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# Unit 3: Matter

## Solid Liquid Gas Plasma

3.1 What is Matter?

• Chapter 3: Matter
Everything (living or non – living things),
which has mass and occupies space is
called matter .
Non-matter

## Heat Non-matter do not have

mass and do not occupy
space

Light
Sound
3.2 The States of Matter
Matter is made up of many fine and tiny
small discrete particles

##  We may determine the state of matter by

their arrangement of particles
Experiments :To show that matter is made up of
tiny and discrete particles
 A copper sulphate
crystals is drop to the
clear water

##  The clear water soon

becomes blue in colour

##  The particles of blue

crystals separates and
mixed the space
between the water
particles
Few days later the balloon becomes smaller

## This is because air is made up of many fine particles thus

allowed it to diffuse through the tiny pores of the wall of
balloon
Three states of matter
Experiment (I):
Arrangement of particle in solid

## There are spaces between the solid particle (gel).

These allow the potassium permanganate to move
around between the gel particles in gel tube
Experiment (II):
Arrangement of particle in liquid

## Water and alcohol are liquid form of particles,

therefore the particle of water and alcohol fill
the empty spaces of each other
Experiment (III):
Arrangement of particle in gas

## The gas particle can move very fast and freely

in the jar because there are lots of spaces
between the gas particles that allowed the gas
particle in air to move very far apart one another
Brownian motion

## Brownian motion is the movement of

particles without direction and this can be
seen by viewing a smoke cell under
microscope
3.2 The Concept of Density

## Density is defined as mass per unit

volume
Mass (g)
Density (g/cm3) = Volume(cm3)

## The density of a substance increases if

the mass is increases
increases,
the volume is decreases
How to compare the densities of objects

## • An object which is less dense will float

in a liquid which is denser.

## • An object which is denser will sink in a

liquid that is less dense
3.4 The Use of Properties of Matter in
Everyday Life

## Gases can be compressed and

transported in the form of liquid

## Petroleum gases are liquefied under high

pressure and stored in gas cylinder which
is more economical and easily transported
to our homes
Applying the concept of density
(ship and boat)
The air space in ships and boats enables it
to float on the water surface regardless of
its weights
Therefore, the density of a ship or boat is
lower than water
Hot air balloon
o Fill the balloon with helium
which is less dense than the air
outside the balloon

## o To raise the hot air balloon,

heated the air in the balloon.
Air temperature increases
when heated and become less
dense than the air outside

## o To lower the balloon, reduce

the air temperature in the
balloon and the cooled air will
become denser than the air
outside
Buoy and float

## Buoy filled with air will float on the surface

of sea to acts as a guide to sailors for safe
journey

## A float is used to keep someone to float

stay at their position in the sea and avoid
drowning
Transporting logs
• Logs (timbers)
transported by river,
since timbers are less
dense than water .