


Description
l
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TLBMAX indicates the maximum transmitted bias current of a laser.


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l l

TLBMIN indicates the minimum transmitted bias current of a laser. TLBCUR indicates the current transmitted bias current of a laser.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description LSBCM 0.1 mA

Impact on System
Excessively high/low current may cause damage to lasers.

Relevant Alarms
The IN_PWR_ABN alarm will be reported if the receive optical power of the opposite end is abnormal.

B.2.15 TPLMAX, TPLMIN, and TPLCUR


Description
l l l TPLMAX indicates the maximum transmit optical power at an optical port. TPLMIN indicates the minimum transmit optical power at an optical port. TPLCUR indicates the current transmit optical power at an optical port.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description OPM 0.1 dBm

Impact on System
In normal cases, the receive optical power is 3 dB higher than the receiver sensitivity and 5 dB lower than the overload power. If the transmit optical power is very low or very high, the receive optical power at the opposite site is accordingly very low or very high. As a result, bit errors occur and even services are interrupted.

Relevant Alarms
The IN_PWR_ABN alarm will be reported if the receive optical power of the opposite site is abnormal.
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B.2.16 RPLMAX, RPLMIN, and RPLCUR


Description
l l l RPLMAX indicates the maximum receive optical power at an optical port. RPLMAX indicates the minimum receive optical power at an optical port. RPLCUR indicates the current receive optical power at an optical port.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description IPM 0.1 dBm

Impact on System
In normal cases, the receive optical power is 3 dB higher than the receiver sensitivity and 5 dB lower than the overload power. If the receive optical power is very low or very high, bit errors occur and even services are interrupted.

Relevant Alarms
The IN_PWR_ABN alarm is reported if the receive optical power is abnormal.

B.2.17 TSL_MAX, TSL_MIN, TSL_CUR, and TSL_AVG


Description
l l l l TSL_MAX indicates the maximum radio transmitted signal level. TSL_MIN indicates the minimum radio transmitted signal level. TSL_CUR indicates the current radio transmitted signal level. TSL_AVG indicates the average radio transmitted signal level.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description TSL 0.1 dBm

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Impact on System
When the radio transmitted signal level is very low or very high, the radio received signal level at the opposite site is accordingly very low or very high. As a result, bit errors occur and even services are interrupted.

Relevant Alarms
If the radio transmitted signal level is out of the range supported by the OptiX RTN 310, the RADIO_TSL_HIGH or RADIO_TSL_LOW alarm is reported.

B.2.18 XPIC_XPD_VALUE
Description
XPIC_XPD_VALUE indicates the cross polarization discrimination (XPD) value after the XPIC function is enabled.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description XPD 0.1 dB

Impact on System
l l When the XPIC function is disabled, this performance event does not affect the system. When the XPIC function is enabled, a greater XPD value indicates less interference between H and V polarization directions and better signaling environment; a smaller XPD value indicates more interference and worse signaling environment. If the XPD value is smaller than a specific threshold, errors and even service interruptions occur on the radio link.

Relevant Alarms
None.

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C RMON Event Reference

RMON Event Reference

RMON events reflect the running status of Ethernet services. This section describes all the possible RMON events on the OptiX RTN 310 and how to handle these events. C.1 RMON Alarm Entry List RMON alarm entries refer to the table entries in the RMON alarm group. C.2 RMON Performance Entry List RMON performance entries refer to the table entries in the RMON statistics group or RMON history group. C.3 RMON Events and Handling Procedures This section describes the RMON events that indicate Ethernet service exceptions and how to handle these events.

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C RMON Event Reference

C.1 RMON Alarm Entry List


RMON alarm entries refer to the table entries in the RMON alarm group. Table C-1 RMON alarm entry list Abbreviatio n ETHDROP Description Number of packet loss events crosses the threshold. Number of bytes in the received bad packets crosses the threshold. Number of FCS error frames crosses the threshold. Number of received undersized packets crosses the threshold. Number of received oversized packets crosses the threshold. Number of received fragmented packets crosses the threshold. Remarks ETHDROP indicates the number of packet loss events caused by insufficient Ethernet chip resources. FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. FCS error frames exclude oversized frames and undersized frames. Undersized packets are the packets shorter than 64 bytes (including FCS bytes but not framing bits). Oversized packets are the packets larger than MTU (including FCS bytes but not framing bits). ETHFRG indicates the number of received packets that are shorter than 64 bytes (including FCS bytes but not framing bits) and contain FCS errors or alignment errors. ETHJAB indicates the number of received packets that are larger than MTU (including FCS bytes but not framing bits) and contain FCS errors or alignment errors. Bandwidth utilization ratio = (Number of received bytes x 8/ Monitoring period)/Configured or actual bandwidth Bandwidth utilization ratio = (Number of transmitted bytes x 8/ Monitoring period)/Configured or actual bandwidth

RXBBAD ETHFCS ETHUNDER

ETHOVER

ETHFRG

ETHJAB

Number of received oversized error packets crosses the threshold.

PORT_RX_B W_UTILIZA TION PORT_TX_B W_UTILIZA TION

Bandwidth utilization ratio at a receive port

Bandwidth utilization ratio at a transmit port

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C.2 RMON Performance Entry List


RMON performance entries refer to the table entries in the RMON statistics group or RMON history group. Table C-2 RMON performance entry list Perfor manc e Entry Type Basic perfor mance entry Performance Entry Name Description Remarks

RXPKTS

Received packets (packets) Packet loss events (times)

Bad packets, broadcast packets, and multicast packets are included. ETHDROP indicates the number of packet loss events caused by insufficient Ethernet chip resources. RXOCTETS indicates the total number of bytes in received packets (including bad packets), including framing bits but not FCS bytes. RXMULCAST indicates the total number of received good packets with multicast destination addresses, excluding broadcast packets. RXBRDCAST indicates the total number of received good packets with broadcast destination addresses, excluding multicast packets. Oversized packets are the packets larger than MTU (including FCS bytes but not framing bits).

ETHDROP

RXOCTETS

Received bytes (bytes)

RXMULCAST

Received multicast packets (packets)

RXBRDCAST

Received broadcast packets (packets)

ETHOVER

Received oversized packets (packets)

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Perfor manc e Entry Type

Performance Entry Name

Description

Remarks

ETHJAB

Received oversized error packets (packets)

ETHJAB indicates the number of received packets that are larger than MTU (including FCS bytes but not framing bits) and contain FCS errors or alignment errors. Undersized packets are the packets shorter than 64 bytes (including FCS bytes but not framing bits). ETHFRG indicates the number of received packets that are shorter than 64 bytes (including FCS bytes but not framing bits) and contain FCS errors or alignment errors. Bandwidth utilization ratio = (Number of received bytes x 8/ Monitoring period)/ Configured or actual bandwidth Bandwidth utilization ratio = (Number of transmitted bytes x 8/ Monitoring period)/ Configured or actual bandwidth FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded.

ETHUNDER

Received undersized packets (packets)

ETHFRG

Received fragments (packets)

PORT_RX_BW_UTILIZATION

Bandwidth utilization ratio at a receive port

PORT_TX_BW_UTILIZATION

Bandwidth utilization ratio at a transmit port

RXPKT64

Total of received 64-byte packets (including bad packets) Total of received packets of 65 to 127 bytes (including bad packets) Total of received packets of 128 to 255 bytes (including bad packets)

RXPKT65

RXPKT128

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Perfor manc e Entry Type

Performance Entry Name

Description

Remarks

RXPKT256

Total of received packets of 256 to 511 bytes (including bad packets) Total of received packets of 512 to 1023 bytes (including bad packets) Total of received packets of 1024 to 1518 bytes (including bad packets) Bytes in received good packets (bytes) Bytes in transmitted good packets (bytes) Bytes in received bad packets (bytes) Transmitted unicast packets (packets) Received unicast packets (packets) Transmitted multicast packets (packets) Transmitted broadcast packets (packets)

FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. The unicast packets that are discarded or fail to be transmitted are included. RXUNICAST indicates the number of good unicast packets. The multicast packets that are discarded or fail to be transmitted are included. The broadcast packets that are discarded or fail to be transmitted are included. Framing bits (20 bytes) and FCS bytes are included. Framing bits (20 bytes) and FCS bytes are included.

RXPKT512

RXPKT1024

Extend ed perfor mance entry

RXBGOOD

TXBGOOD

RXBBAD

TXUNICAST

RXUNICAST

TXMULCAST

TXBRDCAST

RXGOODFULLFRAM ESPEED TXGOODFULLFRAM ESPEED

Bit rate of received good full frames (kbit/s) Bit rate of transmitted good full frames (kbit/s)

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Perfor manc e Entry Type

Performance Entry Name

Description

Remarks

RXFULLBGOOD

Number of bytes in received good full frames (bytes) Number of bytes in transmitted good full frames (bytes) Received PAUSE frames (frames)

Framing bits (20 bytes) and FCS bytes are included. Framing bits (20 bytes) and FCS bytes are included. RXPAUSE indicates the number of MAC flow control frames with the PAUSE opcode. TXPAUSE indicates the number of MAC flow control frames with the PAUSE opcode. FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded.

TXFULLBGOOD

RXPAUSE

TXPAUSE

Transmitted PAUSE frames (frames)

RXPKT1519

Total of received packets of 1519 to MTU bytes (including bad packets) Total of transmitted 64byte packets (including bad packets) Total of transmitted packets of 65 to 127 bytes (including bad packets) Total of transmitted packets of 128 to 255 bytes (including bad packets) Total of transmitted packets of 256 to 511 bytes (including bad packets) Total of transmitted packets of 512 to 1023 bytes (including bad packets) Total of transmitted packets of 1024 to 1518 bytes (including bad packets)

TXPKT64

TXPKT65

TXPKT128

TXPKT256

TXPKT512

TXPKT1024

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Perfor manc e Entry Type

Performance Entry Name

Description

Remarks

TXPKT1519

Total of transmitted packets of 1519 to MTU bytes (including bad packets) Packets received on the VUNI

FCS bytes are included but framing bits are excluded. -

L2VP Na perfor mance entry ETHO AM 802.1a g

VUNI_RCVPKTS

ETH_CFM_FLR

Packet loss ratio of an ELine service

Packet loss ratio = (Number of packets transmitted by the source MEP - Number of packets received by the sink MEP)/Number of packets transmitted by the source MEP Number of lost packets = Number of packets transmitted by the source - Number of packets received by the sink (Both numbers are detected by the performance monitoring scheme of OAM.) Frame delay = Time when the source MEP sends a request packet - Time when the source MEP receives the response packet Frame delay variation is the difference between two frame delay test results.

ETH_CFM_FL

Lost packets of an E-Line service

ETH_CFM_FD

Frame delay of an E-Line service

ETH_CFM_FDV

Frame delay variation of an E-Line service

NOTE

l a: L2VPN services include a variety of E-Line and E-LAN services supported by the equipment. l VUNI refers to the virtual UNI corresponding to the service source or sink on the UNI side.

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C.3 RMON Events and Handling Procedures


This section describes the RMON events that indicate Ethernet service exceptions and how to handle these events.

C.3.1 ETHDROP
Description
ETHDROP indicates the number of events that packet loss occurs due to insufficient Ethernet chip resources. If the number exceeds the threshold, an RMON threshold-crossing event will be reported.
NOTE

ETHDROP does not count the packet loss events caused by link congestion or any other factor.

Impact on System
Frequent packet loss events affect services and the system, and therefore require immediate troubleshooting.

Relevant Alarms
MAC_EXT_EXC

Possible Causes
This performance event indicates packet loss due to the full MAC buffer, FIFO overflow, or reverse pressure. l l The lower threshold is set to non-zero value. The hardware at the local end is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Handle this alarm according to the specific performance event. If... The number is lower than the lower threshold The number is higher than the upper threshold Step 2 5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310. ----End
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Then... Change the lower threshold to 0. Manually decrease the traffic from the opposite end. If the problem persists, go to the next step.

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C RMON Event Reference

C.3.2 ETHFCS
Description
ETHFCS indicates the number of received Ethernet data frames with FCS errors or alignment errors at the local end (excluding oversized and undersized frames). If the number exceeds the threshold, an RMON threshold-crossing event will be reported.

Impact on System
Most ports discard the packets with FCS errors or alignment errors. System services are interrupted in the worst case.

Relevant Alarms
MAC_FCS_EXC

Possible Causes
1. 2. 3. The working modes of the local port and opposite port mismatch. For example, one port works in full-duplex mode, and the other port works in half-duplex mode. Bit errors exist on the transmission line. The local end is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Handle this alarm according to the specific performance event. If... The number is lower than the lower threshold The number is higher than the upper threshold Then... Change the lower threshold to 0. Go to the next step.

Step 2 On the NMS, query the working modes of the local and opposite ports. If... The working modes mismatch The working modes match Then... Change the working modes to the same. Go to the next step.

Step 3 Replace the fiber or optical module of the local or opposite port. Step 4 5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310. ----End

C.3.3 ETHFRG
Description
ETHFRG indicates the number of received packets that are smaller than 64 packets and contain FCS errors or alignment errors. If the number exceeds the threshold, an RMON thresholdcrossing event will be reported.
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Impact on System
Data transmission is delayed or packet loss occurs.

Possible Causes
l l l The local port and opposite port work in different modes. The local end is faulty. The local port and opposite port work in half-duplex mode and communicate a very high volume of data.

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the local port and opposite port work in the same mode. If... The ports work in the same mode Then... Go to the next step.

The ports work in different modes Change the working mode of the local port to the same as the opposite port. Step 2 Check whether the local port and opposite port work in half-duplex mode. If... The ports do not work in half-duplex mode The ports work in half-duplex mode Then... Go to the next step. Change the working modes to full-duplex or auto-negotiation.

Step 3 5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310. ----End

C.3.4 ETHJAB
Description
ETHJAB indicates the received packets that are larger than the preset maximum transmission unit (MTU) and contain FCS errors or alignment errors. If the number of packets exceeds the threshold, an RMON threshold-crossing event will be reported.

Impact on System
Data transmission is delayed or packet loss occurs.

Possible Causes
l l
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The local port and opposite port work in different modes. The local end is faulty.
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Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the local port and opposite port work in the same mode. If... The ports work in the same mode Then... Go to the next step.

The ports work in different modes Change the working mode of the local port to the same as the opposite port. Step 2 5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310. ----End

C.3.5 ETHOVER
Description
ETHOVER indicates the number of received packets that are larger than the preset maximum transmission unit (MTU). If the number exceeds the threshold, an RMON threshold-crossing event will be reported.

Impact on System
A port discards the packets of a length greater than the preset maximum and therefore services are affected.

Possible Causes
1. 2. The received packets are larger than the preset MTU. The local end is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the opposite end transmits packets larger than the preset maximum of the local end. If... Then...

The opposite end transmits packets larger Notify the opposite end that the length of than the preset maximum of the local end transmitted packets should be reduced. The opposite end does not transmit packets Go to the next step. larger than the preset maximum of the local end Step 2 5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310. ----End

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C.3.6 ETHUNDER
Description
ETHUNDER indicates the number of received packets that are error-free and shorter than 64 bytes. If the number exceeds the threshold, an RMON threshold-crossing event will be reported.

Impact on System
The data frames of a length beyond the specific range are discarded. As a result, the system services are affected.

Possible Causes
1. 2. Excessive packets shorter than 64 bytes are received. The local end is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the opposite end transmits packets shorter than 64 bytes. If... Then...

The opposite end transmits packets shorter than 64 Rectify the fault at the opposite end. bytes The opposite end does not transmit packets shorter Go to the next step. than 64 bytes Step 2 5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310. ----End

C.3.7 RXBBAD
Description
RXBBAD indicates the total number of bytes in received bad packets, excluding framing bits but including FCS bytes. If the number exceeds the threshold, an RMON threshold-crossing event will be reported.

Impact on System
Bad packets are discarded at ports, and excessive bad packets may even interrupt system services.

Relevant Alarms
MAC_EXT_EXC

Possible Causes
1.
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2. 3.

Bit errors exist on the transmission line. The local end is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Handle this alarm according to the specific performance event. If... The number is lower than the lower threshold The number is higher than the upper threshold Then... Change the lower threshold to 0. Go to the next step.

Step 2 Browsing Current Performance Events of Ethernet, and handle the errors at the opposite end depending on the type of bad types. Step 3 Handle the bit errors on the transmission line. Check whether the local end reports ETH_LOS or similar alarms because the external line is damaged or over attenuated. If yes, clear these alarms. Step 4 5.1 Replacing an OptiX RTN 310. ----End

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D Alarm Suppression Relationship

D
Alarm Identifier

Alarm Suppression Relationship

When the alarm suppression function is disabled on an NE, the root alarm and certain correlated alarms are reported if a fault occurs on this NE. After the alarm suppression function is enabled, the root alarm is reported but the reporting of correlated alarms is suppressed depending on the alarm suppression relationship. Table D-1 Alarm suppression relationship Identifier of the Suppressed Alarm ETH_LOS ETH_LOS, IN_PWR_ABN ETH_NO_FLOW, IN_PWR_ABN ETH_EFM_REMFAULT ETH_EFM_EVENT ETH_CFM_LOC ETH_CFM_UNEXPERI, ETH_CFM_LOC, ETH_CFM_RDI ETH_CFM_LOC, ETH_CFM_RDI ETH_CFM_RDI MW_FEC_UNCOR, MW_RDI, MW_LIM, MW_BER_EXC, MW_BER_SD, AM_DOWNSHIFT, ETH_NO_FLOW ETH_NO_FLOW

LSR_NO_FIT ED LASER_MO D_ERR ETH_LOS ETH_EFM_D F ETH_EFM_R EMFAULT ETH_CFM_A IS ETH_CFM_ MISMERGE ETH_CFM_U NEXPERI ETH_CFM_L OC MW_LOF MW_LIM

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Alarm Identifier MW_BER_E XC

Identifier of the Suppressed Alarm MW_BER_SD

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E Glossary

E
Numerics 3G 3rd Generation (3G) See 3rd Generation. A ABR ACAP ACL AF AIS AM ARP ASBR ATM ATPC Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) access control list (ACL) adaptive modulation (AM) See area border router. See adjacent channel alternate polarization. See access control list. See assured forwarding. alarm indication signal See adaptive modulation. See Address Resolution Protocol. See autonomous system boundary router. asynchronous transfer mode See automatic transmit power control.

Glossary

The third generation of digital wireless technology, as defined by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Third generation technology is expected to deliver data transmission speeds between 144 kbit/s and 2 Mbit/s, compared to the 9.6 kbit/s to 19.2 kbit/s offered by second generation technology.

An Internet Protocol used to map IP addresses to MAC addresses. It allows hosts and routers to determine the link layer addresses through ARP requests and ARP responses. A list of entities, together with their access rights, which are authorized to have access to a resource. A technology that is used to automatically adjust the modulation mode according to the channel quality. When the channel quality is favorable, the equipment uses a highefficiency modulation mode to improve the transmission efficiency and the spectrum utilization of the system. When the channel quality is degraded, the equipment uses the low-efficiency modulation mode to improve the anti-interference capability of the link that carries high-priority services.

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adjacent channel alternate polarization (ACAP) air interface alarm suppression area border router (ABR) assured forwarding (AF)

A channel configuration method, which uses two adjacent channels (a horizontal polarization wave and a vertical polarization wave) to transmit two signals. The interface between the cellular phone set or wireless modem (usually portable or mobile) and the active base station. An alarm management method. Alarms that are set to be suppressed are not reported from NEs any more. A router that can belong to more than two areas of which one area must be a backbone area. One of the four per-hop behaviors (PHB) defined by the Diff-Serv workgroup of IETF. It is suitable for certain key data services that require assured bandwidth and short delay. For traffic within the bandwidth limit, AF assures quality in forwarding. For traffic that exceeds the bandwidth limit, AF degrades the service class and continues to forward the traffic instead of discarding the packets.

automatic transmit A method of adjusting the transmit power based on fading of the transmit signal detected power control (ATPC) at the receiver autonomous system boundary router (ASBR) B BE BIOS backup See best effort. See basic input/output system. A periodic operation performed on the data stored in the database for the purposes of database recovery in case that the database is faulty. The backup also refers to data synchronization between active and standby boards. A range of transmission frequencies that a transmission line or channel can carry in a network. In fact, it is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies the transmission line or channel. The greater the bandwidth, the faster the data transfer rate. A form of modulation in which the information is applied directly onto the physical transmission medium. A firmware stored in the computer mainboard. It contains basic input/output control programs, power-on self test (POST) programs, bootstraps, and system setting information. The BIOS provides hardware setting and control functions for the computer. A traditional IP packet transport service. In this service, the diagrams are forwarded following the sequence of the time they reach. All diagrams share the bandwidth of the network and routers. The amount of resource that a diagram can use depends of the time it reaches. BE service does not ensure any improvement in delay time, jitter, packet loss ratio, and high reliability. A method of filtering packets based on their source IP addresses. Compared with ACL, the match condition for the black list is much simpler. Therefore, the black list can filter packets at a higher speed and can effectively screen the packet sent from the specific IP address. A router that exchanges routing information with other ASs.

bandwidth

baseband basic input/output system (BIOS) best effort (BE)

blacklist

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bridge

A device that connects two or more networks and forwards packets among them. Bridges operate at the physical network level. Bridges differ from repeaters because bridges store and forward complete packets, while repeaters forward all electrical signals. Bridges differ from routers because bridges use physical addresses, while routers use IP addresses. A means of delivering information to all members in a network. The broadcast range is determined by the broadcast address. A process of forming data into a block of the proper size, uninterruptedly sending the block in a fast operation, waiting for a long time, and preparing for the next fast sending.

broadcast burst

C CC CCDP CSES CSMA/CD carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) See continuity check. See co-channel dual polarization. consecutive severely errored second See carrier sense multiple access with collision detection. Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) is a computer networking access method in which: l l A carrier sensing scheme is used. A transmitting data station that detects another signal while transmitting a frame, stops transmitting that frame, transmits a jam signal, and then waits for a random time interval before trying to send that frame again.

chain network channel spacing co-channel dual polarization (CCDP) congestion management continuity check (CC) cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) D DCC DCN DD DM

One type of network that all network nodes are connected one after one to be in series. The center-to-center difference in frequency or wavelength between adjacent channels in a WDM device. A channel configuration method, which uses a horizontal polarization wave and a vertical polarization wave to transmit two signals. The Co-Channel Dual Polarization has twice the transmission capacity of the single polarization. A flow control measure to solve the problem of network resource competition. When the network congestion occurs, it places packets into the queue for buffer and determines the packet forwarding order. Ethernet CFM can detect the connectivity between MEPs. The detection is achieved after MEPs transmit Continuity Check Messages (CCMs) periodically. A technology used in the case of the Co-Channel Dual Polarization (CCDP) to eliminate the cross-connect interference between two polarization waves in the CCDP.

See data communications channel. See data communication network. database description See delay measurement.

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DRDB DS DSCP data communication network (DCN) data communications channel (DCC)

dynamic random database data service differentiated services code point A communication network used in a TMN or between TMNs to support the data communication function. The data channel that uses the D1D12 bytes in the overhead of an STM-N signal to transmit information about operation, management, maintenance and provision (OAM&P) between NEs. The DCC channels that are composed of bytes D1D3 are referred to as the 192 kbit/s DCC-R channel. The other DCC channels that are composed of bytes D4D12 are referred to as the 576 kbit/s DCC-M channel. The time elapsed since the start of transmission of the first bit of the frame by a source node until the reception of the last bit of the loopbacked frame by the same source node, when the loopback is performed at the frame's destination node.

delay measurement (DM)

dual-polarized antenna An antenna intended to simultaneously radiate or receive two independent radio waves orthogonally polarized. E E-LAN E-Line E1 See Ethernet local area network. See Ethernet line. An European standard for high-speed data transmission at 2.048 Mbit/s. It provides thirty-two 64 kbit/s channels. A time division multiplexing frame is divided in to 32 timeslots numbered from 0 to 31. Timeslot 0 is reserved for frame synchronization, and timeslot 16 is reserved for signaling transmission. The rest 30 timeslots are use as speech channels. Each timeslot sends or receives an 8-bit data per second. Each frame sends or receives 256-bit data per second. 8000 frames will be sent or received per second. Therefore the line data rate is 2.048 Mbit/s. See embedded control channel. See expedited forwarding. See electromagnetic compatibility. Ethernet ring protection switching errored second electrostatic discharge European Telecommunication Standards See European Telecommunications Standards Institute. A type of Ethernet service that is based on a point-to-point EVC (Ethernet virtual connection). A type of Ethernet service that is based on a multipoint-to-multipoint EVC (Ethernet virtual connection). A standards-setting body in Europe. Also the standards body responsible for GSM.

ECC EF EMC ERPS ES ESD ETS ETSI Ethernet line (E-Line) Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)

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electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

A condition which prevails when telecommunications equipment is performing its individually designed function in a common electromagnetic environment without causing or suffering unacceptable degradation due to unintentional electromagnetic interference to or from other equipment in the same environment. A logical channel that uses a data communications channel (DCC) as its physical layer, to enable transmission of operation, administration, and maintenance (OAM) information between NEs. The highest order QoS in the Diff-Serv network. EF PHB is suitable for services that demand low packet loss ratio, short delay, and broad bandwidth. In all the cases, EF traffic can guarantee a transmission rate equal to or faster than the set rate. The DSCP value of EF PHB is "101110". The number of the subnet that an NE belongs to, for identifying different network segments in a WAN. The physical ID of an NE is comprised of the NE ID and extended ID. The serial number of a subnetwork where an NE resides, which is usually used to distinguish different network segments. An extended ID and an ID form the physical ID of an NE.

embedded control channel (ECC) expedited forwarding (EF)

extended ID

extended NE ID

F FE FEC FIFO FPGA FTP fast Ethernet (FE) See fast Ethernet. See forward error correction. See first in first out. See field programmable gate array. File Transfer Protocol Any network that supports transmission rate of 100 Mbit/s. The Fast Ethernet is 10 times faster than 10BaseT, and inherits frame format, MAC addressing scheme, MTU, and so on. Fast Ethernet is extended based on the IEEE802.3 standard, and it uses the following three types of transmission media: 100BASE-T4 (4 pairs of phone twisted-pair cables), 100BASE-TX (2 pairs of data twisted-pair cables), and 100BASE-FX (2-core optical fibers). A type of semi-customized circuit used in the application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) field. It is developed on the basis of the programmable components, such as the PAL, GAL, and EPLD. It not only remedies the defects of customized circuits but also overcomes the disadvantage of the original programmable components in terms of the limited number of gate arrays. A type of incident, such as insertion of a large volume of data, that results in denial of service. A bit error correction technology that adds the correction information to the payload at the transmit end. Based on the correction information, the bit errors generated during transmission are corrected at the receive end.

field programmable gate array (FPGA)

first in first out (FIFO) A stack management mechanism. The first saved data is first read and invoked. flooding forward error correction (FEC)

G GE
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GNE gateway gateway network element (GNE) gigabit Ethernet (GE)

See gateway network element. A device that connects two network segments using different protocols. It is used to translate the data in the two network segments. A network element that is used for communication between the NE application layer and the NM application layer. A collection of technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of a gigabit per second, as defined by the IEEE 802.3z standard. GE is compatible with 10 Mbit/s and 100 Mbit/s Ethernet. It runs at 1000 Mbit/s. Gigabit Ethernet uses a private medium, and it does not support coaxial cables or other cables. It also supports the channels in the bandwidth mode. If Gigabit Ethernet is, however, deployed to be the private bandwidth system with a bridge (switch) or a router as the center, it gives full play to the performance and the bandwidth. In the network structure, Gigabit Ethernet uses full duplex links that are private, causing the length of the links to be sufficient for backbone applications in a building and campus.

H HSDPA HUAWEI Electronic Document Explorer (HedEx) HedEx High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) See High Speed Downlink Packet Access. The software used to view, search for, and upgrade electronic documentation of Huawei products. HedEx, pronounced as [hediks], has two editions, HedEx Lite and HedEx Server. See HUAWEI Electronic Document Explorer. A modulating-demodulating algorithm put forward in 3GPP R5 to meet the requirement for asymmetric uplink and downlink transmission of data services. It enables the maximum downlink data service rate to reach 14.4 Mbit/s without changing the WCDMA network topology.

I ICMP IDU IEEE IETF IP IP address See Internet Control Message Protocol. See indoor unit. See Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. See Internet Engineering Task Force. Internet Protocol A 32-bit (4-byte) binary digit that uniquely identifies a host (computer) connected to the Internet for communication with other hosts in the Internet by transferring packets. An IP address is expressed in dotted decimal notation, consisting of decimal values of its 4 bytes, separated by periods (,), for example, 127.0.0.1. The first three bytes of an IP address identify the network to which the host is connected, and the last byte identifies the host itself. See Internet Protocol version 4. See Internet Protocol version 6. International Organization for Standardization See International Telecommunication Union.

IPv4 IPv6 ISO ITU

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ITU-T Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) International Telecommunication Union (ITU) International Telecommunication UnionTelecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

See International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector. A society of engineering and electronics professionals based in the United States but boasting membership from numerous other countries. The IEEE focuses on electrical, electronics, computer engineering, and science-related matters. A United Nations agency, one of the most important and influential recommendation bodies, responsible for recommending standards for telecommunication (ITU-T) and radio networks (ITU-R). An international body that develops worldwide standards for telecommunications technologies. These standards are grouped together in series which are prefixed with a letter indicating the general subject and a number specifying the particular standard. For example, X.25 comes from the "X" series which deals with data networks and open system communications and number "25" deals with packet switched networks. A network-layer (ISO/OSI level 3) Internet protocol that provides error correction and other information relevant to IP packet processing. For example, it can let the IP software on one machine inform another machine about an unreachable destination. See also communications protocol, IP, ISO/OSI reference model, packet (definition 1). A worldwide organization of individuals interested in networking and the Internet. Managed by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), the IETF is charged with studying technical problems facing the Internet and proposing solutions to the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). The work of the IETF is carried out by various working groups that concentrate on specific topics such as routing and security. The IETF is the publisher of the specifications that led to the TCP/IP protocol standard. The current version of the Internet Protocol (IP). IPv4 utilizes a 32bit address which is assigned to hosts. An address belongs to one of five classes (A, B, C, D, or E) and is written as 4 octets separated by periods and may range from 0.0.0.0 through to 255.255.255.255. Each IPv4 address consists of a network number, an optional subnetwork number, and a host number. The network and subnetwork numbers together are used for routing, and the host number is used to address an individual host within the network or subnetwork. An update version of IPv4, which is designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and is also called IP Next Generation (IPng). It is a new version of the Internet Protocol. The difference between IPv6 and IPv4 is that an IPv4 address has 32 bits while an IPv6 address has 128 bits. The indoor unit of the split-structured radio equipment. It implements accessing, multiplexing/demultiplexing, and intermediate frequency (IF) processing for services.

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)

indoor unit (IDU)

J jitter Short waveform variations caused by vibration, voltage fluctuations, and control system instability.

L L2VPN LACP Layer 2 virtual private network See Link Aggregation Control Protocol.

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LAG LAN LB LBM LBR LCT LM LOS LSA LSDB LSR LT LTM LTR Layer 2 switching

See link aggregation group. See local area network. See loopback. See loopback message. See loopback reply. local craft terminal See loss measurement. See loss of signal. link-state advertisement link state database See label switching router. linktrace See linktrace message. See linktrace reply. A data forwarding method. In a LAN, a network bridge or 802.3 Ethernet switch transmits and distributes packet data based on the MAC address. Since the MAC address is at the second layer of the OSI model, this data forwarding method is called Layer 2 switching. A method of bundling a group of physical interfaces together as a logical interface to increase bandwidth and reliability. For related protocols and standards, refer to IEEE 802.3ad. Basic element of an MPLS network. All LSRs support the MPLS protocol. The LSR is composed of two parts: control unit and forwarding unit. The former is responsible for allocating the label, selecting the route, creating the label forwarding table, creating and removing the label switch path; the latter forwards the labels according to groups received in the label forwarding table.

Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) label switching router (LSR)

link aggregation group An aggregation that allows one or more links to be aggregated together to form a link (LAG) aggregation group so that a MAC client can treat the link aggregation group as if it were a single link. linktrace message (LTM) linktrace reply (LTR) The message sent by the initiator MEP of 802.1ag MAC Trace to the destination MEP. LTM includes the Time to Live (TTL) and the MAC address of the destination MEP2. For 802.1ag MAC Trace, the destination MEP replies with a response message to the source MEP after the destination MEP receives the LTM, and the response message is called LTR. LTR also includes the TTL that equals the result of the TTL of LTM minus 1. A network formed by the computers and workstations within the coverage of a few square kilometers or within a single building. It features high speed and low error rate. Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring are three technologies used to implement a LAN. Current LANs are generally based on switched Ethernet or Wi-Fi technology and running at 1,000 Mbit/ s (that is, 1 Gbit/s). A troubleshooting technique that returns a transmitted signal to its source so that the signal or message can be analyzed for errors. The loopback can be a inloop or outloop.

local area network (LAN)

loopback (LB)

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loopback message (LBM) loopback reply (LBR)

The loopback packet sent by the node that supports 802.2ag MAC Ping to the destination node. LBM message carries its own sending time. A response message involved in the 802.2ag MAC Ping function, with which the destination MEP replies to the source MEP after the destination MEP receives the LBM. The LBR carries the sending time of LBM, the receiving time of LBM and the sending time of LBR.

loss measurement (LM) A method used to collect counter values applicable for ingress and egress service frames where the counters maintain a count of transmitted and received data frames between a pair of MEPs. loss of signal (LOS) M MA MAC MAC address MD MDI ME MEP MIB MIP MP MPLS MSTP MTBF MTTR MTU Media Access Control (MAC) maintenance association See Media Access Control. A link layer address or physical address. It is six bytes long. See maintenance domain. medium dependent interface maintenance entity maintenance end point See management information base. maintenance intermediate point maintenance point See Multiprotocol Label Switching. See Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol. See mean time between failures. See mean time to repair. See maximum transmission unit. A protocol at the media access control sublayer. The protocol is at the lower part of the data link layer in the OSI model and is mainly responsible for controlling and connecting the physical media at the physical layer. When transmitting data, the MAC protocol checks whether to be able to transmit data. If the data can be transmitted, certain control information is added to the data, and then the data and the control information are transmitted in a specified format to the physical layer. When receiving data, the MAC protocol checks whether the information is correct and whether the data is transmitted correctly. If the information is correct and the data is transmitted correctly, the control information is removed from the data and then the data is transmitted to the LLC layer. A protocol that can be used in a loop network. Using an algorithm, the MSTP blocks redundant paths so that the loop network can be trimmed as a tree network. In this case, the proliferation and endless cycling of packets is avoided in the loop network. The protocol that introduces the mapping between VLANs and multiple spanning trees. This solves the problem that data cannot be normally forwarded in a VLAN because in STP/ RSTP, only one spanning tree corresponds to all the VLANs. No transitions occurring in the received signal.

Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)

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Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)

A technology that uses short tags of fixed length to encapsulate packets in different link layers, and provides connection-oriented switching for the network layer on the basis of IP routing and control protocols. It improves the cost performance and expandability of networks, and is beneficial to routing. The network or the part of the network for which connectivity is managed by connectivity fault management (CFM). The devices in a maintenance domain are managed by a single Internet service provider (ISP).

maintenance domain (MD)

management A type of database used for managing the devices in a communications network. It information base (MIB) comprises a collection of objects in a (virtual) database used to manage entities (such as routers and switches) in a network. maximum transmission The largest packet of data that can be transmitted on a network. MTU size varies, unit (MTU) depending on the network576 bytes on X.25 networks, for example, 1500 bytes on Ethernet, and 17,914 bytes on 16 Mbit/s token ring. Responsibility for determining the size of the MTU lies with the link layer of the network. When packets are transmitted across networks, the path MTU, or PMTU, represents the smallest packet size (the one that all networks can transmit without breaking up the packet) among the networks involved. mean time between failures (MTBF) mean time to repair (MTTR) microwave multicast The average time between consecutive failures of a piece of equipment. It is a measure of the reliability of the system. The average time that a device will take to recover from a failure. The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with much longer wavelengths than infrared radiation, typically above about 1 mm. A process of transmitting data packets from one source to many destinations. The destination address of the multicast packet uses Class D address, that is, the IP address ranges from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. Each multicast address represents a multicast group rather than a host.

N NAS NE NE Explorer network access server network element The main operation interface, of the network management system, which is used to manage the telecommunication equipment. In the NE Explorer, the user can query, manage and maintain the NE, boards, and ports on a per-NE basis. Network Time Protocol A part of an Ethernet or other network, on which all message traffic is common to all nodes, that is, it is broadcast from one node on the segment and received by all others. A phenomenon that occurs during data communication. To be specific, mass broadcast packets are transmitted in a short time; the network is congested; transmission quality and availability of the network decrease rapidly. The network storm is caused by network connection or configuration problems.

NTP network segment network storm

O OAM See operation, administration and maintenance.

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ODF ODU OSI OSPF Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

optical distribution frame See outdoor unit. See open systems interconnection. See Open Shortest Path First. A link-state, hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for network routing. Dijkstra's algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path tree. It uses cost as its routing metric. A link state database is constructed with the network topology which is identical on all routers in the area. A framework of ISO standards for communication between different systems made by different vendors, in which the communications process is organized into seven different categories that are placed in a layered sequence based on their relationship to the user. Each layer uses the layer immediately below it and provides a service to the layer above. Layers 7 through 4 deal with end-to-end communication between the message source and destination, and layers 3 through 1 deal with network functions. A group of network support functions that monitor and sustain segment operation, support activities that are concerned with, but not limited to, failure detection, notification, location, and repairs that are intended to eliminate faults and keep a segment in an operational state, and support activities required to provide the services of a subscriber access network to users/subscribers. The outdoor unit of the split-structured radio equipment. It implements frequency conversion and amplification for radio frequency (RF) signals.

open systems interconnection (OSI)

operation, administration and maintenance (OAM)

outdoor unit (ODU)

P P2P PBS PDU PHB PLL PPP PPPoE PRBS PSN PTP PWE3 packet loss packet switched network (PSN) peak burst size (PBS) See point-to-point service. See peak burst size. protocol data unit See per-hop behavior. See phase-locked loop. Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet See pseudo random binary sequence. See packet switched network. Precision Time Protocol See pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge. The discarding of data packets in a network when a device is overloaded and cannot accept any incoming data at a given moment. A telecommunications network that works in packet switching mode. A parameter that is used to define the capacity of token bucket P, that is, the maximum burst IP packet size when the information is transferred at the peak information rate. This parameter must be larger than 0. It is recommended that PBS should be not less than the maximum length of the IP packet that might be forwarded. See also CIR, CBS, and PIR.
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per-hop behavior (PHB)

IETF Diff-Serv workgroup defines forwarding behaviors of network nodes as per-hop behaviors (PHB), such as, traffic scheduling and policing. A device in the network should select the proper PHB behaviors, based on the value of DSCP. At present, the IETF defines four types of PHB. They are class selector (CS), expedited forwarding (EF), assured forwarding (AF), and best-effort (BE). A circuit that consists essentially of a phase detector which compares the frequency of a voltage-controlled oscillator with that of an incoming carrier signal or referencefrequency generator; the output of the phase detector, after passing through a loop filter, is fed back to the voltage-controlled oscillator to keep it exactly in phase with the incoming or reference frequency. Layer 1 in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) architecture; the layer that provides services to transmit bits or groups of bits over a transmission link between open systems and which entails electrical, mechanical and handshaking. A service between two terminal users. In P2P services, senders and recipients are terminal users. A kind of electromagnetic wave, the direction of whose electric field vector is fixed or rotates regularly. Specifically, if the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is perpendicular to the plane of horizon, this electromagnetic wave is called vertically polarized wave; if the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is parallel to the plane of horizon, this electromagnetic wave is called horizontal polarized wave; if the tip of the electric field vector, at a fixed point in space, describes a circle, this electromagnetic wave is called circularly polarized wave. A set of rules that are applied when the conditions for triggering an event are met.

phase-locked loop (PLL)

physical layer

point-to-point service (P2P) polarization

policy

pseudo random binary A sequence that is random in a sense that the value of an element is independent of the sequence (PRBS) values of any of the other elements, similar to real random sequences. pseudo wire emulation An end-to-end Layer 2 transmission technology. It emulates the essential attributes of a edge-to-edge (PWE3) telecommunication service such as ATM, FR or Ethernet in a packet switched network (PSN). PWE3 also emulates the essential attributes of low speed time division multiplexing (TDM) circuit and SONET/SDH. The simulation approximates to the real situation. Q QPSK QoS See quadrature phase shift keying. See quality of service.

quadrature phase shift A modulation method of data transmission through the conversion or modulation and keying (QPSK) the phase determination of the reference signals (carrier). It is also called the fourth period or 4-phase PSK or 4-PSK. QPSK uses four dots in the star diagram. The four dots are evenly distributed on a circle. On these phases, each QPSK character can perform twobit coding and display the codes in Gray code on graph with the minimum BER. quality of service (QoS) A commonly-used performance indicator of a telecommunication system or channel. Depending on the specific system and service, it may relate to jitter, delay, packet loss ratio, bit error ratio, and signal-to-noise ratio. It functions to measure the quality of the transmission system and the effectiveness of the services, as well as the capability of a service provider to meet the demands of users. R
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RADIUS RADIUS authentication RDI RED RF RFC RMON RNC RSL RSSI RTN

See Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service. An authentication mode in which the BRAS sends the user name and the password to the RADIUS server by using the RADIUS protocol. The RADIUS server authenticates the user, and then returns the result to the BRAS. remote defect indication See random early detection. See radio frequency. See Request For Comments. remote network monitoring See radio network controller. See received signal level. See received signal strength indicator. radio transmission node

Remote Authentication A security service that authenticates and authorizes dial-up users and is a centralized Dial-In User Service access control mechanism. RADIUS uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) as its (RADIUS) transmission protocol to ensure real-time quality. RADIUS also supports the retransmission and multi-server mechanisms to ensure good reliability. Request For Comments A document in which a standard, a protocol, or other information pertaining to the (RFC) operation of the Internet is published. The RFC is actually issued, under the control of the IAB, after discussion and serves as the standard. RFCs can be obtained from sources such as InterNIC. radio frequency (RF) A type of electric current in the wireless network using AC antennas to create an electromagnetic field. It is the abbreviation of high-frequency AC electromagnetic wave. The AC with the frequency lower than 1 kHz is called low-frequency current. The AC with frequency higher than 10 kHz is called high-frequency current. RF can be classified into such high-frequency current. A piece of equipment in the RNS which is in charge of controlling the use and the integrity of the radio resources.

radio network controller (RNC)

random early detection A packet loss algorithm used in congestion avoidance. It discards the packet according (RED) to the specified higher limit and lower limit of a queue so that global TCP synchronization resulting from traditional tail drop can be prevented. received signal level (RSL) The signal level at a receiver input terminal.

received signal strength The received wide band power, including thermal noise and noise generated in the indicator (RSSI) receiver, within the bandwidth defined by the receiver pulse shaping filter, for TDD within a specified timeslot. The reference point for the measurement shall be the antenna receiver sensitivity route routing table The minimum acceptable value of average received power at point R to achieve a 1 x 10-12 BER (The FEC is open). The path that network traffic takes from its source to its destination. In a TCP/IP network, each IP packet is routed independently. Routes can change dynamically. A mapping table that stores the relationship between the original address, destination address, SMS protocol type, and account. The SMSC delivers an SMS message to the designated account according to the information in the routing table.
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S SD SF SFP SNMP SNR SPF SSL SSM Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) See signal degrade. See signal fail. small form-factor pluggable See Simple Network Management Protocol. See signal-to-noise ratio. shortest path first See Secure Sockets Layer. See Synchronization Status Message. A security protocol that works at a socket level. This layer exists between the TCP layer and the application layer to encrypt/decode data and authenticate concerned entities. A network management protocol of TCP/IP. It enables remote users to view and modify the management information of a network element. This protocol ensures the transmission of management information between any two points. The polling mechanism is adopted to provide basic function sets. According to SNMP, agents, which can be hardware as well as software, can monitor the activities of various devices on the network and report these activities to the network console workstation. Control information about each device is maintained by a management information block.

Synchronization Status A message that carries quality levels of timing signals on a synchronous timing link. Nodes on an SDH network and a synchronization network acquire upstream clock Message (SSM) information through this message. Then the nodes can perform proper operations on their clocks, such as tracing, switching, or converting to holdoff, and forward the synchronization information to downstream nodes. service flow An MAC-layer-based unidirectional transmission service. It is used to transmit data packets, and is characterized by a set of QoS parameters, such as latency, jitter, and throughput. A process of delaying packets within a traffic stream to cause it to conform to specific defined traffic profile. A signal indicating that associated data has degraded in the sense that a degraded defect condition is active. A signal indicating that associated data has failed in the sense that a near-end defect condition (non-degrade defect) is active. The ratio of the amplitude of the desired signal to the amplitude of noise signals at a given point in time. SNR is expressed as 10 times the logarithm of the power ratio and is usually expressed in dB (Decibel). An antenna intended to radiate or receive radio waves with only one specified polarization. The technique used by the IP protocol to determine which network segment packets are destined for. The subnet mask is a binary pattern that is stored in the client machine, server or router matches with the IP address.

shaping signal degrade (SD) signal fail (SF) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) single-polarized antenna subnet mask

T
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E Glossary

TCP/IP TD-SCDMA Time DivisionSynchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA)

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol See Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access. A 3G mobile communications standard found in UMTS mobile telecommunications networks in China as an alternative to W-CDMA. TD-SCDMA integrates technologies of CDMA, TDMA, and FDMA, and makes use of technologies including intelligent antenna, joint detection, low chip rate (LCR), and adaptive power control. With the flexibility of service processing, a TD-SCDMA network can connect to other networks through the RNC. A congestion management mechanism, in which packets arrive later are discarded when the queue is full. This policy of discarding packets may result in network-wide synchronization due to the TCP slow startup mechanism. Permissible degree of variation from a pre-set standard. A function that enables you to classify traffic into different classes with different priorities according to some criteria. Each class of traffic has a specified QoS in the entire network. In this way, different traffic packets can be treated differently. A way of controlling the network traffic from a computer to optimize or guarantee the performance and minimize the delay. It actively adjusts the output speed of traffic in the scenario that the traffic matches network resources provided by the lower layer devices, avoiding packet loss and congestion.

tail drop

tolerance traffic classification

traffic shaping

U UAS UAT UDP UNI User Datagram Protocol (UDP) unavailable second See unavailable time event. See User Datagram Protocol. See user-to-network interface. A TCP/IP standard protocol that allows an application program on one device to send a datagram to an application program on another. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) uses IP to deliver datagram. UDP provides application programs with the unreliable connectionless packet delivery service. There is a possibility that UDP messages will be lost, duplicated, delayed, or delivered out of order. The destination device does not confirm whether a data packet is received.

unavailable time event An event that is reported when the monitored object generates 10 consecutive severely (UAT) errored seconds (SES) and the SESs begin to be included in the unavailable time. The event will end when the bit error ratio per second is better than 10-3 within 10 consecutive seconds. unicast user-to-network interface (UNI) V VB VLAN VM virtual bridge virtual local area network virtual memory The process of sending data from a source to a single recipient. The interface between user equipment and private or public network equipment (for example, ATM switches).

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Maintenance Guide

E Glossary

W WAN WEEE WRED WRR WTR Web LCT wait to restore (WTR) See wide area network. waste electrical and electronic equipment See weighted random early detection. weighted round robin See wait to restore. The local maintenance terminal of a transport network, which is located at the NE management layer of the transport network. The number of minutes to wait before services are switched back to the working line.

weighted random early A packet loss algorithm used for congestion avoidance. It can prevent the global TCP detection (WRED) synchronization caused by traditional tail-drop. WRED is favorable for the high-priority packet when calculating the packet loss ratio. wide area network (WAN) window X XPIC See cross polarization interference cancellation. A network composed of computers which are far away from each other which are physically connected through specific protocols. WAN covers a broad area, such as a province, a state or even a country. General method for speech preprocessing, like Haming window.

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