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Unit 3: Matter

Solid Liquid Gas Plasma


3.1 What is Matter?

• Chapter 3: Matter
Everything (living or non – living things),
which has mass and occupies space is
called matter .
Non-matter

Heat Non-matter do not have


mass and do not occupy
space

Light
Sound
3.2 The States of Matter
Matter is made up of many fine and tiny
small discrete particles

 We may determine the state of matter by


their arrangement of particles
Experiments :To show that matter is made up of
tiny and discrete particles
 A copper sulphate
crystals is drop to the
clear water

 The clear water soon


becomes blue in colour

 The particles of blue


crystals separates and
mixed the space
between the water
particles
Few days later the balloon becomes smaller

This is because air is made up of many fine particles thus


allowed it to diffuse through the tiny pores of the wall of
balloon
Three states of matter
Experiment (I):
Arrangement of particle in solid

There are spaces between the solid particle (gel).


These allow the potassium permanganate to move
around between the gel particles in gel tube
Experiment (II):
Arrangement of particle in liquid

Water and alcohol are liquid form of particles,


therefore the particle of water and alcohol fill
the empty spaces of each other
Experiment (III):
Arrangement of particle in gas

The gas particle can move very fast and freely


in the jar because there are lots of spaces
between the gas particles that allowed the gas
particle in air to move very far apart one another
Brownian motion

Brownian motion is the movement of


particles without direction and this can be
seen by viewing a smoke cell under
microscope
3.2 The Concept of Density

Density is defined as mass per unit


volume
Mass (g)
Density (g/cm3) = Volume(cm3)

The density of a substance increases if


the mass is increases
increases,
the volume is decreases
How to compare the densities of objects

• An object which is less dense will float


in a liquid which is denser.

• An object which is denser will sink in a


liquid that is less dense
3.4 The Use of Properties of Matter in
Everyday Life

Gases can be compressed and


transported in the form of liquid

Petroleum gases are liquefied under high


pressure and stored in gas cylinder which
is more economical and easily transported
to our homes
Applying the concept of density
(ship and boat)
The air space in ships and boats enables it
to float on the water surface regardless of
its weights
Therefore, the density of a ship or boat is
lower than water
Hot air balloon
o Fill the balloon with helium
which is less dense than the air
outside the balloon

o To raise the hot air balloon,


heated the air in the balloon.
Air temperature increases
when heated and become less
dense than the air outside

o To lower the balloon, reduce


the air temperature in the
balloon and the cooled air will
become denser than the air
outside
Buoy and float

Buoy filled with air will float on the surface


of sea to acts as a guide to sailors for safe
journey

A float is used to keep someone to float


stay at their position in the sea and avoid
drowning
Transporting logs
• Logs (timbers)
transported by river,
since timbers are less
dense than water .

• They float on water.