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Analog Modulation Techniques

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Communication Systems

• Basic structure

• Information sources
•Message signal m(t) is the information source to be
sent
•Possible information sources include voice, music,
images, video, and data, which are baseband signals
•Baseband signals have power concentrated near DC
Transmitter

• Signal processing conditions the message


signal
– Lowpass filtering to make sure that the message
signal occupies a specific bandwidth, e.g. in AM and
FM radio, each station is assigned a slot in the
frequency domain.
– In a digital communications system, we might add
redundancy to the input bit stream
• Carrier circuits
– Convert baseband signal into a frequency band
appropriate for the channel
Channel

• Transmission media:
– Wireline (twisted pair, coaxial, fiber optics)
– Wireless (indoor/air, outdoor/air, underwater,
space)
• Propagating signals experience a gradual
degradation over distance
• Boosting improves signal and reduces
noise, e.g. repeaters

Wireline Channel Impairments
Attenuation: linear distortion that is dependent on the
frequency response of the channel.
• Spreading: the finite extent of each transmitted pulse
increases, i.e. pulse widens due to
– Transmit pulse length T s
– Channel impulse response length T h
– Resulting waveform due to convolution has duration T s
+Th
• Phase jitter: the same sinusoid experiences different
phase shifts in the channel
• Additive noise: arises from many sources in the
transmitter, channel, and receiver
Wireless Channel Impairments

• Same as wireline channel impairments


plus
others
• Fading: multiplicative noise
– Example: talking on a cellular phone while
driving a car when the reception fades in and
out
• Multiple propagation paths
– Multiple ways for transmitted signal to arrive
Receiver and Information Sinks
• Receiver
– Carrier circuits undo effects of carrier circuits
in transmitter, e.g. demodulate from a
bandpass signal to a baseband signal
– Signal processing subsystem extracts and
enhances the baseband signal
• Information sinks
– Output devices such as computer screens,
speakers,and TV screens
Hybrid Communication Systems
• Mixed analog and digital signal processing in the
transmitter and receiver
– Ex: message signal is digital but broadcast over an
analog channel (compressed speech in digital cell
phones)
• Signal processing in the transmitter

• Signal processing in the receiver


Baseband and Bandpass signals
The Bandpass communication signal is obtained by modulating a
baseband analog or digital signal onto a carrier

Definitions:
• Baseband
– A baseband waveform has a spectral magnitude that is nonzero
for frequencies in the vicinity of the origin (i.e., f = 0) and negligible
elsewhere.
• Bandpass
– A bandpass waveform has a spectral magnitude that is nonzero
for frequencies in some band concentrated about a frequency f =
± fc , where fc>>0. fc is called the “carrier frequency “.
• Modulation
– Modulation is the process of imparting the source information
onto a bandpass signal with a carrier frequency fc by the
introduction of amplitude or phase perturbations or both.
The bandpass signal is called the modulated signal s(t), and
The baseband source signal is called the modulating signal m(t).
REPRESENTATION OF MODULATED SIGNALS
Modulation is the process of encoding the source information m(t)
(modulating signal) into a bandpass signal s(t) (modulated Signal)
Modulated signal is just a special application of the bandpass representation.
Modulated signal is given by: {
s ( t ) = Re g (t )e jωct }
where ω c = 2πf c
The complex envelope g(t) is a function of the modulating signal & is given by:
g (t ) = g [ m(t )]
g [ ⋅] - performs a mapping operation on m( t )

It is possible to use any type of g[m] functions


Most commonly used g[m] functions are…
• g[m] functions that are easy to implement and that will give desirable
spectral properties
• g[m] functions should suppress as much noise as possible
Complex envelope functions
Where:

• AM- Amplitude Modulation


• DBS-SC - Double-sideband Suppressed
Carrier
• PM- Phase Modulation
• FM - Frequency Modulation
• SSB-AM-SC- Single-sideband AM Suppressed
Carrier
• SSB-PM - Single-sideband PM
• SSB-SQ - Single-sideband Square-law
Detectable
Amplitude Modulation
1

0.5
m(t)
0

­0.5

­1
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
t
v(t) (solid)  |g(t)| (dotted)
2

­1

­2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
t

s (t ) = Ac [1 + m(t )] cos ωc t
Generation of AM
Definition: Amount of Modulation
Amax − Ac
The percentage of positive × 100 = max[ m(t )] × 100
modulation on an AM signal is Ac

The percentage of negative Ac − Amin


modulation on an AM signal is × 100 = − min [ m(t )] × 100
Ac

Amax − Amin max[ m(t )] − min[ m(t )]


The percentage of overall × 100 = × 100
modulation is 2 Ac 2

Amax - Maximum value of Ac [1 + m(t )]


Amin - Minimum value of Ac [1 + m(t )]
Ac - Level of AM envelope in the absence of modulation [i.e., m(t) = 0]

If m(t) has a peak positive values of +1 and a peak negative value of -1

AM signal  100% modulated


Amount of Modulation
Amax = 1.5Ac
Amin = 0.5 Ac

% of positive modulation= 50%


% of negative modulation =50%
Overall Modulation = 50%

Under modulated (<100%) 100% modulated Over modulated ( > 100%)

Envelope detector distorted


Effect of Over Modulation
Effect of Over Modulation
m(t) (solid)  |g(t)| (dotted)
4

­2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
t
v(t)
4

­2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
t
Normalized Average Power of AM signals
The normalized average power of the AM signal is
1 1 2
s (t) = g ( t ) = Ac [1 + m( t ) ]
2 2 2

2 2
1 2
[
= Ac 1 + 2m( t ) + m 2 ( t )
2
]
1 2 1 2 2
= Ac + Ac m( t ) + Ac m ( t )
2

2 2
If the modulation contains no dc level, then m(t ) = 0

The normalized power of the AM signal is

1 2 1 2 2
s (t)
2
= Ac + Ac m ( t )
2 2

Discrete
Sideband power
carrier power
Peak Envelope Power (PEP)
• Another type of power rating, called the peak envelope power (PEP),
is useful for transmitter specification.
• Definition:
The peak envelope power (PEP) is the average power that
would be obtained if |g(t)| were to be held constant at its peak
value.
• THEOREM.
The normalized PEP is given by

Ac2
PPEP = {1 + max[ m( t ) ]} 2
2

• PEP is useful for specifying the power capability of AM, SSB, and
television transmitters.
AM – Modulation Efficiency
Definition : The modulation efficiency is the percentage of the total power of
the modulated signal that conveys information.

Only “Sideband Components” – Convey information

m2 (t)
Modulation Efficiency: E= × 100
1+ m (t) 2

Highest efficiency for a 100% AM signal : 50% - square wave modulation

Voltage Spectrum of the AM signal:

Ac
S( f ) = [δ ( f − f c ) + M ( f − f c ) + δ ( f + f c ) + M ( f + f c ) ]
2
Carrier line spectral Translated version of
component message signal
Example : Power of an AM signal
The FCC rates AM broadcast band transmitters by their average carrier power; this rating
system is common in other AM audio applications as well. Suppose that a 5000-W AM
transmitter is connected to a 50 ohm load;
1 Ac2
then the constant Ac is given by = 5,000 ⇒ Ac = 707 V No modulation
2 50

If the transmitter is then 100% modulated by a 1000-Hz test tone , the total
(carrier + sideband) average power will be
1 1 2 2  1  Ac2 
s (t)
2
= Ac2 +
2 2
Ac m ( t ) = 1.5 
2 50
 = (1.5) × ( 5000) = 7,500W

  

m2 (t ) = 1 for 100% modulation


2

The peak voltage (100% modulation) is (2)(707) = 1414 V across the 50 ohm load.
The peak envelope power (PEP) is
 1  Ac2 
4    = ( 4 ) × ( 5000) = 20,000W

 2  50 
The modulation efficiency would be 33% since <m2(t)>=1/2
Generation of AM Waves

• AM waves generated using nonlinear


device

Accos(2πfct+φ)

m(t) s(t)
+ Squarer
or Switch BPF
Double sideband with carrier Signal
Disadvantage of DSB/WC
– Transmitting extra power
– Disaster for power-hungry cell phones

Advantages of DSB/WC:
– Very simple demodulation circuit
– Important in early to mid 1900’s
Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier

1 2 1 2 2
s2 (t) =
Ac + Ac m ( t )
Power in a AM signal is2 given by
2
Discrete carrier power Sideband power
Discrete carrier power can be eliminated (Suppressing carrier )if m(t) is
assumed to have a zero DC level
Then s (t ) = Ac m(t ) cos ωc t
Spectrum  Power 
1 2 2
A
S ( f ) = c [ M ( f − fc ) + M ( f + fc )] s2 (t ) = Ac m ( t )
2 2

m2 ( t )
Since no power is wasted in carrier the efficiency is E= × 100 = 100%
m (t)
2
Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier
(DSBSC)
• Remove inefficient constant term
• Modulated signal is s(t)=Ac m(t) cos(2πfct)
• Generated by a Product modulator/ Balanced
Modulator

m(t)
AM
Modulator
+
Accos(2πfct) + s(t)
-
AM
Modulator
-m(t)
DSBSC Disadvantage:

• Disadvantage:
– Less information about the carrier will be
delivered to the receiver.
– Needs a coherent carrier detector at receiver
Single sideband: Single Sideband Signal
• The DSBSC signal also contains the same information twice in the two sidebands

• All the useful information can be conveyed by one sideband only


•BW is half of DSBSC and same as that of the modulating signal
•SSB used in systems where
•Power saving is essential eg. Mobile systems where power and weight
required is low
•Bandwidth is at premium

Note: Normally SSB refers to SSB-AM type of signal

LSSB
USSB
Single Sideband Signal

x(t) (solid) y(t) (dotted) |g(t)| (dashed)
1

0.8 1

0.6 0.5

cos(wc*t)
0.4 0

0.2 ­0.5

0 ­1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
t
­0.2 UPPER SSB
1
­0.4
0.5
­0.6

v(t)
0

­0.8
­0.5

­1 ­1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
t t
SSB - Power
The normalized average power of the SSB signal

SSB signal power is


s 2 ( t ) = Ac2 m 2 ( t )

Power gain factor Power of the modulating signal

The normalized peak envelope (PEP) power is



Generation of SSB
SSB Can be generated using two techniques
1. Phasing method
2. Filter Method
• Phasing method
Filter Method Generation of SSB
 The filtering method is a special case in which RF processing
(with a sideband filter) is used instead of using baseband
processing
 The filter method is the most popular method because excellent
sideband suppression can be obtained when a crystal oscillator
is used for the sideband filter.
 Crystal filters are relatively inexpensive when produced in
quantity at standard IF frequencies
 Only limitation is the sharp change in attenuation reqd. in a
small freq. band specially if carrier is very high. Then carrier is
up-converted after modulation
Advantages of SSB

 Superiordetected signal-to-noise ratio compared to


that of AM
 SSB has one-half the bandwidth of AM or DSB-SC
signals
Power saving
TRANSMITTERS AND RECEIVERS
Modulating Modulated
signal Transmitter signal

Generalized Transmitters
– Transmitters generate the modulated signal at the carrier
frequency fc , from the modulating signal m(t).
– Any type of modulated signal could be represented by

g(t) is a function of the modulating signal m(t) .


The particular relationship that is chosen for g(t) in terms of m(t) defines the
type of modulation that is used, such as AM, SSB, or FM.
Type of Modulation g(m)
AM : Ac [1 + m(t )]
jD p m ( t )
PM : Ac e
Generalized Receiver
• The receiver has the job of extracting the
source information from the received
modulated signal that may be corrupted by
noise.
• Often, it is desired that the receiver output be a
replica of the modulating signal that was
present at the transmitter input.
• There are two main classes of receivers:
– The Tuned Radio-Frequency (TRF) receiver
and
– The Superheterodyne receiver.
• Most receivers employ the Superheterodyne
receiving technique.
Super Heterodyne Receiver

• The technique consists of either down-converting or up-


converting the input signal to some convenient frequency
band, called the intermediate frequency (IF) band, and
then extracting the information (or modulation) by using
the appropriate detector.
• This receiver is used for the reception of all types of
bandpass signals, such as television, FM,AM, satellite,
cellular, and radar signals
Receiver Parameters
• Sensitivity
– The voltage that must be applied to the Rx I/P to give
a standard O/P
• Selectivity
– Ability of the receiver to reject adjacent unwanted
signals
• Image Frequency Rejection
– Rejection of the frequency which would generate the
same IF when mixed with the LO frequency fsi=fs+2fi
= fo+fi
Detection of AM Waves
• Entails tradeoff between performance and
complexity (cost)

• Square law detector squares signal and then


passes it through a LPF
– Residual distortion proportional to m2(t)
– Non-coherent (carrier phase not needed in receiver)

• Envelope detector detects envelope of s(t)


– Simple circuit (resistors, capacitor, diode)
– No distortion.
– Non-coherent
Angle Modulation
• Phase Modulation
• Frequency Modulation
Angle Modulation

 We have seen that an AM signal can be represented as

(t ) = Ac [1of
where the samplitude +m signal ωc t information.
carries
(t )] cos

 Now we will see that information can also be carried in the


angle of the signal as

s (t ) = Ac cos[ωc t +θ( t )]

where the amplitude remains constant.


Angle Modulation
 The alternative to the amplitude modulation involves using the
message to vary either the Phase or the Frequency of the carrier
signal.
 Phase Modulation and Frequency Modulation are special cases
of Angle Modulation
• Representation of PM and FM signals:

• The complex envelope is given by g ( t ) = Ac e jθ ( t )

• θ(t) - linear function of the modulating signal m(t)


• The angle-modulated signal in time domain is given by

s ( t ) = Ac cos[ω c t + θ ( t ) ]
Angle Modulation: Basic Definitions
Angle Modulation Analysis
Example: Sinusoidal Modulating
Signal
Spectrum of Angle-Modulated Signal

• Output consists of a carrier and apparently an infinite


number of pairs of sidebands with J coefficients
FM with sinusoidal modulating signal
Bessel functions of the first kind

J0(β)=0 at β=2.4, 5.52 & so on

β
Bessel functions of the first kind
Spectrum: Examples
Carson’s rule
Although the sidebands of an FM signal extend to infinity, it has
been found experimentally that signal distortion is negligible for a
bandlimited FM signal if 98% of the signal power is transmitted.

 Based on the Bessel Functions, 98% of the power will be


transmitted when the number of sidebands transmitted is 1+β on each
side.

(1+β)fm
Carson’s rule
Therefore the bandwidth required is given by

BT = 2( β + 1) B
β – phase modulation index/ frequency
modulation index
B – bandwidth of the modulating signal
For sinusoidal modulation B = fm
Carson’s rule : Bandwidth of an FM signal is given by

BT = 2( β + 1) f m
Bandwidth of Angle-Modulated
Signal
Narrowband Angle Modulation
Wideband Angle Modulation
• Modulation index is high
• The signal bandwidth is:

• Different for PM and FM!


• Wideband FM: the bandwidth is twice the frequency
deviation. Does not depend on the modulating
frequency.
• Wideband PM: the bandwidth depends on modulating
frequency.
• Modulation index is bandwidth expansion factor.
PM Modulator
FM Modulator
Narrowband Angle Modulator
Indirect Wideband Angle Modulator
FM Demodulators
FM Slope Detector
Balanced Discriminator:
Block Diagram
Balanced Discriminator:
Circuit Diagram
Modulating Techniques
Analog data to digital signal
• Pulse code modulation (PCM)
• Delta modulation (DM)

Once analog data have been converted to digital


signals,
the digital data:
• can be transmitted using NRZ-L
• can be encoded as a digital signal using a code
other than NRZ-L
• can be converted to an analog signal, using
previously discussed techniques
Reasons for Growth of Digital
Techniques

Growth in popularity of digital techniques for


sending analog data
– Repeaters are used instead of amplifiers
• No additive noise
– TDM is used instead of FDM
• No inter-modulation noise
– Conversion to digital signaling allows use of
more efficient digital switching techniques
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