Sie sind auf Seite 1von 22

CONTENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT INTRODUCTION TO HMT TRACTOR ENGINE ASSEMBLY LIGHT MACHINE SHOP HEAVY MACHINE SHOP NEW ENGINE SHOP FOUNDRY TURNING MILLING HEAT TREATMENT PLANT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I have done my industrial training at HMT limited, Pinjore (Tractor division). During this period of my training I went to training centre. This has greatly enhanced my knowledge about the vast field of engineering.

I am extremely thankful to the management of HMT, Pinjore for giving me an opportunity to pursue training in their plant.

I am also thankful to Mr V.K. Grover (DGM, Training centre, HMT limited, Pinjore). I am thankful to all the workers and staff members to provide their cooperation and guidance to me.

I am deeply indebted to the training and placement departments in my institute and all other faculty members of institute for their valuable contribution towards my training.

I wish to express my deep gratitude to all the concerned persons with whose cooperation & coordination, I have successfully completed the training in the organization.

INTRODUCTION OF HMT LIMITED


Hindustan machine tool was established in 1953 by Govt. of India in Bangalore. The main aim was to supply machine tools. In 1961, second unit was also established in Bangalore. The main aim is to manufacture watches. The third machine tools factory of HMT Limited established in Pinjore near Chandigarh went into production on 1st October 1963. It was the first H.M.T. complex at Bangalore. These factories are design, build and commission by Indian talent without foreign assistance in a record period of 17 months of raking the ground on May 2, 1962 at a Capital investment of Rs. 750 lakh (inclusive of the township) and was formally inaugurated by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru the Prime Minister of India at that time.

A further investment of about Rs. 6096 lakh has been made for the tractor project. Year 1953 1962 Place BANGALORE (KARNATAKA) BANGALORE (KARNATAKA) Production/Division MACHINE TOOLS WRIST WATCHES

HIEROLOGICAL MACHINES 1963 1965 PINJORE (HARYANA) KALAMESSERY (KERALA) MACHINE TOOLS, TRACTOR MACHINE TOOLS PRINTING MACHINES 1971 1972 BANGLORE (KARNATAKA) HYDERABAD (ANDHARA PRADESH) DIE CASTING MACHINE TOOLS PRESSES

HMT LIMITED

HMT Limited was established in 1953 in technical collaboration with M/s oerlikon of Switzerland. Over the years, many new products have been added to its manufacturing range. It has had technical collaboration with over 30 leading international Engineering Companies for manufactures of various products. HMTs diversified product range include in Machine Tools, Watches, Tractors, Printing machines, Presses, Die casting and Plastic Injection Moulding machines, Foods processing machinery, CNC systems, Ball screws etc. Today, HMT is a multi-product, multi-technology engineering complex with strengths comprising of: 16 Manufacturing units (22 Product Division) Assets worth over US $ 250 million Annual turnover of US $ 300 million ISO 9000 accreditation

The widest range of machine tools, ranging from General purpose lathes to CNC turning / machining centres. Source of qualified and experienced manpower.

TRACTOR

A tractor is a vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort (or torque) at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction. Most commonly, the term is used to describe a farm vehicle that provides the power and traction to mechanize agricultural tasks, especially (and originally) tillage but nowadays a great variety of tasks.

PARTS OF TRACTOR:
Engine Gear Box MT Housing Wheel Steering Brakes Radiator

Fan Oil Tank Oil Pump Hydraulic Lift P.T.O Oil Filter Battery Alternater Starter Exhaust Pipe TRACTOR ASSEMBLY SHOP
In Tractor Assembly Shop we see how the tractor assembled. The main parts

of tractor are: GEAR BOX ASSEMBLY MAIN TRANSMISSION HOUSSING ASSEMBLY LIFT ASSEMBLY BRAKE ASSEMBLY ENGINE ASSEMBLY

We assembled these parts one by one which are mention below: GEAR BOX ASSEMBLY:IN GEAR BOX ASSEMBLY we use mainly spur gear. A spline shaft is used on which sliding gear are mounted. A spline shaft is a shaft on which gear can slide along the axis but cant rotate without shaft. A shifter is used for shifting the gear. The main shaft from the engine connecting to the gear shaft. In HMT tractor three sliding gear are used for shifting the gear. The size of the gears is different from each other. The biggest gear in size is used for first gear and reverse gear. In the 1st gear the speed of tractor low because in this diameter of the driving gear is more than the driven gear. A T.P.O. shaft is used to take the power from the gear box to main transmission housing.

Main transmission housing assembly:Power from the gear box is transmitted to the main transmission housing. The M.T. housing consists of the differential unit. Differential unit consists of four planet gears & two sun gears. Bevel gear is used to transmit the power at right angle. The sun gear is connected to the wheel through shaft.

LIFT ASSEMBLY:Lift is assembled on the M.T. housing. It mainly consists of a pump which sucks the hydraulic oil from M.T. housing through which it create pressure.

BRAKE ASSEMBLY:There are mainly two types of brakes in HMT:1. Mechanical brake 2. Hydraulic brake In mechanical brake a belt is used to resist the motion. When we apply these brakes contacts and grips the drum and stop the tractor. In hydraulic brake when we apply these brakes the hydraulic fluid exert the pressure on the cylinder. With the cylinders main rod the bushes are connected which spread and resist the motion.

ENGINE ASSEMBLY:The main parts of the engine assembly have been discuss in ENGINE SHOP. The power from the engine goes to gear box and then to Main Transmission Housing. For shifting the gear we press the clutch and the pressure plate disconnect the gear box shaft and flywheel. The flywheel rotates with engine shaft.

ENGINE ASSEMBLY
In this shop we study the different parts of engine and practically see how the engine assembled. Different parts of engine from different shops are collected and assembled in this ENGINE ASSEMBLY SHOP. Parts to be assembled in this shop:Crank case Cam shaft Cylinder head Flywheel F.I. pump Bush rod Water pump Gears Alternator Crank shaft Piston Lubricant oil pump clutch plate Connecting rod Rocker arm Valve assembly Starter

In this shop these parts are assembled to form a engine. Following steps are to assemble engine:Steps:1. First of all crankcase is mounted on the Guided Vehicle. 2. Crankshaft is fitted in crankcase. Main gear is mounted on the crankshaft which transmit the power to timing gear, lubricant oil pump, fuel pump. 3. Camshaft is fitted on the crankcase which takes power from crankshaft gear. 4. Piston is fitted in the crankcase which is connected to crankshaft by connecting rod.

5. Lubricant oil pump is fitted in the crankcase which sucks the oil. 6. Cylinder head are fitted on the crankcase. In cylinder head Inlet and outlet valves are mounted which are controlled by the rocker arm. 7. Flywheel is mounted on crankshaft. 8. Then clutch assembly is done. There is a pressure plate which used to disconnect the flywheel from gear. 9. Connecting rod is mounted on the bush rod which are connected to the cam shaft. Connecting rod connected to the rocker arm which control the inlet and outlet action of the valve. 10.Fuel injector pump assembly. The fuel from the reservoir comes in to the filter and after that goes into the fuel injector pump. In fuel injector pump there is a governor which control the speed at different varying load. 11. In engine there are two types of filter. 12. Starter is used to start the engine. 13. A alternator is used to charge battery.

LIGHT MACHINE SHOP

As according to the name in Light Machine Shop, only light parts of engine are manufactured. These parts are:-

Camshaft Rocker arm Crankshaft Bush rod Hub Spur gear Bevel gear Helical gear Connecting rod

In manufacturing a camshaft, we take a simple solid rod. After that we do surface finishing, smoothing etc. operations. For making oval shape we use spherical machine which cut the oval shape at the desired angle.

HEAVY MACHINE SHOP

In Heavy Machine Shop mainly two parts of engine are manufactured. These parts are: Gear box Crankcase Cylinder

In this shop we mainly use CNC machines. In CNC machines, programs are feeded for machining operations. With the help of these programs the tool works on workpiece. In CNC there is a tool box in which there are aprx. 120 tools are mounted. A magic arm is used which take the tool from tool post and perform the operation & after performing the operation take the tool back to tool post. In this machine shop drilling, boring, tapper-turning, chamfering etc. operation are performed.

NEW ENGINE SHOP

In new engine shop, mainly two parts of engine are manufactured. These parts are:1. Crankcase 2. Cylinder-head

In this shop we use Milling machine, CNC machine, Washing machine etc. On milling machine all the six faces of cylinder head are machined. Face milling and surface finishing is done on cylinder head in this shop. After that in cylinder head we do holes for stud, inlet valve and outlet valve. On CNC machine we perform the operations on crankcase as below: Boring Drilling Chamfering Turning Facing Taper turning

FOUNDRY
A foundry is a factory that produces metal castings. Metals are cast into shapes by melting them into a liquid, pouring the metal in a mould, and removing the mould material or casting after the metal has solidified as it cools. The most common metals processed are aluminium and cast iron. However, other metals, such as bronze, steel, magnesium, copper, tin, and zinc, are also used to produce castings in foundries. We perform these processes under foundry: MELTING FURNACE DEGASSING MOULD MAKING POURING SHAKE-OUT DEGATING

SURFACE CLEANING

TURNING:
Turning is the process whereby a single point cutting tool is parallel to the surface. When turning, a piece of material (wood, metal, plastic, or stone) is rotated and a cutting tool is traversed along 2 axes of motion to produce precise diameters and depths. Turning can be either on the outside of the cylinder or on the inside (also known as boring) to produce tubular components to various geometries. The turning processes are typically carried out on a lathe, considered to be the oldest machine tools, and can be of four different types such as straight turning, taper turning, profiling or external grooving. Those types of turning processes can produce various shapes of materials such as straight, conical, curved, or grooved workpiece.

Turning operations:
Turning specific operations include:
Turning This operation is one of the most basic machining processes. That is, the part is rotated while a single point cutting tool is moved parallel to the axis of rotation.[1] Turning can be done on the external surface of the part as well as internally (boring). The starting material is generally a workpiece generated by other processes such as casting, forging, extrusion, or drawing. Tapered turning a) from the compound slide b) from taper turning attachment c) using a hydraulic copy attachment d) using a C.N.C. lathe e) using a form tool e) by the offsetting of the tailstock - this method more suited for shallow tapers. Hard turning

Hard turning is a turning done on materials with a Rockwell C hardness greater than 45. It is typically performed after the workpiece is heat treated. The process is intended to replace or limit traditional grinding operations. Hard turning, when applied for purely stock removal purposes, competes favourably with rough grinding. However, when it is applied for finishing where form and dimension are critical, grinding is superior. Grinding produces higher dimensional accuracy of roundness and cylindricity. Facing FACING is part of the turning process. It involves moving the cutting tool at right angles to the axis of rotation of the rotating workpiece. This can be performed by the operation of the cross-slide, if one is fitted, as distinct from the longitudinal feed (turning). It is frequently the first operation performed in the production of the workpiece, and often the last- hence the phrase "ending up". Parting This process is used to create deep grooves which will remove a completed or part-complete component from its parent stock. Grooving Grooving is like parting, except that grooves are cut to a specific depth by a form tool instead of severing a completed/partcomplete component from the stock. Grooving can be performed on internal and external surfaces, as well as on the face of the part (face grooving or trepanning). Non-specific operations include: Boring i.e. the machining of internal cylindrical forms (generating) a) by mounting workpiece to the spindle via a chuck or faceplate b) by mounting workpiece onto the cross slide and placing cutting tool into the chuck. Drilling is used to remove material from the inside of a workpiece. This process utilizes standard drill bits held stationary in the tail stock or tool turret of the lathe.

Knurling The cutting of a serrated pattern onto the surface of a part to use as a hand grip using a special purpose knurling tool.

Threading Both standard and non-standard screw threads can be turned on a lathe using an appropriate cutting tool. (Usually having a 60, or 55 nose angle) Either externally, or within a bore. Generally referred to as single-point threading. tapping of threaded nuts and holes a) using hand taps and tailstock centre b)using a tapping device with a slipping clutch to reduce risk of breakage of the tap threading operations include a)all types of external and internal thread forms using a single point tool also taper threads, double start threads, multi start threads, worms as used in worm wheel reduction boxes, leadscrew with single or multistart threads. b) by the use of threading boxes fitted with 4 form tools, up to 2" diameter threads but it is possible to find larger boxes than this.

LATHE
A lathe is a machine tool used principally for shaping pieces of metal, wood, or other materials by causing the workpiece to be held and rotated by the lathe while a tool bit is advanced into the work causing the cutting action. Lathes can be divided into three types for easy identification: engine lathe, turret lathe, and special purpose lathes. Some smaller ones are bench mounted and semi-portable. The larger lathes are floor mounted and may require special transportation if they must be moved. Field and maintenance shops generally use a lathe that can be adapted to many operations and that is not too large to be moved from one work site to another. The engine lathe is ideally suited for this purpose. A trained operator can accomplish more machining jobs with the engine lathe than with any other machine tool. Turret lathes and special purpose lathes are usually used in production or job shops for mass production or specialized parts, while basic engine lathes are usually used for any type of lathe work.

Types of Lathes:
Centre Lathe Production Lathe Capstan Lathe Turret Lathe Special Lathe

PARTS OF LATHE MACHINE

MILLING
Milling is the most common form of machining, a material removal process, which can create a variety of features on a part by cutting away the unwanted material. The milling process requires a milling machine, workpiece, fixture, and cutter. The workpiece is a piece of pre-shaped material that is secured to the fixture, which itself is attached to a platform inside the milling machine. The cutter is a cutting tool with sharp teeth that is also secured in the milling machine and rotates at high speeds. By feeding the workpiece into the rotating cutter, material is cut away from this workpiece in the form of small chips to create the desired shape.

Classification:
Face Milling Peripheral Milling Saddle Milling

Milling Machine Classified as:


Vertical Milling Machine Horizontal Milling Machine There are alternate classification according to method of control, size, purpose, & power source.

Vertical mill
In the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. The

spindle can generally be extended (or the table can be raised/lowered, giving the same effect), allowing plunge cuts and drilling. There are two subcategories of vertical mills: The Bed Mill and The Turret Mill.
A

turret mill has a stationary spindle and the table is moved both perpendicular and parallel to the spindle axis to accomplish cutting. The most common example of this type is the Bridgeport, described below. Turret mills often have a quill which allows the milling cutter to be raised and lowered in a manner similar to a drill press. This type of machine provides two methods of cutting in the vertical (Z) direction: by raising or lowering the quill, and by moving the knee.
In

the bed mill, however, the table moves only perpendicular to the spindle's axis, while the spindle itself moves parallel to its own axis. Turret mills are generally considered by some to be more versatile of the two designs. However, turret mills are only practical as long as the machine remains relatively small. As machine size increases, moving the knee up and down require considerable effort and it also becomes difficult to reach the quill feed handle (if equipped). Therefore, larger milling machines are usually of the bed type.
Vertical Milling Machine. 1: milling cutter 2: spindle 3: top slide or overarm 4: column 5: table 6: Y-axis slide 7: knee 8: base

Horizontal mill
A horizontal mill has the same sort of xy table, but the cutters are mounted on a horizontal arbor (see Arbor milling ) across the table. Many horizontal mills also feature a built-in rotary table that allows milling at various angles; this feature is called a universal table. While endmills and the other types of tools available to a vertical mill may be used in a horizontal mill, their real advantage lies in arbormounted cutters, called side and face mills, which have a cross

section rather like a circular saw, but are generally wider and smaller in diameter. Because the cutters have good support from the arbor and have a larger cross-sectional area than an end mill, quite heavy cuts can be taken enabling rapid material removal rates. These are used to mill grooves and slots.

HEAT TREATMENT PLANT


HEAT TREATMENT is defined as an operation or combination of operations involving cooling and heating of metal or alloys in its solid state to change material properties. Objectives of Heat Treatment: To improve machinability To produce a hard surface on a ductile interior To increase resistance to wear heat and corrosion To change or refine grain size To improve mechanical properties To improve strength,hardness,ductility etc

Products on which Heat Treatment implement: Rocker Arm Cam shaft Gear Crank

Heat Treatment Processes: Annealing Normalising Hardening

Tempering Annealing:In this process we heat the steel product above recrystallisation temp. holding for 2-3 hours and then cooling at a predetermine rate to obtain the desired micro structure.

Normalising:In this process we heat the steel product aprx. 40c above the critical temp. and then cool it in the air. This make the steel harder and stronger but less ductile. Hardening:In this process steel is heated to above the critical point held at this temp. and quenched in water or molten salt or oil. This make the steel extremely hard. Tempering:in this process we reform the quenched and harder steel to obtain suitable ductility and toughness.