Sie sind auf Seite 1von 77

ORGANIZATION STUDY

A report with reference to DELTA PAPER MILLS LIMITED Vendra-534210, Palakoderu Mandal, W.G.Dt., Andhra Pradesh Submitted by YERRA SUBBARAYUDU 12MMA7043 Between 14/02/2013 and 14/03/2013

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Post Graduate Diploma in Management (PGDM) Under the supervision and guidance of Mohan Kumar Iyer Faculty Member GANAPATHI RAJU.K officer H.R

Submitted to

MATS Institute of Management & Entrepreneurship


(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi) Jakkasandra Post, Kanakapura Taluk, Ramanagara Dist - 562112, Karnataka

Academic Year 2012 - 2013

DECLARATION

I, YERRA SUBBARAYUDU, with Reg. No.: 12MMA7043, declare that this report on the organization study undertaken by me at DELTA PAPER MILLS LIMITED, submitted to MATS Institute of Management and Entrepreneurship, in partial fulfillment for the award of Post Graduate Diploma in Management is a record of original study conducted by me form 14/2/2013 to 14/3/2013 during the academic year 2012 13.

Place: Bangalore Date: . Yerra subbarayudu

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe a great many thanks to many people who helped and supported me during the organization study. My deepest thanks to lecturer, Mr. MOHAN KUMAR IYER the guide of the organization study for guiding and correcting various documents of mime with attention and care. He has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary corrections as and when needed My deep sense of gratitude to Mr. GANAPATHI RAJU KANUMURI (officer H.R), DELTA PAPER MILLS LIMITED for his support and guidance. Thanks and appreciation to the helpful people at DELTA PAPER MILLS LIMITED for their support. I would also thank my institute without whom this project would have been a distant reality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family and well-wishers.

LIST OF EXHIBITS

EXHIBIT NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

TITLE Raw material used in India Porters 5 forces Modal of balanced score card Functional structures Product divisionalisation structure Territorial divisionalisation structure Organization structure of the Delta Paper Mill Limited Purchase department structure Operations department structure Production process of paper production Paper go-down department structure Quality department structure Personnel department structure Finance department structure Marketing department structure

PAGE NO 7 20 32 38 39 40

44 50 52 53 55 56 58 62 64

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

TITLE Pulp producing countries Leading paper producers Key players in Indian paper industry Production units of ITC ltd. Production units of JK paper Production units of orient paper Financial status of delta paper mill ltd.

PAGE NO 4 6 10 13 14 15 26

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgement List of Tables List of Exhibits

CHAPTER NO I Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Executive Summary Global Scenario Indian Scenario key players in industry Environmental Study PEST Market Forces Porters Model

PAGE NO

1 2 7 10 16 20

II

About the Organization 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Brief history of the company The Mission, Vision & Corporate Goal SWOT Analysis Product & Target markets The Balance Score Card Approach 23 27 29 30 32

III

The Organization Structure 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Meaning and Definition Components of organization design A review of choices in design Organization structure Critical review of the structure Conclusion 35 35 36 43 46 49

IV

Business / Unit Level Analysis 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Purchase department Operations department Paper go-down department Quality department Personnel department Finance department Marketing department Enterprise Level Initiatives 50 52 55 56 58 62 64 66

Summary of Observations & Conclusion

Bibliography Annexures

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Executive summary


Organization Study carried out to study the structure of the organization which is followed by the company. It also studies about the structure of each different department and different functions followed by them. The organization study also helps to learn more about the company history and products. This study focus on the examination of how individuals construct organizational structures, processes, and practices and how these, in turn shape social and formal relationship. The report contains industry profile, company profile, a study of the organization design, key business level functions and processes. Industry profile includes background and history, vision, mission, goals, swot analysis and product profile. Study of the organization design shows the present organization structure. The report discuss about the Indian and global scenario of the paper industry. Then it goes through company profile, which talks about the history, background, vision, mission, goals and products of the company. Later part includes function of finance, marketing and human resource department of the company. Various functions carried by different departments of the company which is mentioned in report consists of the finance, marketing, human resource and Enterprise Level Initiatives. Different functions of finance department are budget preparation, cost allocation, payroll, accounts payable etc. The HR department mainly focuses on employee recruitment, training, induction programs etc.

1.2 Global scenario


1.2.1 Invention of pulp The pulp is the main raw material for the paper industry. The pulp can be manufactured from various sources like wood, baggage, (add some more) etc., Using wood to make pulp for manufacturing paper is a recent innovation. In the 1800s, fiber crops such as linen fibres were the primary material source, and paper was a relatively expensive commodity. The use of wood to make pulp for paper began with the development of mechanical pulping and thereafter with chemical pulping. 1.2.2 Nature and types of pulp The nature of pulp differs on various parameters. The three main parameters considered in defining the pulp are fiber length, brightness and pulping process and this are very important in deciding the quality and value of the pulp. The different pulp grades give different quality paper. There are basically two types of pulp: 1. Pulp from wood 2. Pulp from non-wood substances Today around 90-95% of the pulp is produced from wood and 5-10% of the pulp is produced from Non-wood substances like field crop fibre or agricultural residues. The use of Non-wood pulp is significantly less for a variety of reasons, including seasonal availability, problems with chemical recovery, brightness of the pulp etc. And Non-wood pulp processing requires a high use of water and energy. 1.2.3 Processing of pulp There are different processes in existence for the production of pulp. The few prominent processes are:

1. Mechanical pulp: The logs are first chopped into wood chips for the production of mechanical pulp, wood is ground against water lubricated rotating stone. The heat generated by grinding softens the lignin binding the fibres and the mechanized forces separate the fibres to form ground wood. The yield from this process is higher than the other processes and the cost of production is low 2. Chemical pulp: For chemical pulp, logs are first chopped into wood chips which are then cooked with chemicals under high pressure. Cooking removes lignin and separates the wood into cellulose fibres. The resulting slurry contains loose but intact fibres which maintain their strength. During the process, approximately half of the wood dissolves into what is called black liquor. The cooked pulp is then washed and screened to achieve a more uniform quality. The black liquor is separated out from the pulp before the bleaching process. The cost of production is high in compared with the mechanical pulp process, the yield is low but the paper produced from this pulp is of high quality. 3. Recycled pulp: This process is also called deinked pulp (DIP). DIP is recycled paper which has been processed by chemicals, thus removing printing inks and other unwanted elements and freed the paper fibres. The process is called deinking. 1.2.4 Pulp producing countries In the most of the countries paper mills do produce pulp (raw material) themselves for their process. And there are few specialized pulp manufacturers round the world. USA & Canada are the largest pulp producing countries in the world respectively and the countries which produce pulp are in the world are shown in table no 1

Table No: 1 pulp producing countries Argentina Brazil Cuba Australia Canada Czech Republic Austria Chile North Korea Bangladesh China Denmark Belgium Colombia Dominican Republic Ecuador Greece Iraq Malaysia Nigeria Poland Egypt Hungary Israel Mexico Norway Portugal Finland India Italy Morocco Pakistan South Korea France Indonesia Japan Netherlands Peru Romania Germany Iran Kenya New Zealand Philippines Russian Federation Serbia Sweden United kingdom Slovakia Switzerland United republic of Tanzania Vietnam Zimbabwe South Africa Thailand United states of America Spain Tunisia Uruguay Swaziland Turkey Venezuela

1.2.5 Pulp exporting countries Many of the pulp producing countries are playing an important role in the exports of their pulp produced and the major pulp exporters in the world are Canada, brazil, use, Chile, Sweden, Indonesia, Finland, Russia, Germany, Portugal, Norway, japan respectively and many countries do export the waste paper which can be used as the raw material in the paper industry.

1.2.6 Major pulp Products in the world With the availability of wide range of pulp grades there are incredible variety of end products manufactured such as printing and writing papers, magazines, bathroom and facial tissue, baby diapers, exterior housing siding, cardboards and electrical insulating papers 1.2.7 Invention of paper The invention of paper states back to 2nd century BC in china where Cal Lun is traditionally regarded as the inventor of paper and the papermaking process. Paper spread from China through the Middle East to medieval Europe in the 13th century, where the first water-powered paper mills were built. In the 19th century, industrial manufacturing greatly lowered its cost and made it can effective medium for communication. In 1845 with the inventions in the industry by Canadian Charles Fenerty and German F.G. Keller independently developed processes for pulping wood fibers through mechanical pulping brought significant change in the production capacity. And further with the invention of chemical pulping in the 19th century made the industry to develop at a rapid phase. 1.2.8 Leading paper producers in the world International paper is the major player globally with its production capacity and sales. It has paper mills around the world serving a wide variety of product range and it has started its operations in India by the acquisition of Andhra Pradesh paper mills at Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh in 2011.And the top 10 key players, their country of operation and production in tons is shown below in the table no 2

Table No: 2 leading paper producers Rank Company group Country Production in (1,000 ton) 1 2 3 4 International paper Stora Enso UPM Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget 5 6 7 8 9 10 Smurfit Kappa Group Nippon Paper Nine Dragons Paper Sappi Oji paper Smurfit-Stone Container United states Japan China South Africa Japan United states 7,650 7,292 7,280 6,900 6,861 5,896 United states Finland Finland Sweden 11,922 10,812 9,914 8,948

1.2.9 Global paper consumption About 400 million metric ton paper is produced and consumed per year and 50% of the paper and board produced globally is used for packing; The North America and Europeans consume half of the global production and the forecast of paper consumption of paper by 2020 is around 500 million metric ton.

1.3 Indian scenario


In India there are around 700 paper mills and this are classified in to three types based on the raw material used 1. Wood/forest based mills 2. Agro-residue based mills 3. Waste paper based mills Due to the increasing regulation and raw material prices, the companies are increasingly using more non-wood based raw material (agro-residue, waste paper) over the years. In 2011 around 69 % of the total production is based on non- wood raw material. With agroresidue based mills taking 22% and waste paper based mills around 47% of total paper production in India. And in the wood/forest based mills bamboo is been the major raw material science its fast growing nature.

Exhibit No: 1 raw material used in India

raw material input


22% 32%

wood recycled paper agro-residues

38%

The above exhibit no 1 shows the different raw material consumed by the Indian paper industry

1.3.1 Bamboo cultivation in India The cultivation of bamboo in India is not managed in an efficient manner. In many areas, bamboo resources have dwindled due to over exploitation and poor management ,This issue needs to be addressed through well-organized cultivation, on the lines of homestead, small-holder and plantation-based cultivation. In recent times government is has understood the importance of bamboo cultivation and its demand in the global markets due to its multiple uses. The areas particularly rich in bamboo cultivation are the North Eastern States, the Western Ghats, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Andaman Nicobar Islands. 1.3.2 Major paper producers in India The leading paper mills in India which took a prominent position in the market are: 1. ITC Limited 2. Ballarpur industries ltd. 3. JK Paper ltd 4. Tamil Nadu newsprint & paper ltd 5. The Andhra Pradesh paper mills ltd 6. West coast paper mills ltd 1.3.3 Paper production statistics The Indian Paper Industry accounts for about 3% of the worlds production of paper and paperboard. The operating capacity of the industry currently stands at 12.75 million tons. And production of paper and paperboard is estimated to be 10.11 million tons in 2011. India is the fastest growing market for paper globally and it presents an exciting scenario; paper consumption is poised for a big leap forward in sync with the economic growth and is estimated to touch 13.95 million tons by 2015-16.
8

1.3.4 Paper consumption in India The average paper consumption in India is relatively less when compared with many countries which are as well leading in the paper production. India stands at 15th place in the paper production in the world with per capita consumption of 9.3 kg in 2011 which has increased from 8kg from the past few years. 1.3.5 Exports and imports of paper The India paper industry is producing the required quantity of paper though they are imports for special grades of paper which are not available in India. And there are exports to other countries like Pakistan, Sri Lanka and few others from India. The amount of exports and imports are equal with around 3% of the total paper produced. Challenges faced by the paper producing firms Environmental issues is one of the major problems faced by the firms science due to recognized as a polluter they are many problems faced from the environmentalists in the surrounding localities; the management of the solid waste and gases pollutants has been a major concern Non availability of good quality fibrous raw material has got its impact on the quality of the paper produced and due to this the major paper production is done on nonconventional method using waste paper and agro residues The increasing cost of inputs due the inflation is a challenge for the firms in managing the cost of production mainly for the small and medium scale paper firms Technological issues are been the one of the major factor in reducing the quantity and quality of output where many of the paper mills are still using the age old machinery due to lack of renovation

1.3.6 Future prospects for paper producers At present India consumption of paper is very low when compared to the other countries average consumption and now the usage of paper and the demand is gradually going high in recent times so there is a huge potential in expanding the productions and as well the high quality paper or the different grades like medical-grade coated paper, lightweight online coated paper, etc. are produced at a very low quantity where the industry can expand in this prospective. Modernization of the manufacturing units can be taken to improve the quality and quantity of output and can increase the forest based raw material i.e. Wood for the paper production which is the primary raw material for the paper industry.

1.4 key players in the industry


The first paper mill in India is founded in 1870s in Shrirampur a city in west- Bengal, British India and at present in India there are around 700 large, medium and small paper mills all over India But the paper mills operating in large scale with primary raw material i.e. wood in India are only 20; few of the important paper mills which are predominant in the Indian market are shown in table no 3 Table No: 3 key players in India paper industry Name Ballarpur Industries Ltd. ITC papers limited. J K Paper Ltd. TNPL (Tamilnadu newsprint and papers limited). West Coast Paper Mills Ltd. Dandeli, Karnataka 1 Registered office Gurgaon, Haryana Secunderabad New Delhi Chennai Paper units 6 4 2 1

10

Name The Orient Paper mills Ltd. Century Pulp & Paper Industry. The South India paper mills Ltd. Mysore Paper Mills. The Hindustan Paper Corporation. Kuantum papers. Malu paper mills ltd. Kunnath paper mills Pvt ltd. Shreyans Paper Mills Ltd. Hemkunt Paper Mills Ltd. Punalur Paper mill Trident Paper Mills Ltd. The Khanna paper mills Ltd. Shree Krishna paper mills. Sai Rayalaseema paper mills Ltd. Satia Paper Mills Ltd. Delta paper mills ltd. Rolex paper mills ltd. Shree Rishabh Papers.

Registered office Bhubaneswar Uttaranchal

Paper units 2 1

Karnataka

Bangalore New Delhi

4 Punjab Nagpur Kerala Ludhiana, Punjab Ludhiana, Punjab Panalur, Kerala Punjab 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Amritsar, Punjab New Delhi Hyderabad 1 1

Mohali, Punjab Vendra Palakollu Ludhiana, Punjab

1 1 1 1

11

1.4.1

Market leaders

The market leaders in the Indian paper industry as per the production are 1Ballarpur Industries Limited (BILT) Founded in 1945, with the name of Ballarpur Paper and Straw Board Mills Limited. The company changed its name to Ballarpur Industries (BILT) in 1975. BILT is the largest paper manufacturing company in India. The company product portfolio includes - coated wood free paper, uncoated hi-bright paper (Maplitho), business stationery, copy paper and speciality & fine paper In 2008, BILT controlled approximately 21% of Writing and Printing Paper (WPP) market and approximately 53% of the coated paper market. The company is pursuing both organic and inorganic strategy to increase its installed capacity to 1.5 million tones paper by 2014. In 2006, the company acquired a paper manufacturing firm, Sabah Forest Industries, in Malaysia. The acquisition helped the company to secure the future supply and also provide a platform to the company to enter the South-east and East Asian market To maintains its leadership in the market, BILT is focusing on 4 key areas: - Securing raw material supply - Rapidly developing larger scale of operations - Continuously innovating to introduce new products and grow new markets - Creating a de-risked corporate financial and capital structure It has six paper units in operation at different geographical locations in India which helped the company to serve the entire nation. BLIT is the first Indian company to acquire an overseas integrated paper and pulp facility firm.

12

2. ITC Limited Paperboards & specialty Papers ITCs paperboards and specialty paper unit was created after the merger of Bhadrachalam Paperboards Limited with ITC in 2002. The company produces paperboards and specialty paper for all types of cartonconsuming segments including cigarettes, foods, beverages, pharmacy, personal care & toiletries, durables and match shells. ITC also makes some of the premium graphic boards used for greeting cards, covers, sleeves, tags and playing cards. It produces both virgin and recycled boards spanning the full requirement of a packaging customer. ITC paper unit exports nearly 15% of the coated papers to customer requirements in Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Iran, Australia, UAE, UK, Italy, Poland and Russia. The paperboard, paper & packaging segment is one of main focus area of the company, accounted for approximately 10% revenue of the ITC group. The company wants to maintain its leadership in value-added coated boards segment by using latest technology. ITC is also looking to integrate its operation fully by creating in-house pulping capacity. In 2009, it has a 240,000 tons of Elemental Chlorine Free pulp capacity at Bhadrachalam mill The company has four manufacturing units shown in table no 4

Table No: 4 production units of ITC ltd.

Paper unit Bollaram Bhadrachalam Kovai Tribeni


13

State Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu West Bengal

3. JK Paper Limited Founded in 1962, JK Paper Mills (JKPM) started its operations with an annual capacity of 18,000 tones. It is promoted by the H.S. Singhania Group. JKPM is the first paper company to get TPM Certification from JIPM, Japan and 3rd paper company in the world. JKPM is the largest producer of branded papers in India. The company is a market leader in copier varieties and SS Maplitho segment. Due to low capacity, the company started to outsource coated paper in 2003. Outsourcing and trading contributed approx. 10% of total sales. The company has a wide range of branded products in its portfolio. It sells approximately 40% of paper produced under various brand names - JK Copier, JK Excel Bond, JK Bond, JK Savannah, JK Copier Plus and JK Easy Copier. It sells its products through a nationwide distribution network of approximately 100 distributors and 2,500 dealers. JKPM follows its growth plans through capacity addition and its market expansion plans through outsourcing & trading The company exports its products to more than 40 countries including Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Middle East, Africa, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia etc. The company has two manufacturing units shown in table no 5

Table No: 5 production units of jk paper Paper unit Rayagada (JK paper mills) Songadh(Central pulp mill) Gujarat State Orissa

14

4. Orient Paper & Industries Limited Founded in 1939, Orient Paper & Industries Limited (Orient Paper) is a part of the CK Birla Group and diversified into Paper, Cement and Electric Fans. The company also announced its plans to enter into CFL business. The company produces a wide range of writing, printing, industrial and speciality papers. It is also a market leader in the domestic tissue paper industry with over 50% market share. Tissue paper is one of the fastest growing segments of paper. The growth in the use of tissue paper is positive for the company. In 2007, the company raised approx. INR1.7 billion via a right issue, part of which would be utilized to create additional tissue paper capacity of 20,000 tones at paper plant. The company plans to hike the capacity of the Amlai paper unit by 50% from the existing 80,000 tons a year at an investment of INR1.0 billion. The companys main plant is situated in Amlai, Madhya Pradesh with an annual capacity of 76,000 tones. The company also provided technical and financial aid to Pan African Paper Mills (EA), to set up a pulp and paper mill in Kenya The company has two manufacturing units which are shown in table no 6

Table No: 6 production units of orient paper

Paper unit Amlai Brajrajnagar

State Madhya Pradesh Orissa

15

1.5 pest analysis


Pest analysis describes a framework of macro-environmental factors used in the environmental scanning component of strategic management. The four factors considered in the analysis are given below.

1.5.1 Political factors Import duties The government of India has recently reduced the import duty of waste paper from 2.5% to 0% which is one of the major raw materials for the paper mills in India. It was stated that the act was implemented for reducing the shortage of raw material prevailed in India; and this can be taken as a good note for the paper industry in improving its raw material flow. On the other side the import duties on the other raw material pulp and wood chips are been high and due to India being short of fibre many firms are importing the pulp and wood chips/logs are requesting the government to bring import duties to nil which could help then in reducing the input costs. Forest policy The forest policy in India is very stringent due to which wood being the major raw material for paper production around the world; but in India the paper mills operating with wood as input are only 20 which around to 31% of the industry capacity. Where the Revision of forest policy is required for wood based paper industry so that plantation can be raised by industries, cooperatives of farmers and state government. So that it can reduce the import of pulp and wood chips from abroad and help in reducing the input costs

16

FDI The foreign direct investment in the paper industry in India is open up to 100% in 2007 with allowing tax rebates and other facilities has got good investments and technology in the industry

1.5.2 Economic factors The India economy is suitable for the paper manufacturing firms as the government has identified paper industry as the one of the 35 important industries in India. There is a huge potential in raising IPOs for the firm expansions and other activities; the operating banks are in good position and are willing to provide long term loans. The increasing disposable income for the people has a positive impact on the industry. The annual turnover of the industry at present is at 35,000 crores and contribution to the government kitty is 3,000 crores Standard of living As compared to many countries in the world the per capita consumption of paper in India is very less at 9.5 kg whereas in many countries like America, china, japan the per capita consumption of paper is around 200 kg; due to the standard of living being low in India has its impact on the paper industry in its consumption. Effect of inflation Due to the inflation the input costs of the raw material and the machinery and other operating costs has gone up this has created the increase in the final cost of the output leading decrease in the quantity demanded

17

Economy of country Science the economic condition of the country is not good the development of the infrastructure in the country is not up to the mark to provide good ports, roads, railways and communication facilities. This could have helped the industry to grow further by reducing the expenses in the logistics and by improving new trades. The machinery and the operational costs are very high so huge investments are required for the establishment of the mills; this has limited the investments in the industry. 1.5.3 Social factors Paper industry is closely related to national economic factors as well as social factors; paper and paper consumption is a measure of a country's modernization level and the sign of the degree of civilization. Our paper products in approximately 80% of consumption by individuals, 20% for consumption in different industry packing

Lifestyle patterns and changes The lifestyle patterns and changes have both pros and cons on the paper industry. Where pros being in the modernization phase use of the different paper products like tissues etc. has been increasing consistently and had a wide scope in this stream and on the other side though not a complete impact but the digitalization storage of data also has its impact on the paper industry by reducing the demand for the paper to an extent.

Literacy rate The increase in the literacy rate in the country is a positive indicator in the development of the paper industry in the country science many people come in use with the available paper resources at various stages like schools, offices, newspapers etc. leading in the development of the industry.

This also makes availability of skilled labor for the industry which indeed helps in the improving the production values.
18

1.5.4 Environment issues

The increasing environmental concerns lead in the implementation of new emission limits for waste management; enterprises increased investment in environmental ecofriendly measures, so that a large number of small and medium enterprises are out of the market due to lack of funds in improvising the firms due to high input costs.

1.5.5 Technological factors In India there are many firms manufacturing the technology required for the paper industry but when compared in the phase of technology available in the foreign markets the technology available in the country in not up to the mark Many small and medium scale firms in the industry use the local technology due to the low cost but when compared to the other technologies available and the output is as well low. In India only large scale manufacturers have good technology machinery and are attaining economies of scale. And most of the firms do import technologies from other countries for paper machines, waste water treatment plants, digesters, crushers, cutters etc. in special paper production like coated paper most of the technology adopted is imported from foreign markets. To an extent the foreign trade policies are favoring the paper industry but still the duties imposed do exists on the technological imports.

19

1.6 porters 5 force analysis Porter five forces analysis is a framework for industry analysis and business strategy development formed by Michael E. Porter of Harvard Business School in 1979. The five forces that are considered are shown below in the exhibit no 2 Exhibit No: 2 porters 5 forces

Force 1: competitive rivalry with in the industry Force 2: bargaining power of suppliers Force 3: bargaining power of customers Force 4: threat of substitute product Force 5: threat of new entrants

Force 1: Competitive rivalry with in the industry The number of grades available in the paper mills of individuals with distant uses gives the firm an advantage against the competitive rivalries The high switching cost among the products also makes the industry rivalry less instance The difficulties to exit from the business due to high capital cost increases the chances of the rivalry among the producers of similar grades.

20

Force 2: Bargaining power of suppliers Bargaining power of suppliers of raw materials i.e. wood, straws, bagasse, waste paper, energy (coal etc.) is high due to the shortage of available raw material The number of suppliers in the market are very few so the bargaining power of the suppliers is high The imported technology is available easily to the firms and the bargaining power of the suppliers is less due to small market

Force 3: Bargaining power of customers The growing per-capita income of the customers has created a benefit to the firms by reducing the bargaining interest of the customers. The increase in imports of duty free newsprint has created a negative factor increasing the options for the customer there by increasing the bargaining power of the customer Diversified customer requirement and wide range of options have increased the bargaining power of the customer

Force 4: Threat of substitute product The digitalization of data storage has been the major substitute to the paper usage and has been a major threat Within the firm there is no near substitute because most of the production is customized based on the order taken The e-book/e-newspapers are been a clear substitute to the paper usage and considered to be threat to the firm.
21

Force 5: Threat of new entrants The entry of new firm is difficult due to high capital cost involved in starting up a firm The trained manpower is not available as the requirement science most of the paper mills are situated in rural areas. The rate of return is very low when compared to other capital invested so it acts as a barrier for the new players to enter The raw material shortage prevailing in the market makes it difficult for the new players to enter.

22

CHAPTER II COMPANY PROFILE

2.1 Brief history of the company


The Delta Paper Mills Limited was established as public limited company on 23rd May 1975 and certificate of commencement of business was obtained on 26th February 1976.The Delta Paper Mills Limited was promoted by late Sri Bh. Vijay Kumar raju The company started its production on 7th April 1977. The plant was located at Vendra, village of Palakaderu mandal, W.G.Dt. because of availability of raw material in surrounding areas, water facility, and drainage facility for disposal of effluents and is approximately to the broad gauge railway line connecting madras and Calcutta. Delta Paper Mills Limited commissioned the paper machine for commercial production from July 1978 and pulp mill by November 1978. It earned its profit in the second and third year of operations. Around 2000 families are getting their livelihood from this company. Besides, all famers in and around the Vendra village and benefited selling their paddy straw to the company. The company manufactures writing and printing papers of different cultural varieties such as cream wove, white printing, azure wove, azure laid, duplicating etc. the company uses unconventional raw materials like paddy straw and baggase. The main objective of this establishment was to use agro residues and cater to the needs of the farmers. It is the first company to utilize natural gas supplied by oil & natural gas Corporation in entire south India. To keep the environmental balances, the company has taken up plantation of trees in and around the mill premises. It has got fullfledged effluent treatment plant. The company has developed superior quality of paper called SUPER DELUX CREAMWOVE and penetrated into the market with good results. It has a strong marketing network. The majority of sales comprise to the government department viz.,
23

government textbook Corporation of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, tamilnadu, Kerala, and other central/state government agencies through DGS & D rate contract. The company enjoys patronage of private market distributors and also having a brand name and image. Its Delta Hasti Duplicating Paper and Note Books are very popular. The company has also installed a 9.9MW power plant. In entire south India out of agro based paper mills, the company is the only mill installed chemical recovery plant for abating the pollution. With all these developments, the company is now producing at the rate of 51,100MT per annum of quality writing and printing papers. 2.1.1 Reasons for selecting the location For bringing reputation to the native place, creating employment to the rural youth and The availability of raw material in surrounding areas, water facility, drainage for disposal of effluents and its proximity to the broad gauge railway line connecting Chennai and Kolkata. Has been considered to select the existing mill location 2.1.2 Board composition Dr. G. Ganga raju Mr. G.V.K. Ranga Raju Mr. G. Panduranga Raju Mr. G. Rama Raju Mr. G.V. Narasimha Raju Mrs. Bh. K.K. Kasturi Mr. M. Subba Raju Mr. A. Narasimha Rao Chairman Executive Director Executive Director non-Executive Director non-Executive Director Independent Director Independent Director Independent Director

24

2.1.3 Capacity: In 1978 the initial production capacity was 30 tonnes per day. In 1986, Delta Paper Mills Limited under took an expansion project to double its capacity to 60 tonnes per day. Now the capacity of the plant is 150 tonnes per day. 2.1.4 Turn over: The initial turnover of the company is 9,000 MT. The company has taken

expansion in the year 1986 to add another 9,000MT per annum. Now the total turnover of the company is 18,000 MT. The company has installed 3rd paper machine and required plant & machinery and increased the capacity to 42,000MT per annum and commissioned the same during December 2004. The mill development has been successfully completed and the company is now capable of producing 51,100MT per annum of quality writing and printing papers. 2.1.5 Nature of activity: Delta Paper Mills Limited specialities in making paper alone, and produce primarily only three types of paper. Printing Writing Craft paper

2.1.6 Raw material: The following types of raw materials are being used in manufacturing of paper in this company. They are mainly. Paddy straw Waste paper Casurina Wood
25

Bagasse Bleached pulp Imported waste paper

2.1.7 Financial performance The performance of the company during the year is satisfactory in terms of production and sales during the year under review; the company has taken up modernization of plant with the assistance of bank finance. The financial result of the company for the year ended March 31, 2012 in comparison with preceding financial year ended as on March 30, 2011 are summarized and shown below in the table no 7 Table No: 7 financial status of delta paper mills ltd. (Rs. In Lakhs) Particulars Sales Less: excise duty Add: other income Total revenue Profit/ (loss) before interest and 2011-2012 17752.11 1051.04 52.69 16753.76 (489.15) 2010-2011 16266.62 833.21 51.66 15485.07 505.71

depreciation Less: interest Less: deprecation Profit/loss for year Less: income tax Less: deferred tax Profit/ (loss) after tax 1093.45 769.25 (2351.85) 24.60 10.23 (2386.68) 998.86 756.17 (1249.32) 0.49 64.61 (1314.42)

26

2.1.8 Capital sources: The initial capital of the Delta Paper Mills Limited was 1, 50, 00,000/-. The Delta Paper Mills Limited has the financial support from the banks like UCO bank, Canara bank, Andhra bank and Indian overseas bank. Term loans availed from canara bank, Andhra bank and Indian overseas bank are secured by way of equitable mortgage by deposit of title deeds of the companys immovable properties both present and future and by way of first charge of all fixed assets of the company as a primary security and hypothecation of movable properties of the company with the term loan lender banks and further secured by a second charge on the current assets of the company consisting of raw materials, stock in process, finished goods, stores and spares and book debts both present and future.

2.2 Mission, vision and corporate goal


The delta paper mills limited mission, vision statements and corporate goals are explained below 2.2.1 Mission: Delta Paper Mills Limited is committed to actively promote the safety, health and wellbeing of all its personnel. Delta Paper Mills Ltd will ensure that these aspects are inbuilt and become integral part of its operations and strategic planning. Delta Paper Mills Ltd also is committed to make available necessary funds, resources and any such means required to implement the occupational health, safety and welfare (OHS & W) policy and commits to ensure: A safe work culture that minimizes the risk of injury or illness to its personnel Adequate facilities at work places Regular training, instructions and information to all its OHS & W.
27

To meet these provisions Delta Paper Mills LTD is committed to: Meet its Responsibility of care and wellbeing of all persons in Delta Paper Mills LTD work places including visitors, contract workmen, casual workmen and trainees. Comply with relevant OHS & W legislation, code of practices and standard. Implement an effective hazard management policy. The right of employees to demand for safe working environment and shall strive to provide the same. Have effective two-way communication with all its employees for a better and safe work culture. 2.2.2 Vision: Delta Paper Mills Limited, Vendra is committed to satisfy our customers, for the products we develop and supply with an emphasis on Customer requirement at competitive prices Use of Eco friendly systems to the extent possible Continuous process of improvement for betterment in quality Continuous interaction between the mills, suppliers, dealers and customers

2.2.3 Corporate goal: Adapting latest international technology to math paper requirement. Accelerate growth through brand building. Continuous research and product development. To utilize the maximum production capacity

28

2.3 Swot analysis


Swot analysis is a structured planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats involves in a project or in a business venture and the swot analysis for the delta paper mills ltd. is done below. Strengths The management of Delta Paper Mills Limited is very strong in production activities and decision making Optimum utilization of company resources and human skills and capacity Consistency in the quality of the product irrespective of the market conditions etc. Fulfilling social responsibility by keeping environment clean.

Weakness The Delta Paper Mills Limited is located in a remote place so there are few skilled labor The brightness of the paper produced is dull which limits its value in the market. The employees leaving the firm are notable and been a problem in controlling the issue.

Opportunities There is an opportunity to use new technology i.e. oxygen bleaching system Expanding the company product line like as tissue papers and card boards Expanding into new geographic markets science there is only one manufacturing unit. Increase in the demand and usage of different types of paper in the national and global arena. The Delta Paper Mills Limited has an opportunity to updated technology with further improvement in the global technical expertise

29

Threats: The availability of raw material is been very difficult and is been a continuous threat to the firm and the industry The import duties charged by the government on the import of the new technology and raw materials The 100% foreign direct investment in the industry has lead in many international firms to enter the market increasing the market completion.

2.4 Products and target markets


2.4.1 Products of the company Cream wove: Wove paper is a writing paper with a uniform surface, not ribbed or watermarked. Is normally used as a writing paper. Azurlaid: Laid paper is a type of paper having a ribbed texture imparted by the manufacturing process. In the 19th century its use diminished as it was largely supplanted by wove paper. Laid paper is still commonly used by artists as a support for charcoal drawings. This type of paper is used for making charts, cards etc. Azurwove: This type of paper has partial properties like cream wove and azurlaid. It is used as a writing paper but the finishing of the paper is not as uniform as cream wove and has a partial ribbed texture as azurlaid

30

Duplicating paper: This type of paper is used for stencil work cyclostyling etc. It is used very much for rough works, colour paper, vouchers etc. generally the duplicating paper has very less GSM and brightness varied as per the manufacturer. Colour wove: This type of paper has good finishing and it costs more than the cream wove and is a kind of cream wove which has more properties like different shades which can be manufactured as per the requirement. Sack kraft: Sack Kraft Paper is a porous kraft paper with high elasticity and high tear resistance, designed for packaging products with high demands for strength and durability. Delta hasthi: This is the brand name of the note books and duplicating paper produced by the firm and is made of high quality paper. 2.4.2 Target markets The company has a strong marketing network. The majority of sales comprises to the government department viz., government text Book Corporation of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and other central/state government agencies through DGS & D rate contract. The majority of the business of the firm is to other business units mostly paper supplied in the form of rolls and sheets for further process to be performed. The firm has manly based on the consumer segment while there is industrial segment producing paper for different packing processes but the operations in this segment is very limited with only producing sack Kraft.
31

2.5 Balanced Score Card Approach: The balanced scorecard is a strategy performance management tool - a semi-standard structured report, supported by design methods and automation tools, which can be used by managers to keep track of the execution of activities by the staff within their control and to monitor the consequences arising from these actions below shown is the modal of balance score card of the delta paper mills limited. In exhibit no 3 Exhibit No: 3 Model of Balanced Score Card

2.5.1 Finance Activity Objective: The main financial objective is that to improve the financial status overcoming the losses. Measures: In order to overcome the losses the cost of production is to be reduced and the total capacity of the firm is to be utilized.

32

Targets: The immediate target aimed is to get to a financial position to a break-even point and there by gradually improve to attain profits.

2.5.2 International Business Process Objective: The main objective is to enter into the international market Measures: In order to reach this objective they are slowly improving the quality of the product. Target: The target aimed is to firstly enter into small international markets like Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

2.5.3 Customer Objective: The objective is to satisfy the customer by providing the product according to his specifications Measures: To attain the objective the paper production is customized according to the consumer requirement. Target: To attain 100% customer satisfaction and make them loyal customers to the firm.
33

2.5.4 Learning and growth Objective: The main objective is to update the technology and to give good training to new employees or labor which could help in developing the firm. Measure: Establishing an R&D and introducing latest market changes in the classes of training. Target: To upgrade the technology and the improve the employee skills to the market condition in a span of 3 years.

34

CHAPTER III A STUDY OF THE ORGANIZATION DESIGN 3.1 Meaning and definition
An organization structure refers to the determination of organization system of the enterprise it determines the programs and procedures by which the administrative relations of an enterprise are defined and established. No activity of the organization can go out of this structure. As the policy of the enterprise determines the limits within which the enterprise has to work. In the same manner organization structure determines and defines the shape and size of the enterprise according to which the administrative and organization decisions have to be taken. It is also the framework of activities of the enterprise, it may also be considered as the map of the building to be constructed.

3.2 Components of an organization design


Organization structure influences the division of the tasks, grouping of activities, coordinating the activities and the overall accomplishment of the tasks. Since organization structure relates to relatively stable relationship and process of the organization, all influencing factors must be analyzed for designing the organization structure. According to Robbins organization structure stipulates how tasks are to be allocated, who reports to whom, and the formal coordinating mechanisms and interaction patterns that will be followed. John Ivancevich and Michael Matteson have also expressed the same view and advocated that manager are required to take Following four decisions for designing organizational structure: Divisions of overall task into smaller jobs. Distribution of authority among the jobs. Bases by which the individual jobs are to be grouped together; and
35

3.3 A review of choices in design


3.3.1 Advantages of the organization structure:-

The organization structure has the following advantages in the enterprise:-

Necessary for the management: it is necessary for the management of the business and industrial enterprise. In the absence of a clearly defined organization structure, the management cannot discharge its duties properly because the structure defines and defines the relation between all the departments of the enterprise and the rights and duties of all the in the enterprise. It also tells us about the managerial approach.

It reveals the drawback of an organization: organization structure is an important document of an enterprise. It serves as the guidelines to explain what should be done in the enterprise. Actual performance of the enterprise is compared with this document. The way it reveals the drawback of an organization

Helpful in delegation: it is also helpful in providing the suitable training to the employees of the organization and defining their duties. It helps in delegating proper authority to the employees so that they can discharge their duties effectively and efficiently. Helpful in training: It is also helpful in providing suitable training to the employees and defining their duties like mentioned in the above. It defined the requirements of all the suitable postages and it also determines the need, nature, and the form of the training required.

3.3.2 Disadvantages of organization structure:

The organization structure follows from the certain defects:It is difficult to change: Management is a dynamic science. To make is a real science, must be practical, no hard and fast line can be drawn in the activities of enterprise,
36

organization structure is the definite determination of activities. Therefore, it develops rigid ness in the activities and becomes difficult to make any changes easily.

It reveals only the formal relations: A very important drawback of the organization structure is that it is only a formal document. It defines only the formal relations among the employees of an enterprise. But in practice, there are two types of relations among them. Formal and informal and organization structure does not define informal relations.

It creates conflicts: Organization structure makes clear difference in the rights and duties of all the employees of the enterprise. It is the feeling of boss and subordinate among them. It also develops the feeling of superior and inferior. It also develops the feeling of senior and junior.

3.3.3 Types of organizations structure:

Different types of Organization structure can be created on the basis of arrangement of activities. Accordingly, three broad types of structural forms are: Functional Structure Divisional Structure and Adaptive Structure

Functional Structure: When units and sub-units of activities are created in organization on the basis of functions, it is known as functional structure. Thus, in any industrial organization, specialized functions like manufacturing, marketing, finance and personnel constitute as separate units of the organization. All activities connected with each such function are placed in the same unit. As the volume of activity increases, sub-units are created at lower levels in each unit and the number of persons under each manager at various levels

37

gets added. This results in the interrelated positions taking the shape of a pyramid. The exhibit no 4 shows the functional structure of a medium-size organization. Exhibit No: 4 functional structures

Chief Executive

Manufacturing

Marketing

Finance

Mechanical

Electrical

Advertising

Sales

Accounts

Audit

Sub-units

Sub-units

Sub-units

Sub-units

Sub-units

Sub-units

The main advantage of the functional structure of organization is that there is functional specialization in each unit, which leads to operational efficiency of people engaged, and the organization as a whole derives the benefit of specialized operations. The heads of the functional units are in direct touch with the chief executive who can sort out interfunctional problems, if any, and also coordinate the interrelated functions. The chief executive is also able to be in direct touch with lower level subordinates and thereby have full knowledge of the state of affairs in the organization. However, while the functional arrangement may be well suited to small and medium size organizations, it is incapable of handling the problems of an organization as it grows in size and complexity. Problems of subunits at lower levels do not receive adequate attention of higher level managers while some of the activities tend to be over-emphasized.
38

Functional units become unwisely and difficult to manage when there are diverse kinds of activities performed in large number of sub-units. Personal contact between superiors and subordinates become rare, and flow of communication is slow leading to problems of coordination and control. II Divisional Structure: The divisional organization structure is more suited to every large enterprise particularly those which deal in multiple products to serve more than one distinctive markets. The organization is then divided into smaller business units which are entrusted with the business related to different products or different market territories. In other words, independent divisions (product divisions or market division), are created under the overall control of the head office. Each divisional manager is given autonomy to run all functions relating to the product or market segment or regional market. Thus, each division may have a number of supporting functions to undertake. A divisional structure may consist of two or more product divisions or market or territorial divisions as depicted in the diagrams shown below from the exhibits no 5 and 6 Exhibit No: 5 Product divisionalisation

Chief Executive

Corporate Planning

Finance

Personnel and Control

Chemicals Products Division

Textiles Division

Manufacturing, Marketing Accounting & Personnel


39

Manufacturing, Marketing Accounting & Personnel

Exhibit No: 6 Territorial divisionalisaton Chief Executive

Corporate Planning

Finance

Marketing

Personnel and Control

Eastern Division

Western Division

Northern Division

Southern Division

Accounting Personnel Manufacturing Marketing

Accounting Personnel Manufacturing Marketing

Accounting Personnel Manufacturing Marketing

Accounting Personnel Manufacturing Marketing

In a divisional structure each division contributes planned profits to the organization, but otherwise operates as an independent business. The functional units are headed by managers while the final authority vests in the divisional manager, who coordinates and controls the activities of the various functional units in the division. The top management of the organization, besides providing funds, determines the organization goals and formulates policies. The divisional structure is characterized by decentralization of authority. Thus, it enables managers to take decisions promptly and resolve problems appropriate to the respective divisions. It also provides opportunity to the divisional

managers to take initiative in matters within their jurisdiction. But such a structure
40

involves heavy financial costs due to the duplication of supporting functional units for the divisions. Moreover, it requires adequate number of capable managers to take charge of the respective divisions and their functional units. III Adaptive Structure: Organization structures are often designed to cope with the unique nature of undertaking and the situation. This type of structure is known as adaptive structure. There are two types in structures. i) Project Organization and ii) Matrix Organization i) Project Organization: When an enterprise undertakes any specialized, time-bound work involving one-time operations for a fairly long period, the project organization is found most suitable. In this situation the existing organization creates a special unit so as to engage in a project work without disturbing its regular business. This becomes necessary where it is not possible to cope with the special task or project. Within the existing system, the project may consist of developing a new project, installing a plant, building an office complex, etc... A project organization is headed by a project manager in charge, who holds a middle management rank and reports directly to the chief executive. Other managers and personnel in the project organization are drawn from the functional departments of the parent organization. On completion of the project they return to their parent departments. The main advantage of such a structural arrangement is that it leaves regular business undisturbed. It is exclusively concerned with the task of completing the project work on time and in conformity with the standards of performance relevant to its goal. There is better management and control over the project activities as the project manager enjoys necessary authority and is alone responsible for the results. But project organization may create problems as well. Functional managers often resent the exercise of authority by the project manager in the functional areas and hence conflict arises. The stability of the functional departments is disturbed by transfer of personnel to project work from time to
41

time. Shifting of personnel from project to project disrupts their developments in the specialized fields. ii) Matrix Organization: This is another type of adaptive structure which aims at combining the advantages of autonomous project organization and functional specialization. In the matrix organization structure, there are functional departments with specialized personnel who are deputed to work full time in different projects sometimes in more than one project under the overall guidance and direction of project managers. When a project work is completed, the individuals attached to it go back to their respective functional department to be assigned again to some other project. This arrangement is found suitable where the organization is engaged in contractual project activities and there are many project managers, as in a large construction company or engineering firm. Matrix organization provides a flexible structure ideally suited to the requirements of changing conditions. It facilitates pooling of specialized and technical personnel from different functional departments, who can be deputed to a number of projects. They acquire valuable experience of handling varied and complex problems in project work. There is speedy exchange of information and decision-making as they work under the coordinating authority of project managers. The major drawback of matrix organization is that the personnel drawn from specialized functional departments are subjected to dual authority, that of the functional heads and the project managers. The principles of unity of command are thereby sacrificed. This generates stresses and strains in project management, because there is simultaneous engagement of the same individual in a number of projects. 3.3.4 Selection of an appropriate organization structure: The most important step to choosing the appropriate organizational structure is to determine the needs of your business and prioritize them. Each business has unique needs that will help determine which structure is most appropriate. What type of decision making or management structure is needed?
42

How important is liability for personal injury and product liability? How important are taxation issues (for example: treatment of profits/losses and deducibility of employee benefits -- health insurance, group term life insurance)?

3.4

Organization structure:
An organizational structure consists of activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, which are directed towards the achievement of organizational aims. It can also be considered as the viewing glass or perspective through which individuals see their organization and its environment. An organization can be structured in many different ways, depending on their objectives. The structure of an organization will determine the modes in which it operates and performs. Organizational structure allows the expressed allocation of responsibilities for different functions and processes to different entities such as the branch, department, work group and individual. Organizational structure affects organizational action in two big ways. First, it provides the foundation on which standard operating procedures and routines rest. Second, it determines which individuals get to participate in which decision-making processes, and thus to what extent their views shape the organizations actions. And the organization structure of the delta paper mills limited in shown below in the exhibit no 7

43

Exhibit No: 7 organization structure of delta paper mills limited

Board of directors Chairman Managing director Director

Management executive

president (operations)

Finance & accounts Department Managers, Asst.man, Officers & Clerks

purchase Department Managers, Asst.man, Officers & Clerks

marketing Department Managers, Asst.man,

administration Department Managers, Asst.man, Officers & Clerks

personnel Department

Manager

Officers & Clerks

Dy.manager

Officer personal

welfare officer

medical officer

security officer

Time keeper

scavenger, canteen staff

compounder

guards

44

President (operations) Personnel Dept. Mechanical Dept. Electrical Dept. Paper machine Dept. Stock preparation Dept. Pulp mill Dept. Finishing Dept. Paper go-down Dept. Store Dept. Abbrivations:Man Asst.man Dy.man Dept. Eng Tech Atndt Manager Assistant Manager Deputy manager Department Engineer Technician Attendant
45

Man (mech), asst.man, eng, and tech Man (elec), asst.man, eng, and tech Manager, asst.man, tech and atndt Manager, asst.man, tech, atndt Manager, asst.man, tech, atndt Manager, asst.man, tech, atndt Manager, asst.man, tech, labour Manager, asst.man, staff, labour

3.4.1 Reasons for using functional organization structure: The organization structure followed in the organization is functional design the organization has selected this type of structure because every function is in the firm is assigned to a department who are specialized in the particular operations and hence the efficiency of the output is high. And in this structure there are defined structure of hierarchy and the heads of the functional units are in direct touch with the chief executive who can sort out inter-functional problems, if any and also coordinate the interrelated functions. Being delta paper mills limited a medium size organization this type of structure is suitable but if the organization develops in size it may become difficult to organize with the functional structure. The organization structure with its interrelated positions takes the shape of a pyramid and the organization as a whole derives the benefit of specialized operations.

3.5 Critical review of the structure:


3.5.1 Objective: Their commitment is to manufacture & supply quality products by improvement, innovation, continuous up gradation of technology & skills resulting in customer satisfaction. Objectives are: Reduce in the wastage during the production To maintain an efficient communication in the functional departments Reducing number of customer complaints

46

Training and communicating all employees to ensure the better knowledge of the work and implemented to achieve better outputs.

3.5.2 Specialization: The main benefit of the company is its wide product range of different grades makes it more specialized in variety of market segments. 3.5.3 Co-ordination: The co-ordination of the different functional departments is very good in the firm. Where the heads of the departments co-ordinate with their subordinates and with the other employees of different departments to attain their organization goals. Science any firm need a proper co-ordination between the departments to attain their goals in the specified time, in delta paper mills limited there is a good rate of success in delivering the goods in time shows the existence of co-ordination 3.5.4 Authority: With the evident functional organization structure there is clear authority with accordance with the position in the firm where a person in higher post have an authority over all the subordinates. In delta paper mills the main authority lies with the chairman and the different heads of the functional departments. 3.5.5 Responsibility: The every individual employee working in the delta paper mills limited is responsible of the work assigned to him and continuous supervision in verifying the individual duties is done by the high grade officers and this indeed is an responsibility of their roles. 3.5.6 Span of control: Wide span of control is followed in the delta paper mills limited with a few managers and Assistant Manager oversees a large number of subordinates. As the narrow span of control is more expensive as well the firm is not in a good financial position the existing

47

wide span of control is suitable to minimize the expense but the responsibilities of the head of the functional groups are more. 3.5.7 Chain of command: It is defined as a continuous line of authority that extends from upper organizational levels to the lowest levels and clarifies who reports to whom. And following a functional organization structure or called pyramid structure the commanding power starts from to top of the pyramid and goes down by level by level to the bottom of the pyramid. 3.5.8 Delegation: Delegation is a critical skill for small business success, however. No one can be good at everything, and running a small business involves so many different tasks and skills that some sort of division of labor becomes necessary for survival. A manager alone cannot perform all the tasks assigned to him. In order to meet the targets, the manager should delegate authority. The assignment of duties being a very important job by which a capable employee is to be selected to do a specific job in delta paper mills the assignment of duties is not to the standard. Grant of authority is yet another task under the delegation which is to be performed with care which indeed is an important aspect in the development of the organization and this issue in the firm is good and the firm is seeing good results over years 3.5.9 Continuity: The continuity of the business functions in the delta paper mills limited is an actual pride of the organization where the organization has continuous running science its establishment except only ones due to a natural calamity which shows a good organization structure without any internal issues.

48

3.5 Conclusion:
Organizing is a very important element in management. It takes its importance in decision making, communication, Evaluating Employee Performance, Achieving Goals and Prevention/Solution for the problems. Where in in decision making most companies either have a tall or flat organizational structure which have its impact directly on the decision making process. The Organizational structure enables the distribution of authority. When a person starts a job, he knows from day one to which officer he need to report. Most companies funnel their communication through department leaders this makes the firm employees clear in their duties and enhance their output. The head of the departments can have a clear idea of the employee performance if there is proper organization structure and can be helpful in determining their annual performance appraisals Organizational structure is particularly important in achieving goals and results. Organizational structure allows for the chain of command. Department leaders are in charge of delegating tasks and projects to subordinates so the department can meet project deadlines.

49

CHAPTER IV BUSINESS LEVEL FUNCTIONS AND PROCESSES

4.1 Purchase department:


The main objective of the purchase department is to ensure uninterrupted flow of Materials to Support Operations with a better Cost, Quality & Delivery across all Purchase Functions. And they should play a key role to maintain good relations with the sellers and to find new sellers with better benefits, forecast the future prices of the raw material and to keep a track of the purchases and Resolve complaints on all purchased goods and services

4.1.1 Organization chart of the department: The below exhibit no 8 shows the organization structure of the purchase department. Exhibit No: 8 purchase department structure

Manager purchase Assistant manager purchase Officers purchase Clerks

50

4.1.2 Purchase functions: Materials purchased: The material purchased is bagasse which is supplied to the mill in the form of bales or in loose form is the main raw material used in the mill and the other raw materials are rice straw and wood. And the other intermediates purchases include caustic soda, chlorine, talcum, lime used in the production process Suppliers of materials: The main suppliers of the bagasse is delta sugar mill ltd. and is an sister concern of the delta paper mill ltd. the rice straw and wood is purchased from the surrounding farmers around the mill Talcum powder supplied from the Rajasthan the only producers in India and surya lime chemical products are the suppliers of lime and chlorine, Vishnu sri chemicals are the suppliers of the castic soda. Supplier selection procedure: All the suppliers of the raw materials are in business with the firm from a very long time and suppliers of small and varying goods are purchased from the suppliers only after the detailed talks and verification of their ability to do business and their records Purchasing schedule: As the mill operates all the year with continues shifts the purchasing schedule is also quite regular for the main raw material bagasse is purchased at an interval of 5 days and the rice straw is purchased in seasons of the crop and the purchase occurs twice a year and other intermediate raw materials are purchased in an span of two month.

51

Purchasing decision: The managing director, purchase manager and president operations are involved in the purchase decision based the type and quality of the paper demanded by the customer. Inspection of purchased material: The stock preparation department is authorized for the inspection of the purchased material before they process the material further.

4.2 Operations department:


The major function of the firm i.e. the manufacturing process of paper tales place here and the main objective of the department is to adopt the best procedures in the process and to give an good quality output, maintain the eco-friendly principles laid down, and to create a safe working place and increase the employee participation, to maintain a coordination between the different sub-departments in the operations department.

4.2.1 Organization chart of the department: The below exhibit no 9 shows the organization structure of the operations department. Exhibit No: 9 operations department structure President operations Managers of sub-departments Assistant managers of sub-departments Engineers Technicians Labour
52

4.2.2 Production process: The below exhibit no 10 shows the production procedure of the paper production Exhibit No: 10 production process of paper production

Raw material (fiber-70% waste, 30% cellulose*) Caustic soda, chlorine, line digester Hypo (concentrated paste) Wash (to clean waste) White pulp Glue stock preparation GSM 45 to 150 (set on paper machine) Paper machine (prepared stock sprayed on belt) Roll Finishing Revinders output

Abbreviation: GSM - Gram per Square Mater

53

4.2.3 Production / operations function: Technology adopted: The technology adopted is brought from foreign and there is no change in the technology adopted but there has been installation of new paper machines and effluent treat plants installed to increase the production capacity and to treat the waste material obtained in the process. And the paper machines installed are manufactured by James betman & sons Machinery & equipment maintenance: Specific gap is given between the maintenance of the paper machine and there are three paper machines in the delta paper mill limited and they are maintained at a gap of three months and the predictive maintenance is followed in the firm and qualified and well trained mechanical and electrical engineers are appointed for the unexpected and the periodic maintenance all over the machinery of the mill from digesters, stock preparation machine, effluent treatment plant and paper machine. Steps taken to conserve energy / fuel: The use of waste paper with the bagasse and rice straw helps in reducing the consumption of energy and this process is implemented in the firm along with the proper maintenance of the power grid lines so that energy wastage is reduced and the company is good at capacity utilization which indeed helps in the energy conservation even proper selection of the raw material used has its impact on the amount of energy used and development in this point is to be improved by the firm. Steps taken to increase productivity: Various methods are been experimented by the delta paper mills to increase the productivity and it is evident that the raw material selected plays a major role in the productivity and different add-ons used in the intermediate process are also important at which ratio they are used to increase the quality of the raw material composition so as to increase the output.
54

4.3 Paper go-down department:


The paper go-down department or the material handling functions are to maintain the finished goods in the manufacturing process until they are supplied to the consumers and also involves in the preparation of the material for the consumer delivery.

4.3.1 Organization chart of the department: The below exhibit no 11 shows the organization structure of the paper go-down department. Exhibit No: 11 paper go-down department structure

Manager paper go-down Assistant manager paper go-down Technicians paper go-down Labour

4.3.2 Material handling function: List of material involved: The final materials of the production are handled by the paper go-down department and the major form of paper handled by the department is in the form of roles and as requirement the rolls are cut down in to sheets by the department and are preserved. Weighing and measuring devices of material: The material produced is weighted before its dispatch for the accurate measure by using the heavy digital weighting machines and automated paper cutting and bundle separators are used for the paper in the form of the sheets.
55

Logistics for material handling within the firm: Frock lifts are the major logistics used for handling the paper rolls and heavy trucks are used to transport the rolls with in the mills and cranes are used to unload the paper role from the paper machine. Risks involved in material handling: They are several accidents registered in the handling the huge paper rolls during the loading for transport, where many accidents are registered for damages on legs due to over rolling of the paper rolls over the leg due to not balancing the movement.

4.4 Quality department:


The main objectives of the quality department is to check the quality of the paper produced across all the parameters required necessary before the delivery to the customer and to maintain the certifications issued by the quality verification bodies in India

4.4.1 Organization chart of the department: The below exhibit no 12 shows the organization structure of the quality department. Exhibit No: 12 quality department structure

Manager quality Assistant manager quality Technicians quality Attendant

56

4.4.2 Quality function: Quality policy: Delta Paper Mills has been successfully in unifying the quality with eco friendliness. The Company strictly follows the standards of quality; it produces 100% Virgin Pulp by using Sugar Cane Bagasse as Raw Material, Delta Paper Mills has full-fledged Laboratory and equipments to meet the specifications of quality checking as prescribed by the quality standard boards. Quality certifications received: B.I.S and DGS&D have qualified the delta paper mills limited for the maintenance of its quality in the effluent treatments and the paper quality Techniques adopted to ensure quality: Different techniques are adopted to check the quality of the paper in the firm after the production stage like the thickness test with the help of thickness gauge, bursting strength and tensile strength is found using vertical load methods And smoothness being one of the major aspect to be checked due to its importance in the printing grades of paper is done and cobb test for water absorption capacity of the paper is found, where this are the major tests to be performed along with few other tests. Brightness of paper: The main drawback of the firm is its low brightness of its paper produced there has been different procedures followed to improve the brightness and there is a significance improvement but due to its raw material lacking the ability to give brightness paper produced is limited to some markets. So the quality check for the brightness is been a barrier in few market segments. Future plans to improve quality: Delta paper mills limited being developing consistently with its product line and production capacity is aiming to develop its quality in coming years to enter in to new
57

market segments and to create its brand name. As the steps to be taken it has started concentrating on the input raw material quality which has direct relation with the improvement of the quality of the product.

4.5 Personnel department


The personnel department function includes a variety of activities and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Usually small businesses (for-profit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they can't yet afford part- or full-time help. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals, which all employees have the role of the personnel department will be very useful for the management as well as the employees for running business organization in the infrastructure and welfare measures.

4.5.1 Organization chart of the department: The below exhibit no 13 shows the organization structure of the personnel department. Exhibit No: 13 personnel department structure

Manager personnel deputy manager personnel Officers personal Attendant

58

4.5.2 Personnel functions: The HR policies: The delta paper mills personnel departments Policies are clear with employees issues as: The nature of the organization What they should expect from the organization What the organization expects of them. How policies and procedures work. What is acceptable and unacceptable behavior The consequences of unacceptable behavior

Human Resource Planning The human resource planning of the delta paper mill is very good with all the employees are allocated work at different shifts with rotation policy to avoid any dissatisfaction among the different employees Recruitment process: The recruitment process begins when new recruits are sought and end when their applicants are submitted. Group has both contract employees and permanent employees Group Pharmaceuticals is one of the advanced pharmaceuticals where they lag in human resource and the recruitment process Through advertisement Reference Online

Process includes two types, a) Internal recruitment b) External recruitment

59

Internal recruitment: Recruitment is meant for existing employees, formal employees. Objectives: It helps in Cost reduction of recruitment, training, orientation and other activities. Employees economic needs for promotion can be satisfied.

External recruitment: Sources of external recruitment are advertisement, employment exchanges,

college/university, walk-in, consultancies, contractors, radio& television, internet job sites, company website. The company prefers external recruitment because: New talents, new skills, reaches large number of people to organization.. Compliance with reservation policy becomes easy. Group follow the most common and least expensive approach for selecting the candidates is direct applications, in which the job seekers unsolicited application letters or resume. Group check for original proofs of the document. Walk-in are preferable as they are free from the problems associated with other methods of recruitment. Company has contractors: For recruiting the casual workers, the names of the workers are not entered in the company records. By this HR department avoid the difficulties in maintaining permanent workers. Selection process in group: As the recruitment process ends the next follows HRM process, which determine who is best qualified for the job, this step is called the selection process. The selection methods are different for different jobs, Group follows:
60

Preliminary interview Written test Document verification Personal interview Background investigations Physical examinations Job offer Evaluation & control Orientation

Training & development: Training & development is a process of imparting specific skill, ability and knowledge to an employee. Employee training is an important HRM activities, as job demand change, employee skill have to be altered and updated. They have two level of training system I II Induction Training On-job training Group gives the training to every employee who is recruited at the supervisor or higher level in manufacturing and quality assurance system and a detail description of the equipped and its handlings are provided to the newly inducted employee. Group maintain A separate training record for every employee for the time of joining and is upgraded as and when training is given.

Performance appraisal: Performance appraisal is done in Group, Senior Manager checking the assessment of employee performance by using different methods of performance appraisal Managers need to know whether their employees are performing their job efficiently and effectively or whether there is need for improvement, because an organizations goals can be achieved only when people put their best efforts.
61

Performance appraisal may be understood as the assessment of an individuals performance with respect to his/her performance in a systematic way. Employees performance appraisal describes the job relevant strengths and weakness of each individual. it includes promotions and transfer, awarding pay increases.

Finally, performance appraisal can be used to determine whether personnel programmers such As selection, training and transfer have been effective or not.

4.6 Finance department


The financial function is generally concerned with procurement, allocation and control of financial resources of the firm among the different departments and to follow up the accounts department, book-keeping and related accounting practices. 4.6.1 Organization chart of the department: The below exhibit no 11 shows the organization structure of the finance department. Exhibit No: 14 finance department structure

Manager finance assistant manager finance Officers finance Attendant

62

4.6.2 Finance functions: Accounting policies: The companys financial statements are prepared under the historical cost conventions on the accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the mandatory standards (AS) issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India and the relevant provisions of the companies Act 1956. Book keeping The financial statements and the different financial activities are recorded in the book keeping section maintained by the finance officers; the petty cash book is maintained by the firm on the general expenses and single entry system of book keeping is followed. Various heads of accounts: Different accounts are maintained by the accounting and the financing department like the capital account, current liabilities, current assets, bank accounts, cash in hand, and purchase account to perform all the different activities in the organization. Budgetary technique The most important budgetary technique is forecasting, or the ability to set out a detailed plan for the future. This forecast is a dialogue about what to look for in the future. Each manager should prepare detailed plans with targets and resource needs. These needs should be compared with the overall look to ensure alignment with industry standards. Focus on creating an agile budget; provide percentages of common accounts for other groups to compare. Budgeting should be looked at as a tool, not a harness, and is well implemented by the firm to take an advantage.

63

Costing Process costing is an accounting methodology that traces and accumulates direct costs, and allocates indirect costs of a manufacturing process. Costs are assigned to products, usually in a large batch, which might include an entire month's production. Eventually, costs have to be allocated to individual units of product. It assigns average costs to each unit, and is the opposite extreme of Job costing which attempts to measure individual costs of production of each unit. Process costing is usually a significant and is followed by the firm Internal Auditing Internal auditing is done every quarter in the firm to keep a track of the process and the financial state of the firm and the finance and accounting managers are liable in submitting the reports to the chairman and to get the approval for the processes.

4.7 Marketing department


The marketing department is one of the key departments in the firm which takes its operations levels with sales and marketing and customer relationship the marketing department activities in the firm are not good as the existing rivals. And market research is carried out by the firm for its pricing strategy 4.7.1 Organization chart of the department: The below exhibit no 15 shows the organization structure of the marketing department. Exhibit No: 15 marketing department structure Manager marketing assistant manager marketing Officers marketing Attendant
64

4.7.2 Finance functions: Pricing: With different pricing strategies existing to follow the company has been following cost plus pricing for establishing its product prices; the optimum price is fixed for each product so as to generate profit. Promotion: Few promotion activities are followed by the firm to increase its sales by providing cash rebate on full cash payment before the delivery, interest free time for payment for trusted customers after the delivery, and providing sample products to the different customer and detailed explanation of the specifications is done. Distribution & Distribution network: The delta paper mills have wide spread distribution channels with different men at different positions involved in the distribution channel like the product supply is done through producers to retailers and to consumers generally large retailers buy from the firm directly or else the wholesaler comes in to picture or even in some cases there are agents involved between the wholesalers and the producers. Logistics: In the firm the fork lifters are used to load the rolls and the paper sheets to the carrying vehicles and there are heavy load carrying vehicles to transport the finished paper to the customer in some delivery the logistics are taken care directly by the customers. Branding: The branding activities taken by the firm are very less except their effort in few aspects; the delta paper mill is very less known in the markets far from the mill though it has its importance among the different states textbook printers of the government departments.

65

Market research: Market research is carried out by the firm at some regular intervals to find the value of the brand and to know the consumer requirements and to find the changing trends in the market; and the research carried out is analyzed and required changes are taken few times which have helped the firms development. Services / after sales services: Being a paper mill the after sales service is very limited but the firm is very committed in providing a proper response on any feedback or the consumer complaints and required actions are implemented by the firm to develop in a continuous process.

4.8 Enterprise level initiatives implemented by the firm


The delta paper mill limited has implemented the six sigma approach in the stock preparation process to increase its quality of the final paper output and the firm is successful in its implementation. Where Six Sigma is a set of tools and strategies for process improvement originally developed by Motorola in 1985. Six Sigma became well known after Jack Welch made it a central focus of his business strategy at General Electric in 1995, and today it is used in different sectors of industry. Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes. It uses a set of quality management methods, including statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization ("Champions", "Black Belts", "Green Belts", "Orange Belts", etc.) who are experts in these very complex methods. Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has quantified financial targets (cost reduction and/or profit increase). Advantages: Six Sigma is driven by the customer and thus aims to achieve maximum customer satisfaction and minimizing the defects. It targets the customer delight and new innovative ways to exceed the customer expectations.
66

Implementation of Six Sigma methodology leads to rise of profitability and reduction in costs. Thus improvements achieved are directly related to financial results.

Six Sigma is successfully implemented in virtually every business category including return on sales, return on investment, employment growth and stock value growth.

Six Sigma targets Variation in the processes and focuses on the process improvement rather than final outcome. Six Sigma is prospective methodology as compared to other quality programs as it focuses on prevention on defects rather than fixing it. It is attentive to the entire business processes and training is integral to the management system where the top down approach ensures that every good thing is capitalized and every bad thing is quickly removed.

Disadvantages: Applicability of Six Sigma is being argued among the Six Sigma critics. They opined that the quality standards should be according to specific task and measuring 3.4 defects per million as standard leads to more time spent in areas which are less profitable. Six Sigma gives emphasis on the rigidity of the process which basically contradicts the innovation and kills the creativity. The innovative approach implies deviations in production, the redundancy, the unusual solutions, insufficient study which are opposite to Six Sigma principles. People argue that Six Sigma is a bit gimmicky and simply a rebranding of the continues improvement techniques and tools as practiced by Toyota. It thus promotes outsourcing of improvement projects with lack of accountability. Six Sigma implementation constantly require skilled man force. Thus control and employee dedication are hard to accomplish if its not implemented regularly. While converting the theoretical concepts into practical applications there are lot to real time barriers which needs to be resolved.
67

CHAPTER V

FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION

5.1 Findings:
The research and development with in delta paper mill is lacking proper support from the management. The rewards and incentive in the company are limited. To maintain good relationship between employees and management the company should increase the incentive program. The control of the air pollution is not effective as in the case of the solid waste treatment taken up by the firm to control the water pollution. Majority of the employees are of age group above 40 years The operations of the firm are not computerized and majority of the work is done in the traditional methods by maintaining books. There are limited safety measures for workers working on machines. And the number of accidents recorded in the firm is significant. The firm is in debt for the past few years because of the establishment of the new paper machines The employees leaving the firm every year is high due to lack of development opportunities within the firm. The violation of the duties and responsibilities is taken seriously and are taken to the notice of the senior management which is good in maintaining the work progress. There are limited number of sellers of the raw materials to the firm and most of the raw material selling firms are sister concerns

68

5.2 Conclusions:
The delta paper mills limited is a renowned firm around the district where its been located; the firm has come in to gradual profits only after the change in power from the time of its establishment but due to further establishment of the new paper machines the debt of the firm has grown high so even with the mill functioning with its full capacity is finally making losses from the last few years due to its high interests paid and the mill being one of the few mills in its proximity has an opportunity for developing market share in the surrounding markets and the development of the nearby town has increased its chances of making large markets. And the employees are needed to be given updated technology and different practices existing in the market to enhance their knowledge about the changing trends in the market. The organization study has helped in understanding the different organization departments and their functions carried out in a live participation which has given a clear shape for the imagination of the theory learned. The study has given the opportunity to understand the different positions of the firm and their duties and responsibilities to be followed in accordance with the goals to be achieved. And the different production procedures and various process implementations are learned in accordance with the paper industry; the observations carried out for collecting the data has given an idea about the different modes of collecting data and importance of the primary data and on a whole the organization study is an value addition to our practical knowledge and exposer of the industry.

69

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Pulp and paper industry. Wikipedia. Retrieved February, 2012 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulp_and_paper_industry Pulp (paper). Wikipedia. Retrieved February, 2012 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulp_(paper) Deinking. Wikipedia. Retrieved February, 2012 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deinking Top paper companies in India. (2011) retrieved February, 2012 from: http://papermart.in/2011/05/31/top-paper-companies-in-india/ Stephen P Robbins, Organization Behavior, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi. McNamara, C. (2012) Basic definition of organization retrieved February, 2012 from: http://managementhelp.org/organizations/definition.htm#anchor424230 Bratati sinha. (2011). Different types of business functions and its purposes retrieved march, 2012 from: http://quizlet.com/8445862/different-types-of-business-functions-and-itspurposes-flash-cards/

Suresh, P.I, (2011). Paper industry growth constrained by raw material availability retrieved February 2012 from business line Prerna Mishra, (2012). lower per-capita paper consumption driving growth of Indian paper industry retrieved February 2012 from: http://news.indiamart.com/story/lower-capita-paper-consumption-driving-growthindian-paper-industry-170425.html

Mathur R.M, Thapliyal B.P, Singh K. (2009). challenges confronting Indian paper industry in changing scenario retrieved march 2012 from: http://smallb.in/sites/default/files/knowledge_base/IndianPaperIndustryinachangin gScenario.pdf