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By: Ramel T. Oñate

Pitch Rhythm Melody Timbre Dynamics Texture  .

chromatic. Words we might use to describe scales: major/minor.Pitch  register (high or low). gapped. . pentatonic. Organization of pitches with a pattern of intervals between them creates scales.

Meter organizes beats into groups. usually of two or three. and mentally organize this pulse or tempo into meter (sometimes called a "time signature"). 3 or 4 subdivisions . A specific rhythm is a specific pattern in time. we usually hear these in relation to a steady pulse.Rhythm  the time element of music. beats can be divided into small units usually 2.

A melody that uses mostly small intervals (or scale steps) and is smooth is said to . Sometimes a melody is considered to be the theme of a composition. We might characterize melody by its contour (rising or falling) and the size of the intervals in it.Melody . or musical line  is a combination of pitch and rhythm (some say "duration").

" . A motif (or motive) is either a very short melody or a distinctive part of a longer melody. conjunct melody. Not surprisingly. a melody that uses large intervals is called a disjunct melody. I might describe the opening four notes of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony as a "motific cell.

.Timbre  sound quality or tone color. dark. timbre is the characteristic that allows us to distinguish between one instrument and another. Terms we might use to describe timbre: bright. harsh. and the difference between vowel sounds (for example. buzzy. reedy. mellow. raspy. brassy. shrill. pure. thin. long "a" or "ee"). noisy.

once we have learned the names and sounds of a few . it is its effect or interpretation. sad.). etc. timbre in emotional terms (excited. happy. it is often more clear just to describe the timbre by naming the instrument. that is not the sound quality. angry. Rather than describe the timbre of an instrument in other terms.

or decrescendo.) . A composition that has extremely soft passages as well as extremely loud passages is said to have a large or wide dynamic range. getting softer.Dynamics  loud or soft. getting louder. Dynamics can change suddenly or gradually (crescendo.

2.  polyphonic (many voices.  homophonic (1. as in Renaissance or Baroque counterpoint).Texture monophonic (one voice or line). usually similar. chords moving in the same rhythm  . a melody with simple accompaniment.

heterophony – “mixed” or multiple similar versions of a melody performed simultaneously (rare in European music. possibly used in Ancient Greece)  collage – juxtaposition & superimposition of extremely different textures or sounds  .

the notes and rests corresponds to a certain number of beats. . Beats are grouped together in a measure.Beat and Meter  Beats = give music its regular rhythmic pattern.

quadruple (4 beats in a measure) and so on. Meter may be in duple (2 beats in a measure). triple (3 beats in a measure). .Meter  refers to rhythmic patterns produced by grouping together strong and weak beats.

It is practised during the rice .Hudhud chants of the Ifugao  The Hudhud consists of narrative chants traditionally performed by the Ifugao community. which is well known for its rice terraces extending over the highlands of the northern island of the Philippine archipelago.

the Hudhud comprises more than 200 chants. time and at funeral wakes and rituals. A complete recitation may last several days. . each divided into 40 episodes. Thought to have originated before the seventh century.

the wife generally takes the main part in the chants. and her brother occupies a higher position than her husband. The language of the stories abounds in . Since the Ifugao’s culture is matrilineal.

Thus. rendering transcription very difficult. metaphor and onomatopoeia. expressions and repetitions and employs metonymy. there are very few written expressions of this tradition. The chant tells .

hold a key position in the community. and reflects the importance of rice cultivation. mainly elderly women. The Hudhud epic is chanted alternately by the first narrator and a choir. The narrators. employing . religious beliefs and traditional practices. customary law. both as historians and preachers.