SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
http://asdal.snu.ac.kr
Seoul
National
Univ.
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SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
http://asdal.snu.ac.kr
Seoul
National
Univ.
2009 Fall, Ship Stability
 Ship Stability 
Ch.5 Hydrostatic Values
2009 Fall
Prof. KyuYeul Lee
Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering,
Seoul National University
2009 Fall, Ship Stability
SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
http://asdal.snu.ac.kr
Seoul
National
Univ.
Hydrostatic Values
Draft Mld : Draft from baseline , moudled (m)
Disp.Mld : Displacement moulded (m
3
)
Disp.Ext : Displacement extreme (tonnes) S.G. = 1.025 (S.G.: Specific gravity)
VCB : Vertical center of buoyancy above base line (m)
LCB : Longi. center of buoyancy from midship ( Sign :  Aft / + Forward)
LCF : Longi. center of floatation from midship ( Sign :  Aft / + Forward)
KM
T
: Trans. metarcenter height above base line (m)
KM
L
: Longi. metarcenter height above base line (m)
MTC : Moment to change trim one centimeter (Tonnesm)
TPC : Increase in Disp.MLD(ton) per one centimeter immersion
WSA : Wetted surface area (m
2
)
C
B
: Block coefficient
C
WP
: Water plane area coefficient
C
M
: Midship section area coefficient
C
P
: Prismatic coefficient
Trim
 Hydrostatic Values
2
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2009 Fall, Ship Stability
SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
http://asdal.snu.ac.kr
Seoul
National
Univ.
Hydrostatic Values
 Hydrostatic Values
3
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2009 Fall, Ship Stability
SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
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Seoul
National
Univ.
Area(A), 1
st
Moment of Area(M
A
), 2
nd
Moment of Area(I )
y
x
y
dA
x
dy
dx
c
x
c
y
G
A dA dx dy = =
Area, A
dA dx dy =
Differential element of area, dA
, A x
M x dA x dx dy = =
1
st
moment of area with respect to y axis, M
A,x
, A y
M y dA y dx dy = =
1
st
moment of area with respect to x axis, M
A,y
( )
, ,
, ,
A y A x
c c
M M
G x y
A A
 
= =

\ .
Centroid G
2 2
x
I x dA x dx dy = =
2
nd
moment of area with respect y axis, I
y
2 2
y
I y dA y dx dy = =
2
nd
moment of area with respect y axis, I
x
Product of inertia with respect to the x & y axis
xy
I xydA xy dx dy = =
The index indicate the principal direction of the lever !
 Hydrostatic Values
( , )
c c
y z : center of A
O
, ,
, , , ,
A x A y x y xy
M M I I I
4
/22
2009 Fall, Ship Stability
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Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
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Seoul
National
Univ. 2009 Fall, Ship Stability
y: Half breadth of each section
sw
: Density of water(1.025[ton/m3])
WP
L x dA =
Waterplane Area(A
WP
) , Tones per 1cm Immersion(TPC),
Longitudinal Area Moment(L
WP
), Longitudinal Center of Floating(LCF)
WP
WP
L
LCF
A
=
0
2
L
WP
A dA y dx = =
x dx dy =
1
st
moment of waterplane area
about x axis
Longitudinal Center of Floatation
Waterplane area
:area of the waterplane
WP
A
B
T
L
x
y
z
O
y
x
dA
dy
dx
x
100
1
=
WP sw
A TPC
Tones per 1cm Immersion (TPC)
water sea of density :
sw
 Hydrostatic Values
Oxyz : Waterplane fixed frame
5
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2009 Fall, Ship Stability
SDAL
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National
Univ.
Sectional Area(A), Displacement Volume()
Displacement volume
( ) A x dx =
L
form hull
r under wate
B
T
( ) A x
( ) A x dA dy dz = =
Sectional Area
x
y
z
o
( )
dV dx dy dz
dy dz dx
= =
=
( ) A x
After calculation of each sectional area,
displacement volume can be calculated by
integral of section area over the length of ship
 Hydrostatic Values
dy
dz
Oxyz : Waterplane fixed frame
6
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SDAL
@
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Seoul
National
Univ.
Longitudinal Moment of Volume (M
,x'
),
Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy (LCB)
Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy
, , x A x
M M dx
=
,x
M
LCB
=
L
form hull
r under wate
B
T
Longitudinal moment of volume
( )
,x
M xdV
x dx dy dz
x dy dz dx
=
=
=
' ,x A
M
M
A,x
: Longitudinal moment of area
about y axis
After calculation of each longitudinal moment of sectional
area about the y axis(M
A,x
), longitudinal moment of displaced
volume can be calculated by integral of longitudinal moment
of section area over the length of ship
x
y
z
o
( )
S
A x
 Hydrostatic Values
x
Oxyz : Waterplane fixed frame
7
/22
2009 Fall, Ship Stability
SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
http://asdal.snu.ac.kr
Seoul
National
Univ.
Vertical Moment of Volume (M
,y'
),
Vertical Center of Buoyancy (VCB)
Vertical Center of Buoyancy
, , z A z
M M dx
=
,z
M
VCB
=
L
form hull
r under wate
B
T
Vertical moment of volume
( )
,z
M z dV
z dx dy dz
z dy dz dx
=
=
=
, A z
M
M
A,z
: Vertical moment of area about y axis
After calculation of each vertical moment of sectional
area about the y axis(M
A,z
), vertical moment of displaced
volume can be calculated by integral of vertical moment
of section area over the length of ship
x
y
z
o
( )
S
A x
 Hydrostatic Values
z
Oxyz : Waterplane fixed frame
8
/22
2009 Fall, Ship Stability
SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
http://asdal.snu.ac.kr
Seoul
National
Univ.
Transverse Moment of Volume (M
,z'
),
Transverse Center of Buoyancy (TCB)
Transverse Center of Buoyancy
, , y A y
M M dx
=
,y
M
TCB
=
L
form hull
r under wate
B
T
Transverse moment of volume
( )
,y
M y dV
y dx dy dz
y dy dz dx
=
=
=
, A y
M
M
A,y
: Vertical moment of area about
z axis
After calculation of each transverse moment of sectional
area about the z axis(M
A,y
), transverse moment of
displaced volume can be calculated by integral of
transverse moment of section area over the length of ship
x
y
z
( )
S
A x
 Hydrostatic Values
y
Oxyz : Waterplane fixed frame
9
/22
2009 Fall, Ship Stability
SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
http://asdal.snu.ac.kr
Seoul
National
Univ.
WP
A =area of the waterplane
B
T
L
C
WP
: Water plane Area Coefficient
WP
WP
mld
A
C
L B
=
form hull
r under wate
Block Coefficient(C
B
)
Prismatic Coefficient(C
WP
)
B
mld
C
L B T
=
C
B
: Block coefficient
form hull
r under wate
B
T
L
: Mouldedvolume of displacement
L : Length (L
WL
or L
BP
)
B
mld
: Mouldedbreadth
T
mld
: Mouldeddraft
A
WP
: Waterplane area
L : Length(L
WL
or L
BP
)
B
mld
: Mouldedbreadth
 Hydrostatic Values
,, p. 37~38
10
/22
2009 Fall, Ship Stability
SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
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Seoul
National
Univ.
Midship Section Coefficient(C
M
)
Prismatic Coefficient (C
P
)
,, p. 37~38
C
M
(Midship section coefficient)
L
form hull
r under wate
area underwater e transvers maximum :
M
A
M
M
mld
A
C
B T
=
B
T
P
BP M
B
BP mld M M
C
L A
C
L B T C C
= =
C
P
(Prismatic coefficient)
 Hydrostatic Values
B
mld
: Mouldedbreadth
T
mld
: Mouldeddraft
A
M
: Sectional area in midship
: Mouldedvolume of displacement
L : Length (L
WL
or L
BP
)
B
mld
: Mouldedbreadth
T
mld
: Mouldeddraft
C
M
: Midship Coefficient
C
B
: Block Coefficient
11
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SDAL
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Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
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Seoul
National
Univ.
Transverse Metacentric Radius(BM), Longitudinal Metacentric Radius(BM
L
)
Moment to change Trim 1 Cm(MTC), Trim
( )
2
0
1 tan
T
I
BM = +
GM KB BM KG = +
sin GZ GM Transverse righting moment =
KB : Vertical center of displaced volume
: Transverse metacentric height
BM
: Transverse metacentric Radius
KG : Vertical center of gravity
GM
( Refer to Chap.6 )
 Hydrostatic Values
BM
T
I
BM =
BM
L ( Refer to Chap.7 )
( )
2
0
1 tan
L
L
I
BM = +
KB
L L
GM KB BM KG = +
: Vertical center of displaced volume
: Longitudinal metacentric height
L
BM : Longitudinal metacentric Radius
KG : Vertical center of gravity
L
GM
sin
L L
GZ GM = Longitudinal righting moment =
L
L
I
BM =
L L
GM KB BM KG = +
If we assume that KB,KG are enough small than BML
L L
GM BM
1
100
L
BP
MTC BM
L
=
12
/22
2009 Fall, Ship Stability
SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
http://asdal.snu.ac.kr
Seoul
National
Univ.
[
m
]
Given: Formulas for calculating hydrostatic values
Find: Hydrostatic curves and Hydrostatics Table as function of draft
<Hydrostatics Table>
Calculation of hydrostatic values as function of draft
Calculated, Scaled Value
draft
Calculated value with respect to draft
in Hydrostatics table
Make curve by BSpline Curve
<Hydrostatic curves>
Example of Programming for Calculation of the Hydrostatics
 Example of Hydrostatic Table and Hydrostatic Curves
 Hydrostatic Values
13
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2009 Fall, Ship Stability
SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
http://asdal.snu.ac.kr
Seoul
National
Univ.
Example of Programming for Calculation of the Hydrostatics
 Example of Hydrostatic Table and Hydrostatic Curves
 320K VLCC Hydrostatics Table (1)
 Hydrostatic Values
14
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2009 Fall, Ship Stability
SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
http://asdal.snu.ac.kr
Seoul
National
Univ.
Example of Programming for Calculation of the Hydrostatics
 Example of Hydrostatic Table and Hydrostatic Curves
 Example of hydrostatic table of 320K VLCC
 Hydrostatic Values
15
/22
2009 Fall, Ship Stability
SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
http://asdal.snu.ac.kr
Seoul
National
Univ.
Example of Programming for Calculation of the Hydrostatics
 Example of Hydrostatic Table and Hydrostatic Curves
 Example of hydrostatic table of 320K VLCC
 Hydrostatic Values
16
/22
2009 Fall, Ship Stability
SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
http://asdal.snu.ac.kr
Seoul
National
Univ.
Example 1>
Question) Calculate 2
nd
moment of area of triangle with lower
side a and height h about following axes.
X axis: I
X
=? baxis: I
b
=? C axis: I
C
=?
/ 3 h
C
B
h
b
X axis
b axis
C axis
Y axis
Solution)
A
Calculation of dA
: :( ) b h x h y =
Calculation of I
X
/ 3 h
C
B
h
b
X
b
C
Y
A
dy
y
x
2 2
0 0
( )
h h
X
b h y
I y dA y dy
h
= =
( ) b h y
x
h
=
( ) b h y
dA dy
h
=
3
2 3
0 0
12
h h
b bh
b y dy y dy
h
= =
 Hydrostatic Values
17
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2009 Fall, Ship Stability
SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
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Seoul
National
Univ.
Example 1>
Solution)
/ 3 h
C
B
h
b
X
b
C
Y
A
Calculation of I
b
dy
y
x
2
3 2 3
3 12 9 2 36
b X
h bh h bh bh
I I A
 
= = =

\ .
by parallel axis theorem
Calculation of I
C
2
3 2 3
2 4
3 36 9 2 4
C b
h bh h bh bh
I I A
 
= + = + =

\ .
by parallel axis theorem
 Hydrostatic Values
/ 3 h
C
B
h
b
X axis
b axis
C axis
Y axis
A
Question) Calculate 2
nd
moment of area of triangle with lower
side a and height h about following axes.
X axis: I
X
=? baxis: I
b
=? C axis: I
C
=?
18
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SDAL
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Univ.
2 dA r dr =
Example 2>
Question) Calculate polar moment of area of circle with
diameter d about origin O.
Y
Solution)
Calculation of I
P
Calculation of I
X
d
X
O
Y
X
O
dr
r
/ 2 d
/2 /2
2 2
0 0
2
d d
P
I r dA r r dr = =
I
X
=I
Y
incircle
4
2
32
X
d
I
=
/2
4 4
/2
3
0
0
2 2
4 32
d
d
r d
r dr
(
= = =
(
X Y
I I = +
4
64
X Y
d
I I
= =
 Hydrostatic Values
P X Y
I I I = +
19
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SDAL
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Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
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National
Univ.
Example 3>
Question) Calculation area and centroid of bounded region
by curves x=0, x=2 , y=0 and parabolic curve y = 6 + 4x x
2
.
Y
Solution)
Calculation of Area
Calculation of 1st moment of Area about y axis: M
Y
1
X
O
2 2
2
0 0
(6 4 ) A ydx x x dr = = +
2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0
y y
Y
M x dx dy dy x dx x y dx = = =
2
2
6 4 y x x = +
Y
X
O 2
2
6 4 y x x = +
y
x
10
Calculations by integration are as follows
x
dx
dy
y
2
3
2 2
0
6 2 17.33 units
3
x
x x
(
= + =
(
2 2
2 2 3
0 0
(6 4 ) (6 4 ) x x x dx x x x dx = + = +
2
2 3 4 2
0
4 1
3 18.67 units
3 4
x x x
(
= + =
(
 Hydrostatic Values
20
/22
2009 Fall, Ship Stability
SDAL
@
Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
http://asdal.snu.ac.kr
Seoul
National
Univ. 2009 Fall, Ship Stability
Example 3>
Question) Calculation area and centroid of bounded region
by curves x=0, x=2 , y=0 and parabolic curve y = 6 + 4x x
2
.
Y
Solution)
Calculation of 1st moment of Area about x axis : M
X
1
X
O
2 2 2
2
0 0 0 0 0
1
2
y y
X
M y dx dy y dy dx y dx = = =
2
2
6 4 y x x = +
Calculations by integration are as follows
x,ycoordinate of centroid
2
0
2
0
18.67
1.1units
17.33
Y
x dA
M
x
A
y dx
= = = =
2
0
2
0
76.53
4.41units
17.33
X
y dA
M
y
A
y dx
= = = =
Y
X
O 2
2
6 4 y x x = +
y
x
10
x
dx
dy
y
2 2
2 2 2 3 4
0 0
1 1
(6 4 ) (36 24 4 8 )
2 2
x x dx x x x x dx = + = + + +
2
2 3 4 5 2
0
1 4 1
36 12 2 76.53 units
2 3 5
x x x x x
(
= + + + =
(
 Hydrostatic Values
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SDAL
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Advanced Ship Design Automation Lab.
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Seoul
National
Univ.
Example 3>
Question) Calculation area and centroid of bounded region
by curves x=0, x=2 , y=0 and parabolic curve y = 6 + 4x x
2
.
Y
Solution)
Calculation of 1
st
moment of Area about x axis : I
X
1
X
O
2 2 2
2 2 3
0 0 0 0 0
1
3
y y
X
I y dx dy y dy dx y dx = = =
2
2
6 4 y x x = +
Y
X
O 2
2
6 4 y x x = +
y
x
10
x
dx
dy
y
2
2 3
0
1
(6 4 )
3
x x dx = +
2
2 3 4 5 6
0
1
(216 432 180 80 30 12 )
3
x x x x x x dx = + + +
2
7
2 3 4 5 6
0
1
216 216 60 20 6 2
3 7
x
x x x x x x
(
= + + +
(
1
(432 864 480 320 192 128 18.3)
3
= + + +
4
1
(1904 530.3) 457.90units
3
= =
 Hydrostatic Values
22
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