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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

1. INTRODUCTION

Work life balance is about people having a measure of control over when, where and how they work. It is achieved when an individuals right to a fulfilled life inside and outside paid work is accepted and respected as the norm, to the mutual benefit of the individual, business and society.

In his book managing Work-Life Balance, David Clutter buck defines work-life as: Being aware of different demands on time and energy Having the ability to make choices in the allocation of time and energy Knowing what values to apply to choices Making choices

The term Work-Life Balance was first coined in 1986 in reaction to the unhealthy choices that many Americans were making in favor of the work place, as they opted to neglect family, friends and leisure activities in pursuit of corporate goals.

Work-Life balance is a persons control over the conditions in their workplace. It is accomplished when an individual feels dually satisfied about their personal life and their paid occupation. It mutually benefits the individual, business and society when a persons personal life is balanced with his or her own job.

The Work-life balance strategy offers a variety of means to reduce stress levels and increase job satisfaction in the employee while enhancing business benefits for the employer. In our increasingly hectic world, the work-life strategy seeks to find a balance between work and play.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

A sentence that brings the idea of work life balance to the point is:Work to live, dont live to work.

The best individual work-life balance varies over time, often on a daily basis. The right balance for a person today will probably be different for him/her tomorrow the right balance for a person when he/ she is single will be different when he/she gets married or he/she becomes a parent; when he/ she starts a new career verses when he/she is nearing retirement. The best work-life balance is different for each one of us because we all have different priorities and different lives.

HISTORY- TRAIL AND ERROR During the 1960s and 1970s, employers considered work-life mainly an issue for working anothers who struggled with the demands of their jobs and raising children throughout this period and into the mid-1980s,the U.S. government had the major impact in the field, as reflected by the presidential conference on families, the pregnancy discrimination act(1978), and the quality of employment survey(1977).

During the 1980s, recognizing the value and needs of their women contributors, pioneering organizations such as Merck, Deloitte and Touche ,IBM etc. began to change their internal workplace policies, procedures, and benefits.-2-the changes included maternity leaves, employee assistance programs(EAPs),flextime, home-based work and child-care referral. During the 1980s men also began voicing work-life concerns. By the end of the decade, worklife balance was seen as more than just a womans issue, affecting men, families, and organizations and cultures.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

The 1990s solidified the recognition of work-life balance as a vital issue for everyone Women, men, parents and non-parents, singles, and couples. This growing awareness of the central importance of the issue resulted in major growth in attempted work-life solutions during this decade. Numerous studies showed that the generations from baby to boomers to new college graduates were making job choices based on their own-work life issues and Employers cultures.

Unfortunately, although companies were adopting family friendly policies, employees and managers were not implementing them. Many of the policies put into the place in the 1980s failed to have a significant impact on most managers and employees real world work-life balance results.

During the first years of twenty first century, the disappointing results made human resources and work-life professionals as well as executives at all levels take stock. Karol Rose, author of the published book Work-Life Strategies, comments on these trends in fortune magazines third annual work life special feature included in the October 2005 issue. She noted that the work life leadership council of the conference Board (founded in 1983), a gathering of high level corporate HR and work life balance professionals drew these conclusion on looking back over the last decade of efforts among their main concerns were:

Work life business cases have not achieved their intended effect. Stress, over work, and their negative impact on productivity and health care costs are real and growing. Competition for talent from all levels and ages will increase. Some of the solutions proposed by the work life council included:

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

Draw from different organizations and departments representing different perspectives to identify key work life issues, the next big thing and the future best practices.

Identify the new trends which might not be visible now, and develop strategic responses.

Create a new language for the work life field Maximize the beneficiaries of work life efforts.

GLOBAL PERCEPTION Over the past twenty-five years, there has been a substantial increase in work which is felt to be due, in part, by information technology and by an intense, competitive work environment. Long-term loyalty and a "sense of corporate community" have been eroded by a performance culture that expects more and more from their employees yet offers little security in return.

Many experts forecasted that technology would eliminate most household chores and provide people with much more time to enjoy leisure activities; unfortunately, many have decided to ignore this option being "egged on" by a consumerist culture and a political agenda that has "elevated the work ethic to unprecedented heights and thereby reinforced the low value and worth attached to parenting".

In her recent book, "Willing Slaves How the Overwork Culture is Ruling our Lives", Madeleine Bunting stated that from 1977 to 1997 Americans working full time have increased their average working hours from 43.6 hours to 47.1 hours each week. (This does not include time required to travel to and from their places of business).

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

Many Americans are experiencing burnout due to overwork and increased stress. This condition is seen in nearly all occupations from blue collar workers to upper management. Over the past decade, a rise in workplace violence, an increase in levels of absenteeism as well as rising workers compensation claims are all evidence of an unhealthy work life balance.

Employee assistance professionals say there are many causes for this situation ranging from personal ambition and the pressure of family obligations to the accelerating pace of technology. According to a recent study for the Center for Work-Life Policy, 1.7 million people consider their jobs and their work hours excessive because of globalization.

These difficult and exhausting conditions are having adverse effects. According to the study, fifty percent of top corporate executives are leaving their current positions. Although sixty-four percent of workers feel that their work pressures are "self-inflicted", they state that it is taking a toll on them. The study shows that, nationally, seventy percent, and globally, eighty-one percent, say their jobs are affecting their health.

Between forty-six and fifty-nine percent of workers feel that stress is affecting their interpersonal and sexual relationships. Additionally, men feel that there is a certain stigma associated with saying "I can't do this". APPROACHES TOWARDS WORK LIFE BALANCE Until recently, most organizations have taken a one-sided systems approach to their work-life efforts. Their focus has been on adopting organization policies, benefits, and procedures to solve the work-life-balance problem. Although helpful, than it is an organization the system approach overlooks a critical fact: at its core, work-life balance is more an individual issue that affects the organizational issue that affects the individual.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

The system approach asks What can the organization do to create a better work-life balance for the individual? the other half of the work-life strategy, the individual approach, asks What can individual employees and managers do for themselves to create their own best work-life balance?

The correlation between the two approaches is mentioned below:

Systems approach (left leg of work-life ladder) The systems approach is the left leg of the ladder. If an organization is like most, then a fairly solid left leg is already built health insurance, vacation time, various benefits, and possibly EAP or education programs or flexible work policies. It is important to reinforce what is already in place, but it may also be valuable to implement some creative, potentially quick-hit opportunities that have proven to have a high impact in is recommended and implement certain organizations.

Anything that is recommended and implemented must be consistent with the business objectives of the organization. A one-Legged Ladder Wont Stand Up approach will not stand by itself. Even with the most comprehensive programs, the systems approach will be difficult to climb upto the retention, morale, and revenue rungs as targeted to achieve.

Individual approach (right leg of worklife ladder)

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

Individual approach is:what has the individual done for him or herself to create their own best work-life balance? the lack of a supporting right-leg strategy is why most organizations have failed to achieve the work-life results they desire.

The right leg is essential because the best work-life balance is different for everyone. The best work-life balance for one is different from that for ones co-worker, or boss or neighbor. For some, working long hours creates value and balance in lives. For others, it is not a routine they can productively or enjoyably maintain.

In addition, the best work-life balance changes for each individual over time. A good work-life balance for someone starting his or her career is different from that for someone getting ready to retire. A good work-life balance for someone who is single with no children is different from that for a single parent with two children. Ones own best work-life balance will change, often on a daily basis. As a result, ones company or organization cannot create the best work -life balance for him/her. As individuals, we must find and create it for ourselves.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

BENEFITS OF IMPROVING WORK-LIFE BALANCE From time to time, it has been established that good Work-Life balance brings in a lot of benefits to the employer as well as the employee. Some of these are discussed below: Aiding employee recruitment and retention. Reducing absenteeism. Improving the quality of peoples working lives. Matching people who wouldnt otherwise work with jobs. Benefiting families and communities Aiding employee recruitment and retention More employees may stay on in a job, return after a break or take a job with one company over another if they can match their other needs better with those of their paid work.

This results in savings for the employer-avoiding the cost of losing an experienced worker and recruiting someone new.

Employers who support their staff in this way often gain the bonus of loyalty from those staff. The British work-life balance study 2000, including a representative survey of 2500 workplaces, found that 58 per cent of employers thought that work-life balance practices had improved staff motivation and commitment, and 52 per cent thought labor turnover and absenteeism were lower, and at that they helped retain female employees the Australian 2002 benchmarking study found the organizations implementing work-life strategies and evaluating them observed reduced turnover, absenteeism, and increased return from parental leave.

Reducing absenteeism

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

Many companies that have introduced family-friendly or flexible working practices have seen benefits through reduction in absenteeism. Sickness rates may fail as pressures are managed better, while employees may have better methods of dealing with work-life conflicts than taking unplanned leave. Workers (including their managers) who are healthy and not over-stressed may be more efficient. Improving the quality of peoples working lives. Minimizing work-life role conflict can help prevent.

PERSPECTIVES RELATING WORK AND FAMILY Zedeck (1992) described the following three perspectives which explain the relationship between work and family. a) The effect of work on family: this area examines what impact work factors have on

family matters. To express this relationship in terms of research design, work is regarded as the independent variable, and family is dependent variable. This perspective is most typical of psychological research. A common finding is that aspects of work (such as job stress and work schedules) have negative effects on families. b) The effect of family on work: this perspective is the opposite of the former and

generally focuses on how structural or developmental aspects of the family have an impact on work behavior. For example, some researchers have viewed family life as shock absorber in that, it blocks disappointment at work. Others view family responsibility as major determinant of work absenteeism and tardiness. c) The family-work interaction: this third perspective views work and family as interating

and concludes that there is no simple or direct casual link between work and family matters.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

One view of the family-work interaction concerns the compatibility or incompatibility of familywork relationships and their impact on other processes, such as the transition between roles.

MODELS OF WORK- FAMILY RELATIONSHIP Zedeck and Mosier (1990) and most recently ODriscoll (1996) note that there are typically five main models used to explain the relationship between work and life outside work. a) Spillover model: the spillover model asserts that there is similarity between what

occurs in the work environment and what occurs in the family environment. It also proposes that a persons work experiences influence what he or she does away from work. It is assumed that attitudes at work become ingrained and carried over into home life, affecting a basic orientation toward the self and family members. In general, spillover is a notion of positive relationships. Between work and family variables such that an individuals satisfaction with work enhances family life. b) Compensation model: the compensation model is most often contrasted with the

spillover model. It proposes an inverse relationship between work and family. It further assumes that individual make differential investments of themselves in the two settings so that what is provided by one makes up for what is missing in the other. Thus, deprivations experienced in work are made up or compensated for in non-work activities. For example work may be routine and undemanding but this is compensated for by a major role in local community activities outside work. c) Segmentation model: the segmentation model proposes that the work and non-work

spheres are distinct so that an individual can be successful in one without any influence on other. The two spheres exist side by side and for all practical purposes are separated from each other. This separated from each other. This separation, in type, space, or function, allows

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

one to effectively compartmentalize ones life. The dominant view is that the family is the realm of intimacy and empathy, whereas the work world is impersonal and instrumental. d) Instrumental model: in an instrumental model, activities in one sphere facilitatae

success in the other. The traditional example is the instrumental worker who will seek to maximize earnings, even at the price of undertaking a routine job and working long hours, to allow the purchase of a home or a car for a young family. e) Conflict model: The final model is the conflict model which proposes that with high

levels of demand in all spheres of life, some difficult choices have to be made and some conflicts and possibly some significantly overload on an individual occur.

Recently interest has been focused in particular on the conflict model, especially in dual career families, although research on the spillover and compensation models continues to be widely reported.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND RESEARCH DESIGN

2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE


A literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topic. A literature review usually precedes a research proposal, methodology and results section. Its ultimate goal is to bring the reader up to date with current literature on a topic and forms the basis for another goal, such as the justification for future research in the area.

Work and family research in IO/OB (19802002) This monograph reviews 190 workfamily studies published in IO/OB journals from 1980 to 2002. The results of a content analysis are presented which catalog these articles with respect to the study focus, nature and direction of the proposed effects, and predictor, criterion, and mediator variables examined. Then a narrative review of the articles is presented, organized in terms of the following topical areas: (1) workfamily conflict, (2) work role stress, (3) work family assistance, (4) work schedules, (5) job-related relocation, (6) career and job-related outcomes, (7) gender and the relationship between work and family domains, (8) dual-earner couples, and (9) relationships among life domains. The review concludes with a discussion of recurring themes in the literature and the identification of blind spots in the IO/OB perspective on work and family.

Convergence between measures of work-to-family and family-to-work conflict: A metaanalytic examination The overlap between measures of work-to-family (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) was meta-analytically investigated. Researchers have assumed WFC and FWC to be distinct;

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

however, this assumption requires empirical verification. Across 25 independent samples (total N = 9079) The sample size weighted mean observed correlation was .38 and the reliability corrected correlation was .48. The pattern of external correlates for the two types of conflict was also examined. Both forms of conflict had similar (.41) reliability corrected correlations with measures of organizational withdrawal. WFC conflict correlated .41 (k = 15, N = 4714) with job stressors and .17 (k = 13, N = 3312) with non-work stressors whereas FWC conflict correlated .27 with job stressors and .23 with non-work stressors. Correlations between the two forms of work/family conflict and other variables such as organizational commitment, job and life satisfaction, and health were examined. Implications for the discriminate validity of the two types of conflict measures are discussed.

Work-life balance: an exploratory study of supports and barriers in a construction project An exploratory study of supports and barriers in a construction project. The purpose of this paper is to explore employees' perceptions of work-life balance (WLB) in an Australian infrastructure construction project, using semi-structured focus groups. In total, 43 employees participated in the focus groups, representing 50 per cent of the project workforce at the time. Focus groups explored employees' experiences of WLB during the planning and design stage of the project, as well as their expectations for the management of WLB during the construction phase. Project culture, project resourcing and the schedule demands of the construction stage of the project were identified as barriers for WLB, while participants believed that the project alliance delivery model, flexibility of working hours and the project management team's support for WLB would facilitate WLB in the project. Data were collected from one case study project which utilized an alliance delivery model. Therefore, the results cannot be generalized to the

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

construction industry as a whole or to construction projects utilizing an alliance delivery model. Data were collected from professional and white collar workers therefore the results cannot be generalized to blue collar workers. The research findings suggest new directions for future research in WLB related to project settings.

Action research to develop work-life balance in a UK university This paper aims to show the extent to which an action research approach, which incorporates learning from previous studies and interventions, can be used to progress work-life balance (WLB) policies and practices in a university context. The paper builds on the now considerable knowledge relating to the theory and practice of WLB. It adopts an action research/change management approach as part of a project partly funded by the Department for Trade and Industry partnership scheme. Specific methods utilized include a fundamental review of organizational policy using an evaluative matrix and an analysis of the outcomes of four workshops with 51 line managers. The findings show considerable differences between the experiences of administrative, professional, technical and clerical (APT&C) staff and academics. In particular, APT&C staffs seek a greater sense of entitlement and more trust and autonomy, whereas academic staffs seek a more manageable work load. By moving through the stages of the action research cycle, many of the limitations associated with past WLB initiatives can be overcome for APT&C staff. By comparison, universities' disinclination to tackle academic work intensification is best explained by the lack of labour market pressure to do so and the fact that sustainable WLB does not constitute part of the table stakes of academic employment. The paper presents theoretical models, together with practical approaches for embedding WLB into organizational cultures. It also offers theoretical explanations for employers' predisposition to adopt WLB change programmes.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

What work? What life? What balance? Critical reflections on the work-life balance debate The purpose of this article is to initiate critical reflection on the assumptions and evidence Underpinning the work-life balance debate. The article reviews a range of international literature focused on and related to the work-life balance debate and issues.

In the work-life balance debate, over-work is perceived as the problem. Nevertheless beyond working time and the provision of flexible working practices to enable child care, there is little in the debate about the need to change work per se. The debate also narrowly perceives life, equating it with women's care work, hence the emphasis again of familyfriendly policies. The article suggests that reconceptualisation is required in analyses of both work-life balance and the relationship between work and life. The article implies that current work-life balance policies are myopic in terms of addressing the needs and aspirations of employees.

A comparative analysis of the use of work-life balance practices in Europe: Do practices enhance females career advancement A comparative descriptive analysis shows differences in work-life balance practices and policies and women's participation in the workforce between countries. In order to test whether work-life balance practices and policies enhance the career advancement of women to senior management positions a multiple regression analysis is performed. The objectives of this study are: to identify and compare companies' involvement with work-life balance practices and policies in 14 European countries and to test whether these practices actually enhance the career advancement of women to senior management positions. There are certain differences in the provision of work-life balance practices and women's participation in the labour force

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

among European companies. A positive influence of work-life balance policies and practices on women's career advancement into senior management positions was confirmed in only one case the payment of an additional amount for maternity leave. All other practices were shown to have no significant impact or a significant negative relationship. An interesting issue is whether work-life balance practices and policies help remove the glass ceiling. There has been little research on the impact of work-life balance practices and policies on women's career advancement. This study attempts to redress this dearth by examining the role of work-life balance practices and policies on women's career advancement.

Work-life balance: contrasting managers and workers in an MNC Although the bulk of the company's work-life balance initiatives focus on the managers, and the managers display greater loyalty to the company, the workers are better able to achieve work life balance. Neither group displays a more positive attitude to their work; however, the managers focus more on achieving status and the workers on personal satisfaction. The purpose of this article is to compare and contrast the workers and managers of an Anglo German MNC, focusing on how each group attempts to maintain an acceptable work-life balance. The findings challenge assertions that flexible working practices are good for work life balance, that managers are better able to maintain a good work-life balance than workers,and that the development of an appropriate work-life balance policy assists in ensuring company loyalty and positive attitudes to work.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

Achievements and Challenges for Work/Life Balance Strategies in Australian Organizations Using data from surveys conducted in Australian organizations in 1997, 1998, and 2000, this publication examines. The extent, usage, and barriers to work-life balance strategies. The findings indicate that common work-life balance strategies in Australian organizations include part-time work, flexible work schedules, job sharing, and telecommuting. Shows that these strategies are not available to all employees in over half of the organizations studied and worklife balance strategies are used by fewer than twenty percent of employees in half of the organizations in the sample. Demands at work, ineffective communication, lack of evaluation, and negative workplace cultures are identified barriers to using work-life balance strategies.

CTU Conference Paper on Work-Life Balance This paper draws together the experiences of unions from internal discussion and areas of the CTU's existing work programme relating to aspects of work-life balance. This includes work on reviews of the Employment Relations Act, paid parental leave and minimum wages, submissions on the Holidays Bill and Holidays (Four Week's Annual Leave) Amendment Bill, and participation in the Pay and Employment Equity Taskforce. This paper identifies that the concerns of unions concentrate in six areas of work-life balance: 1. Modes of employment; 2. Hours of work; 3. Leave entitlements; 4. Pay; 5. Workplace culture; 6. Individuals' life, family and community participation. The challenges of developing concrete actions that will improve work-life balance in these areas demand a broad range of responses from a range of players. The Government, employers, unions and the community all have a role. The Government has a role in leading by example as an employer, regulator and funder. Employers have an interest in the business benefits of work-life balance such as increased staff retention, reduced absenteeism, a better recruitment pool, increased staff loyalty, morale and job satisfaction, and

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

improved public image. Unions on the other hand can take leadership through collective bargaining and advocating for improvements to the minimum code on behalf of members. Nevertheless, it is also recognized that a core element of improving work-life balance is changing the entrenched values and culture of workplaces.

Balancing Work and Family: The Role of High-Commitment Environments Recently, researchers have begun to recognize that the nature of jobs, the workplace environment, and more generally, the culture of the workplace can have a significant impact on the ability of workers to balance their work and family lives. This article examines the effect of high-performance work practices, job characteristics, and the work environment on workers' views about whether the company helps them balance work and family. Using data from a survey of workers across three manufacturing industries, we show that a high-commitment environment characterized by high-performance work practices, intrinsically rewarding jobs, and understanding supervisors positively influences employees' perceptions that the company is helping them achieve this balance. This article reinforces the view that helping workers balance work and family responsibilities is not just a matter of benefits and formal familyfriendly policies. Rather, it also depends on the characteristics of jobs within the business enterprise.

IBM Global Work/Life Survey (2003) At IBM, first Work/Life Issues Survey was conducted in 1986. The survey provided information about the effectiveness of existing programs and suggestions for future programs. Surveys were repeated in 1991 and 1996 in the United States, 1998 in Europe and Latin America, and 1999 in our Asia-Pacific region. In 2001, the first IBM Global Work/Life Survey was conducted. This was the largest, most complex single-focused work/life survey by any corporate,

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

academic, or government entity, which was conducted in 20 languages and 48 countries. More than 25,000 employees took the survey, which yielded a 44% participation rate, and provided us with 59,000 written comments from employees.

Through the global survey we also learned that many IBMers around the globe have significant work/life care responsibilities - 69% care for dependents (either children, elders, or both); 54% care for children; 30% care for elders or other adult dependents; 15% care for both children and elders or other adult dependents. And also learned that around the world, employees were struggling with how to balance their work and family lives.

In addition, our work/life programs are strongly linked with IBMs ability to motivate and retain the best talent in our industry. Employees report they have greater job satisfaction, are more optimistic about the companys future, put in more work-related hours and indicate that work/life issues would be the first or second reason for potentially leaving IBM.

IBMs work/life programs are constructed to allow employees to be productive, serve our customers and meet their personal and family needs. Our strategy is divided into three parts: Refine and reform IBMs work/life culture. Respond to employee needs for expanded flexibility in working hours and work delivery. Support employees needs for Child/Elder care assistance.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

While IBMs work/life programs benefit all employees, they are especially important to women, who typically have greater need for flexibility and responsibilities for dependent care. Part of IBMs focus over the years has been to create both an environment and leading industry programs that appeal to the needs of women employees so that IBM can continuously attract and retain key talent from this important constituency.

Another outgrowth of our work/life strategy is the IBM Global Work/Life Fund. In 1998, IBM began evaluating the global need for dependent care and conducted a series of Dependent Care Assessments in 20 countries to determine the course of action for each IBM region. As a result of that work, in 2001, the Global Work/Life Fund (GWLF) was developed, which is a $50M fund to be invested over the years 2001-2005.

The GWLF is designed to address the dependent care and work life needs of IBM employees worldwide. Year-to-date, IBM has had active child care and elder projects in 18 countries, in other words, to support work/life programs in communities where its employees live and work - one of the first funds of its type to address such employee issues globally. Sixty percent of the fund is earmarked for programs outside the United States. Although the fund will address a variety of work/life issues, the primary focus will be dependent care programs that help employees and their communities respond to the child and elder care responsibilities of working families.

There are still some who believe work/life is a U.S. phenomenon and that U.S.-based corporations are pushing their issues overseas. The work IBM has undertaken clearly tells another story. You will see IBM respond to employee needs globally - - through increasing the quality of care in a center in the Philippines, providing elder care seminars to employees in Italy

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

and Canada, introducing children in China to new computers, building a childcare center in Ireland and Korea, or expanding existing care in Mexico.

All of our 316,000 employees around the world are facing work/life challenges. And, IBM is using the knowledge gained from 30 years of experience to help design programs and initiatives that work for their lifestyles, no matter where they are located around the world.

TELECOMMUTER WORK/LIFE BALANCE SURVEY Telecommuting suggests that one positive outcome of a telecommuting work arrangement is the benefit of being able to better balance work and personal life (Jensen, 1994; Duxbury, Higgins, & Neufield, 1998; Smith & Reid, 1996). However, other research has contradicted this argument stating that telecommuting blurs the boundaries between work and home life (Jones, 1997; Riley & McClosky, 1997). This study did not find any significant differences between telecommuters and non-telecommuters in terms of work/life balance. .

Interestingly, the results of this research did reveal that a curvilinear relationship exists between work/life balance and telecommuting frequency. Specifically, part-time telecommuters scored significantly lower on the work/life balance measure than telecommuters and nontelecommuters who scored similarly. Through controlling telecommuting frequency, this study is able to provide important insight into the relationship between work/life balance and telecommuting. As telecommuting frequency increases from less than one day a month, to several times a month, to part-time, work/life balance continues to incrementally decline. After which, work/life balance scores increase incrementally as telecommuting frequency progresses from part-time, to full-time, to work only from home. .

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

Based on this relationship, it seems that part-time telecommuters may possibly have the lowest work/life balance scores because they are just unable to multi-task in multiple locations. One may speculate that these individuals are experiencing greater stress and conflict do to their inability to divide their time and workload between work locations and juggle their role as a telecommuter, an office worker, caregiver, and homemaker. .

While this study did suggest that part-timers scored the lowest on the work/life balance measure, there are several factors that may have contributed to this finding. For this sample, compared to full-time telecommuters, part-time telecommuters were less likely to have a spouse/caregiver at home to watch the children during work hours and were less likely to have a productive home work environment (i.e., more non-work interruptions & a less favorable designated work area). In addition, part-time telecommuters scored significantly lower on conscientiousness than full-time telecommuters, yet conscientiousness was a significant predictor of work/life balance only for part-timers. This finding suggests that conscientiousness is key to the success of this juggling between work locations for the part-time telecommuter group .

Consequently, for this part-time telecommuter group, certain safeguards should be in place in order to ensure a productive work environment and successful work/life balance. Part-time telecommuters must abandon the belief that they are capable of completing their work while taking care of their children. In order to fulfill their job obligations and maintain balance in their lives, part-time telecommuters must also have someone to watch the children while they work from home and the home work environment should be free of non-work interruptions. A designated room within the house with a door was found to be a fundamental factor in determining work/life balance for this part-time telecommuter group.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

The Positive Influence of Perceived Job Flexibility on Work and Family Life Balance This study examines the influence of perceived flexibility in the timing and location of work on work-family balance. Data are from a 1996 International Business Machines (IBM) work and life issues survey in the United States (n = 6,451). Results indicate that perceived job flexibility is related to improved work-family balance after controlling for paid work hours, unpaid domestic labor hours, gender, marital status, and occupational level. Perceived job flexibility appears to be beneficial both to individuals and to businesses. Given the same workload, individuals with perceived job flexibility have more favorable work-family balance. Likewise, employees with perceived job flexibility are able to work longer hours before workload negatively impacts their work-family balance. Implications of these findings are presented.

When its Work and Not Life In the pursuit of increasing productivity and improving employee morale in the workplace, organizations are evolving a new psychological contract with employees. One which goes beyond the traditional boundaries of work and recognizes the employees larger familial and social needs, while also acknowledging trends in the environment more working women, longer commuting time, work-related stress and so on.

When one introduces policies to encourage more women to join the workforce however, do they end with a measurable increase of women in the workforce or should they develop beyond? Work-Life Balance policies evolved from Family Friendly policies whose focus was largely working mothers. This study seeks to understand the development of Work-Life Balance policies in the UK and its impact on employers and employees. It also explores how Indian organizations are responding to the concept of Work-Life Balance.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

The study reinforces what has already been established that the impact of Work-Life Balance policies on employers and employees has been extremely positive. However, while the term Work-Life Balance is more encompassing and inclusive than Family Friendly and much progress has been made in the UK, this study indicates that in reality the policies have not shifted much in focus beyond the working parents of young children. Not only are there groups of employees like the unmarried or older employees who do not benefit much from these policies, but there are also groups of employees who have needs beyond parenting. Organizations must therefore take stock of changing social, environmental and business realities while developing policies for their employees a one-size fits all approach will not work. A commitment to Work-Life Balance policies for a diverse workforce must be a stated organizational policy and have the buy-in of the senior management and trade unions. One of the greatest challenges facing employers is in the implementation and management of WorkLife Balance policies. The role of the Manager (one of the bottlenecks in successful implementation) in making Work-Life Balance policies a reality and in ensuring that a culture of flexibility permeates the organization is critical. To make the campaign for Work-Life Balance policies a wider and more meaningful national movement requires the support of the Government (through legislation), professional bodies for advocacy and research and industry.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

2.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Todays diverse workplace is increasingly populated with women, single parents and dual career couples. The potential for conflict and stress increases as most workers struggle with the demands of balancing paid employment and home responsibilities this has led to problems both on the professional( example-attrition, job-related stress, low productivity,etc.) as well as the personal (example-stress, broken relationships, etc)front.

2.3 SCOPE FOR THE STUDY


The achievement of a balance between work and life/family responsibilities is essential for the overall wellbeing of all employees and the effective operation of workplaces. The demand for Work-Life Balance solutions by employees and employers is expanding at an unprecedented rate. Over the coming years it will be one of the most important issues that executives and human resource professionals will be expected to manage.

2.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


To find the significance of Work-Life Balance from employees perspective. To measure the balance between work-life and personal-life. To find out the effect of stress on work and personal-life. To measure the imbalance between the work and family-life.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

2.5 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY


Hypothesis is a tentative proposition formulated for empirical testing. It is a declarative statement combing concepts. It is a tentative answer to a research question. It is tentative, because it can be evaluated only after its veracity has been tested empirically.

Hypothesis of the study There is significant relationship between the effect of stress on work of the respondents and the work-life balance There is significant relationship between the imbalance between the work and family life of the respondents and work-life balance

2.6 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF CONCEPT

DEFINITION OF TERMS Work-Life balance: David Clutter buck defines work-life balance as: Being aware of different demands on time and energy. Having the ability to make choices in the allocation of time and energy. Knowing what values to apply to choices. Making choices. In this research, the research has mainly focused on the employees perspective of Work -Life Balance and its benefits.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

2.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


Research is a process through which we attempt to achieve systematically and with the support of data the answer to a question, the resolution of a problem, or a greater understanding of a phenomenon.

The core concept underlying all research is its methodology. It is not enough to follow the research procedures without an intimate understanding that research methodology directs the whole endeavor where critical decisions are made and where organizing, planning and directing the whole project take place. The methodology controls the study, dictates the acquisition of the data, and arranges them in logical relationships. Sets up a means of refining the raw data, contrives an approach so that the meanings they lie below the surface of those data become manifest, and finally issues a conclusion or series of conclusions that lead to an expansion of knowledge. The entire process is an unfiled effort as well as an appreciation of its component parts. Thus, research methodology has two primary functions: 1. To control and dictate the acquisition of data. 2. To corral the data after acquisition and extract meaningfulness from them.

2.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY


Being a study of 50 employees, the findings of this study cannot be generalized to all working population. The responses given by the respondents may be biased.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

2.9 CHAPTER SCHEME


CHAPTER 1 Introduction:- This chapter deals with the introduction, theoretical background, industrial background. CHAPTER 2 Review of literature and Design of the Study :- This chapter deals with review of literature, objectives of the study, scope of study, statement of the problem, operation definition and concept techniques, tools for data collection and plan of analysis CHAPTER 3 Profile of the Industry:- This chapter deals with the profile of the industrial background, origin with respect to growth and development of the industry. CHAPTER 4 Results, Analysis and Discussions:- This chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of data collected from respondents with respect to their satisfaction, each part is dedicated to the objectives of the study. CHAPTER 5 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Suggestions:- This chapter contains summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

3. INDUSTRY PROFILE
Indian Garment Industry- an Overview
The garment industry is one of India's largest foreign exchange earners, accounting for nearly 16% of the country's total exports. The 1996 Indian textile exports approximately amounted to Rs.35, 000 crores of which apparel occupied over Rs14, 000 crores. It has been estimated that India has approximately 30,000 readymade garmentmanufacturing units and around three million people are working in the industry. Today not only is the garment export business growing, enthusiasm in the minds of the foreign buyers is also at a high. Today many leading fashion labels are being associated with Indian products. India is increasingly being looked upon as a major supplier of high quality fashion apparels and Indian apparels have come to be appreciated in major markets internationally. The credit for this goes to our exporter community. Consistent efforts towards extensive market coverage, improving technical capabilities and putting together an attractive and wide merchandise line have paid rich dividends. But till today, our clothing industry is dominated by sub-contractors and consists mainly of small units of 50 to 60 machines. India's supply base is medium quality, relatively high fashion, but small volume business. Recent recession in Europe and the South Asian currency crisis has also contributed their own bits to the decimating Indian exports. Though these are expected to fizzle out soon, there is no reason for complacency on the part of Indian exporters or of the garment industry. The industry will be soon faced with open competition shorn of quotas or tariffs. Thus the need of the hour is to enlarge both manufacturing as well as the marketing base. Inculcation of a spirit of innovation by way of research and development and tapping new

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

markets especially in South Africa, Central Africa, CIS, East European countries, Latin America and Australia is also mandatory for export growth.

Structure of the Garment Industry The garment industry is one of India's largest foreign exchange earners, accounting for 12% of the country's total exports. Garment manufacturing is one of the most fragmented sectors of the Indian textile industry. The garment industry comprises manufacturers of ready-made garments for either the domestic or export markets or, in certain cases, both. The constituents of this segment are very diverse in terms of their size, production facility, the type of apparel manufactured, the quality of output, fabric requirement, price sensitivity etc. The segment is extremely fragmented, with an estimated 27,000 domestic manufacturers, 48,000 fabricators (job contractors) and around 1000 manufacturer-exporters. The break-up of the apparel sector by scale of operations is shown below: Ownership of the firms in the apparel industry, are by and large either proprietorship / partnership. In the manufacturing base, fabricators dominate the scene with a share of 72% of the estimated manufacturing capacity of 1.5 million machines. Typically a so-called "large" garment manufacturer, producing under his own brand and marketing it regionally or nationally, has a factory of about 20-25 machines, an annual sales turnover of less than Rs. 1.05 crore (USD 3,00,000) and a total consumption of various fabrics of 1 - 1.2 lac mts. per year. This scale itself was not achievable by most manufacturers due to the underdeveloped marketing chain from fabrics through apparel to retail.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

There are only handful companies with production capacities ranging from 50-100 sewing machines. However, these machines are installed in different areas / sheds, and are often under separate company names. The share of manufacturers of this scale in the industry remains low, even negligible.

Garment Exports From India The welcome decision of phasing out Multi-fibre Agreement will end the regime of quotas and will unleash "competition", overwhelming condition of playing in the global market. Survival of the fittest shall become the rule of the game and the Indian clothing industry whose supply base is medium quality and small volume business shall have to brace itself and go for rapid modernization, timely delivery and broad basing its export basket and market. For India the Clothing industry has performed quite well in exports. It has been filling most of the quotas every year. As compared to Rs.12 crores in 1970-71, exports have reached Rs.18, 000 crores by 1998. The major competitors in this segment of the market are developed countries, Asian Tigers like Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore, developing countries like Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia and neighboring countries like Bangladesh and Mayanmar and China, of course. In order to ensure quality of garment exports the SSI restriction of the garment industry should be removed. Present equity participation of 24% by the foreign partners needs to be enhanced and Joint Ventures with majority share holding as well as technical collaborations should be allowed. Labour laws need a remodeling and liberalization. A research, development and training institute focused on post garment processing like washing dyeing etc. is also needed. Indian government should negotiate higher quotas from

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

USA / EEC in accordance with its sizes and capabilities. Stream lining Internal Quota Administration and freezing minimum export prices is crucial for the future of the readymade garment export industry. The garment exports have grown at a very high rate of 13% over the last five years. In spite of this high rate, the share of the garment exports in the overall textile basket has decreased over the years. Cotton forms the significant part of the garment exports from India. It accounts for nearly 80% in terms of volume. Synthetics contribute to about 17% whereas the rest is accounted by wool and silk.

Quality Control In Textile And Clothing Industries Production of fibres in the world is expected to increase to 50 million tones in the year 2000. Scenario for textile and clothing industry is fast changing with Internet becoming a global market place and increased consumer awareness. World seems to be shrinking, bringing down trade barriers. Under these challenging market conditions effective quality systems have emerged as a major thrust point. Quality control is not a recent realization, though it has become paramount now. In the past, techniques like Coal Tar distillation, Mercerization and Sanforization have led to quality enhancement/ improvement. Now even flame proofing, anti-microbial, water and oil proofing and several other properties can be obtained with new finishes. And with each finish came specifications and special quality control parameters. In 1970s and 80s readymade garments became the premier retail outlets for fabric. This brought a revolution of sorts, expanding quality parameters from more dimensional

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

stability and colorfastness to garment appearance, feel & fall, construction, physical properties, special finish and presentation. Garment manufacturing and processing techniques have come a long way. Enzymes in bio polishing, use of resins and subsequent curing in Garment forms are required to have their own quality parameters. Specialty products of special end-uses also require their own set of quality specifications. For example, defense textiles need rot proofing, children's wear should be colorfast to saliva and garments for Arctic conditions require ability to withstand extreme cold. Based on end uses, specifications are even further categorized, like for school wear tear strength is 700 g.: warp & weft. There are similar ranges in dimensional stability, steam strength, abrasion resistance, seam slippage and other test descriptions for various clothing. While improving on quality of textile ecological factor cannot be overlooked. Textile industry uses many chemical pollutants, allergens & carcinogens. These have to be severely restricted by laying down ecological requirements. Only limited use of various chemicals like azo dyes, heavy metals, odour, etc should be permitted. Textile industry also needs to address the problem of indiscriminate disposal of wastewater loaded with toxic chemicals. Quality parameters & specifications in future will revolutionize/ pervade/ define the whole ' life-cycle ' of a textile product. The quality of a final product is as good as at the various levels of manufacturing. To achieve consistency in quality it is necessary to define quality parameters. With this view, the International Standards Organization (ISO) has published the standards series ISO 9000. In the long run, good quality always pays.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

4. RESULTS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS


Analysis and interpretation of the data collected from the organization is given below: TABLE 5.1 Distribution by age

Sl.No

Age(years)

Frequency

Percentage

Up to25

15

30%

26-30

27

54%

31-35

14%

36 and above

2%

Total

50

100%

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.1

Table 5.1 and chart 5.1 show more than one-fourth of the respondents are below the age of 25 years. Almost half of the respondents (54 percent) are between the age group of 26 and 30 years. Nearly one-seventh of the respondents (14 percent) come under the age group of 31 to 35 years. The least number of respondents (2 percent) come under the age group of 36 years and above

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE 5.2 Distribution by work experience

Sl.No

Experience(years)

Frequency

Percentage

Less than 1

18%

1-2

12

24%

2-3

15

30%

Above 4

14

28%

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.2

Table 5.2 and chart 5.2 show 18 percent of the respondents have less than 1 year of experience. About 24 percent of the respondents have 1 to 2 years of work experience. Nearly 30 percent of the respondents have 2 to 3 years of work experience. Almost 28 percent of the respondents have above 4 years of experience.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE 5.3 Distribution by number of children

Sl.No

No. of children

Frequency

Percentage

None

24

48%

One-two

16

32%

Not married

16%

More than two

2%

Blank

2%

Total

50

100%

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.3

Table 5.3 and chart 5.3 show that out of total married respondents 48 percent of the respondents have no childrens and 32 percent of them have one to two childrens. Whereas 16 percent of respondents are not married and two percent of them have more than two childrens.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE 5.4 Distribution of annual income Sl.No Annual income (in Rs.) Frequency Percentage

Below 20,000

13

26%

20-25,000

13

26%

25-30,000

8%

Above 30,000

20

40%

Total

50

100%

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.4

Table 5.4 and chart 5.4 show that the annual income of half the respondent (40 percent) is above 30,000 Rupees .The annual income for a little more than a quarter of the respondents (26 percent) is below 20,000 and other quarter of the respondents (8 percent) are between 20 to 25,000 Rupees.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE. 5.5 Distribution of time spent in traveling.

Sl.No

Time (min)

Frequency

Percentage

Less than 30

33

66%

30-60

16

32%

More than 60

2%

Total

50

100%

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.5

Table 5.5 and chart 5.5 shows that little less than two-third of the respondents (66 percent) takes less than 30 minutes. Nearly two-fifth of the respondents (32 percent) and one percent of the respondents take more than 60 minutes.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE.5.6 Distribution of number of dependents.

Sl.No

Response

Frequency

Percentage

None

18%

One or two

38

36%

More than two

4%

Blank

2%

Total

50

100%

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.6

Table 5.6 and chart 5.6 show that number of dependents staying with the respondents 18 percent of responded as none, while 36 percent responded as one to two and 4 percent responded as more than two and one percent of respondent left blank.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE.5.7 Distribution of reasons for over time

Sl.No

Response

Frequency

Percentage

Personal reason

10

20%

Financial reason

30

60%

Nature of job

18%

Others

2%

Total

50

100%

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.7

Table 5.7 and chart 5.7 shows that 20 percent responded as personal reason, 60 percent of them responded as financial reason, 18 percent responded as nature of job and rest 2 percent of respondent responded as other reasons.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE.5.8 Distribution of job affecting personal life of employee.

Sl.No

Response

Frequency

Percentage

Strongly agree

25

50%

Agree

16

32%

Disagree

16%

Strongly disagree

2%

Total

50

100%

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.8

Table 5.8 and chart 5.8 shows that 50 percent of respondent strongly agree that job is affecting their personal life, 32 percent of respondent agree, while 16 percent of respondent disagree and rest of 2 percent of respondent strongly disagree.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE.5.9 Distribution of employee difficulty in balancing work-life and personal-life.

Sl.No

Response

Frequency

Percentage

All the time

16

32%

Sometime

13

26%

Rarely

9%

Never

12

24%

Total

50

100%

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.9

Table 5.9 and chart 5.9 shows that 32 percent of respondent responded that they find difficulty in balancing work-life with the personal-life,26 percent of respondent find sometime, while 24 percent of respondent never found it difficult while 9 percent rarely find it difficult.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE. 5.10 Distribution of employee feeling stressed.

Sl.No

Response

Frequency

Percentage

All the time

10%

Sometime

26

52%

Rarely

8%

Never

15

30%

Total

50

100%

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.10

Table 5.10 and chart 5.10 shows that 52 percent of respondent responded that they feel stressed sometime, 30 percent of respondent responded never, while 10 percent of respondent responded all the time while 8 percent responded as rarely.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE. 5.11 Distribution of work related stress caused you to have an accident/ make a serious error.

Sl.No

Response

Frequency

Percentage

Always

6%

Sometime

17

34%

Rarely

16

32%

Never

14

28%

Total

50

100%

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.11

Table 5.11 and chart 5.11 shows that 34 percent of respondent responded that work related stress caused employee to have an accident/ make a serious error sometime, 32 percent of respondent responded as rarely, while 28 percent of respondent responded as never while 6 percent responded as always.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE. 5.12 Distribution of journey to work.

Sl.No

Response

Frequency

Percentage

Greatly add to the stress of your life.

16%

Add slightly to the stress of your day.

32

64%

Slightly reduce the stress of your day.

8%

Have no impact

12%

Total

50

100%

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.12

Table 5.12 and chart 5.12 shows that 64 percent of respondent responded that journey to work add slightly to the stress of employee life, 16 percent of respondent responded as add greatly to the stress of employees day, while 12 percent of respondent responded as have no impact while 8 percent responded as slightly reduce the stress of employees day.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE.5.13 Distribution of imbalance between your work and home-life.

Sl.No

Response

Frequency

Percentage

Always

8%

Sometimes

20

40%

Rarely

15

30%

Never

11

22%

Total

50

100%

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.13

Table 5.13 and chart 5.13 shows that 40 percent of respondent responded that they sometimes there is imbalance between their work and home-life, 30 percent of respondent responded as rarely, while 22 percent of respondent responded as never and 8 percent responded as always.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE.5.14 Distribution of imbalance due to poor staffing level.

Sl.No

Response

Frequency

Percentage

Strongly agree

10

20%

Agree

25

50%

Disagree

14%

Strongly disagree

16%

Total

50

100%

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.14

Table 5.14 and chart 5.14 shows that 50 percent of respondent responded that they agree that it is due to poor staffing level, 20 percent of respondent responded as strongly agree, while 16 percent of respondent responded as strongly disagree and 14 percent responded as disagree.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE.5.15 Distribution of imbalance due to home duties/family responsibility.

Sl.No

Response

Frequency

Percentage

Strongly agree

14%

Agree

17

34%

Disagree

16

32%

Strongly disagree

10

20%

Total

50

100%

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.15

Table 5.15 and chart 5.15 shows that 34 percent of respondent responded that they agree that imbalance due to home duties/family responsibility,32 percent of respondent responded as disagree, while 20 percent of respondent responded as strongly disagree and 14 percent responded as strongly agree.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE.5.16 Distribution of imbalance due to employee health.

Sl.No

Response

Frequency

Percentage

Strongly agree

18

36%

Agree

20

40%

Disagree

14%

Strongly disagree

10%

Total

50

100%

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.16

Table 5.16 and chart 5.16 shows that 40 percent of respondent responded that they agree that imbalance due to employee health,36 percent of respondent responded as strongly agree, while 14 percent of respondent responded as disagree and 10 percent responded as strongly disagree.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE.5.17 Distribution of imbalance due to desire to maintain certain standard of living.

Sl.No

Response

Frequency

Percentage

Strongly agree

11

22%

Agree

20

40%

Disagree

10

20%

Strongly disagree

18%

Total

50

100%

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.17

Table 5.17 and chart 5.17 shows that 40 percent of respondent responded that they agree that imbalance due to desire to maintain certain standard of living,22 percent of respondent responded as strongly agree, while 20 percent of respondent responded as disagree and 18 percent responded as strongly disagree.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE.5.18 Distribution of imbalance due to cost of living.

Sl.No

Response

Frequency

Percentage

Strongly agree

10

20%

Agree

24

48%

Disagree

12

24%

Strongly disagree

8%

Total

50

100%

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.18

Table 5.18 and chart 5.18 shows that 48 percent of respondent responded that they agree that imbalance due to cost of living,24 percent of respondent responded as disagree, while 20 percent of respondent responded as strongly agree and 8 percent responded as strongly disagree

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

TABLE.5.19 Distribution of working life out of control.

Sl.No

Response

Frequency

Percentage

All the time

6%

Sometimes

20

40%

Rarely

15

30%

Never

12

24%

Total

50

100%

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

GRAPHNO.5.19

Table 5.19 and chart 5.19 shows that 40 percent of respondent responded that sometimes they feel that working life is out of control,30 percent of respondents feel rarely, while 24 percent of respondents feel never and 6 percent respondents feel all the time.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

5 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

Socio-economic profile of the respondents A number of demographic and other variables capturing the characteristics of the employees were gathered in order to examine their relation with Work-Life Balance including age, marital status, household type such as presence of number of dependent children) etc. Majority of the respondents are from the age group of 26 to 30 years whereas the least number of respondents above the age 36 years. The annual income of majority the respondents is above 30, 000 whereas between Rs.25-30,000 for least respondents. Majority of the respondent are married. Out of married respondents, majority has one to two child and only 8 percent do not have any children. Majority of the respondents spend less than 30 minutes in commuting to/from their work place whereas least number of respondents spends more than 60 minutes. The study reveals that 60% respondents feel that personal reason is reason for overtime. The study reveals that 50% of the respondents strongly agree that job affects their personal life. The study reveals that 32% of the respondents feel all the time difficulty in balancing work-life and personal-life. The study reveals that 52% of the respondent feel sometimes stressed.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

The study reveals that 34% of the respondents feel work related stress cause them to have accidents /make serious error. The study reveals that 64% of the respondents feel journey to the work add slightly to the stress of their day. The study reveals that 40% of the respondents feel sometimes there is imbalance between their work and home-life. The study reveals that 50% of the respondents agree that there is imbalance in worklife due to poor staffing level. The study reveals that 34% of the respondents agree that there is imbalance in worklife due to home duties/family responsibility. The study reveals that 40% of the respondents agree that there is imbalance in worklife due to employee health. The study reveals that 40% of the respondents agree that there is imbalance in worklife due to desire to maintain certain standard of living. The study reveals that 48% of the respondents agree that there is imbalance in worklife due to cost living. The study reveals that 40% of the respondents feel that there sometimes work life is out of control.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

5.2 CONCLUSION

Work-Life Balance is of great importance to the daily life of the working population. Its impact is significant for economic competitiveness and demographic development. For example, through positively flexible working times, companies can offer women better possibilities of combing work and family, which would promote womens employability, in particular.

The achievement of a balance between work and life/family responsibilities is essential for the overall wellbeing of all employees and the effective operation of workplaces. The results of this survey reinforce the imperative for employers and employees in managing family and lifestyle commitments. These policies should also allow all people to participate to their desired extent in workforce, while ensuring that business for the organization can continue to operate productively and efficiently.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

5.3 SUGGESTIONS

Suggestion for the organization where the study was conducted

In addition to the existing to policies related to Work-Life Balance, other policies can be introduced which can further improve Work-Life Balance in the organization. Employees have suggested additional policies like bus facilities, house allowance, compliments (gifts), union formation and travel allowance.

Suggestions for employers There are a variety of tried and tested components to the work-life strategy. Foremost is providing flexible working hours for the employees by the employers. Options should b given to the employees such as having a compressed work week or job sharing. A compressed work week involves working full time hours in week days in order to provide a longer week end and more time for leisure activities. Job sharing involves two people splitting one job so adequate support is given to each employee and responsibilities are balanced.

Another element of work life strategy is to have the company review the work life balance or their employees on a regular basis. Employers can provide individual development plans for employees or mentoring by colleagues in order to monitor progress and in satisfaction in the work force. Guidelines to handle work problems professional as well as personal should also be established so business and personal needs can be met. Adequate leave options should also b provided to the employees. In addition to earn leave, sick leave and maternity leave, leave should also be provided on special occasions.

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A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

Suggestions for employees The most important parameter to achieve a good work life balance industry today is self awareness of the employees towards the significance of work life balance as well as organizations policies promoting the same.

Ignorance among employees regarding the concepts of work-life balance is an area of concern. This ignorance in turn leads to non-awareness of the policies and family- friendly entitlements that their employment arrangement provides.

Suggestions for HR personnel It is the HR department which lays down most of the policies that define the work culture in an organization. Therefore it is the bonus of the HR personnel to appreciate the significance of a good work-life balance for the employees of the organization and design policies accordingly.

The key to success of any organization has always been linked to co-operation between management and its employees. Instead of approaching Work-Life Balance as a benefit handed out to those with deserving special circumstances, the focus should be on designing employee friendly policies that promote a healthy Work-Life Balance culture within the organization.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

5.4 POLICY IMPLICATIONS AND SCOPE OF FURTHER STUDY

As the resources were limited and as well as time constraints, a study only on work-life balance among women employee in garments industry was done. There is further scope to study other industries like BPO, Telecom, Hotels and Healthcare which functions 24/7 and requires rotational shift to work.

The study can be conducted for men employee in the garment industry as well as other industries.

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

QUESTIONNAIRE ON WORK/LIFE BALANCE

Dear Sir/Madam, I Fauzia Hafeez, an MBA student from Al-Ameen Institute Of Management Studies under Bangalore University, as a part of her project is doing a survey on Work-life balance among women employees in garment industry. So I kindly request you to fill in the questionnaire. This is purely for academic purpose, further; I promise you that the information furnished by you will be kept confidential. Thanking You, Yours sincerely, (FAUZIA HAFEEZ) Name: E-mail id: Address: Gender: Contact Number: Designation: Male ( ) Female ( )

What is your age? 1. Under 19 years 2. 20-30years 3. 31-40years 4. 41-50 years 5. 51-60years ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) )

6. 60 years or more (

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

What is your highest educational qualification? 1. Postgraduate diploma / Masters 2. Graduate. 3. Under-Graduate. 4. Intermediate. 5. Matriculation. 6. Other please specify ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) )

Your marital status: 1. Single. 2. Married 3. Divorced ( ( ( ) ) )

Do you have any children? Yes No ( ( ) )

Q.How many hours in a day do you spend with your child/children? a) Less than 2 hours b) 2-3 hours c) 3-4 hours d) 4-5 hours e) More than 5 hours ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) )

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

Q. Do you regularly meet your child/children teachers to know how your child is progressing? a) Once in a week b) Once in two weeks c) Once in month d) Once in 6 months e) Once in a year. ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) )

Q. Do you take care of? a) Older people b) Dependent adults c) Adults with disabilities d) Children with disabilities e) none ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) )

Q. If yes, how many hours do you spend with them? a) Less than 2 hours b) 2-3 hours c) 3-4 hours d) 4-5 hours e) More than 5 hours ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) )

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

Q.How do you feel about the amount of time you spend at work? a) Very unhappy b) Unhappy c) Indifferent d) Happy e) Very happy ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) )

Q.Do you ever miss out any quality time with your family or your friends because of pressure of work? a) Never b) Rarely c) Sometimes d) Often e) Always ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) )

Q.Do you ever feel tired or depressed because of work? a) Never b) Rarely c) Sometimes d) Often e) Always ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) )

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

Q.How do you manage stress arising from your work? a) Yoga b) Meditation c) Entertainment d) Dance e) Music f) Others, specify_________. ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) )

Q. Does your company have a separate policy for work-life balance? a) Yes b) No c) Not aware ( ( ( ) ) )

Q .If, yes what are the provisions under the policy? a) Flexible starting time b) Flexible ending time c) Flexible hours in general d) Holidays/ paid time-off e) Job sharing f) Career break/sabbaticals g) Others, specify________ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) )

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

Q. Do you personally feel any of the following will help you to balance your work life? a) Flexible starting hours b) Flexible finishing time c) Flexible hours, in general d) holidays/paid time offs e) Job sharing f) Career break/sabbaticals g) time-off for family engagements/events h) Others, specify_________ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

Q. Does your organization provide you with following additional work provisions? a) Telephone for personal use b) Counseling services for employees c) Health programs d) Parenting or family support programs e) Exercise facilities f) Relocation facilities and choices g) Transportation h) Others, specify______________. ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

Q. Does your organization encourage the involvement of your family members in workachievement reward functions? a) Yes, ( b) No. ( ) specify the name of such program Annual Day________ )

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

Q .Does your organization has social functions at times suitable for families? a) Yes, ( b) No. ( ) ) specify the name of such programs____________

Q. Does your organization provide you with yearly Master health check up? a) Yes ( b) No ( ) )

Q. Do any of the following hinder you in balancing your work and family commitments? a) Long working hours b) Compulsory overtime c) Shift work d) meetings/training after office hours e) Others, specify_________________ ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) )

Q. Do any of the following help you balance your work and family commitments? a) Working from home b) Technology like cell phones/laptops c) Being able to bring Children to work on occasions d) Support from colleagues at work e) Support from family members f) Others, specify___________. ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) )

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS
Kothari .C.R RESARCH METHODOLGY METHODS AND TECHNIQUES, NEW DELHI, WISHWA PRAKASHAN 9th Edition, 1990. Dr. Krishna swami .O.R METHODOLGY OF RESEACH IN SOCIAL SCIENCE, BOMBAY, HIMALAYA PUBLICATION, 1997. Sharma B.A.V, Prasad Ravindra, Sathya Narayana.B, RESEARCH METHOD IN SOCIAL SCIENCE NEW DEHLI. Sterling PUBLISHED PRIVATE LIMITED 1ST EDITION, 1984. Muchinsky .M, Paul ,PSYOLOGY APPLLIED TO WORK,UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT GREENSBORO, 6TH EDITIION,1992. Blum.M, L.J.C Naylor, INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY-ITS THEORETICAL AND SOCIAL FOUNDATION, NEW DEHLI, CBS PUBLICATION, 4TH EDITION 2002.

JOURNALS

Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 67, Issue 2, October 2005, Pages 215-232 Jessica R. Mesmer-Magnus, Chockalingam Viswesvaran Human Resource Development International, Volume, Issue March 2003, pages 69 - 83 Neal Chalofsky. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business Michelle Turner, Helen Lingard, Valerie Francis 2009, pages 94 - 111. Research in the Sociology of Organizations Jean E. Wallace 2006, pages283 306

Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies

A Study On The Work-Life Balance Among Women Employees In Garment Industry

Research in Occupational Stress and Well-being Ronald J. Burke, Teal McAteer 2006, pages 239 273. Journal of Vocational Behavior Volume 66, Issue 1, February 2005, Pages 124-197 Lillian T. Eby, Wendy J. Casper, Angie Lockwood, Chris Bordeaux and Andi Brinley. Research in the Sociology of Work Jeremy Reynolds, Lydia Aletraris,2007,pages 285311 The international journal of human resource management, Helen De Cieri, London: Routledge. Vol. 16, no. 1

WEBSITE http://www.jstor.org/stable http://www.watsonwyatt.com/research http://www.workplace.gov.au/workplace/Pages/Conten Page www.worklife.wa.gov.au http://www.dol.govt.nz/worklife/index.asp http://www.peoplemanagement.co.uk www.worklifebalance.ie www.eiro.eurofound.ie www.workliferesearch.org En.wikipedia.org/wiki/work-life_ balance
http://www.emeraldinsight.com

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