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EMI MEASUREMENTS OPEN AREA TEST SITE (OATS)

Prepared and Presented By ROJI VARGHESE RAJAN Reviewed By K.J.JEGADISH KUMAR AP/ECE

INTRODUCTION
Measurement of Radiated Emissions (RE) from equipment, apparatus or instrument and the Radiation Susceptibility (RS) of such an equipment/ apparatus/ instrument constitute the two basic EMI/EMC measurements. Open site measurement is the most direct and universally accepted standard approach for measuring RE/RS of an equipment.

MEASUREMENT OF RADIATED EMISSION

With the Equipment under test (EUT) switched on, the receiver is scanned over the specified frequency range to measure emissions from the EUT.

MEASUREMENT OF RADIATION SUSCEPTIBILITY

The EUT is placed in an electromagnetic field created with the help of a suitable radiating antenna. Intensity of field is varied by varying the power delivered to the antenna by the transmitted amplifier or signal generator.

FEATURES OF OATS
Low ambient and noise floor Oversized ground plane Host equipment area Weather protected

TEST SITE
With the help of a proper test site and a calibrated receiving antenna, radiated emissions from equipment under test over a specified frequency band can be measured. Using a calibrated transmitting antenna, susceptibility of equipment under test can be checked under specified field conditions. Measurements done in a room, or enclosed area result in reflections or scattered signals from walls, floor, and ceilings which corrupt the measurements. Measurements done in a proper open-area test site (OATS) avoids such scattered signals and reflections.

TEST ANTENNAS
To illuminate an equipment under test with known field strengths, it is convenient to use exact half wavelength long dipoles at fixed frequencies.

MEASUREMENT PRECAUTIONS
Electromagnetic Environment: need to be relatively quiet and free from the presence of strong signals from broadcast radio, TV transmitters, manmade electromagnetic radiations like automobile ignition systems or arc-welding equipments. Electromagnetic Scatterers: OATS should be free from sources of scattering such as buildings, electric transmission lines, open telephone and telegraph lines, fences, trees. Power and Cable Connections: For improving the accuracy of measurements, it is necessary that the electrical power connections to the EUT and the cables between the transmit/receive antenna located in the test site and the transmitter/receiver equipment located nearby are placed in underground trenches.

The shape and size of the open area test site need to be appropriate to ensure that no scattered signals are present, which could affect the measurements. American National Standards recommend that

Sc and Sd are the scattered signal from obstructions located at the boundary of the OATS and the direct signal between the EUT and the transmit/receive antenna, respectively.

OATS CONFIGURATIONS
Stationary EUT
EUT remains stationary and the transmit/receive antenna is traversed on a circular path so as to view the equipment from all directions (360 in the azimuth). D 1.5D The path length of the scattered signal is twice that of the direct signal which ensures the scattered signal strength is at least 6dB below the direct signal strength.

Stationary Antenna
The EUT is mounted on a platform which can be rotated 360 in the azimuth. The transmit/receive antenna can remain stationary and yet look at the EUT from all directions. The boundary of the test site is an ellipse with a major axis MD of dimension 2D and minor axis Md of dimension 3D, where D is the distance between the EUT and the transmit/receive antenna.

EUT Antenna Separation


In most measurements, the distance D between the EUT and the transmit/receive antenna is arranged to be 1, 3, or 10 m. To have D different from these standard distances, the results from the measurement are extrapolated to one of these standard distances by using a suitable transformation.

TERRAIN ROUGHNESS

Maximum allowable terrain roughness is determined using Rayleigh roughness criteria and the applicable limit is

b is the height of the rough edge of the terrain and is the wavelength corresponding to the frequency of measurement.

REFERNCES
V.P.Kodali, Engineering EMC Principles, Measurements and Technologies, Chapter 5 page (79-86). C.R.Paul, Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility, Chapter 2 pages 52,64 http://www.emcdirectory.com/suppliers-28A-open-areatest-sites-oats-for-fcc-emi-emc-testing.htm