Sie sind auf Seite 1von 29

Vol.7, No.

29 January-March, 2009

&ckdifhtmZmeDol&Jaumif; &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD OuUXckdifrdk;vif;

Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù


tdk - &ckdifol/ &ckdifom;&dk@? rm&,ktp orRwrif;tqkH; "n0wD/ a0omvD/ av;+rdK@/ ajrmufOD;acwfrsm;ESifh ESpfaygif;
ig;axmifausmf &GDxD;&DGeef;eef@ edefvmconhf &ckdifjynfonf O=o&DaomufxD;eef;aysmuf qdkonfhtwkdif; 1146 ck jymodk
vqkwf(7)&uf peDedef@ ( c&pfouU&mZf 1784 ck 'DZbFmv 31) wGif urBmr}uD romajr tjzpfodk@ a&muf&Sd vm;c& onfudk
&ckdifom;wkdif; todjzpfonf? t*kqdkau u|efrsdK;qufvufqifhurf;jzifh touf&Sifvmonf rSm ESpfaygif; (224)
ESpfausmfvm;c+yD;vnf;jzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; &ckdifom;wdk@rSm udk,fhuH=urRmudk,fzefwD;cGifhum; t*ktcsdef xdr&odrfhyJ
ArmrSwqifh t*Fvdyf/ t*FvdyfrSwqifh *syef/ *syefrSwqihf wzeft*Fvdyf/ t*FvdyfrS wzef 'kwd,Hr`d Arm vufatmuf
u|efZmwfoHo&mxJrSm w0J0Jvnfvsuf &kef;rxGufEkdifbJ[dedefonf?

t*kqdkau &ckdifom;&dk@uH=urRma& tqkd;qkH;t+cDteDodk@ a&mufeDonfudk &ckdifom;wkdif;todjzpfonf? aemufu &ckdifjynf udk


vk,lzdk@}udK;pm;edefol ukvm;/ &Sduu|efjyKEdkyfpufxm;edefolArm tv,faumifrSm &ckdifom;wpk tm%m0DpkrwnfhEkdifyJ [dedef
onf? euf&SdKif;pGm pOf;pm;=unfh trSefyif &ifvD;p&m aumif;vSonf?

wenf;tm;jzifh &Sdwdk;pl;awm/ aemufudkqkwfau rD;yifv,fqkda&ydkif &ckdifom;&dk@.b0usa&mufedefonf? Tonfudk *&krrl/


n%frulyJ udk,fESifhrqkdifa&ydkif xm;vdkufuwfzdk@qdkau &ckdifom;&dk@b0uH=urRmpGm u|efrsdK;quf xyfqifhquf vmonfruyJ
urBmhtv,frSm *k%f,l0ihf=uGm;ca& tz&ckdifjynfonf r=umrSDtcsdeftwGif; b*FvD ac:awmukvm;jynf jzpfvm;rnfrSm
+rD}uD;vufcufrvGJjzpf.? vludkvlrsdKedefonf? t*kqdkau ukvm;u &ckdifjynfonf ukvm;rif;rsm; tqufquftkyfcsKyfconfh
ukvm;jynfjzpfonf[k EkdifiHwumrSm atmf[pfedefuwfonf? t*kqdkau &ckdifjynfwGif ukvm;OD;a&onf 'kwd, trsm;qkH;
vlOD;a&jzpfeDygonf? aemufq,fpkESpftrsm;r=umcif &ckdifom;vlOD;a&xuf rsm;vmEkdifonf? tu,fI &ckdifom;vlOD;a&xuf
tqrsm;pGm ukvm;vlOD;a&ursm;vmvsif atjynfonf &ckdifjynf (odk@) ig&dk@jynf[k &cdkifom;&dk@ajymEkdifvdrRnfr[kwfyg?
ukvm;u orkdif;wdudkvnf; trsdK;rsdK; vdrfedefonf?

xkd@a=umifh t*kcsdefonf &ckdifom;&dk@tcsif;csif; wa,mufvkyfonfudk wa,mufa0zefykdif;jcm;okH;oyftjypf ajymedef@zdk@


tcsdefr[kwfyJ &a&eD&m/ &a&wm0efu 0kdif;0ef; ulnDvkyfaqmifzdk@tcsdefuseDygAsm,f? Tonfudk owdrl/ n%frulyJ udk,fh0rf;/
ukd,fhcg;vS +yD;As,fqdkonfh todeef@ rodusdK;u|efjyKeDvDuwfzdk@qdkau &ckdifhuH=urRa& awG;r=unhfEkdifa& t+cDtedefrsdK;udk
a&mufvm;zdk@pGmrSm usdef;aoonf? xdka=umifh &ckdifhtwufynm&Sifrsm;/ todynm&Sifrsm;/ EkdifiHa&; orm;}uD;rsm;/
ausmif;om;rsm;ESifhjynfoltm;vkH; pOf;pm;a0zefokH;owfzkd@ tcsdefusa&muf vmygAsm,f? usa&eD&m Ekdifa&0efudk trsdK;bmom/
om\emtwGuf wwfEkdifonfhzufu xrf;&Gufuwfygvdk@ wkdufwGef;vdkuf&ygonf?

t,f'Dwm (0&Zdefpmapmif)

Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù


u|efouf tESpf (221) ESpf }umaomtcg
9 jrefrmusL;ausmfppfudk (45)&ufMum ckcH (ykÖ
Pmef;uRef;) ponfh ponfhjzifh emrwGifonf/
wdkufcdkufNyD;aemuf (1784)ck 'DZifbmv (31) ESpfaygif; (40) vkH; vHk; &cdkif trsKd;wHk;vm;atmif
&ufedwGif &cdkifjynfBuD;ESifhwuG ½kyf&Sifawmf owfjzwfconf/ rmefatmifNrdKU wNrdKUwnf;wGif
r[mjrwfrked todrf;cHvdkuf&onf/ jrefrmrsm; towfcHc& onfudk rSwfwrf;wifxm;onfrSm
onf &cdkifha&Teef;awmf? yd#uwfwdkufawmf? ]]vli,f w aomif;? vlBuD;aygif;rl? oQpfaomif;
bkef;awmfBuD; ausmif;tBuD;(30)?ti,f(3000) tpGef;? wodef;rSef;\? r,Gef;xdkcg? oDukefyg\?
ausmfudkrD;vQdKUzsufqD;conf/ &cdkifwjynfvkH;zl;zl; odrf; um,lu? jynftif;0odkU? ygvDjim;? vl
a&mifaom vloDaumifrsm;jzifhjyefUBuJvQuf [d a,musfm;ESifh? rjym;rSef;x? vlrdef;rudk? &GDMu
onf/ vDaomf? ESpfodef;ausmf\? Mum;aomf jrifcg?
9 ESpfaygif; (5000)ausmf udk,fhxD;udk,fh aMumufzG,fomwnf;}}[lí jzpfonf/ (1826)
eef;jzifh eDxdkifvmcaom &cdkifEdkifiHawmfü wdkif; ckESpf NAdwdoQvufatmuf usa&muf&aom tcg
om;jynfolrsm;rSm ulrnfholr[d zD;vGwf&mudk jrefrmvufatmuf ESpf(40)i&Jpcef;onf wcef;
xGufNyD;Mu&onf/ jrefrmrsm;onf ykcufwGif; &yfconf/ usL;ausmfol jrefrmrsm;udk armif;
om; tacsoli,frsm;udkrcsef owfjzwfconf/ xkwfí t*Fvdyf½dkUuwzef tkyfcsKyfonf/ odkU
&cdkif rSwfwrf;ü ]]tacsoli,f? tpdwfau½dkU? aomf t*FvdyftkyfcsKyfcsdefwGif &cdkifjynfü vlr
NyHK;&,f&Tifbd? rdrodudk? rDG;rdxHrS? ,lNyD;rSvQif? usefawmhay/ &cdkifEdkifiHawmf wckvkH;onf
vufudkudkifajr§muf?aumif;cifa&mufu atmuf okomefwpjyifyrm awmBuD;rsuf rJjzpfeDvD
rSwzef? "g;udkvSefí? cHjyefjyKcg? ajr§muf awmhonf/ t*FvdyftumtuG,faMumihf oDuH
vDrSmvQif? usvmrvGJ? ESpfpdyfuGJí? &J&JoDG;puf? ra&muf oufraysmufyJ &cdkifwcsKdU b*Fvm;
ttlxGuf\/ wcsufNrDü? vSHudk pdkufí? cHvdkuf e,fwGifusef&pfonf/ xdkolrsm;xJrS (5) aomif;
wkHvsif? &ifu0if\}} [líwGd&ygonf/ towf cefUudk jyefac:,lí &cdkifjynfü jyefvnfeD&mcs
cHc&aom&cdkifom;rsm;udk ]]wif;0yef;cdkif?wNrdKif xm;yD;onf/ ocifajymif;aom uRefb0onf
NrdKif? &cdkifvltavmif;}}[lí rSwfwrf; wifxm; yif &cdkif½dkUtzdkU uHxl;uHjrwfjzpfonf/ jrefrm
conf/ *Pef;ocFsm tvdk(7)oef;ausmfonf/ rsm;\ vlrsdK;a&;rkef;wD;rIjzifh rsKd;jzKwf owfjzwf
jrefrmrsm; owfjzwfconfudk tpJGjyKí a*gif;yHk jcif;rSS vGwfajrmufc&onf r[kwfygvm;/ uRef
jyif (ajrmufOD;)? vlowf*sdKif (ajrmufOD;)? b0 wjzpfvJudkyif &cdkif½dkUu ]]acwfaumif;
&Dwuf&Dusaomtcg aomifjyifwGif tpkvdkuf cgu,if}}[lí wifpm;ac: a0:Muonf/ rSefay
tjyKHvdkuf csdKifaESmifí owfcaomaMumifh &Dt onf/ jrefrmvufatmuf ESpf(40) vkH;vkH; 'ku©
uswGif jzLeDaomtavmif;aumifrsm;udk jrif& a&mufeDaom &cdkifom;rsm;onf &DESpfom; wkH;qGJ
aomaMumifh jyifjzLarmf(ajrmufOD;)?tacs oli,f rdouJhodkU toufvQL ajzmifhc&onf/ udk,fhtdk;
rsm;udk t&Sifvwfvwf aygifrsm;udkzJhíowfc udk,fhtdrfjyefeDcGifh&conf/ wenf;qdk&vQif NAdwd
aomaMumifh aygifzJh&Gm(rmefatmif)? vufrsm;udk oQ½dkU\ tumtuG,fudk &cdkif½dkU&onf/ &cdkifhpmyD
jzwfí awmifES,fykHxm;aomaMumifh vufykH jyefvnf tñGefUxlvmEdkifonf/ vGwfvyfpGm ul;
awmif(rmefatmif) &DuefwGif vltjynfh owfí oef;a&mif;0,fcGifh [dojzifh tawmftoifh csrf;
ykHxm;aomaMumifhoDab;uef(aygufawm)?vufyH omvmMuonf/ acwfynm udkvnf; oifMum;
jym; vlowfuef (aygufawm)? tacsi,frsm;udk cGifh &vmonf/ bGJUxl; *kPf xl;rsm;udk qGwfcl;
&Dus&DwufcsdefwGif jcHavSmifí owfcaomaMumifh Edkifconf/ t*Fvdyfacwf wGif &mxl;BuD;rsm;udk
jcHavSmifacsmif;(rmefatmif)? jcHjyif(armifawm)? &cdkifom;rsm; xrf;aqmif Edkifc onf[k tdkifpD
oGD;acsmif; (awmifukwf)? vlUtom;wpfrsm;udk tufpf OD;ausmfrif;u rSwf wrf;&GD;zl;conf/
cGwfjzwfí ykHxm;aom aMumifh tom;ykH&Gm &cdkifuRef ouf (101) ESpf wif;wif; jynfhaomed

1
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
(1886) ck? ZGefe0g&Dv (1) &ufedwGif Armw (DVB) toHvTifh XmewGif jrefrmtoHu
jynfvkH; t*Fvdyfvuf twGif;odkU usa&muf& w&ufudk (45) rded& aomtcg wdkif;&if;om;
onf/ 0#f<uD; jyefvnf onf/&cdkifhtrsKd;om; wrsdK;pDu wywfvHk; rS (15) rded&onfh OyrmESifh
q&mawmf Owåronf jrefrmjynfü vGwfvyf tvm;wl onf/) wenf;ajym&vQif&cdkif½dkUonf
a&;rsKd;pdudk OD;pGm yxr tp csonf/ 0HomEk jrefrmrsm;atmuf aemufwBudrfuRefZmwftoGif;
pdwf"gwfudk Edl;qGyD; onf/ tBudrfBudrf axmifus cHvdkuf&onf/ jrefrm½dkUonfordkif;pOf wavQmuf
tzrf;cHc&onf/ &cdkifvlrsdK; tay: rnfonfhtcgrS aumif;usKd;
ryD;cyg/ Adkvf&efatmif a*gif;aqmifaom Armh
t*Fvdyf vufatmufrS vGwfajrmuf&ef &cdkifh wyfrawmfonf armif0dkif;wyftNyD; ESpfaygif;
a*gif;aqmifrsm;onf jrefrmrsm;ESifh wef;wl BudK; (116) ESpftMumwGif &cdkifjynfü yxrqkH;NcDcs
yrf;conf/ tacsmifrcdk a*smifrcdkcyg/ rif;om; vmonf/ (1942)ckwGif ukvm;&efudkaMumuf í
BuD; &TDbef;onf t*Fvdyfudk pwifawmfvSef xGufNyD;vmaom &cdkif(400)ausmfudk Adkvf &ef
&efBudK;yrf;onf/ þonfudk jrefrm rSwfwrf; atmifonf tultnDryD;bJ oabFmudk azmuf
ür[d/ zufqpf*syefudk&cdkifu t,if awmfvSef í vkyfBuHvdkufonf/ jrefrmjynf vGwfvyfa&;
onf/ (1945) ck? rwfv (27) &uf ed jrefrmu &NyD/ vGwfvyfaom jrefrmjynfwGif ygvDref
*syefudkawmfvSefaomtcg &cdkifjynfwGif *syef 'Drdkua&pDpepfudk usifhokH;onf[kqdkonf/ ygvD
r[dyg,m/ &cdkif½dkUonf udk,ftm;udk,fudk; awmf refwGif &cdkifom;rsm; vGwfvyfpGm ajymqdkcGifh?
vSefjcif;jzpfonf/ ArmwyfrawmfrS ½dkifz,f w wifjycGifhum;&onf/ odkUaomf vGwfvyfpGm
vuf tultnDr,lyg/ *syeftqkwfwGif AdkvfcsKyf vkyfydkifcGifhum;r&? (1952) ckESpfwGif awmyef
atmifqef;onf &cdkifjynfodkU a&mufvmonf/ Zif;? tcpm; (ausmufawmf)? rusnf;ukef;
OD;pdEåmusif;yaom Mumtif;awmif nDvmcHudk (rmefatmif) paom &Gmrsm;udk &GmvkH;uRwf owf
wufjzpfonf/ tvHeDygwDrS OD;atmifoef;u jzwfNyD; OD;Eku &cdkifom;rsm;udk 'Drdkua&pDESifh
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk vlowfrIjzifh w&m;pJGonf/ rdwfqufyD;onf/ OD;Ek\'Drdk ua&pDonf &cdkif
(tao; pdyfudkbHk aygufomausmf pmtkyfwGif om;rsm;tzdkU cg;oD;vSonf/ ajrmufOD;NrdKU eef;&m
zwfyg/) ppfawGMuufudkif;wefwGif ]]&cdkifwusyf? ukef;xufwGif &cdkifrsKd;cspf xGef;vSatmifudk
Arm wusyf? oQrf;wusyf? Armwusyf}} jrefrmppfwyfu usm;xdk;owfypfvdkufonf/ &cdkif
w&m;udka[monf/ pnf;½Hk;ír&ojzifh ]]>rDyGD;ESifh EdkifiHawmfonf *syefxuf tqaygif;rsm;pGmqdk;
&cdkifudk wGdvQif&cdkifudk t,ifowf&rnf}} [k aom jrefrmvuf atmufodkU wzefusa&muf &
jrefrmjynfwGif 0g'jzefUonf/ ocifpdk;? ocifoef; onf/ (1958) ckESpfwGif zqyv ESpfjcrf;uGJ
xGef;? uGefjrLepftzGJUrsm;uvnf; q&mawmf onf/ jynfe,f jyóem ay:vmonf/ OD;Eka*gif;
OD;ynm oD[tm; ArmjynfvGwfvyf a&;&vQif aqmifaom wnfjrJ zqyv uolUygwDudk rJyD;
&cdkifudkvnf; vGwfvyfa&;yD;rnf/ rEåav;r[m vQif &cdkifudk jynfe,fyD;rnf[k vdrfonf/ oefU
rked udkvnf; jyefyD;rnf[k vdrfonf/ nmPfwHk; ,Sif; zqyv baqGu ]]jynfe,fray;Edkif bl;/
aom &cdkifa*gif;aqmifrsm;u jrefrmrsufvSnfh udk cifAsm;wdkUudk usefwJh[mudkbJ ay;Edkifr,f}}[k
,kHMuonf/ vGwfvyfa&;&vmonf/ odkUaomf ajymifwdkuf pdefac:onf/ &cdkifom;rsm; onf
jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&; jzpfonf/ &cdkif ESifhrqdkifyg/ jynfe,ftqifh udkyif jrefrmrsm;xHrS vufjzefU
oQrf;ESifhrqdkifyg/ rGefESifhrqdkifyg/ u&ifESifhrqdkifyg/ awmif;cH&aom olawmif;pm;b0 usa&muf&
wdkif;&if;om;rsm;udk uvdrfu uspfvkyfí &,lc awmhonf/ jynfe,fvdkcsifaom &cdkifom;rsm;
aom vGwfvyfa&; jzpfonf/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; onf rsufpdrdSwfí &wnrJ tygt0if trwf
ajymaom &cdkif wusyf-rGefwusyf/ oQrf;w eD&m (9) ckpvHk;udk OD;Ektm; ykHatmvdkuf onf/
usyf-Armwusyf rlonf wdkif;&if;om; wusyf- (1960)jynfh azaz: 0g&Dv &GD;aumufyGJwGif
Armtm;vHk;jzpf vm onf/ wdkif;&if;om;rsm; OD;EkygwDtEdkif&onf/ odkUaomf &cdkifom;rsm;jynf
wusyfwusyfpD& aomtcg jrefrm(7)usyf tdyf e,fr&/ 'kwd,Hyd tvdrfcH&onf/ &cdkifom;
0ifoydwf0ifyifh oultacsmif&onf/ (,ck rsm;rSm t&Sufvnf;& 0rf;vnf;BuD;&onf/ ]]OD;Ek

2
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
uwdwnfygpD/ &cdkif jynfe,ft,ifyD;" [l í zrf;qD;axmifcsonf/ (NLD) ygwDu rJqG,f
om i,foHygatmif atmfí w&m;a[mEdkif csdefwGif &cdkifom;rsmrSm a,mif
íyif [ír&/ ajymrd qdkrdvQif rsufuef; rsKd;cspf?
9 vdkifajcmif;uJGonf/ 0ifoD;emonf/ tjrifusOf; olrsm; tjzpf wHqdyft½dkufcH&onf/
&cdkifu jynfe,fawmif; oQrf;u z,f'&,frl usOf;ajrmif;aom jrefrmvlrsKd;i,f0g' atmufwGif
wifvm aomtcg OD;Ekonf [efraqmif &cdkifom;rsm;\ b0pkef;pkef;jrKwf&yg awmhonf/
Edkifawmhay/ ae0if;udk tmPmvTJ tyfvdkuf& (1974)ckESpf zGJUpnf;ykHudk ae0if;u (99) 'ór
onf/ jrefrmrsm;\ yifudk,f bDvl;½kyfudk jy& (7) &mEIef; axmufcH rI&onf[k vdrfí
awmhonf/ atmifqef; ]]wusyf}}udk ae0if;u twnfjyKconf/ tckvnf; vdrfvnfí rMum
vk,l vm;conf/ xdktcg jrefrmu(14)usyf& í cif twnfjyK awmhrnf/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u
wdkif; &if;om;rsm;rSm 0vHk;uGif;onf/ (1967) ]]>rDyDG;ESifh &cdkif udkwGdvQif &cdkifudk t,ifowf&
ckESpf Mo*kwfv (13)&uf Oykof ed ppfawGNrdKUwGif rnf}} [kajym onf/ &cdkifpnf½kH;a&;c&D; tNyD;
&cdkifom; (300)ausmf udk ae0if;u owfypf wGif a':pku ]]uRefrawmh &cdkifudk cspfrdoGm;NyD}}
vdkufonf/ ]]bm;Al[d,ifh? qef[d,ifh? 'dkif;usD [kqdk onf/ tolUudk,kH&ygrnfenf;/ (2005)
[d ,ifh &D[d,ifh}} b0ifjrifhaom &cdkif om;/ ckESpf 'DZifbmv (31) &ufedwGif &cdkifuRefouf
ae0if;vufatmuf xrif;iwfí olawmif;pm; tESpf (221) wif;wif;jynfhonf/ &cdkifynm
jzpfonf/ (]],cD;}}[k tac:cH& onf/ jrefrm wwfrsm; pOf;pm;yg/ ynmrwwfolrsm;vnf; pOf;
(AcsD;) ESifh &cdkif(,cD;) tom;pm;t&Dpm;jzpf pm;yg/ &cdkift½dk;awmif yHk,myHkjzpfvm;Asm,f/
uwf&onf/) jrqefpuf&SdwGif &cdkifom;rsm; *kPfjyKMuyg/ av;pm;Muyg/ ,ckwzef &cdkifhuH
cGD;oD0ufoD oDuwf&onf/ ]]roDygodrfh? t Mur®monf tuREkfyf½dkU\a*gif;xufodkU usa&muf
ouf[dodrfha&}} qdkauvnf; rvGwf/ t&Sif vwfNyD/ &cdkifhynmwwfrsm;? ynm[drsm;? ynm
vwfvwf NrDjrKyfcH&onf/ rqv vufatmuf oQifrsm;? ynmrJhrsm; tm;vHk; owdxm; Muyg/
&cdkifwrsdK;om;vHk; pm&dwå r@dKifysufpD;í &cdkif jrefrm½dkU azmfpyfaom 0rf;EIwfqD; trsKd;rsKd;udk
vlñGefUwHk;onf/ nDtpfudkyg[k jrefrmrsm; vdrf aomuf zl;cygNyD/ &cdkif½dkU\ wckwnf; aomtEådr
ír&/ &cdkifESifhjrefrmonf woD;wjcm;pDjzpf yef;wdkifonfum; yZmjzpfygoenf;/ &cdkifhtcsKyf
onf/ &cdkifvlrsdK;onf ordkif;pOfquf udk,fhxD; tcsmtmPm &cdkifhvufwGif; a&mufa&;jzpfonf/
udk,fheef; &mZ0ifESifhvmaom vlrsdK;wrsdK;jzpf ordkif;aMumif;udk ajymvQif ya'o&mZf tcsif;
onf/ jrefrm½dkUonf rGefuwqifh Ak'¨bmom csif; ppfcif;cuwfonf [líom pum;vSqdk
jzpfonf/ jrefrmrsm; ta&;BuD; &[ef;udk;uG,f onf/ odkUaomf jrefrm½dkU onf ya'o&mZfrsm;
eDcsdefwGif &cdkifjynfü ESpfaygif; waxmifausmf odrf;,lcaom e,fNrDrsm;udk tydkif&vdkonf/
Ak'¨bmom tjrpfwG,fNyD;jzpfonf/ {&m0wDjrpf urÇmrausromajr a<u;aMumfí bk&ifhaemif?
onf uyÜvDyif v,fxJodkU pD;0ifonf/ ukvm; usefppfom;? tavmif;bk&m;ponfjzifh tajcmuf
wefjrpfonf b*Fvm;yifv,fxJodkU pD;qif; wdkuf &efapmifeDwwfonf/ ynmyD;&zdkU tcsdef
onf/ &cdkifESifh jrefrmonf NrDvnf;rwl? &Dvnf; a&mufvwfNyD/ ued tcsdefü &cdkifom;rsm;onf
rwl? vlvnf;jcm;onf/ (88) ta&; tcif;jzpfí rnfodkUrQrwkHUjyefodrfh aomfvnf; rkefwdkif;onf
ArmwjynfvkH;ususuf½dkufaom tcgwGif &cdkif Budrf;0g;zdkUtwGuf tm;,lwmpl vQuf [donf/
jynfudkvnf; ul;pufvmonf/ NyD;a,Smifc&aom
&cdkifom;rsm;rSm abmufomvdkuf/ axmifus tjyifrSmysm;? twGif;rQm;
om; vnf;ruef/ BudK;yD; t owfcH& olrenf;/ vSnfhzsm;rm,m? EI wf0gpmjzifh
(1990) ckESpf a&G;aumuf yGJwGif &cdkifygwD zGwfvQmavQmufom;? cGD;pum;udk
(ALD)u trwf (11) eD&m&onf/ tzdk; OD;om
,kHrSm;wcg r[d&m --/
xGef; axmifxJütowfcH &onf/ rsm;rMum? jynfya&muf &cdkifrsKd;cspfvli,frsm;
&cdkifygwD tNzdKcH&onf/ &cdkifa*gif;aqmifrsm;udk
(2006) ckESpf *sLvdkif (5) &uf Ak'¨L;ed
3
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
tvSnfhus wnhfrAsm,fvm;uwfar
&ckdifawmfvSefa&;tp yxravSum;udk ckefausmf
AdkvfausmfxGD;u qdkaurrSm; atmufom;eef@ trsdK;awmfeDcg
atmufom;udk wz0g;rS tausmfrcH q&mawmf OD;pdEWmwnfhr
trsdK;rSef oGD;rSef &ckdifhtm;rmefeef@ u|efb0. '\eudk
tvHrvJa& awmifrif;}uD;ZGJ vufnd_;xdk;jyca& & & &
aemufvmvlrsm;tonf;rSm
awmfvSefa&; &kyfxkudk xGif;xk ¾ acwfopf awmfvSefa&;tp
trsdK;om;a&; vrf;a=umif;udk
a*gif;ikH@rcHatmif OD;aqmifca& & && t,lrajymif;bJwwfa&muf
csif;jynfta&muf
¾ wokwf+yD;wokwf usOfokH;awmufeef@ aemufqkH;cef;rSm
trsdK;om;&kyfvkH;ay:atmif&GD; &J&Jawmuf ajympum;
ESvkH;oGD;eef@ awmfvSefa&;rsdK;qufrDG;zGg;
Adkvfcsif;ysHpGrf;tm;
'vufeufcs tvif;0ifjcif;onf
tzdEdkyfcHjynfol&dk@ twGuf
av;&yfom;toJu xGufrvm; & & &
cGifhrvGwfEdkifa& &mZ0ifr_vwf'
¾ u|efb0vufajymif;cg OuUX}uD;ckdifrdk;vif;pum;
vufarmifoDG;udk azmufxkwf ALA &Jabmfem;u *kxdrxGuf &&&&&
trsdK;,kwf rSefor# awmfvSefca&
rif;om;}uD;. tm;rmefeef@ ¾ *kcg ig&dk@tvSnfh
a';0ef;+rdK@ol}uD;&dk@ ordkif;rSef ±_dufpyD;,m; ykHjyifvnf; r[kwfawydkif
&uQdw&dk@ &ifrSmpHwif i&Jjycef;vnf;r[kwf
ajymifajrmufaw vuFmtjzpf vGwfvyfaw &ckdifhvl@abmifopfjzpfzdk@
ig&dk@wd ðypkysdK;yem
ordkif;wacwfudk pdkufxlcuwfaw &&& b0yD;oifcef;pmxJu
¾ ,if;aemufrSm yD;qyfr_pm;om;tay:rlwnf
urBm&Gm w&GmqdkpGm om,m udkvdkeDt[kwfvdk@
udk,fhrSm tdrfr[dpGmrod tajymorm;r[kwfyJ
awmfvSefa&; Zmwfvrf;wdu ,kH=unfau
w+rDwnf;eD w&Dwnf;aomuf pum;=um; vma0 vma0 vufwGJuwfar?
ig&dk@u jynfrom;qdkum
&D,dkEdkifpdk; (ALA)
ÚÚÚÚÚÚÚÚÚÚ

4
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
ESvkH;vS uGefref'dk a'c&D;0D;a&vm;
9 olwvl igrlwrif; c&D;=urf;0,f
9 teDjrwfauvnf; wufrnDa& ygwDursm;
oDwwfzdk@vdka& avmurSm 0D;uGmr_rsm;a&c&D; ---
0rf;r0 cg;rvSa& nDnGwfr_a±S@±_um ukd,fusdK;cGm
trSef&mvm; yef;wdkifem;eD;
tn=w ppfonfrsm; 1 1 1 1 1
&ckdifc&D;r0D;? ?
9 vleDûcH=um; pdwfeDbkHzsm;eef@
wcgwcg ckdif'Dy (ALA)
oDrif;ac:oHwd atmufrSm
wm0efusDygAsmqkdyem
oGD;aomufwdudkvrf;jy
oDwwfzdk@ ajymcvDa& 1 1 1 1 1

9 tdk apmifhxdrf;uwfzdk h
&Guf<uGDawmu ol&Jaumif;wd
ork',aESmif}udK;=um;u 9 trsdK;oDv &uQdw
'kuQudk r[mrdwfzGJ@ xdef;apmihfuwfar ig&dk@av
twWrJ@a& oif&dk@onfum; rsdK;udkcspfau ukd,fhjynfudkvSrf;
tEd_if;rJh pGef;tm;tjzpf&Sifoef nDnGwfuwfzdk@ pdwfudkysifqif
vGwfvyfawedef@ &ckdifh&ifjyifrSm &ckdif&dk@onf nDwlwnfaqmuf
=u,f}uGDaomfvnf; vom +rJpmwrf;udk &ckdihf*k%fa&mif arSmifudky,fjcm;
xGif;xk tvif;aqmifonhf trsdK;rSefwd
&ckdifom;todeef@ apmifhxdef;vD?
*k%fðyyg&pD ? 1 1 1 1 1
ckdif0Ho ( ALP)

&D,dkEkdifpdk; (ALA)

5
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
ykcGuf v$J a& vuf ykdif o#if odk @
tbmtdk.qENrGef
[ trsdK;om;a&;twGuf
OD;xdkufE_wfqufcg trifhpum; # igom;
ezl;vufwif pOf;pm;wkdif; vl@jynfavmu jzpfc%0,f
b0vnf;jrwf vljzpfwwfzdk@
" rif;udkat&GmrSm rGD;pGm
jrwfonhfynm xdkOpPmudk
a'&Gmb0 a'okweef@
tbm&SmyD;ca& Û Û Û Û Û Û
ed*dk;csKyfzdk@ r[kwfvwf" ·········
# ighom;
[ toacsFru arwWmw&m;eef@ rif;acwfrif;cg ,if;ynmudk
urBmrausmfvnf; Avmwacwf u|efpepfESihf
,kH=unhf&mudk trSefvkyfzdk@oGefoif wqpftm%m 0rf;wxGmwGuf
om;b0. *EW0ifajrmufaw trifudk usdK;&SmtwW 0rf;r0auh Û Û Û Û Û Û
aus;Zl;tcgcg wifrda&·········
# ighom;
[ *kcg rif;.0ef;usif xdkwcGifudk
ordkif;wacwfawmufyzdk@ rif;jrif,ihfvm; edrfhustm;ukef
b0wlwdeef@wJaG v#muf av;yg;rsdK;pkH vljzpfukefcrf;
rmusL&Dvlom;wa,muftjzpf EGrf;ykHZmwfysuf u|efrsdK;qufudk
tarSmifxkukd y,f&Sm; rif;oufrif;&G,f rif;tedefESifh
ykcGufvJa$ & vufpGef;tm;pGm y,fo#m;EkdifpD Û Û Û Û Û Û
urBmudk tkyfcsKyfEkdifa&vdk@
cH,lcsufxm;a&trif # igom;
' r 'waxmif waumifzGg; vl@jynf&yf&Gm rif;ao&Sm=unfh
rif;ca,musFm;jynfo#dufom;wGuf tm%mwqkwf &Dwr_wfwGuf
*k%f,lpdwfxm;EkdifpDum; tdktrif ······ o&kyfysufjym; 'tEW' rsm;udk
rif;owdðy rsm;usdK;±_avmh Û Û Û Û Û Û
&D,kdEkdifpdk; (ALA)
&D,dkEkdifpdk; (ALA)

[[[[[[[[

6
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
owif;xkwfjyefa=ujimcsuf
&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf(ALA)rS Arm etz ppfpcef;wckudk0ifa&mufwdkufcdkuf

&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD (ALP) . vufatmufcH &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS ppfa=umif;


wa=umif;onf Arm etzwdk@. yvuf0òr@e,f 'dk;acsmif;0a&S@wef;ppfpcef;udk Edk0bFmv(18)&ufae@u 0ifa&mufwdkuf
cdkufcJha=umif; owif;&&Sdonf?

&cdkifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS ppfa=umif;rª;wOD;jzpfol wyf=uyf}uD;cdkifvif; OD;aqmifaom tzGJ@0if (15)OD;


yg0ifonfh ppfa=umif;onf Edk0bFmv(18)&uf rGef;vGJ(3;15)em&DwGif yvuf0òr@e,f 'dk;acsmif;0 a&S@wef;ppfpcef; udk
tvHk;t&if;jzifh0ifa&mufypfcwfcJhjcif;jzpfonf? wdkufyGJ.tcsdefonf rdepf(50)cef@=um jrifhcJhonf?

wdkufyGJtwGif; etz ppfom;rsm;bufrS txdemcJh+yD;/ att,fvfat wyfrawmfom;rsm;bufrS xdcdkufusqHk;r_r&Sd[k od&


onf? wdkufyGJjzpfyGg;yHkESifh ywfoufI &cdkifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS ppfa=umif;rª;cdkifvif;u "usaemfwdk@
att,fvfat ppfa=umif; &efol etzwdk@&J@ 'dk;acsmif;0pcef;udk 'Dv(18)&ufae@u tpDtpOf&Sd&SdeJ@ 0ifypfcJh w,f? wdkufyGJxJrSm
usaemfwdk@bufu bmrSxdcdkuf usqHk;r_r&SdcJhbl;? Armppfom;awGbufuawmh (2) a,mufao w,f? (3)a,muf
jyif;jyif;xefxef '%f&m&oGm;cJhw,f? 'DwdkufyGJtwGuf usaemf auseyfrdw,f ”[k ajymonf?

tqkdygwkdufckdufcH&onfh 'dk;acsmif;0 a&S@wef;ppfpcef;wGif wm0efusae=uonfh Armppfom;rsm;onf ykÀm;u|ef; tajc pdkuf


cr&(550)rSjzpf+yD;/ pufwbFmvu &aohawmifòr@e,ftajcpdkuf cr&(538)ae&mY tpm;xdk;a&muf&Sdvmaom
a&S@wef;v_yf&Sm;onfhwyfvnf; jzpfonf?

&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD(ALP)onf zGJ@pnf;cJhonfh 1967 ckESpfrSpI &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;twGuf Armppftpdk;& udk


wpdkufrwfrwfwdkufyGJ0ifvmcJhaom ygwDwckvnf;jzpfonf?

owif;ESifhjyef=um;a&;Xme
&cdkifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD(ALP)
&cdkifjynf?

&ufpGJ? ? 2008 ck/ Edk0bFmv(25)&uf? 7

Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù


&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD (ALP)rS &cdkifjynftrsdK;om;aumifp(D ANC)ESifh
yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_tm;vHk;udkvHk;0&yfqdkif;xm;vdkufa=umif;xkwfjyefa=ujimjcif;
a=ujimcsuftrSwf-01/2009
&ckdifjynftrsdK;om;aumifpD(ANC)udk &cdkifwrsdK;om;vHk;qHk&yfwck wenf;tm;jzifh wrsdK;om;vHk;qdkif&mudpP&yfrsm;
wGif wlnDaomoabmxm;rsm;udk pkaygif;nSdedkif;&SmazGekdif&ef &nf&G,f+yD; zGJ@pnf;xlaxmifcJhjcif;jzpfayonf? odk@&m wGif
tzGJ@0if tcsdK@onf txufaz:jyyg&nf&G,fcsufrsm;ESifh(ANC).zGJ@pnf;yHk vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;udk rsufuG,fðyjyD;
vkyfaqmifvm =uonfudk awG@vm=u&onf? 4if;wdk@rSm(ANC)obmywdtzGJ@0if OD;odef;az(DPA)ESifh tzGJ@0if
tcsdK@onf(ANC)obmywdtzJG@0ifrsm; twGif;wGifvnf;aumif;/ A[kdaumfrDwD0ifrsm;twGif;wGifvnf;aumif;/
aqG;aEG;r_r&Sd/ qkH;jzwfcsufr&Sd/ wm0efay;r_r&SdbJ(ANC)tm; jynfol@tajccHjzifh zGJ@pnf;xlaxmif&ef twGufóu;yrf;
vkyfaqmifvmcJhonf? obmywdtzGJ@0if(4)OD; aqG;aEG;!SdE_dif;r_r&SdbJ obmywdtzGJ@0ifOD;odef;azESifh tzGJ@0iftcsdK@
onf nDvmcHrS a&G;cs,fcJhaom (ANC)obmywdtzJG@0ifOD;omEdk; (ALD) A[dkaumfrDwDtzGJ@0if ausmfodef;armif
(ALD) A[dkaumfrDwDtzGJ@0if AdkvfrSL;cdkfifrsdK;rif;(ALP)wdk@tm; xkwfy,fjcif;rsm;udkvkyfaqmifvmcJhonf? (ANC)
obmywdtzGJ@0ifOD;odef;azESifh tzGJ@0iftcsdK@onf obmywdtzGJ@0ifrsm;tm;wdkifyif!SdE_dif;r_r&SdbJ nDvmcHrSa&G;cs,f
cJhaom(ANC)twGif;a&;rSL; OD;armifarmiftm; xkwfy,fcJhonf? xkd@tjyif r=umrSDtcsdeftwGif; OD;armifarmifrS
ol.tjypfudk0efcHonf[k ta=umif;jyjyD; (ANC) twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf jyefvnfwm0efay;tyfcJhonf? wzef 2008-
ckESpf Ekdif0ifbmvwGi(f ANC)tvSnfhusobmywd OD;z'D;jzL(NUPA)ESifh tzGJ@0iftcsdK@onf/ wjcm;aom obmywd
tzGJ@0ifrsm;tm; aqG;aEGr_r&Sdb(J ANC) obmywd tzGJ@0ifOD;odef;azudkvnf;aumif;/(ANC) wGJbuf twGif;a&;rSL;
OD;armifvl}uD;udkvnf;aumif;xkwfyg,fcJhonf? xkd@tjyif nDvmcHu qkH;jzwfcsuft& e,l;a'vDwGif xm;&Sdaom
(ANC)XmecsKyf&kH;udkvnf; 'uUm;jrdK@odk@a&$@ajymif;cJhonf? txufaz:jyyg vkyf&yfrsm;onf (ANC). zGJ@pnf;yHkvkyf
xHk;vkyfenf;rsm;ESifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ (ANC).rlv&nf&Gufcsufrsm;ESifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ &ckdifwrsdK; om;vHk;.
tusdK;pD;yGm;rsm;ESifhaomfvnf;aumif; vkH;0qef@usifbufjzpfvmonfhtwGuf xkdvkyf&yfrsm;onf rdrdwdk@ &cdkifjynfvGwf
ajrmufa&;ygwD(ALP)ESifh vkH;0roufqkdifa=umif;ESifh (ALP) taejzifh (ANC)wGifyg0ifyl;aygif;vkyf aqmifaer_rsm;
tm;vHk;udk 2009-ck/ azaz:0g&DvrSpI vHk;0&yfqdkif;xm;vkdufayonf? odk@jzpfygI &ckdifjynf trsdK;om;aumifpD
(ANC)ESifh ywfoufI aemufqufwGJjzpfay:vmrnfh t&m[lor#onfu|Ekfyfwkd@ &ckdifjynf vGwfajrmufa&; ygwD
(ALP)ESifh vHk;0ywfowfr_ r&Sdyga=umif; xkwfjyefa=ujimtyfayonf?

A[dkaumfrDwD
&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD(ALP)
&ufpGJ? ? 2009 ck azaz:0g&Dv 27
8

Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù


vlxkusef;rma&;(3)vywfoifwef; ydwfyGJtcef;tem; (taemufzuf}wd*Ha'o)

&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwDrS vlxkusef;rma&;(3)vywf oifwef;atmifjrifpGm+yD;qkH;


&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwDrS vlxkusef;rma&;oifwef;wckudk atmifjrifpGmjyKvkyf+yD;ca=umif; owif;&[dygonf?
oifwef;umvrSm =o*kwfv(4)&ufedrS atmufwdkbmv (31) &ufedtxd (3)vcef@ =umjrifhca=umif; od[d&onf?

tqdkygoifwef;wGif &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD. 0g&ifhqD;rSL;(5)OD;rS oifwef;q&mtjzpf oif=um;jyoc+yD; ae&m


a'otoD;oD;rS oifwef;om; (20) cef@wwfa&mufcuwfonf? oifwef;.t"du&nf&G,fcsufrSm &ckdifa'oESihf e,fpyf
wavsmufwGif usef;rma&;vkyfom;trsm;tjym;rGD;xkwf+yD; vlxkusef;rma&;apmihfa&Smufr_rsm; ydkrdkvkyfaqmifvmEdkif
pD&eftwGufjzpfa=umif; od[d&onf?

&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwDrS xkda'owGif TuJhodk@ vlxkusef;rma&;oifwef;(3)vywf vkyfaqmifjcif;onf yxrqkH;


t}udrfjzpf+yD; qufvufIvnf; ,if;uJhodk@ usef;rma&;oifwef;rsm; qufvufydk@csyD;rnf[kvnf; od[d&onf?
&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwDrS qD;rSL;rsm;onf &ckdif-b*Fvm;-tdENd, (}wd*Ha'o) e,fpyfwavsmufwGif qD;cef;rsm; zGifhvSpfI
tcrJ@qD;ukoyD;edefonfhtjyif e,fvSnfhausmfydk;tdyfxrf;I e,fpyfa'owav#muf[d aus;&Gmrsm;udk vm;a7muf+yD;
qD;0g;ukoyD;vsufvnf;[da=umif; qufvufod[d&ygonf?

owif;ESifhjyef=um;a&;Xge
&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD(ALP)

9
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwDESihf rav;&Sm;EkdifiH[d &ckdifawmfvSefa&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm; tpnf;ta0;w&yfðyvkyf

&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD(rav;&Sm;XgecGJ)
&kH;wGif &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD OuUXESihf
rav;&Sm;EkdifiH[d &ckdiftiftm;pkrsm;/ tjcm;
&ckdifrsdK;cspfjynfcspfyk*d~Kvfrsm; wGdqkHaqG;aEG;yGJ
w&yfudk rwfv(15) &ufedwGif jyKvkyfc
a=umif; owif;& [dygonf? xkd wGdqkHaqG;aEG;
yGJodk@ wwfa&mufonfhtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rSm &ckdif
'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf (ALD) jynfy(rav;&Sm;)/
&ckdif'kuQonf u,fqnfa&; aumfrwD
(ARRC)tjcm;woD;yk*~v trsm;tjym;
wwfa&muf aqG;aEG;ca=umif; od[d&onf?
&ckdif'kuQonfu,fqnfa&;aumfrwD(ARRC) (ALP) OuUX}uD; ckdif&Jckdif rav;&Sm;wGif rdef@cGef;ajym;=um;edefpOf
rS A[kdaumfrwDwOD;ajym=um;onfrSm t*k
uJhodk@ &ckdiftzGJ@tpnf;rsm;wpkw&kH;wnf; wufa&mufaqG;aEG;jcif;onf tem*wftz&ckdifjynf}uD;. tcsKyftjcm tm%m
ydkifqkdifa&;twGuf tvif;a&mif+cDvSrf;opfrsm;yifjzpfa=umif; ajym=um;conf? &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD OuUX ckdif&JckdifrS
ajym=um;onfrSm tz&ckdifjynfESihf&ckdifvlrsdK;&kd@onf t*ktcsdefxd udkvdkeDe,fcsJ@vufatmufrSm a&muf[deDonf?
&ckdifjynfrSxGuf[daom o,HZmwrsm;udk u|efjyKxm;olrsm;u tjrpfygrusef a&mif;pm;edefonfomru &ckdifjynfolrsm;udk
vnf; enf;trsdK;rsdK;ESihfESdufpufeDa=umif;ajym=um;conf? qufvufajym=um;&mwGif t&G,fa&muf&ckdifvli,frsm;rSm
vlrsm;wdkif;jynfwGif 'kuQ}uD;pGm vma&muftvkyfvkyfedef&jcif;rSmvnf; &ckdifom;vufxJwGif &ckdifhtm%mr[dI jzpf a=umif;/
tu,fI &ckdifom;rsm;rSm t,iftcsdefuydkif udk,fwkdif;jynfukd,fhvufxJwGif[dygu Trsavmufo,HZmwayg rsm;aom
&ckdifjynfwGifeDxkdifonhf &ckdifom;rsm;onf vlwdkif;vljynfwGif tvkyfvmvkyf&ef ta=umif;r[da=umif; ajym=um;conf?
xkd@tjyif &ckdifom;rsm;onf ZmeD&myifa&mufa&muf trsdK;om;vuQ%mESihf trsdK;om;a&;pdwf"gwf&Sif oefedef&ef
vdktyfa=umif;ESihf vuf[d&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD(ALP). t+cDtedefrsm;udk ajym=um;conf? &ckdif'Drdku a&pDtzGJ@csKyf
(ALD) jynfy(rav;&Sm;) OuUX OD;oef;azrSvnf; vuf[dt+cDtedefwGif &ckdifom;rsm;rSm toufo#if vsufESihf odDeDol
rsm;jzpfa=umif;/ jynfya&muf &ckdifvli,frsm;om &ckdifjynf.orkdif;rSefrsm;udk odcGif&a=umif; &ckdifjynfrS vli,ftrsm;tjym;rSm
orkdif;rSefrsm;udkodcGifhr&yJ[da=umif;/ xkd@a=umifh t*ktcsdefwGif &ckdifom;rsm;rSm udk,fwwfEkdifonhf zufrS trsdK;om;a&;twGuf
wm0efukd,fpDxrf;&Guf&efvkda=umif; ponfrsm;udkvnf; ajym=um;cygonf? tjcm; wwfa&mufvmonhf yk*~dKvfrsm;uvnf;
&if;&if;ESD;ESD; yGifhyGifhvif;vif; ESD;aESmzvS,faqG;aEG;+_yD; rGef;wnfh (12) em&DwGif pwifconfh xdk tpnf;ta0;udk nedef (5)
em&DwGif atmifjrifpGm &kyford f;vkdufa=umif; od[d&ygonf?

owif;ESihfjyef=um;a&;Xge

&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD(ALP)

10

Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù


Statement by Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff on the Intention
to Use Discretionary Authority for Material Support to Terrorism

Release Date: January 19, 2007

For Immediate Release


Office of the Press Secretary
(202) 282-8010

The United States of America has a great legacy as a welcoming nation to legitimate refugee and
asylum seekers from around the world. Indeed, America has traditionally welcomed more
refugee and asylum seekers than any other nation in the world. The federal government has
upheld that tradition while working hard to eliminate the risk of unintentionally admitting a
potentially dangerous and fraudulent petitioner in a post-9/11 world.

A select group of foreign nationals have been unable to pursue the protections provided by our
refugee and asylum laws because they have been uniquely victimized by terrorist groups. This
group as a whole does not represent a threat to our homeland security. I, therefore, will exercise
my discretionary authority to permit consideration of applications for refugee status, asylum or
adjustment of status from some who have provided material support to groups while under
duress.

I have also decided, in consultation with the Departments of State and Justice, to exercise my
discretionary authority under the Immigration and Nationality Act to not apply material support
to terrorism provisions to those seeking asylum or adjustment of status that have provided
support to eight groups. They are: the Karen National Union and Karen National Liberation
Army, Chin National Front and Chin National Army, Chin National League for Democracy,
Kayan New Land Party, Arakan Liberation Party, Tibetan Mustangs, Cuban Alzados, and
Karenni National Progressive Party.

The material support to terrorism exemption will apply to individuals who do not represent a
public safety or national security risk to the United States. In addition to exempting from the
material support bar eligible individuals in these two categories, the federal government will also
seek legislation from Congress to further expand our discretionary exemption authority. We are
deeply committed to ensuring that those who deserve humanitarian relief from our immigration
system receive it, and that America continues to be a beacon of hope and protection for the
persecuted.

11
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
i,fcspfa[mif;yg;odk@ tudkeDa& eD&mu pwkr[m&mZf/ wm0wöom/ ,mrm
(,mrSm)/ wkoDwm tp[da& ewfjynf
ajcmufxyfxJu ,mrSm qkda& txyfrSm eDpGmyga0
# cifacs/ uH=urRm cifacs? ewfjynfqkdpGmudkvnf; pauacs &Sif;jyar?
tvSnhf tajymif;/tauG@ &ckdif-b*Fvm;-tdENd, okH;EkdifiHcGqkHrSm wnf[da&
taumufwdeef@ jynfhESufeD abmfwmawmifxdyfem;u ,m(wJ)acs xJrSm eD&pGmudk
a& vl@b0rSm udk,fha&; ajympGmyga0 cifacs? ewfjynfrSm eDa&vlqkdauu
xuf jynfa&;u ta&;}uD;a&qkdydkif cspf&ol cifacs cifacsvnf;oda& twkdif;Asm,f rvm;? pm;&pGmuvJ
ta&;xuf/ wkdif;jynfta&;u ydk+yD; ta&;}uD;a&vdk@ ewf=oZm rvm;a0 - ewf=oZmqdkpGm omrefvlwd
,lqrda&twGuf tudk cifacsudk cGJcgGjcif;om jzpfaw/ pm;Ekdifa& tpm;tpm awmhr[kwf cifacs? tudk&dk@ydkif
cifacs? a,auvnf;aomh cifacsudk wb0 wm ,mrm ewfjynf om;wd. ewf=oZmuqkdau
xm0&pGef@vGwfvkduf&Asm,fqkda& raESmtodu tukd@ 0wkwfeJ@ ESaysmyifyga0? ol&dk@wdeef@ tudk usifudkifvm
ESvkH;om;udk xrif;vkH; wap>ajcmufawykdif &ufjywf pGmvnf; cifacs eef@vrf;cGJa& eduyifa,? t*ktcsdefxd
ajcmufvef@ ESdyfpufedefa& qkdpGmudk ,kHyg cifacs? usifukdifeD& wkef;Asm,fa0? a=omf rdef@edefvkdufpGm wck?
t*ktcsdefrSm cifacseef@ udk,fh=um;rSm Zmolu rSef+yD; cifacsu +rdK@rSmedefa& +rdK@ol 0wkwf}udKufaw jzpfvdk@
Zmolu rSm;a&qdkpGmudk ocsFmykp>mwyk'fykdif rwGuf 0wkwf eef@pm;&pGm aumif;aumif; tqifajyzdk@pGm
csufcsifAsm,f cifacs? ,if;ykdif wGufcsufau vnf; rvm; vdk@ rxifauhtkH;od cifacs? qDvnf;ryg/
tajzr[da& ykp>mudk wGufcsufawydkif tajzrSefu iydvnf; rxnhf &a& ,mrSm pm;&a& ewf=oZm
xGufvmzdk@ r[kwfpGm taotcsmAsm,f cifacs? cspfol 0wkwfeef@ ESaysmyif. t&omu Zmavmufxd
cifacsta&;xuf wkdif;jynfa&;udk OD;pm;yD;ca& tudk pm;vdk@ aumif;vDzkd@vJ qkdpGm udk cifacs pdwfrSef;eef@&m
u 'kuQyifv,fxJrSm vufypful;eD&a& qkdpGmudk pm;=unhfvDygzd cifacs? ,auvnf;aomh cifacs
cifacs wa,muf odatmifvdk@ tvGrf;taiG@ touf t*ktcsdefrSm om;ig;rygau rpm;wwfaw tudk@
rsm; v$rf;eDa& uAsmrqef vuFgrqefonfh atpm v#meef@u oHvkduf"gwf zdk/r qGJaqmifa&ykdif
v$m acsudk &GD;om;ydk@vdkufyg,ihfa0? vkdufzufedefAsmvfa0 cifacs? rqGJ aqmifvdk@vnf;
Zmudk& zdk@vnf; cifacs? ,if;ydkif tudk@v#mu
cifacs? t*ktcsdefrSm cifacseef@tudku rqGJaqmifEkdif qdkau tudk oDzdk@&m [da&?
rqkdifa& vlwdjzpfeDauvnf; t,ifwcsdefu toJ aemufwckvnf; ajym&zdk@od cifacs? ewfjynf rSm
eifhatmif cspfc&a& cspfola[mif; awmfvSefa&; eDa&vlqdkauu tdyf&muvnf; od=um;rif; tdyfaw
orm;wOD;. b0cHpm;csufudk rSef;qcHpm;=unhf pD A¾KurŠvm jrausmuf zsmwrsdK;rvm;a, a0?
csifyga&? cifacsu t*ktcsdefrSm om,mvSya& Ektdaysmhaysmif;ykH eef@ tdyfvdk@aumif;ykHu pm&GD;zGJ@
tdrfaxmifa&;eef@ vl@b0.csrf;omr_udk cHpm;eD& vdk@awmif &_H;avmufyga&/ tyifESpfyifrSm wzuf
Asm,f &Sdzdk@eef;? tudku rsufuef;wap> ra=umuf wcsufpD csdKif+yD; tdyfvdk@ &a& ,dkif; wrsdK;rvm;a,?
awydkif prf;w0g;0g;eef@ vrf;r&SdwJh awmawmif tdyfeDa& tcsdefrSm&m cE<mudk,fudk pauacs
txyfxyf awmfvSefa&; c&D;=urf;xJrSm vrf;pacs apmif;vkdufzdk@qdkau ewf orD;/ wzuf ig;&mu vm+yD;
ay:atmif &SmeD&wkef;yga0 cifacs? ,dkif;v$JyD;a& twkdif; Asm,frvm; a,a0 cifacs?
cifacs? ,if;csifhuvnf; wenf;tm;jzifh
cifacs tudk@udk Zmedef&mrSm a&mufeDa&vdk@ xifa&vJ?
aumif;aumif; tdyfvdk@aumif;a& tdyf&macs rvm;
aocsmpGm wckukd ajym&zdk@qkdauu Armjynfom;wd
a0? a=omf aemufwck rdef@eDoda&?
tm;ustxif}uD;edefa& EkdifiHjcm; wedef&mrSmyga0?
a,auvnf; EkdifiHjcm;qkd+yD; aumif;aumif;xd tudk@. cE<mukd,feef@ vStytysiftqif udk
txifr}uD; eDauhtkH;od cifacs? tukdajymjyar? xnhfrajymau Zm+yD;zdk@vJ cifacs? tusôtjzL

12
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
aumfvmuwkH;/ ta&mifc&ifh&ifhacs &ckdif'a,mudk r&dyf&odrfha& rqdwfrGD;rsm;udk ydkifqdkifum arsmuftdk
aumif;aumif; }udKufwwfaw tukdu t*kcgqkdau waumif. rsufESmeef@ xyfwlyg Asm,fa0 cifacs?
tpdrf;a&mif ,leDazmif;eef@ vm;vm&pGm aumif; cifacs.om;/ orD;wdu&m tudk@udk +AKH;ceJ jrifvkduf
aumif; aysmfedefygAs,fa0 cifacs? t,ifu cE<mudk,f zdk@qdkauvef@+yD; zsm;vm;Ekdifavmufw,f? ,if;csifh
yifyifyef;yef;vkyf&a& tvkyfudk r}udKufyJ OD;aESmuf wdu tudk@. vuf&Sdb0 '\eyg cifacs? tudk@
eef@vkyfa& tvkyfudkom ESpfoufa& tudk u vuf&Sdb0 '\e tjzpfrSefwdudk ajymvdkufvdk@ cifacs
t*kcgjzifh aemufukef;xufrSm (15) uDvdkavmuf ukdawmh pdwfrnpfrvm;pD csifyga0? Zmjzpfvdk@qdkau
vD;a&txkyf}uD;udkxrf;+yD; ayokH;av; axmifavmuf udk,fu EGm;jzpfav,mOfpD; tvkyfudk vkyfedefpGmudk;?
jrifha& awmifxufodk@ vrf;r&Sda& edef&mu wwf&pGm EGm;jzpfav,mOfpD;qkdvdk@ acgif;rcJ vm;auhtkH;od
t&omwrsdK;ydkif jzpfedefygAsm,f cifacs? ,if;csifhawmif cifacs? tudk qdkvdkpGmu atykdifyg? EkdifiHa&;vkyf
Zmuzdk@vJ usOfqHeJ@ atau aoewf tygt0ifqdkau w,fqkdpGm atmifjrifauawmhav,mOfpD;&zdk@? wenf;
uDvkd (20) avmufu xrif;pm; &Daomuftqifh tm;jzifh trwfavmif;/ 0ef}uD;avmif;wd&m rvm;
jzpfeDAsm,f cifacs? wenf;tm;jzifhqkdau ESaysmoD; cifacs? ratmif jrifauu t*k tudk &dk@ ,mrmqkda&
tcGHcGgpm;pGmxuf vG,fvm;cAsm,f cifacs? atmf ewfjynfrSm eD&a&ykdif EGm;ykdifvkyf+yD; cGD;ykdifrpm;&a&
ajym&zdk@od? wcgwvDqdkau aemufukef;xufrSm b0rsdK;udk ajympGmyg cifacs? ,auvnf; cifacs
txkyfryg auawmifrS wckckvdktyfeDa&ydkif/ vrf;r wa,muf tudk@twGuf pdwfnpf rvm;vDygauha0?
av#muf wwfydkifjzpfeDAsm,fa0 cifacs? ,if;ydkif edpdkif}uKHwGdeD&a& 'kuQwdu tudk@&dk@ydkif
awmfvSefa&;orm;&dk@. or&dk;us vrf;pdkifyg&m cifacs?
'tudk@vufacsmif;acswdu ti,facsysif+yD;au tudku cifacsudk ,if;csifhwdudk ajymrdvdk@ yifyef;
c|ef;eDa&/ aumif;aumif;cspfzdk@aumif;a&/ tudk@ydkif qif;&Jzefrsm;vdk@ tudkwa,muf pdwf"gwfuseDAsm,f
vufrsdK;udk ac:pGm[dzdk@ tEkynmvufqkdpGmav? [dzdk@vdk@awmh cifacs rxifvDyg auha0? vlqdkpGmu
tukd@ykdif vufacsmif;wd [da&vlwdu tvkyf=urf; udk,hf,kH =unfcsufvrf;a=umif; udk udk,fav#mufvSrf;
rvkyfpm;&yg tudk ' vdk@ cifacs csD;rGrf;ca& tudk@ &pGm rvm;a0? csykHrSm csavmuf aysmfa&qdkpGm
vufwduvnf; t*ktcsdefrSm tom;rmwd A&Aspf eef@ [da&rvm; cifacs? cifacsa0 yifyef;qif;&Jr_wdu
qifaemufukef;ykdif aumif;aumif;rmawmifheD oHr%dykdifcdkifrma& tudk@. rsdK;cspfpdwfudk rajymif;vJ
ygAsm,fa0 cifacs? 'tudk@ qHyifwdykdif&m rdef;racs Ekdifyga0? wenf;tm;jzifh tudk@b0. tcspfqkH;
wdrSm [dczdk@qdkau aumif;aumif;vSzdk@pGm rvm;? cifacsudkawmif a=ua=u eyfeyfeef@ trsdK;om;twGuf
pGef@vGwfEkdifcod,ihf / atavmufyifyef;r_wdu taysmh
ydwkef;a&mif qHyif qkdpGm atcsifhudkajympGm[dzdk@'vdk@
ESihf&m cifacs? t*k acwf pum;eef@ ajym&zdk@qdkau
cifacs. rufarmjcif;udk cH&onfh tudk@.qHEG,fyif
ysif;awmif ysif;od,ihf tqifhyg&m cifacs? tudk
wduvnf; t*kcg ol&meDrif;eef@ ppfwdkuf&zefrsm;vdk@
aemifw&pGmu wck&m[da& cifacs? ,if;csifhuqkdau
eDjymjymeef@ azmufomtdyftqdk;ykdif jzpfeDAsm,fa0
cifacs. wefzdk; rjzwfEkdifa& pum;wdudk aocsmrpDppf
cifacs? jzLvnf;rjzL/ rnf;vnf;aumif;aumif;
ravhvmyJ jiif;vkdufaw twGufjzpfaw cifacs?
rrnf;bJ wrsdK;wzkH=unhf aumif;vdk@aumif;a& tudk@
tudkeef@cifacs ar#mfvifhcsuf vrf;a=umif;rwlvdk@
tom;ta&mifwduvnf; t*kcgqdkau rGJjymjym
vrf;cGJ=ua& tcsdef u cifacs. pum;wdu tudk@udk
tuGufuGufay:um qm;+*dK;ajreef@ wxyfwnf;
aumif;aumif;}uD; aemifw&pDa& cifacs? ,if;tcsdef
Asm,f cifacs? jcifaxmif rygau tdyfvdk@r&a& tudku
u cifacsajymca& pum;wdudk tudk@OD;aESmufu
t*kcgjzifh jcif/ jzKwf/ yokH; aumifwdydkif aoG;pkyf
vdkufrrSDpGmudk tudk t*k0efcHcsifyga&? wenf;tm; jzifh
aumifwdeef@ rdwfaqGjyK&onfrSm tusifh&eDAsm,f
cifacsudk tudk 0efcsawmif;yef+yD; awmfvSef a&;rSm
cifacs? vlvSwa,muf r[kwfauawmifrS wrsdK;wzkH
q&mwifyga& cifacs? a=omf xm;vkdufygzd cifacs?
=unhfvdk@aumif;onfh &kyf&nfeef@ tudku t*kcgawmh

13
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
rjzpfEdkifa&t&mudk pOf;pm;,if; acgif;&_yfcH edefvdk@vnf; rvmyJ)? wwd, wcsufuawmh cifacseef@tudk
tajz&vmzdk@ r[kwfyga0? cifacseef@ aemufqkH;wGdca& tESpfESpftvvu ar#mfvifhxm;ca& om,mvSy
ntcsdefu qdkau rSwfrSwf&&/ 21/ 4/ 1999 +idrf;csrf;onfh tcspfpHtdrfopfb0acs wckudk rwnf
ae@urvm;a0? ,if;avmufxd om,ma& EGD&moD aqmufEkdifAsm,f tudk? ,if;okH;csufudk tudk
ncsrf;tvS uvnf; udk,f&dk@ ESpfa,muf. aocsmpOf;pm;+yD;rS tudk@udk qkH;jzwf pDcsifa&'
ESvkH;om;ukd tD;jr atmif rzef qif;Ekdif ca& ,if;tcsdefu cifacs rsuf&nf0Jum ajymc a&pum;
r[l&mn wnqdkauvnf; rSm;zdk@r[kwfa0? wdrvm; - t*kxufxd cifacs pum;wdu tudk@udk
ESpfa,mufpvkH;. &ifxJrSm axmif aygif;rsm;pGmaom EdkyfpufeDwkef;yg cifacs? atmf- cifacs rSwfrdcsifvnf;
'%f&m'%fcsuf udk,fpDeef@ cGJcgGuwf c &a& ncsrf; rSwfrdzdk@odeifh&m? cifacs pum;ajymt+yD; udk,fh
tcsdefu cifacs ajymca&pum;wdu vufESpfzufu cifacs. cE<mudk,fudk odrf;usKH;zuf
tudk@em;pnfxJrSm nuydkif&m=um;eDodrfha& cifacs? v#uf terf;csif; zvS,fum toJtoufxuf cspfc
atmf t*kqdkau Zmvkdvdkeef@(10)ESpfqkda& tcsdef pGm &a& cspfolESpfOD;. aemufqkH; Zmwfodrf;cef; =unfEl;
wcsufacseef@ ukefqkH;vm;a& rvm;a0 cifacs? r_wd&m r[kwfvm; cifacs? cifacs. aysmhaysmif;
t*ktcsdefrSm cifacsu cspfvif/ cspfom;/ cspforD; El;nHha& cE<m/ EGD;xGD;a& terf;ESihf twGdtxdrsm;u
wdeef@ v#yfppfrD;a&mifatmuf yef;arG@&mxufrSm tudk@udk nu=unhfjzpfca& tcspfAGD'D,dk um;aumif;
ESpfòcdufpGm tdyfaysmfedefa&tcsdefrSm tudkujzihf =u,f/ wum;ykdif cHpm;edef&wkef;yg cifacs? cifacsu
v wdeef@ awmawmif txyfxyfwdudk&m tazmfjyK rdef@avmufAsm,fxifa&? atmf cifacs udk,f&dk@
um wa,mufwnf; toJuGJedef& olyg cifacs? ESpfa,muftjzpfu qkHpnf;jcif; r[da& rsOf;+ydKifESpf
Zmyifjzpfjzpf cifacs wa,mufaysmfaysmf &Gif&Gifeef@ a=umif;xufrSmrvm;? [l; - - cifacs ,if;tcsdefu
eD&pGmudku tudk trsm;}uD; 0rf;omvS ygAsm,f cifacs.pum;wdu rSefcauawmifrS tawG;tac:
cifacs? wenf;tm;jzifh cifacspum;udk em;raxmifvkd@ t,ltqqkdpGm wa,mufeef@ wa,muf wlnDpGm
tudkt*k '%f&m'%fcsufwd tjynhf eef@ txD;wnf; um;r[kwf cifacs? tukd@ t,l tqeef@ cifacs
aqG;edef&olyg cifacs? cifacsajyma& pum;wduvnf; t,ltq uGmedefca& twGufa=umifh tudk&dk@
tukd@touf roDoa&G@ =um; a,mifedefyga& cifacs? aemufqkH;Zmwfodrf;cef;rSm ykvJa&mifrsuf&nf udk,fpD
'tudk ,if;avmufxd trsdK;om;a&; pdwf"gwf eef@ at;csrf;a&vnjynhfrSm rat;csrf;Edkifa& ESvkH;
jyif;xefeDau cifacs tudk@udk r[ef@csifyg? a,au om;udk,fpDeef@ vrf;cGJcuwf&pGm&m rvm;? ,if;csifhwd
vnf; tudk awmxJ/ awmifxJrSm aoewfxrf;+yD; tm;vkH;tjypfpGm tukd@a=umifhyg cifacs? cifacsudk
awmfvSefa&; vkyfpGmvnf; awmfvSefa&;yg? ukd,fh&yf vnf; 0efcsawmif;yefcsifyg a&?
ukd,fh&GmrSm udk,fwwfaw ynmeef@ tacswdudk aemufqkH; &v'fuqdkau cifacsvnf; rcspfrESpf
pmjy+yD; trsdK;om;a&; pdwf"gwfoGif;yD;pGmvnf; oufol. &ifcGifxJrSm wb0wm edefvm;&a&ydkif
awmfvSefa&; wrsdK;vdk@ cifacs ,kH=unfyga&? ,if;ykdif tudkvnf; tqkH;tp &SmrwGda& awmfvSefa&;
awmfvSefa&;enf;udk&m cifacs tudk@udk vkyfpDcsifyg a&pDa=umif;xufrSm +rKyfacswcg ay:acswvSnfh prf;
a&? cifacsajyma& awmfvSefa&;enf;udk&m tudk w0g;0g; vrf;av#muf,if; vrf;aysufedef&a&vlyg
vkyfawqkdau wHwkdif;}uD;qdka& twm;tqD;u cifacs? a,auvnf; tudku t*ktcsdefxd
vnf; cifacseef@ tudkudk rwm;qD;Ekdifyg Asm,ftudk? ukd,hfvkyf&yfudk aemifwr&csifa&ykdif cifacsudkvnf;
t+yD;au tudku awmxJawmifxJrSm awmfvSefa&; tjypfrwifcsifyg? t*k tudkcHpm;edef&a& ae@w"l0
vm;vkyfzdk@qdkau yxrwcsuf tukdeef@ cifacs xm0& 'kuQrsdK;pkHavmufu udk@.trsdK;om;a&; pdwf"gwfckdif+rJ
0D;uGm&zdk@Asm,f? 'kwd, wcsufu tudku r_udk t&nfrazsmfEkdifyga0 cifacs? cGJcgGca& vjynfhnu
udk,fwa,mufwnf; (odk@) vlwpkeJ@ &ckdifjynfudk cifacs udk@&ifcGifxJwdk;0if&if; ajympum;wdpGm tudk@udk
wkduf,lEkdifzdk@ xifvm (&ckdifjynfolwd wcJeuftkH=uG t*kxufxd =um;a,mifedefyga& cifacs? cifacs

14
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
tudk@&ifcGifxJukd wdk;a0S@wif;wif;zuf&if; ajyca& pGmu oufOD;qHydkifpepfykdif ppftkyfcsKyfa&; pepfjz
rvm;? pfedefa&twGuf t*kjynfwGif; jynfyEkdifiHa&;vkyfaw
# 'tudk- cifacsu tudkeef@ wcgvnf; rcGJcsifyg? Armwdu pepfawmfvSefa&; orm;wd&m tudk?
t*kykdif&m cspfolESpfa,muf EGD;xGD;pGm edefcsifyga& ol&dk@rSm ol&dk@vkdcsifa& 'Drdkua&pD pepf ajymif;vm;cau
tudk? t*ku tudk@. trsdK;cspfpdwfu cifacsudk cspf awmfvSefa&;u +yD;qkH;vm;Asm,ftudk? wem;u
a& tcspfxuf tqaygif;rsm;pGm vGefedefa&twGuf ajyma&ykdif &ckdifom;wdvkyf&zdk@pGmu e,fcsJ@qef@usif
cifacs tudk@udk r[ef@csifygAsmvf? [ef@auvnf; a&;ESihf trsdK;om;vGwfajrmuf a&;yg? ,if;twGufeef@
tudk ,if;awmfvSefa&;xJudk vm;zdk@qkdpGmudk cifacs &ckdifom;awmfvSefa&;eef@ ArmawmfvSefa&; vm;+yD;
odedefa&? a,auvnf; tudkrvm;cif awmfvSefa&; au ra&mxGD;zkd@ vkdyga& tudk? Zmyifjzpfjzpf cifacs&dk@
eef@ ywfowfawpum;wd cifacs odoavmuf tudk@ &ckdifjynfol jynfom;wdvkyfoifha& awmfvSefa&;u
udkajymyghar? q&mcHa& vdk@rxifygauh tudk? cifacs qdkau e,fcsJ@ qef@usifa&;eef@ trsdK;om;vGwfajrmuf
em;vnfpGmu EdkifiHa&;qkdpGm EkdifiH.ta&; t&m a&;&m jzpfyga& tudk? tudk@ udk cifacs aemufqkH;
tm;vkH;udk EkdifiHa&;vdk@ ac:pGm&m tudk? ukefpsD; rSmvkdufcsif pGmu ikHrdoJwdkif/ wwfEkdifzsm;a&mufqdka&
Ekef;wwfpGmutp aemufqkH; rdef;rwdxrif; csufpGm pum;ykHtwkdif; awmfvSefa&;vkyfzdk@vdk@pdwfudk qkH;jzwf
tqkH; tm;vkH;pGm EkdifiHa&;&m r[kwfvm; tudk? EkdifiH +yD; Asm,fqdkau aemifwcsdef yifyef;qif;&Jjzpf vmau
a&;rSm trsdK;rsdK;&Sdodrfha& tudk? awmfvSefa&;qdkpGmvJ vnf; aemufrqkwfyJ aemufqkH;xGufouf txd
EkdifiHa&;xJrSm tpdwftydkif;wck tedef eef@ygpGm&m wpkdufrwfrwfvkyfygvdk@ cifacs wkdufwGef;yga& tudk"
tudk? vlwef;pm;awmfvSefa&;/ pepf awmfvSefa&;/ ,if;tcsdefu tudkeef@cifacs ayG@zuf+yD;au
trsdK;om;awmfvSefa&;/ udkvdkeDe,fcsJ@ awmfvSefa&; cifacs tudk@udk ajymca& pum;wd&m rvm;? ,if;
vdk@qdka&ydkif EkdifiHa&;ody`Hynm&Sifwdu trsdK;rsdK;cGJjcrf; tcsdefu cifacsajymca&pum;wdudk tudk ESvkH;oGif; I
pdwfjzm+yD; ajym=uawtudk? awmfvSefa&;rSmvnf; vuf[d&cdkifhawmfvSefa&; tcuftcJaygif; aomif;
atydkifAsm,f trsdK;rsdK;&Sdodrfha&? t*k tudk vkyfzdk@vdk@ ajcmufaxmiftvnfrSm v_dif;vmauvnf;rrl vDvm
ajymedefa& vufeufukdifawmfvSef a&; qkdpGm cifacs auvnf; ra=umufEdkifa& &ckdihfrsdK;cspfawmfvSefa&;
em;vnfoavmuf ajym&zdk@qdkau EkdifiHa&;eef@ ywf orm;tjzpfeef@ cHEkdifa&pdwfudk tm;rGD;,if; aemufqkH;
owf+yD; pm;yGJckHxufrSm ajz&Sif;vdk@ r&Ekdif (odk@) tajz xGufouftxd awmfvSef a&;xJrSm [dedefygarvdk@
r[dEkdifa& tqifhtjrifhqkH; EkdifiHa&; yÉdyuQudk ajz&Sif; qdka&*wdpum;wdudk cifacsudk&m t,ifuykdif ayG@zuf
enf;uqdkau vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;yg&m tudk? um ajymvkdufcsifa& cifacs?
t+yD;au tudk -udkvdkeDjzpf edefa& EkdifiHom;wd
vkyfoihfa& EkdifiHa&;u pepfawmf vSefa&;vJr[kwfyg? a,auvnf;aomh rjzpfEkdifa& t&mwdudk awmifh
vlwef;pm; awmfvSefa&;vJ r[kwfyg tudk? wjcif;pGm vlrdkuf&kd@ tvkyfqdkpGmudk tudk odygwa&
t*kacmwf ay:pum;eJ@ ajym&zdk@qkdau 'Drdkua& cifacs? atmf cifacs ZmyifjzpfpD tudkwa,muf
pDawmfvSefa&;vJ r[kwfygtudk? udkvdkeD vufatmuf &ckdifhEkdifiHa&; t±_yfawmfykHxJrSm aemufqkH; xGuf
cH EkdifiHom;wd vkyf&zdk@ EkdifiHa&; (odk@) awmfvSefa&;u ouftxd [deDygarvdk@ atpmeef@ cifacsudk *wdyD;
e,fcsJ@qefusifha&;eef@ ol@u|efb0rS vGwfajrmufa&; vdkufyga& cifacs?
(trsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&;) yg&m tukd? ? cifacsvnf;
trsm;r[kwfauawmifrS pauacs a&wD,dkwdem; atmf cifacs? &GD;,if;&GD;,if;eef@ za,mif; wkdifvnf;
axmif/ EkdifiHa&; pmtkyfwd zwfzl;yga& tudk? t*k ukefAsm,f? rdk;vif;tm&kH(4)em&Dvnf; wD;zdk@Asm,f
ArmjynfrSm Arm tcsif;csif; awmfvSefwkdufckdufedef rvm;? tudk uif;apmihf&zdk@ tcsdefvnf; a&muf,m
pGmu pepfawmfvSefa&;yg&m tudk ol&dk@vkdcsifpGmu xifa&? aumif;Asm,fa0; cifacs? aemufb0rSm&m
'Drdkua&pDvdk@ac:a& pepfyg&m? t*k etz tkyfcsKyfedef cifacseef@ atb0ydkif uGJuGm&jcif; rsdK;r[dyJ aysmfaysmf

15
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
&$if&$ifeef@ qkHqnf;yg&pDvkd@ qkawmif;,if; atpmudk
ed*kH;csKyfyg&pD?

cifacswa,mufb0rSm vifcspf/ om;cspf/


rsdK;cspfpdwf
orD;cspf t=um;rSm um,okc/ pdwWokcvdk@ qkda&
ESpfjzmaom csrf;omokceef@ xm0&jynfpkHEkdifygpDvdk@
cifacs.tcspfa[mif;tudku abmfwmawmifxuf rS
t+rJ qkawmif;eDv#ufyg?
# EkdifiHjrwfEdk;
wcsdefu cifacs cspfjrwfEdk;c&aom vlrsdK;cspfpdwf
ckdifatmif (ALP) xef<uvdkufonf
jynfhodyf&ifrSm
rqef@wnf;?
&dk;rEG,f
(&ckdifjynf)

Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù 16


uEWm&xJrS yef;wyGifh (odk@r[kwf)
&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD.orkdif;tusOf;
ckdifatmifpdk;oef;
(ALP)
xdktcsdefu A[dkaumfrDwD0ifwOD;jzpfonfh ckdif&Jckdif.
eDtdrfudk aygifeSH+yD; c&D;p&dwftjzpf tokH;jyKc&onf?
odk@aomfvnf; OuUXckdifjynfodrf;. &nfrSef;csufrSm vkH;0
rjynfh0cyg? ta=umif;u qkdaomf OD;uHnGef@udk &SmrwGdI
jyefvmc&onf? xdktcsdefu wGJzuftwGif; a&;rSL;jzpfol
ckdifrdk;vif;rSm oefvsifpGef; Arm&DwyfrS wyfrSL;wOD;
jzpfonf? ygwD. yxrt"du &nfrSef;csufu Armppfwyf
twGif;rSm [donfh &cdkifom; rsdK;cspfrsm;udk v#dK@0SufpGm
pnf;&kH;+yD; &ckdifjynfvGwf ajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA)
udk xlaxmifvm;&efjzpfonf? xdk&nfrSef; csuftwkdif;
wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL; cdkifrdk;vif;u eD;pyf&m jcDonfwyf/
(ALA) ppfa-umif;wck ukvm;wefjrpfwedef&mwGif &DwyfESifh vDwyfrS &ckdifrsdK;cspfppfom;rsm;udk wdwfwqdwf
pnf;&kH;xm; ouJh odk@ OuUXjzpfol ckdifjynfodrf;rSmvnf;
(KNU) yg;odk@vm;I (KNU) OuUXref;bpH ESifh wGdqkH+yD;
&efukef+rdK@/ vd_if+rdK@e,f/ tkwfusif;trSwf (15) &yfuGuf/
ody`rO…L &ckdifbkef;}uD;ausmif; wausmif;wGif rsdK;cspf oabmwlnDcsuf pmcsKyfwckudk vufrSwf&GD;xdk;Ekdifc onf?
jynfcspf &ckdifvli,frsm;ESifh &[ef;i,fwpku c&pfeSpf xkdpmcsKyfwGif yg0ifonhf t"duta&;}uD;onfh tcsufwck
1967 ck {+yDv ( 9 ) edwGif v#dK@0SufpGm tpnf;ta0; rSm &ckdifjynfxJwGif t+cDpdkufvSKyf&Sm;I & onftxd
(KNU) tedef jzifh &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmuf a&;ygwDESihf
w&yfjyKvkyfum tz&ckdifjynfudk udkvdkeD vufatmufrS
u,fwif&ef &nf&G,f+yD; &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD wyfrawmfudk vufeuftiftm;/ vltiftm; ulnDyD;
(ALP)udkpwif wnfaxmifcuwfonf? zGJ@pnf;csdef wGif
ygrnf[lonfh tcsufvnf;yg0ifonf? t+cDpkduf vSKyf&Sm;
OuUXrSm ckdifjynfodrf;/ taxGaxG twGif;a&;rSL;rSm &ef eD&mudk &GD;cs,fonfhtcg ckdifrdk;vif;. rGD;&yf jzpfonfh
cdkifpdk;EkdifESihf wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL;rSm &ckdifom;&dk@.ESvkH; &aohawmif +rdK@e,fudk tjcDcHI vSKyf&Sm;&ef qkH;jzwf
om;rSm rSwfwkdifpkdufxlxm;confh &ckdifhtmZmeD ol&J csufusonf? ,if;a=umifh &Sd+yD;tedefjzifh ,ck vuf[d
aumif; ckdifrdk;vif;yif jzpfonf? zGJ@pnf;pwGif pkpkaygif; OuUX ckdif&JcdkifESifh ckdifpdk;Ekdifudk ppfawGESifh &aohawmif
vlOD;a&rSm (15) a,mufr#om jzpfonf? zGJ@pnf;ptzGJ@ +rdK@e,frsm;wGif pnf;&kH;a&;vkyf&ef wm0efyD; tyfvkduf
tpnf;wdk@. obm0twkdif; zGJ@pnf;+yD;csdefwGif pdwf"gwf onf? xkdyk*d~KvfESpfOD;onf wm0efusonfh twdkif;
wckrSty usef&kyf0wˆKonf AvmedwÎdjzpf.? odk@aomf ppfawGESihf&aohawmif+rdK@e,frsm;wGif vli,f trsm;tjym;
vnf; a,musFm;}uHu "l0H=u,fawmifrvGwfqkdonfh udk v#dK@0SufpGm pnf;&kH;Ekdifconf? odk@aomf vnf;
twkdif; yxrqkH;+cDvSrf;tedefjzifh xm;0,ftrwf uHraumif;onfh tm;av#mfpGm avmif;acsmif;rS &ckdif
OD;uHnGef@udk qufoG,fI tultnDawmif;&ef OuUX ppfom;rsm;udk pnf;&kH;rd&mrS ol&dk@. pDpOfcsuf tm;vkH;rSm
ckdifjynfodrf;udk wm0efyD;tyfconf? odk@aomf &HykHaiG r[d oJxJ&DoGefjzpfc&onf? ta=umif;uqkdaomf ol&dk@pnf;&kH;
onfh tzGJ@tpnf;rSm xm;0,fvm;zdk@ p&dwf vkHavmuf onfh &ckdifvli,fppfom;rsm;rSm Arm axmuf vSef;a&;
pGmr[djcif;ESihf yxqkH;&ifqkdifvkduf&onf? xkd@a=umifh (odk@r[kwf) acwfopfpH&azGrsm;jzpfedef aom a=umihfyif
jzpfonf? ,ihfa=umifh cdkif&Jcdkif ESihf cdkifpdk;Edkif tygt0if /

17
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
armifjzL /omxGef; /oef;ausmf/ wdrfysH ponfh trmcH 1974 ckESpfESpfukef ykdif;txd &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;
pnf;&Hk;v_yf&Sm;edefoltm;vH;k udk ppfawG axmifu qD;}udK ygwDudk jyefvnfzGJ@ pnf;jcif;r[dodrfh? xkdaemufrSm
vkdufonf? xkdjyif aemufqufwGJ qkd;usdK; olwdk@ &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmuf a&;ygwDESifh wyfrawmfudk 'kwd,
}um;od&onfrSm ckdifjynfodrf;ESihf u&if OuUX ref;bpH&dk@ t}udrfjyefvnf zGJ@ pnf;=u&m ,cif OuUX ckdifjynfodrf;rSm
wGdqkHjcif;onf &efolxH owif;ayguf=um;vm;I &ckdifjynf touft&G,f }uD;&ifhonfu wa=umif;/ xkdtcsdefY ucsif
vGwfajrmufa&; ygwD. ygwD0iftm;vkH;eD;yg; tzrf;cH e,fpyfodk@ a&muf[deDonfhu wa=umif;/ tquftoG,f
vkduf=u&onf[l onfhowif;yif jzpfonf? &Dwyfu vkyf&ef cufcJhonfu wa=umif; ponhfta=umif;rsm;
ckdifrdk;vif;/ vDwyfu ausmfxGef;ESihfomxGef;/ +cDonf a=umifh ckdifjynfodrf;udk csefvSyfxm;c&onf?
wyfu ausmfcdkif&dk@ vnf; tzrf;cHvkduf&onf? tzrf;rcH
&olESpfOD;rSm OuUX ckdifjynfodrf; ESifh t*k (ALP) 'k-OuUX xdk@a=umifh 'kwd,t}udrf &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD
ckdifpdk;Ekdifatmifwdk@ ESpfa,mufom usefonf? xkdtcsdefu zGJ@pnf;csdefwGif OuUXESifh ppfOD;pD;csKyfrSm ckdifrdk;vif;jzpfvm I
ckdifjynfodrf;rSmvnf; (KNU) eD+rDxJrSm a&mufeDI twGif;a&;rSL;rSm ckdifatmifrif;ckdif jzpfvmonf? cdkifatmif
tzrf;rcH& ouJhodk@ ckdifpdk;EkdifatmifrSmvnf; b*Fvm; rif;ckdifqkdolonf OuUXckdifr;dk vif;ESihf twl Arm &DwyfwGif
e,fpyfodk@ xGuf+yD;I vGwfajrmufc&onf? ppfawG+rdK@ wm0efxrf;aqmifzl;colvnf; jzpfonf? xdkuJhodk@ zGJ@pnf;
axmifY usedefonfh tkyfpkonf 1968 ckESpfrS 1974 ESpf +yD; caomfvnf; (KNU) eD+rDxJwGif zGJ@pnf;csdef umvu
txd axmif'%f csrSwfjcif;cH&+yD;/ &efukef tif;pdefaxmif tcuftcJtrsdK;rsdK;ESihf &ifqkdifc&onf? tqdk;qkH;u
wGif uscH&onfh tkyfpkrSm 1968 rS 1973 ckESpf txd (KNU) udk,fwkdifu vkdvkd vm; vm; ulnDcsifykH r[dc?
axmifusc&onf? ppfawGaxmifYusonhf tkyfpkwGif odk@aomf OuUXckdifrdk;vif;. vkyf&nfudkif&nfESihf &J&ifhjywf
t*kvuf[d OuUXckdif&Jcdkifyg0if+yD; tif;pdefaxmifwGif om;onfh pum;rsm;a=umifh &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;
uscH&onfhtkyfpkwGif &ckdifhtmZmeD ol&Jaumif; ckdifrdk;vif; ygwDudk tultnD yD;ygrnfqkdonfh pmcsKyfudkcsKyfqdkEkdif
yg0ifonf? Zmodk@yifjzpfpD &ckdifjynfvGwf ajrmufa&;ygwD conf? OuUX ckdifrdk;vif;u (KNU) a*gif;aqmifrsm;udk
.yxrt}udrf }udK;yrf;rSKrSm ysufpD;vm;c&onf? wenf; ajymykHu wu,fvdk@ (KNU)u tultnDryD;Ekdifqkdaomf
tm;jzifh yGifhcsdefra&mufcifuyif jcGDzsufjcif;ukd cHvkduf& rGef jynfopfygwDESihf olwdk@yl;aygif;I tultnDawmif;rnf
onf? [k &J&ifhjywfom;pGmajymconf? aemufqkH;wGif u&if
trsdK;om;tpnf;t&kH;(KNU) u&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmuf
xdk@aemuf 'kwd,t}udrf }udK;yrf;rSK orkdif;tusOf;rSm a&;ygwDrS wyfrawmfom; (300) ausmfudk ppfoifwef;
tif;pdefaxmifwGifusedefonfh ckdifrdk;vif;wdk@tkyfpkonf yD;+yD; &dkifazvufeufwyfqifyD;rnf[k oabm wlnD csuf
1973 ckESpfwGif vGwfajrmufI ppfawGtusOf;axmif wGif &&Sdconf? xkd@aemuf aemufydkif;wGif &ckdifjynfvGwf
usedefonfh ckdif&Jcdkif&dk@. tkyfpkxHodk@ v#dK@0SufpGm ajrmufa&;wyfrawmfom;rsm;. wkduf&nfcdkuf&nf
tquftoG,fI pmwdkwapmif axmifxJodk@ a&muf[d aumif;rSK/ ol&Jaumif;pdwf"gwf[drSK/ pdwfxm;&kd; om;jzL
vmonf? xdkpmyg ta=umif;t&mrSm 'ckdifrdk;vif;wdk@ pifr_ponfhtcsufrsm;udk u&ifuodvmI vl (120)
tkyfpkonf axmifrSvGwf+yD;jzpfI r+yD;qkH;odrfhonfh ausmfudk &kdifazvufeuftpm; acwfrSDvufeuf t}uD;
awmfvSefa&;udk qufvkyfvsuf[da=umif;ESihf axmifjyif ti,frsm; wyfqifyD;conf? AdkvfcsKyfjrudk,fwkdif vm+yD;
udka&mufvsif a&mufcsif;qufoG,fzdk@' ta=umif;=um; csdK;usL;pum;ajym=um;jcif;udkvnf; cHc&onf? rnfodk@
pmjzpfonf? xkd@aemuf ppfawGtusOf;axmifY useD onfh yifjzpfpD &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwDESihf &ckdif jynfvGwf
ckdif&Jckdifwdk@tkyfpkonf 1974 ckESpfwGif axmifrS vGwfajrmuf ajrmufa&;wyfrawmfrSm 'kwd,Hrd̀ touf0if vmonf?
vm+yD; ckdifrdk;vif;wdk@[d&m (KNU) eD+rDxJodk@ r+yD;qkH; u&ife,f+rDxJwGif (KNU) ESifh ESpfESpfcef@ yl;wGJ
odonfh awmfvSefa&;udk qufvkyf&ef vkdufvm =uonf? wkdufyGJrsm;qifEGJ@conf? &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&; wyfr
ckdif&Jckdif wdk@tkyfpkonf ckdifrdk;vif; [d&m (KNU) eD+rDxJodk@ awmf om;rsm;rSm &JpGrf;owWd [dI wkduf&nf cdkuf&nf
a&muf[dcsdefwGif ckdifrdk;vif;/ ckdifpdk;Ekdifatmif tygt0if tvGefaumif;conf? odk@aomf wyfrawmfom; trsm;
tjcm;wyfzGJ@0iftopfrsm;jzifh vltiftm;(70)cef@udk pkpnf; tjym;rSm u&ife,fjrDwGif rdrdwdk@toufudk ryD;csif=u?
xm;[d+yD; jzpfvsuf pnfum; vsuf[donf? odk@aomf &ckdifjynfwGifom toufyD;vdk=uonf? xkd@a=umifh 1976

Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù 18


wGif &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&; wyfr awmfom;rsm; jcif;udk cHvkduf=u&onf? xdkwkdufyGJwGif &Jabmf trsm;
vltiftm; (120) onf cufcJh=urf;wrf; vSonfh tjym; usqkH;+yD; xGufp&mtaygufr[djcif;ESihf &ifqkdif
&ckdifjynfc&D;pOfudk pwif&ef qkH;jzwfcuwf onf? vdkuf&onf? rqvppfwyf pyDumrS 'ckdifrdk;vif; vufeuf
xkdc&D;pOf (odk@) ppfa=umif;udk rdk;vif;&mZm ppfa=umif;[k cs/ toufudk csrf;om;ay;r,f'[k atmfajym oHudkvnf;
rSnhfac: owfrSwfcuwfonf? u&ifjynf rS &Srf;jynf/ tqufrjywf=um;eD&onf? &Jabmftrsm; tjym;rSm
&Srf;jynfrS ucsifjynfrsm;udk cufcJ=urf; wrf;pGmjzwfausmf tpkpktuGJuGJtjym;jym; jzpfvsuf[donf? OuUXckdifrdk;vif
c&onf? 1977 ckESpf rdk;wGif;umv wGif csif;jynfe,fu ;wGifvnf; tajrmufqHi,frsm; xdrSefedef onf? odk@aomf
em*awmifxufodk@ a&muf[dc onf? em*awmifxufodk@ OuUX}uD; cdkifrdk;vif;u &efolxHwGif wcgacsvnf;
a&muf[d&onfh ta=umif; rSmvnf; eD+rDa'oESifh vufeufrcs [k atmfajym+yD; rdrdtwGuf usOfqHwawmifh
vrf;ru|rf;usifrSKa=umifh jzpf onf? aemufqkH;wGif usefonfhtxd &efoludk ypfcwf+yD; aemufqkH; xGufayguf
&efolArm rqvrsm;xH owif; ayguf=um;vm;onf? r[donfh tqkH;wGif tmZmeDyDopGm &efolxH vufeuf
owif;ayguf&onfhta=umif;rSm rdk;vif;&mZmppfa=umif; csjcif;r[dyJ rdrdukd,f udkrdrdypfowfI tz&ckdifjynf
&Sdu &ckdifawmfvSefa&; tkyfpk wck jzpfonfh (AIO) ESifh twGuf toufpGef@vGwfconf? rdrdudk,fudk rdrd ypfowf
rqv ppfwyf&dk@ wkdufyGJ t}uD;tus,fjzpfconf? I tqkH;pD&ifjcif;wGif OuUX ckdifrdk;vif; wa,mufwnf;
(AIO) zufrS tustqkH; rsm;c+yD; trsm;tjym;vnf; r[kwfyJ AdkvfoD[ ESifh tjcm; &JabmfESpf a,mufvnf;
tzrf;cHvkduf&onf? rqvppfom;rsm;u ckdifrdk;vif;wdk@ yg0ifonf? usef&Sdonfh &Jabmfrsm;rSm &duQmjywfvwf
tkyfpk (odk@) &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmfom; onfu wa=umif;/ aoewfwGif cHypfp&m usnfqHr[d
rsm;[k yxrwGif (AIO)udk xifrSwfconf? odk@aomf onfu wa=umif; rdrdudk,fudkyif t[m& jywfvwfI
aemufrS olwdk@ESihf wkdufyGJjzpfonfh tkyfpkrSm ckdifrdk;vif;tkyfpk vrf;rav#mufEkdif onfuwa=umif;ponhf ta=umif;rsm;
r[kwfyJ (AIO) tkyfpkjzpfedefonf? xdk@a=umifh rqv a=umifh aemufqkH;wGif &efol.zrf;qD;jcif;udk cHvkduf&
ppfom; rsm;onf zrf;qD;&rdonfh (AIO) wyfom;rsm;udk onf? xdk@a=umifh toufoGD;c|J aygif;ajrmuf rsm;pGm&if;I
twif;t"rR owfykwf+yD; OuUXckdifrdk;vif;ESihf &ckdifjynf 'kwd,t}udrf wnfaxmifconfh &ckdifjynf vGwfajrmuf
vGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmfom;rsm; rnfonfhzufodk@ a&;ygwDeSihf wyfrawmfrSm 1977 ck ZGefvwGif qkH;&SKH;
OD;wnfaea=umif; rdef;jref;onf? xkd@a=umifh (AIO)rS ysufpD;c&onf? xdkqkH;&SKH;r_}uD;wGif tpm;xdk;I r&Ekdifonfh
zrf;qD;cH&onfh wyfom;rsm;rSwqifh ckdifrdk;vif;ESifh &ckdifhtmZmeDol&Jaumif; OuUXckdifrdk;vif; tygt0if
&ckdifjynfvGwf ajrmufa&;wyfrawmfonf rsm;r=umrSDwGif tjcm;wkdif;cspf jynfcspf&Jabmftrsm;tjym; vnf;yg0if
rnfonhf ae&modk@ a&muf[dvmrnf qkdonfhudk rqv onf? usef&J abmf pkpkaygif; (54) a,mufrSm &efol.
wyf u owif;twdtus &[dvm;conf? xdktcsdefwGif zrf;qD;jcif; cHvkduf&onf? zrf;qD;cH&onfh &ckdifjynfvGwf
&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmfom;rsm;rSm tcuf ajrmufa&; wyfrawmfom;rsm;udk uav; +rdK@rS tusOf;
tcJ aygif;pkHESihf &ifqkdifedef=u&onf? t"du &duQgtcuftcJh pcef; wckwGif (11) v wdwdcsKyfxm;conf? xdkuJhodk@
jzpfonf? pm;p&mqkdvdk@ ajymif;pdacsyif vkHavmufpGm csKyfxm;qJumvwGif rqvwyfrS wm0ef [dolrsm;
r&[dcyg? aemufbmompum; jy\emeSihfvnf; &ifqkdif r=umc%vmI ol&dk@. rqv ay:vpDudk vufcHvm
c&onf? &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmuf a&;wyfrawmf om;rsm;rSm atmif ajcmufwcg avsmhwvSnhf trsdK;rsdK; pnf;&kH; onf?
&duQmujywfvwf/ c&D;u vnf;yef;/ wkdufyJGaygif;vnf; tHzG,fwckrSm ygwDESifhwyfrawmf. a*gif;aqmif ykdif;udk
csif;awmifwef;wGif trsm;tjym; jzpfyGg;conf? aemufqkH; rqdkxm;ESihf &dk;&dk;wyfzGJ@0ifwa,muf ESpfa,muf rsyif
uav;+rdK@e,f weD&mwGif rqvppfwyfESihf &ckdifjynf rqvwkd@. pnf;&kH;odrf;oGif;r_udk vufrcHc? rdrdwdk@
vGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmfwdk@ wdkufyGJonf tjyif;xefqkH; vkyf&yf rSm;,Gif;onf[kvnf; wa,mufaom &JabmfrS
wkdufyGJjzpf onf? xkdwkdufyGJjzpfcsdefwGif &ckdifjynfvGwf rqvxH tnHhrcHc? aemufqkH; azsmif;zs pnf;&kH;I
ajrmufa&; wyfrawmf.tiftm;rSm w&m0ef;usifcef@ r&onfhtqkH;wGif tm;vkH;udk uav;+rdK@ cv& (89) rS
omusef[d onf? c&D;uvnf;yef;/ pm;p&m&duQmuvnf; ppftcsKyfcef;Y ppfckH&kH;zGJ@um EkdifiHawmf ykefuefr_ yk'fr 122-
r[donfh tcsdefwGif tiftm;av;qcef@ omvGefonfh (1)-(2) jzihf pGJcsufwif ppfaq;onf? ,if;aemuf
rqv ppfwyfu taotcsmedef&m,l+yD; 0dkif;&Hypfcwf rEWav;tusOf;axmif wGJzuf odk@ajymif;a&$@+yD; Ak'<[l;ed

19
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
eD0ifptcsdefwGif pD&ifcsufudk zwfjyonf? t*k vuf[d ckdifrsdK;rif;udk xm;conf? xdkuJhodk@ vuf[dOuUXckdif&Jcdkif
OuUXckdif&Jckdiftygt0if (11) a,mufudk oD'%f csrSwfc+yD; rSm tdENd,ESihf &ckdife,fpyfwiG f vufeufudkif ppfwyfazmf
usefvlrsm;udk wouf wu|ef;ESihf axmif'%f xkwf&ef enf;vrf; trsdK;rsdK;udk &SmedefpOfrSmyif tdENd,
tESpfESpfq,f ponfjzifh toD;oD; csrSwf vkdufonf? tpdk;&. zrf;qD;csKyfaeSmifrSKudkvnf; cHc&onf? odk@aomf
xkduJhodk@ axmif'%fwoufwu|ef; csrSwfjcif; cH&onfh rav#mhaomZGJvkH;v0d&D,ESifh rdrdtoufudk riJ@uGufyJ
wyfrSL;rsm;xJwGif t*k vuf[d (ALP) taxGaxG qufvuf}udK;pm;conf? tcuftcJaygif;odef;oef;ru
twGif;a&;rSL;ckdifrsdK;rif;vnf; yg0ifconf? wckaumif; rsm;jym;onfh=um;rS &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&; wyfr
onfrSm rEWav;tusOf;awmifwGif &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmuf awmfudk ppfwyfo¾efjzifh 1991 ckESpfwGifrS wyfqifEkdifc
a&; wyfrawmfom;rsm;udk wpkwvkH;wnf; xm;onfh onf? q,fpkESpfwckt=um OuUXckdif&Jcdkif. wwd,
twGuf tcsif;csif; aqG;aEG; wkdifyifcGifh &[dconf? t}udrf}udK;pm;rSK&v'fonfum; tdENd,-&ckdifjynfe,fpyf
tu,fI toufroDyJ jyefvnf vGwfajrmufv#if awmf wGif &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf[k ay:xGuf
vSefa&; qufvufrnf [kvnf; qkH;jzwfcuwfonf? vmouJhodk@ t&Sdzufu&ife,fpyfrSm [dedefonfh ckdifpkd;Ekdif
xdk@aemuf 1980 jynf@ oHCmhtzGJ@ tpnf;wckwnf;tjzpf atmifESihf ckdifrsdK;rif;wdk@onfvnf; &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmuf
zGJ@pnf;atmifjrifonfudk txdrf; trSwftedefjzifh EkdifiHawmf a&; wyfrawmf [k u&if-xkdif; e,fpyfwGif azmfxkwfEkdif
vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh a=ujim csuft& woufwu|ef; conf? xkduJhodk@ tcuftcJaygif; aomif;ajcmuf
usolrsm;ESifh oD'%fusolrsm; ygrusef &ckdifjynfvGwf axmif=um;rS wwd,Hrd̀ rGD;zGg;}uD;jyif;vm;onhf &ckdifjynf
ajrmufa&; wyfrawmfom;rsm; jyefvnfvGwfajrmuf vGwfajrmuf a&;ygwD (ALP) ESihf &ckdifjynf vGwfajrmuf
vmconf? ,if;odk@ zGJ@pnf;csdefrS pum rEWav;axmifrS a&; wyfrawmf(ALAonf wenf;tm;jzifhuEWm&xJrS&D
vGwfajrmufvmonf txd 14 ESpf vkH;vkH; awmfvSefa&; vmif;yD; rnfholr[dyJ cufcJpGmzl;yGifhvef;qef;a0qm vm
avmu"H w&m;rsm;u awmfvSefa&;pdwf"gwf ckdifrmrSK onfh yef;wyGifhESihf tvm;o¾efwl+yD; tz&ckdif jynf}uD;
[dolrsm;udk ydkrdk&ifhusufI awmfvSefa&; pdwf"gwfudk udk ArmudkvdkeDvufatmufrS +rD}uD;vufcwfrvGJ rkcs
ydkrdk&SifoefcpDonf? 1981 ckESpf wGif t*kvuf[d OuUX roG,f u,fwifEkdifrnf jzpfyga=umif; tpD&ifcHwifjy vkduf
ckdif&Jckdif OD;aqmifum &JabmftcsdK@ ESifh (KNU) eD+rDxJodk@ &ygonf?
vm&m vGwfajrmufeDaom ckdifpkd;EkdifatmifESihf jyefvnf
wGdqkHrd=uonf? xdkaemuf wwd,.t}udrf &ckdifjynf [ &ckdifjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf&ckdifh wyfrawmf
vGwfajrmufa&;ygwD udk zGJ@pnf;&ef}udK;pm;=u&m (KNU) udk wnfaqmufuwf?
wm0ef[dolrsm;u ajymonfrSm ol&dk@tedefjzifh ol&kd@wGif
vnf; tcuftcJ trsdK;rsdK;[da=umif;ESifh &ckdifjynf [ &ckdifjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf vufeufudkif
vGwfajrmufa&;wyfr awmfazmfaqmif&ef udpPudk ulnD awmf vSefa&;rSty tjcm;enf;vrf; r[d?
yD;Ekdifrnfr[kwfa=umif; ajymonf? odk@aomf ,ckvuf[d [ &ckdifjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf b0wl awmf vSef
OuUX ckdif&JckdifrS jyef ajymonfrSm ol&dk@tedefjzifh (KNU) a&;rsm;ESihf vufwGJuwf?
xHrS tultnD awmif;vkdonfrSm vl(30)cef@ oifwef; [ &ckdifrom;wkdif; wrdom;wnf;yrm cspfcifuwf?
wwfcGifh wckwnf; &mvkda=umif;/ vufeufcJ,rf;
rD;ausmufESihf &duQmudk rdrw d dk@bmom&Smrnf[k ajym=um;c [ &efolxHvufajr‡muft±_H;yD;jcif;onf tzdEdkyfcH
onf? xdk tcsuf udk (KNU) u vufcHvkdufonf? jynfolrsm;twGuf cGifhrvGwfEkdifaom &mZ0wf
wwd,t}udrf &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwDESihf wyfr r_udk usL;vGef&m a&mufonf?
awmfudk zGJ@pnf;vkduf&mwGif t*kvuf[d OuUX ckdif&Jcdkif rSm [ &ckdifjynfvGwfvyfa&;onf &ckdiftrsdK;om;rsm;.
ygwDOuUXESihf ppfOD;pD;csKyf jzpfvmonf? xdkaemuf pnf;vkH;nDnGwfa&; vufxJwGif[donf?
&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmfudk &ckdifjynfe,fpyf rS
tpysdK; wnfaxmifjcif;onf taumif;qkH;jzpfrnf[k
qkH;jzwfum tENd,EkdifiHodk@ OuUX ckdif&Jckdif xGufcGgvmc
onf? xdkif;e,fpyf u&ife,f+rDxJwGif ckdifpkd;EkdifatmifESihf

20
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
[mou¾

edAŠmef{uefysufzkd@Asm,f?

[dk;t,iftcsdefu Armjynf\oemjyKavmurSm xif&mS ;ausmf=um;a& bkef;}uD;wyg;[dconf? xdk


yk*~dKvftrnfu oCFmh&mZmq&mawmfjzpf.? xdkbkef;}uD;onf ArmjynftESHtjym;odk@ Ak'<pmyDrsm;udk
oif=um;onfhtjyif 0dy\em w&m;rsm;ta=umif;udkvnf; w&m;a[mavh[donf?

wedwGif xdkyk*~dKvfonf o#rf;jynfe,frS aus;&Gmw&Gmodk@ w&m;a[m&ef a&muf[dvm;onf? xdk&Gmi,f wGif


w&m;a[meDpOf w&m;emy&dowfxJrS o#rf;0g}uD;wvkH;onf aumufumiifum rdef;cGef; wck rdef; vm.? xkd
o#rf;0g}uD;rdef;cGef;u 'to#ifbk&m; 0dy\emw&m;rsm;udk avhvmqnf;zl; usifh}uHv#if Armwdvnf;
edAŠmefudk a&mufEdkifygovm; to#ifbk&m;'[k rdef;vm.? xkdtcg q&mawmfuvnf; Zm a-umifh rdef;onf
owdrxm;yJ 'a&mufEkdifa& wum}uD;? Zmolrqdk }udK;pm;au edAŠmef a&mufEdkifyga& wum}uD;?
Zmjzpfvdk@ra&mufyJ [d&zdk@vJ ' vdk@ omref ajz-um;vkduf.? xdktcg o#rf;0g}uD; ajymvkdufonfh pum;a-umifh
Armbkef;}uD;wyg;jzpfonfh xdkq&mawmfvnf; idk&zdk@ydkif/ &,f&zkd@ ydkifjzpfav ownf;?

o#rf;0g}uD;ajympum;u 'to#ifbk&m; edAŠmef {uefysufvDzdk@Asm,f? edAŠmefudkawmh wynhfawmf


rvm;csifygAsm,f? Zmjzpfvdk@qdkau wynhfawmf&dk@ o#rf;jynfrSm&m =unhfzd? t,ifacguf Armwd o#rf;jynfudk
ra&mufcifuqkdau o#rf;wdpGm tD;tD;csrf;csrf;eef@ ukd,fhjynfrSm ukd,fh,Ofaus;rSK wdeef@edefuwfaw?
o#rf;a*gif;aygif;/ o#rf;tusôeef@ o#rf;abmif;bDudk jrwfEdk;wG,fwmpGm qifjref;+yD; tD;tD;csrf;csrf;eDuwfaw?
atArmwda&mufvm+yD;cgrS o#r;f a*gif;aygif;/ o#rf;tusôeef@ o#rf; abmif;bDvnf; Zmudka&mufvm;avrod?
qHyifudkvnf; Adkvfauqkdvm; Zmqdkvnf;rod/ ,if;csihfudkuf+yD; / 'a,meef@/ jyifcHtusô0wf_yD;
o#rf;,Ofaus;r+vnf;ysufvm;ygAsm,f? aemufwcku Armwda&muf_yD;cgrS o#rf;wdvnf; udk,fhtvkyfudk
udk,fvkyfpm;zdk@r&yJ/ Armppfom;rsm;. ydkwm qGJr+cH&vdkuf/ trsKd ;rsdK;Edkyfpufr+rsm;udkvnf;cH&I
o#rf;jynfwjynfvkH; ysufvm;ygAsm,fbk&m;? ,if; a-umif; edAŠmefvnf; o#rf;jynf ysufawydkif
Armwd&ma&mufvm;au {ueftrSef ysufzdk@pGmudk a=umufvdk@ wynfhawmf rvm;csifygAsm,fbk&m; '

Armq&mawmfwyg;jzpfaw oCFmh&mZmq&mawmfvnf; &,f&zdk@vdkvdk/ ikd&zdk@vkdvkdjzpf+yD; w&m;yGJudk


&yf&avownf;?

OwW&
*Gg[wDòr@

21
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
OD;jr0g.ESvkH;om;

zkd;acgifawmifjrwf q&mOD;jr0g w0rf;wcg


awmifuvmÉf Y jrwfr[monf udk,fusdK;&SmI
&efatmifaZ,s wkdif;cspfjynfcspf rorm}uH
o#pfaomif;rnfac: rsdK;cspfyk*~dKvf rdp>mOm%fa=umifh
ykxkd;awmftm; rsm;xdkxdkwGif bk&m;vnf;aysmuf
bk&ifrif;Am trsm;eef@rwl eef;aysmuf+rDc
rdef@tm%mjzifh tm*vlwnf; jymjzpf&./
o'<g=unfjzL ol@.pdwf"gwf orkdif;vnf;aysmuf
rsm;jynfol±dk@ rsdK;cspftm;rmef vlrsdK;atmufus
nDnmaygif;pk vGefxufoefr_ u|efjzpf&.?
vSL'gef;jyKI owWdxl;a=umihf wrf;wyg.
q&mOD;jr0g rdrdtouf u0dr[m
vrf;nGefumvsif riJhuGufyJ OD;jr0g/
ajrmufOD;wacwf 0rf;tludkE_wf q&mhESvkH;om;
orkdif;opfudk oGD;udkxkwfum q&mh0dOmOf
ydokumynm tem*wfjynf&Gm pdwfoEWmeftm;
pkHvifpGmeef@ tD;csrf;omzdk@ OD;nGwftcgcg
urBmhtv,f olpDrHc *k%fjyKygonf
*k%f0if;xnfzdk@ oufpGef@c. vmulygcvJh
ajrmfjrif}uD;rm; pHjyKxdkufygh apmihfa&Smufcvnfhyg
ESvkH;om;jzifh u0dr[m tkd q&m?
olazmfaqmifc OD;jr0g /
xkqpfc. odk@yifjzpfjim; ±dk;rEG,f
ckdifus,fygbd aemufom;aemifvl (&ckdifjynf)
0Hhxnhfbdjcif; ig±dk@rlum;
tHhavmufyg. t,lwyg;
*k%f,lrdjcif;
yDwd&ifrSm
pdwfazmufjym;I
rsdK;jcm;udkvGrf;
#####
jynfhr#wnf; / xif}uD;jcif;a=umifh

22
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
နယ္စပ္ ျခံစည္းရိုးကာမည့္ စစ္သားမ်ား ျမန္မာ-ဘဂၤလာ- Aိႏၵိယ နယ္စပ္သုိ႕ ေရာက္ရွိ

3/25/2009

ျမန္မာ - ဘဂၤလာေဒခ်္႕ နယ္စပ္ တေလ်ာက္ ျခံစည္းရိုးကာမည့္ AစီAစU္ကို ျမန္မာဘက္မွ စီစU္ေနရာ


မ်ားမၾကာမွီက Aိႏၵိယ-ျမန္မာ- ဘဂၤလာ သံုးနိုင္ငံ နယ္စပ္သို႕ စစ္သား ၂၀၀ ခန္႕ ေရာက္ရွိလာခဲ့သည္။
ေရာက္ရွိ္လာေသာ စစ္သားမ်ားမွာ ခမရ ၂၈၉ ႏွင့္ ၃၅၅ မွ ျဖစ္ျပီး ထိုAထဲတြင္ ဗ်ဴဟာမွဴး တUီးႏွင့္
ပလက္၀ျမိဳ႕နယ္ Uကၠဌ Uီးေက်ာ္ေဇယ် လည္း ပါ၀င္သည္ဟု ေဒသAတြင္း သီတင္းသံုးေသာ ဆရာေတာ္
တပါးက ေျပာသည္။ ဆရာေတာ္မွ ဆက္ျပီး “ သူတို႕ Aခု လက္ပံ၀ ေက်းရြာကေနပီး မင္းေခ်ာင္း တေလ်ာက္
စစ္ေဆးေနပါတယ္။ Aဲဒီမွာ Aထိုင္လုပ္ပီး ကြန္ကရစ္တိုင္ေတြကို ျပဳလုပ္သြားမယ္လို႕ သိရပါတယ္။
ေက်းရြာသားေတြ တခ်ိဳ႕ကိုေတာ့ ဆန္ ရိကၡာေတြ ထမ္းခိုင္းတာမွ Aပ ျခံစည္းရိုးကာတဲ့ Aလုပ္ေတြမွာေတာ့
မခိုင္းေသးပါဘူး။ ” ဟု ေျပာသည္။ ျမန္မာ နAဖ စစ္Aစိုးရမွ ဘဂၤလာေဒခ်္႕ နုိင္ငံႏွင့္ ဆက္စပ္ေနေသာ
ကီလိုမီတာ ၂၀၀ Aရွည္ရွိသည့္ နယ္နမိတ္ တေလွ်ာက္ သံဆူးၾကိဳးျဖင့္ ျခံကာရံရန္ စီစU္ေနရာ ယခုAခါ
ေမာင္ေတာ ေတာင္ပိုင္းမွ စတင္ျပီး သံဆူးၾကိဳးကားရံေနျပီ ျဖစ္သည္။ ေမာင္ေတာျမိဳ႕မွ မ်က္ျမင္ တUီးက “
Aရပ္သားေတြကို ခိုင္းတာ ေစတာေတြကိုေတာ့ သူတုိ႕ လုပ္တာ မေတြ႕ေသးဘူး။ ဘူးသီးေတာင္ Aေျခစုိက္
လံုထိန္း တပ္ရင္း Aမွတ္ ၁၃ နဲ႕ ေမာင္ေတာ Aေျခစုိက္ Aမွတ္ ၂ လံုထိန္းတပ္ရင္းက လံုထိန္း
တပ္သားေတြကို Aဓိက ခိုင္းေစေနတာကို ေတြ႕ရပါတယ္။ သူတို႕က ျခံစည္းရိုးကာရံမယ့္ ေနရာေတြမွာ တမံ
တုတ္ေနတာကို ေတြ႕ရပါတယ္။ ေက်းရြာ ရယက Uကၠဌေတြနဲ႕ တခ်ိဳ႕ Aဖြဲ႕၀င္ေတြလည္း သူတို႕နဲ႕ Aတူ
လုပ္ကိုင္ေနတာကို ေတြ႕ရပါတယ္။ ” ဟု ေျပာသည္။ Aမည္မေဖၚလိုသူ Aစိုးရ Aရာရွိ တUီးမွ ယခုAခါ
ျခံစည္းရိုးကာရံမူကို ေမာင္ေတာျမိဳ႕နယ္ ေတာင္ပိုင္း နတ္ျမစ္ ကမ္းေျခ တေလ်ာက္ ျမင္းလႊတ္ေက်းရြာမွ စျပီး
ကာရံေနျပီ ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း ေျပာသည္။ ေမာင္ေတာျမိဳ႕နယ္ ေျမာက္ပိုင္း ငခူရတြင္ ဗ်ဴဟာမွဴးကိုယ္တိုင္ထိုင္ျပီး
ျခံစည္း ရိုးကာရံမည့္ AစီAစU္ကို လုပ္ေဆာင္ ေနေၾကာင္း သတင္းရရွိသည္။

နိရUၥရာowif;

23
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
ရခိုင္ေAာင္လံေတာ္ လြင့္တင္ပြဲႏွင့္ Aမ်ိဳးသား သီခ်င္း ဖြင့္ပြဲ Aခမ္းAနား ဘဂၤလာေဒ့ခ်္
ႏိုင္ငံတင
ြ ္က်င္းပ
4/8/2009
ရခိုင္ေAာင္လံေတာ္ လြင့္တင္ပြဲႏွင့္ ရခိုင္Aမ်ိဳးသား သီးခ်င္းဖြင့္ပြဲ Aခမ္းAနား တရပ္ကို ဘဂၤလာေဒ့ခ်္ႏိုင္ငံ
ေကာ့(စ္)ဘာဇားျမိဳ႕တြင္ ယေန႕ နံနက္ ၈ နာရီက စတင္ က်င္းပခဲ့သည္။ Aဆိုပါ Aခန္းAနားကို
Aျပည္ျပည္ဆိုင္ရာ ရဟန္းေတာ္မ်ား Aဖြဲ႕ခ်ဳပ္(ဘဂၤလာေဒ့ခ်္) ဌာနခြဲမွ ၾကီးမွဴးျပီး ေကာ့(စ္)ဘာဇား ျမိဳ႕ရွိ
ေတာေက်ာင္းတြင္ က်င္းပခဲ့ျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။ Aခမ္းAနားစီစU္ ရျခင္းႏွင့္ပတ္သတ္ျပီး Uီးေဆာင္စီစU္သူ
Aရွင္ေခမိႏၵက “ရခိုင္ဘုရင္A ဆက္ဆက္ Aသံုးျပဳ ခဲ့တဲ့ Aလံေတာ္ကို ရခိုင္မ်ိဳးဆက္ေတြ သိရွိထားေAာင္နဲ႕
ဗုဒၶဘာသာ ပြဲေတာ္ေတြမွာလည္း Aသံုးျပဳ လာၾကေAာင္ ျပဳလုပ္ရတာျဖစ္တယ္။ ရခိုင္ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္
သံခ်င္းကိုလည္း ရခိုင္လူငယ္ေတြ မ်ိဳးခ်စ္ စိတ္ဓါတ္ ရွင္သန္လာေAာင္နဲ႕ တန္ဖိုးထား လာၾကေAာင္ Aခုလို
စီစU္ရတာ ျဖစ္တယ္။” ဟု နိရUၥရာသို႕ ေျပာသည္။ ရခိုင္ေAာင္လံေတာ္မွာ ယခင္က ရခိုင္ဘုရင္မ်ား
Aသံုးျပဳခဲ့သည့္ Aလံေတာ္ ျဖစ္ျပီး Aလံေတာ္တြင္ Aျဖဴႏွင့္Aနီ Aထက္ေAာက္ ပါ၀င္ျပီး Aဆိုပါ
Aလံေတာ္ထဲတြင္ ဆင္၊ ျမင္း၊ ျခေသၤ့ႏွင့္ ဗ်ာလရုပ္ပံုမ်ား ပါ၀င္သည္။ ရခိုင္Aမ်ိဳးသား သီျခင္းမွာ ျပည္ပေရာက္
ရခိုင္Aဆို ေတာ္ ကိုခိုင္ေဇာ္ သီဆိုထားသည့္ “ငါရို႕ျပည္ကို ငါရို႕Aုပ္ခ်ဳပ္မည္” ျဖစ္သည္။Aခမ္းAနားတြင္
Aလံေတာ္ ၄ လံကို ရဟန္းေတာ္ ၄ ပါးက လႊင့္ထူခဲ့ျပီး Aမ်ိဳးသား သီခ်င္းကိုမူ Aသံခ်ဲ႕စက္ျဖင့္ ဖြင့္ျပီး
လႊင့္ထုတ္ခဲ့သည္ဟု သိရသည္။Aလံေတာ္မ်ားကို လြင့္တင္Aျပီးတြင္ Aရွင္ရကၡ၀ံသမွ “ၾကားပိမ့္ဗိုလ္သူ
Aံ့ခ်ီမူေသာ” Aစခ်ီသည့္ ရခိုင္ေAာင္လံေတာ္ လကၤာကို ေAာင္နမိ္တ္ကို ေဆာင္၍ ရြတ္ဆို္ခဲ့
သည္။ရခုိင္လံေတာ္ လြင့္တင္ပြဲ Aခန္းAနားကို ယေန႕တြင္ ဘဂၤလာေဒ့ခ်္၊ ထိုင္း၊ မေလးရွား၊ ေနာ္ေ၀း၊ ဂ်ပန္၊
Aေမရိကန္စသည့္္ ႏိုင္ငံမ်ားတြင္လည္း ယေန႕ တျပိဳင္နက္တည္း က်င္းပၾကသည္ဟု Aျပည္ျပည္ဆိုင္ရာ
ရဟန္းေတာ္မ်ားAဖဲြ႕ခ်ဳပ္ (ဘဂၤလာေဒ့ခ်္ဌာနခြဲ)မွ စည္းရံုးေရးတာ၀န္ခံAရွင္ေခမိႏၵမွေျပာ သည္။Aခမ္း
Aနားတြင္ ေတာေက်ာင္းဆရာေတာ္ Aရွင္စႏၵာ၀ါရမွ သဘာပတိAျဖစ္ေဆာင္ရြက္ျပီး Aရွင္
ရကၡ၀ံသမွ Aခမ္းနားမွဴးAျဖစ္ေဆာင္ရြက္သည္။ Aခမ္းနားတြင္ ရခိုင္Aသင္းAဖြဲ႕Aသီးသီးမွ Aင္Aား
ႏွစ္ဆယ္ခန္႕တက္ေရာက္ခဲ့ၾကျပီး Aဖြဲ႕Aစည္း Aသိးသီးမွ ကိုယ္စားလွယ္မ်ားကိုလည္း
ရခိုင္ေAာင္လံေတာ္တခုစီ လက္ေဆာင္ေပး Aပ္ကာ နံနက္ ၁၀ နာရီခန္႕တြင္Aခမ္းAနားကို ေAာင္ျမင္စြာ
Aဆံုးသတ္ခဲ့ၾကသည္။

နိရUၥရာowif;

24

Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù


ဂတ္စ္ႏွင့္ ေရနံကို ျပည္ပသို႕ ေရာင္းျပီး ႏြားေခ်းျဖင့္ လွ်ပ္စစ္မီးထြန္းရန္ ျပည္သူမ်ားကို ၀န္ၾကီးႏွင့္
တိုင္းမွဴးမွ တိုက္တြန္း

4/6/2009
ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္သို႕ မ်ားမၾကာမွီက လာေရာက္လည္ခဲ့သူ ပို႕ေဆာင္ေရး ၀န္ၾကီး
ဗုိလ္ခ်ဳပ္ သိန္းေဆြႏွင့္ Aေနာက္ပိုင္း တိုင္းမွဴး ဗုိလ္ခ်ဳပ္ ေသာင္းေAးတို႕မွ
ရခိုင္ျပည္သူမ်ားAား ႏြားေခ်းႏွင့္ ဆားကို ဆတူေရာျပီး ဓါတ္ခဲ Aေဟာင္းမ်ားကို
စိုက္ထူျပီး လွ်ပ္စစ္မီးထြန္းညိွၾကရန္ တိုက္တြန္း နိဳးေဆာ္သြားသည္ဟု
ေက်ာက္နီေမာ္ ေက်းရြာမွ ေက်ာင္းဆရာ တUီးက ေျပာသည္။ သူက "က်ေနာ္တို႕ ၀န္ထမ္းေတြ Aရပ္သားေတြ ၆၀၀
ေက်ာ္ ေလာက္ရွိမယ္ ထင္ပါတယ္။ ၀န္ၾကီးနဲ႕ တိုင္းမွဴး ေရာက္မယ္။ ျပည္နယ္ ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရး Aတြက္ လုပ္ကိုင္စရာ
ကိစၥေတြကို ေျပာမယ္ဆိုေတာ့ လူေတြက စိတ္၀င္စားျပီး သူတို႕ စကားကို နားေထာင္ဖို႕ သြားၾကပါတယ္။ သူတို႕
ေျပာေနက် Aတိုင္းဘဲ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္မူ ေနာက္က်ရတာက ျပည္တြင္း ဆူပူ ေသာင္းက်န္းမူေတြေၾကာင္း
ျဖစ္တယ္ဆိုျပီး ေျပာပါတယ္။ AခုAခါမွာ နိုင္ငံေတာ္ Aစိုးရက ေစတနာ တရားAျပည့္A၀နဲ႕ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္
ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးAတြက္ ေဆာင္ရက
ြ ္ေနပါတယ္။ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္သူ ျပည္နယ္သားေတြလည္း မိမိေဒသ
ဖြြံျဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးAတြက္ ႏြားေခ်းကို Aသံုးျပဳျပီး လွ်ပ္စစ္မီး ထြန္းညွိေနၾကတာကို ျမင္ေတြရတဲ့ Aတြက္
၀မ္းသာတယ္လို႕ ေျပာပါတယ္။ သူတို႕ Aေနနဲ႕လည္း Aားေပး ေဆာင္ရြက္သြားမယ္လို႕ ေျပာသြားပါတယ္" ဟု
ေျပာသည္။Aဆိုပါ ေတြ႕ဆံုေဆြးေႏြးပြဲကို ပို႕ေဆာင္ေရး ၀န္ၾကီးႏွင့္ Aေနာက္ပိုင္းတိုင္းမွဴးတို႕မွ မတ္လ ၃၀ ရက္ေန႕က
ရမ္းျဗဲျမိဳ႕နယ္ ေက်ာက္နီေမာ္ Aထက္တန္းေက်ာင္းေရွ႕ရွိ ေဘာ္လံုကြင္းတြင္ က်င္းပျပဳလုပ္ခဲ့ျခင္း ျဖစ္သည္။ Aဆိုပါ
ေက်ာင္းဆရာက "Aခု က်ေနာ္တို႕ ရခိုင္ေဒသက ဂတ္စ္ေတြ AၾကီးAက်ယ္ ထြက္ေနတယ္။ က်ေနာ္တို႕ ျမိဳ႕နယ္မွာရွိတဲ့
ေရနံေတာင္ကလည္း ေရနံေတြ ထြက္ေနတယ္။ ဒါေတြကို Aသံုးခ်ျပီး ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ တခုလံုး လွ်ပ္စစ္မီး
ထြန္းေပးမယ္ဆိုျပီး ေျပာတာ တခြန္းမွ မပါဘူး။ ဂတ္(စ္)ကို တရုတ္ကို နိဳင္ငံေတာ္ Aစိုးရက ေရာင္းစားတယ္ဆိုတာကို
တခြန္းမွ သူတို႕ ေျပာမသြားပါဘူး။ သူတို႕က လမ္းေတြ ေဖါက္တယ္၊ ေက်ာင္းေတြ ေဆာက္ေပးတယ္၊ ဘယ္Aစိုးရ
ေခတ္ကာလမွ မလုပ္ေပးနိုင္တာကို သူတို႕ Aစိုးရကမွ လုပ္ေပးနိုင္တယ္ဆိုျပီး ေျပာသြားပါတယ္။ သူတို႕ေကာင္းေၾကာင္း
ကိုဘဲေျပာသြားပါတယ္"ဟုေျပာသည္။
၀န္ၾကီး ဗုိလ္ခ်ဳပ္သိ္န္းေဆြႏွင့္ တိုင္းမွဴး ဗုိလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေသာင္းေAးတို႕သည္ ေက်ာက္နီေမာ္ ေက်းရြာရွိ ႏြားေခ်းမ်ားကို
Aသံုးျပဳျပီး လွ်ပ္စစ္္မီး ထုတ္လုပ္ေနသည့္လုပ္ငန္းခြင္ကိုသြားေရာက္ၾကည့္ရွဳ႕ခဲ့ၾကသည္။ Aဆိုပါ ေက်ာင္းဆရာက
"ႏြားေခ်းAနံ႕Aသက္ေတြက ၾကိဳင္လွဳိင္ေနေတာ့ ၀န္ၾကီးေတြလည္း သိပ္မၾကည့္ရွဳ႕ မစစ္ေဆးနိုင္ပါဘူး၊ နည္းနည္းပါပါး
ၾကည့္ျပီး ျပန္သြားၾကပါတယ္။ က်ေနာ္တို႕ ေက်ာင္းနဲ႕ေက်ာက္နီေမာ္ ေဆးရံုAတြက္ စာAုပ္ေတြ၊ ေဆး၀ါးေတြ၊
ေဘာ္လံုးေတြ၊ ေလေဘးထည္ေတြကို ကူညီသြားၾကပါတယ္" ဟု ေျပာသည္။ ပို႕ေဆာင္ေရး၀န္ၾကီး ဗုိလ္ခ်ဳပ္သိန္းေဆြႏွင့္
တိုင္းမွဴး ဗုိလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေသာင္းေAးတိ္ု႕သည္ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ Aတြင္းရွိ စစ္ေတြ၊ ေမာင္ေတာ၊ ေက်ာက္ေတာ္၊ ေျမာက္Uီး၊ ရမ္းျဗဲ၊
ေက်ာက္ျဖဴ၊ မာန္ေAာင္ႏွင့္ Aမ္းျမိဳ႕နယ္မ်ားသို႕ သြားေရာက္ လည္ပတ္ခဲ့ျပီး ႏြားေခ်းႏွင့္ ဆားကို ဆတူေရာျပီး ဓါတ္ခဲ
Aေဟာင္းႏွင္ လွ်ပ္စစ္မီး ထြန္းညွိဳေနသည့္ လုပ္ငန္းခြင္မ်ားသို႕ သြားေရာက္ျပီးစစ္ေဆးညြန္ၾကားမူမ်ားျပဳလုပ္ခဲ့ၾကသည္။
ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္မွာ ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံတြင္ ေရနံႏွင့္ သဘာ၀ဓါတ္ေငြ႕ Aလြန္ေပါၾကြယ္၀ေသာ ေဒသတခုျဖစ္ေသာ္လည္း Aဆိုပါ
သဘာ၀ ပစၥည္းမ်ားကို နAဖ စစ္Aစိုးရမွ ရခိုင္ျပည္သူမ်ားAတြက္ တစံုတရာ Aသံုးမျပဳဘဲ နိုင္ငံျခား တိုင္းျပည္မ်ားသို႕
ထုတ္ယူ ေရာင္းစားေန သျဖင့္ ရခိုင္ ျမိဳ႕မ်ားတြင္ လွ်ပ္စစ္မီး တေန႕ (၂) နာရီသာ ရရွိျပီး ေက်းရြာမ်ားတြင္ လွ်ပ္စစ္မီး လံုး၀
မရရွိေၾကာင္း သိရွိရသည္။
နိရUၥရာowif;

25
Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù
zdwfac: }udKqkdjcif;
pmzwfy&dowfvl}uD;rif;&dk@tm;vkH;udk &dkaoav;pm;pGm yef-um;tyfygonf? 0&Zdefpmapmifudk
&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwD(ALP).vufatmufcH&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA)
rS(3)v w}udrfpD ykHrSefxkwf0Dvsuf[donf?
0&ZdefpmapmifwGif tm;enf;csuf trsm;tjym; [daumif;[dvdrRnf? odk@jzpfygI 0&ZdefpmapmifESihf
ywfowfI tðyoabmjzihf a0zeft}uHðycsufrsm;udk av;pm;pGm }udKqdkv#uf[dygonf? xkd@jyif
&ckdif jynf awmfvSefa&;/ EkdifiHa&;ESihf ywfowfonfh uAsm/ 0wˆKwdk/ aqmif;yg;rsm;udkvnf;
vufcHv#uf[d onf?

Ú t,f'Dwm = ckdifatmifpdk;oef; (,m,D)


Ú 'DZdkif;tjyiftqif = cdkifatmif
Ú pmpDpm&dkuf = ckdifxGef;atmif

Ú pmrlpkaqmif;a&;ESihfjyef-um;a&; = armifarmifacs
Ú b¾maiG = &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA)
Úapmifa& = 100
qufoG,f&ef= alpghq@gmail.com
aungsoe77@yahoo.com
aungsoe77@gmail.com

Ph; 09954533858

pmzwfy&dowftm;vkH;udk txl;aus;Zl;wifygonf?

Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù


&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf
ARAKAN LIBERATION ARMY

” nDacs nDracs±dk@ Zmvkyfedefuwfawav;


”vl@tcGifhta&;udk wkduf,lrS&zdk@
”wdkif;jynfeef@ vlrsdK;udkcspfau tz&ckdifjynfudk
”u,fwifzdk@ vufwGJuwfar?

pkaqmif;a&;ESihfavhusihfa&;Xge
”&ckdif-tdENd,e,fpyf/ &ckdif-b*Fvm;e,fpyf/ u&if-xkdif;e,fpyf
&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmfrS tz&ckdifjynftwGuf wdkufyGJ0ifvkdol &ckdifol/
&ckdifom; ol&Jaumif;rsm;udk txufyg eD&m(3)ckwGif t+rJwrf; vufcHvsuf[donf

&cdkifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf(ALA)

Ù&ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (ALA) rS jzef@csDonf Ù