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Chapter 4 The variety of resources on Earth

Chapter 4

The variety of resources on Earth

4.1 The Various Resources on Earth

Living natural resources

Non-living natural resources

• Water

• Air

• Soil

• Minerals

• Fossil fuels

• Metals

• Non-metal

• Plants (fruits, oil, vegetables …)

• Animals (milk, meat …)

Minerals • Fossil fuels • Metals • Non-metal • Plants (fruits, oil, vegetables …) • Animals
Minerals • Fossil fuels • Metals • Non-metal • Plants (fruits, oil, vegetables …) • Animals
Minerals • Fossil fuels • Metals • Non-metal • Plants (fruits, oil, vegetables …) • Animals
Minerals • Fossil fuels • Metals • Non-metal • Plants (fruits, oil, vegetables …) • Animals
Minerals • Fossil fuels • Metals • Non-metal • Plants (fruits, oil, vegetables …) • Animals
Minerals • Fossil fuels • Metals • Non-metal • Plants (fruits, oil, vegetables …) • Animals
Minerals • Fossil fuels • Metals • Non-metal • Plants (fruits, oil, vegetables …) • Animals
Oxygen is one of the gases that we breathe in everyday from the air Nitrogen
Oxygen is one of the gases that we breathe in everyday from the air Nitrogen

Oxygen is one of the gases that we breathe in everyday from the air

is one of the gases that we breathe in everyday from the air Nitrogen bulb Pure

Nitrogen bulb

gases that we breathe in everyday from the air Nitrogen bulb Pure carbon dioxide gas can

Pure carbon dioxide gas can be poured because it is heavier than air

Element, Compounds and Mixtures

Element, Compounds and Mixtures

Element can be divided into :

Metals ( Logam )

• All metal element in solid form but except for mercury which exist in liquid

• Example of metal Calcium, copper, gold, lead, magnesium, platinum, potassium, silver, sodium

gold, lead, magnesium, platinum, potassium, silver, sodium Non- metals (bukan logam
gold, lead, magnesium, platinum, potassium, silver, sodium Non- metals (bukan logam
gold, lead, magnesium, platinum, potassium, silver, sodium Non- metals (bukan logam
gold, lead, magnesium, platinum, potassium, silver, sodium Non- metals (bukan logam

Non- metals (bukan logam 非金属非金属非金属非金属 )

• Non-metal elements exist in all state. Solid, liquid and gas at room temperature

• Example of non-metal Sulphur, carbon, bromine, oxygen, neon, hydrogen,

Solid, liquid and gas at room temperature • Example of non-metal Sulphur, carbon, bromine, oxygen, neon,
Solid, liquid and gas at room temperature • Example of non-metal Sulphur, carbon, bromine, oxygen, neon,

Cobalt chloride indicator

Dry (kering干燥) Colour : Blue
Dry
(kering干燥)
Colour : Blue

Moist / Damp ( basah 潮湿 )

Colour : Pink

Gas tests Hydrogen ( 氢 氢 氢 氢 ) What you will observe: Oxygen (

Gas tests

Gas tests Hydrogen ( 氢 氢 氢 氢 ) What you will observe: Oxygen ( 氧

Hydrogen ( ) What you will observe:

Oxygen ( ) What you will observe:

-Your light splint (Popsicle stick) will “POP”POP” and go out.

Why does this happen:

-Hydrogen gas is very flammable and in the presence of heat or fire it will explode at a certain temperature.

-Your glowing splint will re-light

What does that mean:

-This happened because Oxygen is part of the fire triangle. The fire triangle is composed of three things:

Fuel, Heat energy source and Oxygen.

Mixture (campuran 混合物)

Mixture (campuran 混合物 ) Nasi lemak Ice kacang S u g a r s o l
Mixture (campuran 混合物 ) Nasi lemak Ice kacang S u g a r s o l
Mixture (campuran 混合物 ) Nasi lemak Ice kacang S u g a r s o l

Nasi lemak

Ice kacang

Sugar solution

Mixture (campuran 混合物 ) Nasi lemak Ice kacang S u g a r s o l

Paint

Mixture (campuran 混合物 ) Nasi lemak Ice kacang S u g a r s o l

Iced milo

Mixture (campuran 混合物 ) Nasi lemak Ice kacang S u g a r s o l

Brass

Example of variety type of mixture and its components

Example of variety type of mixture and its components

Formation of compound ( sebatian 化合物)

Formation of compound ( sebatian 化合物 ) In chemical reactions the chemical identities of substances change.

In chemical reactions the chemical identities of substances change. Here, a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen undergoes a chemical change to form water.

The differences between compounds and mixture

The differences between compounds and mixture

Separation of mixtures

Method : Filtration ( penurasan )

( penurasan 过 滤 过 滤 过 滤 过 滤 ) • To separate insoluble solids

• To separate insoluble solids (pepejal tak larut 不 能溶解的固体 ) from the liquid in a solid- liquid mixtures

E.g. To separate water and sand

Separation of mixtures

Separation of mixtures

Distillation (penyulingan 蒸馏法)

Distillation (penyulingan 蒸馏法 ) To separate a solvent from a liquid or solid-liquid mixture. Two types

To separate a solvent from a liquid or solid-liquid mixture. Two types of processes to take place

(a) Boiling liquid

Two types of processes to take place (a) Boiling liquid vapour/Gas • (b) Condensation vapour Liquid

vapour/Gas

• (b) Condensation

vapour

take place (a) Boiling liquid vapour/Gas • (b) Condensation vapour Liquid E.g. To separate water from

Liquid

E.g. To separate water from salt solution

Using magnet

Using magnet • To separate substances which are attracted to a magnet from other objects made

• To separate substances which are attracted to a magnet from other objects made from non- magnetic materials

• E.g. To separate iron filings and sulphur

Extraction

Extraction Oil Water To separate liquid substances that do not mix well and with different densities.

Oil

Extraction Oil Water To separate liquid substances that do not mix well and with different densities.

Water

To separate liquid substances that do not mix well and with different densities. E.g. To separate oil from water

Chromatography

• Separates coloured components in a mixtures

Chromatography • Separates coloured components in a mixtures

Sieving (penapisan 筛选)

• To separate mixture of solid substances with different sizes.

Sieving (penapisan 筛选 ) • To separate mixture of solid substances with different sizes.

AIR ( udara 空气 )

AIR ( udara 空气 ) Oxygen : i. Breathing / cell respiration (penafasan 呼吸 ) ii.

Oxygen :

i. Breathing / cell respiration (penafasan 呼吸)

ii. Combustion / burning

respiration (penafasan 呼吸 ) ii. Combustion / burning Carbon dioxide (karbon dioksida 二氧化碳 ): i. To

Carbon dioxide

(karbon dioksida 二氧化碳 ):

i. To put out of fire

ii. Importance for photosynthesis

(karbon dioksida 二氧化碳 ): i. To put out of fire ii. Importance for photosynthesis (fotosintesis 光合作用

(fotosintesis 光合作用 )

Soil and mineral

Soil and mineral Soil is habitat ( tempat tinggal 栖 息地 ) for many types of
Soil and mineral Soil is habitat ( tempat tinggal 栖 息地 ) for many types of

Soil is habitat ( tempat tinggal 栖 息地 ) for many types of living organisms ( benda hidup 生物).

Soil contains water and minerals which is vital for the growing of plants.

Fossil fuel • To provide energy for household use, factories and power stations to generate
Fossil fuel • To provide energy for household use, factories and power stations to generate

Fossil fuel

Fossil fuel • To provide energy for household use, factories and power stations to generate electricity.

• To provide energy for household use, factories and power stations to generate electricity.

Water

Water • Regulates body temperature. • Controls the concentration of blood ( mengawal kepekatan darah 调

• Regulates body temperature.

• Controls the concentration of blood ( mengawal kepekatan darah 调 节血液浓度 ).

Living things

• As food, medicine, fibre, building materials and so on.

Living things • As food, medicine, fibre, building materials and so on.
Living things • As food, medicine, fibre, building materials and so on.

Conservation

• Conservation of recourses involves the intelligent use and care of our resources

Conservation • Conservation of recourses involves the intelligent use and care of our resources

Preservation

• The act of keeping the resources in their original state.

Example :

i) Find alternative resources, such as

solar energy to replace depleting resources such as petroleum) ii) to prevent the extinction of flora and fauna.