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Massive Test Prep, Part 3

US History

8.1- Events leading to the Founding of Our Nation


1.The Great Awakening was one of the first shared national events in America. 2.The Declaration of Independence suggested that government should allow for the expression of personal freedoms that were absent in their current system.

8.1- Events leading to the Founding of Our Nation


3.Americas Revolution affected many nations: it left France with a crushing debt that eventually saw it citizens rebel against their own leaders; Great Britain lost the Americas forever and started a new round of warring against its old enemy, France; and Spain won the Florida territory from Britain. 4.America balanced its desire to involve its citizens in its government with the reality that those people needed strict traditions (British Parliamentary procedures) to accomplish their goals.

8.2- US Constitution
5.The ideas contained within the Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, and Mayflower Compact were later used to create the US Constitution. 6.The Articles of Confederation created a weak alliance of states that left the country bankrupt and without a strong central government.

8.2- US Constitution
7. The Constitution created a strong central government with three equal branches that would create, carry out, and judge the laws of the country. 8. After the Constitution was created, the AntiFederalists believed that the Congress needed to add a Bill of Rights to better protect the American people. 9. The Federalist Papers helped to convince a divided America why their country needed the Bill of Rights.

8.2- US Constitution
10. Our founding fathers believed that the church and state should be separate, because of the conflicts that arose between European monarchies and the pope. 11. The Bill of Rights provides a method for the government to accept new powers and grant further rights to its citizens. 12. There are 10 Amendments contained within the Bill of Rights, and 27 Amendments in total. 13. Government provides a number of powers that allow it to run efficiently, while separating its duties, and creating greater equality between its branches.

8.3- American Political System


14. Between 1777 and 1781, state governments placed power in the hands of elected officials, which influenced a similar process in our national government. 15.The land ordinances of 1785 and 1787 created privately owned lands that each territory could use to attract new residents and strengthen the countrys growing borders.

8.3- American Political System


16. Americas common markets encouraged the use of a single monetary system, and used its federal powers to balance trade and commerce between the states. 17. Alexander Hamilton believed that the country should assume all state debts in exchange for rights to establish Washington DC. 18. Jefferson believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution, while Hamilton argued for a loose interpretation.

8.3- American Political System


19. The differences between Hamilton and Jefferson helped to start the nations two party system after George Washingtons retirement from office. 20. Shays Rebellion and the Whiskey Rebellion demonstrated the independence of Americans to question their governments decisions.

8.3- American Political System


21. Our republic allows citizens to vote for and communicate with our leaders, run for office, and remove officials through impeachment or referendum. 22. A free press uses the rights granted in the 1st Amendment to report the governments actions, while maintaining objectivity during the newsgathering process.

8.4- New Nation


23. Americans realized that the US was rich in resources and wanted to exploit them. 24. The first four presidents encouraged expansion of the US through land ordinances in 1785 and 1787, as well as through the Louisiana Purchase.

8.4- New Nation


25. Speeches made by Presidents Washington, Jefferson, and John Adams peacefully challenged the policies of their predecessors while transferring power without conflict. 26. American writers, like James Fennimore Cooper and Washington Irving, and artists, like John Copley and Gilbert Stuart, produced works that broke traditional European standards and helped to redefine our nation.

8.5- US Foreign Policy


27. The War of 1812 was fought over British impressments of sailors, and resulted in no winner and no exchange of land. 28. The song The Star Spangled Banner, the layout of the American flag, and Americas strong sense of nationalism were established during this time. It also permanently ended the power of the Federalist Party.

8.5- US Foreign Policy


29. Americas borders kept changing during the 1800s, with the acquisition of Florida and settlement of the Louisiana Territory. 30. The US and Mexico established their borders along Texas; and treaties with Canada brought a peace to our northern border that continues today.

8.5- US Foreign Policy


31. The Monroe Doctrine sent the message that America would further expand its borders and not allow countries to establish new colonies in America. 32. Treaties with Native Americans were constantly broken and America made many efforts to remove them from their valuable lands.

8.6- The Changing Paths of Americans in the North


33. Americans in the North built roads, steamboats, and canals to better transport goods throughout the country. Railroads provided faster and cheaper transportation. 34. Deforestation and heavy mining stripped the American landscape to fuel the growth of new cities.

8.6- The Changing Paths of Americans in the North


35.Henry Clay created the American System, which constructed roads and canals and established a national bank to lend money to developing countries. 36. Millions of Europeans immigrated to the US, hoping for work in the cities created by the American System. Irelands Potato Famine forced many more Irish to the US than expected. 37. Only a handful of northern blacks were able to rise above slavery to attend schools and colleges. People like Henry Boyd and Samuel Cornish were exceptions to the rule.

8.6- The Changing Paths of Americans in the North


38. Horace Mann started an educational reform in the US during the 1830s- the school year was lengthened, teacher salaries were improved, and they became better trained. 39. Womens suffrage was furthered in the 1850s by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton- it was not until 1920 that women were granted the right to vote. 40. Changes in American society influenced art and literatureartists painted American landscapes, Transcendentalists like Emerson and Thoreau wrote about humans and nature, and writers like Washington Irving presented unique American stories.

8.7- The Changing Paths of Americans in the South


41. Americans in the South created large farming communities where cotton was produced. Slavery and cotton production grew stronger as Deep South states like Alabama and Mississippi grew. 42. The Cotton Gin allowed farmers to greatly increase the amount of cotton produced.

8.7- The Changing Paths of Americans in the South


43.The efforts to remove slavery began in the mid 1800s but were met with anger by Southerners. People like William Garrison, Sara Grimke and Frederick Douglass were called abolitionists because they spoke out against slavery. 44. The Underground Railroad was an underground escape route started by abolitionists- it gave hope to slaves for a better life. Important conductors included Harriet Tubman.

8.7- The Changing Paths of Americans in the South


45. Southern society was based on four levels: yeomen, tenant farmers, rural poor, and plantation owners. Owners of plantations controlled most of the wealth in the south. 46. Most blacks, regardless of their location, had few rights and little money. They were denied entrance to colleges and higher-paying jobs.

8.8- The Changing Paths of Americans in the West


47. Andrew Jackson ran for president in 1828he was part of the Democratic-Republicans, who favored states rights and mistrusted a strong central government. 48. Under his presidency, Jackson pushed for equal rights for all whites- more white men voted, and the people directly voted for the president by 1828.

8.8- The Changing Paths of Americans in the West


49. Jackson forced many Indian tribes off their lands, even though the Supreme Court ruled that it was illegal for him to do so. 50. By 1840, people believed it was their Manifest Destiny (Gods Will) to colonize all of America. Native tribes were forced from their lands in acts like The Trail of Tears. 51. The exploration of the Louisiana Territory by Lewis and Clark made Americans realize the great resources that were contained in our countrys interior.

8.8- The Changing Paths of Americans in the West


52. Spanish missions became an important method to colonize early California. 53. Settlement of California accelerated with the discovery of gold in 1849; cities saw a drop in population as people fled westward hoping to strike it rich. 54. Many Gold Rush towns lacked law and orderconcerned citizens created bands of vigilantes that took the law into their own hands.

8.8- The Changing Paths of Americans in the West


55. Mexico attempted to colonize California after winning it from Spain in 1821- they disliked slavery and sold the missions to landowners. 56. Mexico offered large amounts of land to Tejanos if they would colonize Texas. 57. Texans declared their independence from Mexico in 1835 because they disagreed with Mexicos economic policies. The Battle at the Alamo was an important event in this discussion.

8.8- The Changing Paths of Americans in the West


58. Mexico and the US went to war to in 1846, because the US wanted to control California and New Mexico. Mexico lost and was forced to give up Texas, California and New Mexico. 59. The territory of Arizona was brought into the US by The Gadsden Purchase in 1853.

8.9- Early Attempts to Abolish Slavery


60. The Civil War was fought from 1861-1865 over the issues of slavery and economics- the 620,000 that died represents the greatest loss of American life in war. 61. Abolitionists like John Brown, Frederick Douglass, and Harriet Tubman made many efforts to halt slavery.

8.9- Early Attempts to Abolish Slavery


62. The admissions of Texas and California highlighted the deep divisions that existed in America regarding slavery during the 1840s and 50s. 63. The Compromise of 1850 failed to settle slavery, and Southerners passed the Fugitive Slave Act, which required Northerners to return escaped slaves. 64. Bleeding Kansas took place in 1856, when proand anti-slavery forces clashed because pro-slave forces in Missouri had crossed the border to pad the slave vote in that state.

8.9- Early Attempts to Abolish Slavery


65. The Missouri Compromise allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state, and Maine to enter as a free one. Although it balanced the numbers of free and slave states, it did nothing to address the issues of slavery. 66. John Browns Raid in 1859 was influenced by the events of Bleeding Kansas- he tried to start a slave revolt by arming them with weapons he stole from an arsenal in Kansas. 67. The Wilmot Proviso (1846) and the KansasNebraska Act (1854) made unsuccessful attempts to end slavery.

8.9- Early Attempts to Abolish Slavery


68. In 1857, the slave Dred Scott sued for his freedom, because he claimed that he had lived in a state where slavery had been banned. The Supreme Court ruled against him, and this electrified anti-slave forces throughout the country. 69. A series of political debates between Senate candidates Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas took place in 1858. The issue of slavery took center stage. 70. Free blacks continued to struggle in northern states, where they faced racism and state laws that recognized their freedom, but did not provide methods for them to compete with white workers.

8.10- The Civil War


71. Speeches by Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun demonstrated the differences states felt between the governments ability to end slavery and enforce their decision. 72. Slave states included: GA, LA, AL, FA, N/S Car, VA, TN, AK, KY, MS and Miss.

8.10- The Civil War


73. Free States: IA, IL, MN, IA, OH, PA, NY, NJ, DE, CT, MS., VT, ME, NH, and RI 74. Slave states were totally dependent upon farming to survive, while Free states had a better balance of manufacturing and industry. 75. After Lincolns election in 1860, slave states began to secede from the Union- the Crittenden Provision was an example of how the south began that process.

8.10- The Civil War


76. Abraham Lincoln shared his philosophy on the moral dilemma of slavery through writings like his House Divided speech, as well as the Gettysburg Address, Emancipation Proclamation, and inaugural addresses. 77. In 1858, Lincoln said, A House divided cannot endure- his speech expressed cooperation and warned against what would happen if the CW were occur. 78. The Emancipation Proclamation, written in 1863, gave slaves their freedom in states where Union troops had won.

8.10- The Civil War


79. Lincolns Gettysburg Address, given in 1863, became his most well known speech, but was unpopular at the time he gave it. 80. Southern leaders saw slavery in different ways: Robert E. Lee didnt like slavery, but refused to fight against fellow southerners; Jefferson Davis saw the norths economy as a threat to the souths way of life; Ulysses S. Grant believed opposite of Davis 81. Southern Leadership: Davis, Lee, Johnston, Beauregard

8.10- The Civil War


82. Northern Leadership: Lincoln, McClellan, Grant, Sherman 83. At wars beginning, the Union had more resources, men, and money; the Confederates had better generals and were fighting a defensive war. 84. Union victories included Shiloh, Gettysburg and Vicksburg.

8.10- The Civil War


85. Southern victories included Manassas and Bull Run. 86. Lee surrendered at Appomattox in April 1865southern troops were granted amnesty 87. Results of the war: people realized that the good of country outweighed the good of the states; generals realized that warfare had to change with our growing technology; land and air were polluted for years from fires and deforestation; the south were forced to accept economic and political changes to their way of life.

8.11- Reconstruction
88. Lincolns attempts at Reconstruction were aimed at healing the country, not at punishing the south. Reconstruction (1865-77) was an attempt to rebuild southern states.

8.11- Reconstruction
89. Lincolns assassination in 1865 by John Wilkes Booth negatively affected the norths ability to create lasting peace- southerners refused to ratify the 13th Amendment, and they passed black codes, which limited the freedom of blacks. President Andrew Johnsons stubbornness also contributed to the rocky transition. 90. Moderates and Radical Republicans pushed for Reconstruction in different ways: Moderates wanted to slowly transition southern society and leadership; the Radicals demanded equal rights for all freedmen and wanted to destroy the souths ruling class.

8.11- Reconstruction
91. Johnson and Congress clashed on black rights- Johnson felt blacks might rise up if they had equal rights, and that the government might become too centralized. 92. The 14th Amendment granted blacks their citizenship but did not grant them suffrage.

8.11- Reconstruction
93. The Ku Klux Klan rose in power during the 1870s and was made up of ex-southern soldiers. Although President Ulysses Grant squashed the political power of the Klan, Southern mistreatment of blacks continued into the 1890s. 94. Jim Crow Laws created segregation legal in southern theatres, trolleys and cemeteries; in Plessy vs. Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal as long as facilities were separate but equal. 95. The 13th Amendment abolished slavery in 1865, while the 15th Amendment granted suffrage rights to blacks, and represented an important victory for the Radicals.

8.12- Economic Transformation and the Industrial Revolution


96. Southern leaders pushed for a New Southone that would rebuild their rail lines, create new industries like steel, cloth and tobacco processing. 97. The government created policies against Indians because they needed the resources of the west to fuel the Industrial Revolution.

8.12- Economic Transformation and the Industrial Revolution


98. The Indian wars began in the 1870s- while they experienced victories at Little Bighorn, the US forced Indians onto reservations and destroyed their way of life. 99. The government encouraged the growth of corporations, which allowed these companies to borrow large sums of money. 100. Entrepreneurs, people who started businesses, became ruthless against their competitors- critics called them robber barons. These people included Andrew Carnegie (steel), John D. Rockefeller (oil), and Leland Stanford (railroads).

8.12- Economic Transformation and the Industrial Revolution


101. By the 1880s, a new wave of immigrants came to the US- ethnic neighborhoods grew in cities like Chicago, Boston, and New York. 102. Industrialization caused an explosive growth in cities as rural farmers and immigrants moved in, seeking greater opportunities. 103. The use of steel greatly increased the height of skyscrapers, and electricity allowed streetcars to become more common.

8.12- Economic Transformation and the Industrial Revolution


104. Child labor was exploited in the late 1800s, adults worked long hours with no job protection, and the government did little to protect the rights of these people. 105. Thomas Edisons creation of the light bulb greatly increased the safety of the growing city streets.

8.12- Economic Transformation and the Industrial Revolution


106. Alexander Bells creation of the telephone quickly connected major cities and increased business opportunities. 107. The invention of the airplane, along with the creation of the transcontinental railroad, allowed bulk items to be transported quicker and cheaper than ever before.