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Applied Electricity EE 2850

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Introduction Working principle Emf equation Turns ratio Equivalent circuit & phasor diagram Voltage regulation Losses & efficiency Cooling Tests on transformers Three phase transformers Other types of transformers



A static device, which transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another circuit, without change of frequency Types of transformers:

Power transformers (Single-phase or 3-phase) - Used in power transmission and distribution systems - Step-up or step-down Current transformers Voltage transformers Auto-transformers

2) Working Principle
(Single-phase power transformers)

2 windings Primary Secondary

- connected to the alternating voltage source - delivers the power to the load

Ideal Transformer

Secondary is open circuited It does not supply any energy to the load

Transformer Taps

Voltage drops in transmission lines Secondary voltage is considerably less Taps are provided on the primary winding Taps enable to change the turns ratio -> to raise the secondary voltage Automatic taps Maintain the secondary voltage within 2% of its rated value


emf Equation

Sinusoidal primary current produces a sinusoidal flux

emf induced in the primary winding

maximum value of e1 effective value of the primary emf

Similarly, the effective value of the secondary emf


Turns Ratio

Stepped up and down transformer depends on the turns ratio

For an ideal transformer, Magneto-motive force due to primary current = Magneto-motive force due to secondary current


Equivalent Circuit and Phasor Diagram

Practical Transformers

Windings of practical transformers have resistance Core is not infinitely permeable Flux is not completely transferred to the secondary Iron cores produce eddy-current and hysteresis losses

Practical Transformer

Rm (core loss resistance) - represents iron losses Xm (magnetizing reactance) - measure of the permeability of the transformer core


Equivalent Circuit & Phasor Diagram


Referring Impedances

Resistance in the primary becomes the secondary

Resistance in the secondary becomes to the primary

, when referred to

, when referred


Equivalent Circuit

Referred to primary

Referred to secondary


Approximate Equivalent Circuit

Referred to primary

Referred to secondary


Example 1
A 100kVA single phase transformer has 400 turns in the primary and has 80 turns in the secondary. In primary side X1=1.1 and R1=0.3. In secondary side, X2=0.035 and R2=0.01. Supply voltage is 2200V. Determine the equivalent impedance referred to primary.



Voltage Regulation

When the transformer is loaded -> secondary voltage changes due to drop in the internal impedance Voltage regulation is a term that is used to identify this variation



For leading power factor, the sign is negative.


Example 2
A 100kVA single phase transformer has 400 turns in the primary and has 80 turns in the secondary. In primary side X1=1.1 and R1=0.3. In secondary side, X2=0.035 and R2=0.01. Supply voltage is 2200V. Calculate the voltage regulation and secondary terminal voltage at full load at power factor of 0.8 lagging.



Losses & Efficiency

Efficiency is a function of secondary current For maximum efficiency;




Indoor transformers below 200kVA Cooled by the natural flow of the air Placed inside a metallic housing which is having ventilating louvers Larger transformers Built the same way Forced circulation of clean air is provided Distribution transformers below 200kVA Immersed in mineral oil and enclosed in a steel tank Heat is dissipated by radiation and convection to the outside air

Large distribution transformers External radiators are added to increase the cooling surface of the oil filled tank Oil circulates around the transformer windings and moves through the radiator Heat is released to the surrounding air For still higher ratings Cooling fans blow air over the radiators For transformers in the megawatt range Cooling may be effected by an oil-water heat exchanger



Tests on Transformers

Open Circuit Test

High voltage side kept open Wattmeter reading is the core loss


Short Circuit Test

Low voltage side short circuited Wattmeter reading is the copper loss


Example 3
A 2400V/240V, 24kVA transformer gave the following results.

High voltage side open Low voltage side closed

- 240V, 2A, 200W - 100V, 10A, 150W

Calculate the voltage regulation if it is supplying an load of 0.8 power factor lagging at full load. Calculate operating efficiency and maximum efficiency.


10) Three Phase Transformers

Made either by: 3 single phase transformers connected in a 3phase bank 3 windings are wound on a common core 1st approach is cheaper, smaller and lighter Three-phase transformer connections Depending on the connections of primary and secondary coils; Y-Y Y- -Y -


Y-Y connection

Rarely used for large amount of power transmission Can be used for special types of applications


Y- connection

Used at substations where the voltage is stepped down Secondary coil current is 57.7% of the load current


-Y connection

Used at the generator station, where the voltage is stepped up


- connection

If one transformer is removed, the remaining two are able to supply three-phase power to the load terminals Known as open delta or V-V connection


11) Other types of Transformers


Auto Transformer

A small rating transformer with variable output Used in educational laboratories Has one winding -> common for primary and secondary

Advantages: Cheaper initial investment Low leakage reactance Low losses Requires low excitation current



Instrument Transformers

Voltage Transformer Ratio of primary to secondary voltage is known Used to measure the voltage on transmission lines Current Transformer Ratio of primary to secondary current is known Used to measure the current in a line



Toroidal Current Transformers

Used when line current exceeds 100A Laminated ring shaped core that carries the secondary winding Primary - a single conductor passes through the center of the ring Simple and inexpensive Used in low and medium voltage indoor installations Used in circuit breakers