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SUBMITTED BY: Siddhartha Jain, MIT Manipal

Formula Manipal
Project Report

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 1 
 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We express our sincere gratitude to Mr. B Vijayakumar, Managing Director – L G Balakrishnan
and Bros. for giving us the opportunity of undertaking this project at his facility. We thank all
technicians, foreman and executives for explaining the practical aspects of theoretical knowledge
that we have acquired at our college. Working at LG Sports, we were exposed to a wide array of
technical detail, in the field of race car engineering. Having access to India’s only Formula – 3
certified tracks, helped us do extensive testing on our prototype and hence optimize its design
and performance.

We would also like to take this opportunity to thank all our sponsors, without whom the project
would not have been possible. Their constant encouragement and morale boosting support made
it possible for us to represent India and our University at the world’s toughest engineering design
competition.

We would like to thank Dr. Ranjan Pai, CEO MEMG, for being one of the first people in the
industry to believe in our potential and funding us to a great extent.

As a team, we would also like to sincerely thank Dr. N Y Sharma; without whose vision and
belief in our capabilities this project would not have taken off. It was due to his constant
guidance and indomitable support, that a project of this scale was possible. We would ever
remain indebted to him, for all what he has done to make our dream project become a reality.

We take the opportunity to specially thank:

Mr. Leela Krishnan,

Mr. Narain Karthikeyan,

Mr. Sanjay Sharma,

Mr. C Rajaram

for their kind support and encouragement at every point of the training, in the form of this
project, without which this would not have been successful.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 2 
 
PREFACE
With the relentless improvements in technology the older machinery are being replaced by new
machinery. The handling of such highly sophisticated machines, no longer remains the work of a
semi skilled person. It has opened a new horizon for young graduate engineers. But to contribute
in an efficient and meaningful manner towards completion of the assigned task, at the industry,
suitable training is needed.

The knowledge of the system, as a whole, is a must for an engineer to do the trouble shooting in
the smallest possible time so that production is not affected.

Therefore, industrial training plays a vital role in developing practical knowledge. Thus,
industrial training is not only an academic requirement but a professional necessity too.

I’ am honored to have been a part of the team, which built Manipal University’s first Formula
Society of Automotive Engineers (FSAE) race car. This project, as a part of one of the first
projects of the University under the Conceive, Design, Implement and Operate (CDIO) paradigm
served as the platform for rigorous industrial training for the team members. The car was built at
the work shop of Indian racing enthusiast Mr. B Vijayakumar at the Kari Motor Speedway in
Coimbatore.

In this practical training report I have tried my best to introduce and explain all the important
sections of the massive project, of which I have been a part for the past two and a half years.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 3 
 
INTRODUCTION
The principle objective of Formula SAE-A is for students to conceive, design, build and compete
with a small open wheel race car. The restrictions on the car are designed to maximize the use of
the student’s imagination and knowledge, and to give the students a meaningful project as well
as good practice working in a team environment. The car is to be designed to maximize its
acceleration, handling and braking. The maximum speed is kept to about 100kph by the track
layout. The car needs to be easy to maintain, low in cost and reliable. The design brief is for a
prototype of a car that is intended to be made as a production item for non-professional weekend
autocross racers. As such the prototype should cost less than $25000. The challenge is to design
and build a car that best meets these requirements that will then be compared with the other
competing designs to determine the best overall vehicle.

Being a first year team, and also one amongst very few Indian teams participating in
FSAE, Formula Manipal has faced its fair share of obstacles in the
fields of design and engineering. Most of our initial design plans have been modified, if
not completely revamped, as we came to understand practical engineering. The
formulation of our first car, the FM 08, is a compromise between ideal designing and the
limitations of manufacturing.

FSAE relies entirely on an applied knowledge of mechanical, electrical and electronic


systems. The completed product of our efforts is thus an FSAE vehicle built with the
idea of optimum performance at a market‐friendly cost and reliability. We look to fulfill
our design goals by providing a car which retains its simplicity of use, while still offering
considerable power. Formula Manipal also looks to this car as a medium by which we,
as students, gain confidence and knowledge in the all‐encompassing field
of automotive race‐car engineering.

My project aim is to undertake the design and development of various component of Formula
SAE racing car that will optimize performance and reliability whilst minimizing cost and weight.
The design must meet all Formula SAE-A rules and regulations including all safety features.

This report describes various design process, calculation and decisions taken during the
fabrication of FSAE car. It also includes manufacturing of few of the critical components
installed in the car.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 4 
 
Spaceframe: The design of a chassis for a formula SAE-A race car must contain all
necessary components to support the car and the driver. It must also comply with the formula
SAE 2008 rules. In order to produce a competitive vehicle with optimum chassis performance,
many areas need to be studied and tested.  A space‐frame was chosen over monocoque
construction to allow for a simple reparation process and ease of manufacture in a limited facility
workshop.

Our spaceframe was entirely fabricated from round tubular steel members to provide a
torsionally ridged chassis frame. This process involves more complicated fabrication techniques
as precision notching is required to achieve a strong structural join. These joining methods have
been made much easier for hardened steels with the introduction of high quality tooling. The
joining of two round tubes through notching also increases the amount of weld area increasing
the strength.

Initial space frame was fabricated in TEBMA shipyard. However, after consulting experts, we
realized it does not enough strength and hence a new spaceframe was fabricated at LGB Sports.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 5 
 
Drivetrain:  The transmission, also referred to as the drive-train, is that part of the race-car
which transfers power from the engine crankshaft to the wheels. The power produced at the
crankshaft is at an rpm too high for direct transmission to the wheels. Hence, it is the drive-train
system which decides the most efficient “gearing down” of this speed.

The drive-train system of the car technically also includes the gear box. However, the selection
of a Honda CBR R600 engine meant that a gear-box would come attached with the engine itself.
As a first-year team, the initial design decision with regard to transmission was to not touch the
gearbox itself. Hence, the gear-box of the Honda engine has not been included in any further
discussions. For the purpose of simplicity, we consider the drive-train to be the system which
transfers rotary power from the front sprocket of the engine (attached to the end of the gearbox)
to the wheels.

Thus task ahead of the transmission team was to decide the differential to be used, designed the
sprocket that has to be connected to the differential for power transmission and differential
mountings.

With a study of available options for differentials, we had to make an educated selection from a
Torque-biasing Differential, Clutch-pack Limited Slip Differential, Open Differential and Spool
Differential. We have opted for a Taylor Race Torque-biasing Differential for implementation in
our first-year vehicle. With the TRE model, we do not have to design housing by ourselves a task
acknowledged as very risky by most veterans of the competition. The TRE differential offers
torque biasing at a theoretical ratio of 4:1 Tripod CV-joints are used on hollow shafts with plastic
fillers.

Using a 14 tooth drive sprocket, a chain-sprocket system has been incorporated. A custom
designed 46 tooth rear sprocket is being used which gives a final drive ratio of 3.28. The 520 O-
series chain has been used over the 530 series, as it offers a better fit for our pitch and chain
length.

The sprocket was manufactured at the facility of LGB sports. Material used was Al 7075.
Aluminum 7075 provides the advantage of reduced weight with high strength. Differential
mountings were made of aluminum rested on the base of mild steel bolted to space frame.
Mountings were in shape of two C cups bolted together to hold differential bearings.

Design Calculations: The front sprocket of the HONDA CBR R600 engine used by our vehicle
is a 14-teeth Al 7075 sprocket.

Target Speed (without restrictor) = 165 km/hr

No. of teeth on small sprocket, z = 14.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 6 
 
Diameter of smaller sprocket,

d = p / Sin(180/z) = 15.875 / Sin(180/14) = 71.34mm

For 40 teeth on driven sprocket, at 10000 rpm –

1st gear = 69.01 km/hr

2nd gear = 94.82 km/hr

3rd gear = 110.73 km/hr

4th gear = 137.61 km/hr

5th gear = 153.72 km/hr

6th gear = 166.7 km/hr

Final gear ratio = 40/14 = 2.857

Now, velocity at wheels: V = [(pi) x D x N / 60000] m/s

N at wheels = [10000 / (1.822 x 1.173 x 2.857)] = 1637.73 rpm

Therefore, V = 166.701 km/hr

Diameter of driven sprocket:

D = p / Sin(180/Z) = 15.875 / Sin(180/40) = 202.33mm

Pitch, p = 15.875mm = .625” = 5/8”

Available motorcycle chains are 520, 525 and 530 series.

Roller Dia = 5/8 of pitch = .390 = 0.4” (standard figure)

Roller Width = Chain Width – 2 x Plate Thickness = (5/8 x .625) – (2/8 x .625) = .25” = ¼”

So, 520 series chain is selected.

Corresponding sprocket thickness = .227” = 5.76mm

Or, sprocket thickness = .93 x Roller Width - .006” = .226” ~ .227” (standard figure)

Angle between teeth = 360/40 = 9 deg. Dia of bore = 3” = 76.2mm

Half Shaft Analysis: Assumed Weight of car + driver = 400 kg.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 7 
 
Assuming the worst case of 100% weight transfer to the rear wheels on launch, a coefficient of
friction of 1.3, and a tire with a 270mm rolling radius, the maximum torque per axle would be,
τmax = (400 x 1.3 x .270)/2 = 70.2 kg-m

Using this torque, and the Handbook stress calculation for a tubular halfshaft, we can calculate
the stress:

Stress, σ = [16 x T] / [(pi)x(d^3)x(1-k^4)] = 503694675.6 N/m2

Assuming that shear ultimate is 75% of tension ultimate (again from the handbook) the ultimate
shear stress for 300M steel would be (assuming heat treated to Rc54) would be about:
280,000 psi x .75 = 210,000 psi = 1448000000 N/m2

Therefore, the Margin of Safety in absolute worst case scenario, MOS = 1448000000 /
503694675.6 = 2.87

Communication with Taylor Race Engineering provided that actual failure upon testing only
occurred at 1800 ft-lb = 248.2 N-m. Therefore, in practical test situations, MOS = 248.2 / 70.2 =
3.54

            
TRE Differential with mountings Halfshafts

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 8 
 
Suspension: The suspension was designed with the intention of keeping good straight line
stability and minimal load transfer during cornering, braking and acceleration. The suspension is
of Double Wishbone type with unequal, non‐parallel A arms.

To maintain stability at high speeds without any handling problems, a longer wheelbase was
decided upon. This, besides giving us reduced longitudinal load transfer and understeer, also
gave us more space to pack the rest of the components. The track‐width was measured in
proportion with the wheelbase, giving us good lateral load transfer and corner entry. A front
track of1400mm and a rear track of 1350mm were chosen.

For the design of the suspension geometry Mitchell software was used and iterative methodology
was adopted. Finally inboard suspension geometry was installed due to reduce unsprung mass
and lesser aerodynamic drag. The suspension geometry gives us a rising rate, thus maintaining a
consistent roll stiffness ratio throughout the suspension range and helping us to avoid bottoming
of the dampers. The front roll centre was kept 15mm above the ground to keep the jacking forces
and the roll moment arm minimal. The rear roll centre was kept higher, at 37mm, so as to reduce
the roll moment arm even further. A minimal roll moment arm at the rear is important or stability
in our case of a rear‐mounted engine. Static camber of negative 1.5 degrees at the front and
negative 2.5 degrees at the rear has been kept initially.

Spring damper system was ordered from rise racing. Spring used had stiffness of 250 pounds per
inch. Dampers were such that its damping coefficient can be varied with the help of valve. A
arms were made of Mild Steel and TIG welding was done wherever required. Pipe used has
elliptical cross section. Suspension mounting brackets were made of 2mm thick mild steel.

Front Steering Geometry

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 9 
 
Analysis on Mitchell Software

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 10 
 
Steering System: Rack and pinion steering system was selected for our car. There are
advantages of choosing the rack and pinion steering gears over other types of steering systems.
The rack and pinion steering gear is compact and it uses fewer parts. Therefore, it requires lesser
space for installation. With a rack and pinion steering gear, the rack is connected by linkage
directly to the upright. It does not require complicated linkage to change the rotary output of the
steering shaft to back and forth movement of the wheels. Therefore, the rack and pinion steering
gear system is relatively light. The simple steering linkage gives sharp steering response; hence
the road feel is improved.

Design constrains: The steering system must affect at least two wheels to operate effectively.
The steering system must also have positive steering stops, which prevent the steering linkages
from locking up. The stops may be placed on the uprights or on the rack and must prevent the
tires from contacting suspension, body, or frame members during the track events. Allowable
steering free pay will be limited to 7 degrees total, measured at the steering wheel. The steering
system must not exhibit any bump steer characteristics. The steering wheel must round in shape
and the top of the steering wheel must lower than the front hoop of the chassis. The steering
wheel must be removable for quick driver exit of the car.

Design specification: Since Formula SAE race cars are required to turn sharp corners, perfect
Ackerman geometry is desired. In order to achieve perfect Ackerman, a straight line is
constructed from the tie rod end to the kingpin axis, extended and then intersecting at the centre
of the rear axle. Numerous iterations were carried out to obtain optimize steering geometry.
Steering ratio of 12:1 is desired. Steering was design for maximum turning angle of 30deg and
minimum turning radius of 2.89m was obtained. Final rack length was decided to be 415mm and
tie rod length of 344mm.

As per the above specification, a customized steering was manufactured at the manufacturing
plant of RANE TRW Steering system limited.

However during the fabrication of car, track width was increased and hence above steering
system could not be used. Hence custom made aluminum rack machined at facility of LGB
Sports was used.

Later used rack was better than previous design as it was lighter compare to the previous design
and required less effort for turning because of increased steering arm length.

Because of the larger wheel base of the car, rack was placed in front of the driver foot. It pose a
big problem as rack was hitting the master cylinder. Hence modification was done in master
cylinder mounting plate to incorporate rack in that confined space.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 11 
 
Rack and Pinion

Final Steering Specifications:

Number of turns lock to lock 2 turns

Rack travel per turn 41mm

Steering Arm length 60mm

Steering Arm angle with front 59deg


Axial line

Rack length 415mm

Tie Rod length 344mm

Tie Rod Diameters inner dia=15mm, outer dia=19mm

Rack position 60mm behind front tires centre line

Maximum turning angle 30deg

Minimum Turning Radius 2.89m

Steering Ratio 12:1

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 12 
 
Braking System:  It was required to design a brake system for a vehicle of mass of
approximately 300kg, maximum speeds of 120 km/hr and average speed of 60km/hr. The brake
system must give high performance braking efficiency and stability during operation. The weight
and the dimension of the brake system must be as small as possible because of the unsprung
weight and inside wheel diameter limitation. Finally, the safety of the vehicle occupant is also a
primary concern.

Selection of braking system: A disc brake system is used in the front and rear of the car. The
advantages of disc brake system are its stability to enable more consistent frictional behavior to
be obtained from the front brake. It also has given a better braking performance at high speed to
overcome fade associated with the high temperatures developed. On the thermal side, disc brake
systems can lose heat very quickly because air can reach the discs every time the brakes are
applied. During the running of the car, most of the load will be transferred to front of the car
when braking. Thus, a stable brake system must design at the front of the car.

Final design: It has been decided to use disc brakes of pulsar 150cc on all the four wheels having
outer diameter of 240mm. Static weight distribution 0f 45:55 is considered. It is require, to have
separate hydraulic circuits for front and rear for safety purpose. Hence, two master cylinders
were used. II type hydraulic circuits will be used since our vehicle is rear heavy.

Pulsar disc brakes were used because they were light, cheap and easily available. Better design
would have been to use disc different size on rear and front wheels so better ratio can be
obtained. But our options were limited in India. It was not possible to fit a disk bigger than
240mm in 13inch wheel and disk smaller than 240mm would have not produced enough brake
torque.

Twin piston floating calipers were used on all four wheels with bore diameter 20mm.Since
actuating components on all four wheels were similar, proper brake ratio was obtained with the
help of using separate master cylinder for rear and front, having different bore diameter. Front
master cylinder has bore diameter 15.5mm and rear has 19.8 mm. Rear master cylinder was
obtained from Maruti 800. However since 15.5mm bore master cylinder was not available in the
market slave cylinder was used as master cylinder.

Brake pedal custom made and has a pedal ratio of 4:1. Higher ratio was better but could not be
obtained because of space constrained.

Since hubs for our car were exported, a separate aluminum plate was fabricated for each wheel
having six slots, on which disc was bolted. Aluminum was used as it has less weight and hence
reduces the unsprung mass.

Both flexible and rigid mild steel brake lines were used as per the requirement.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 13 
 
Floating Caliper Connector Flange

   

Master Cylinder Brake Disc

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 14 
 
Upright Design: Upright connects the suspension geometry and the wheels. Upright is
provided with various mounting for steering, suspension arms, brake disc etc. Uprights should be
light weight as they are part of unsprung mass.

We made the upright design on CATIA and validated it on ANSYS for various loads of static
and fluctuating nature. The uprights were manufactured out of single blocks of 6082 grade
Aluminum. Key suspension parameters can be easily adjusted during testing, since the mounts or
A‐arms and brake calipers are fixed onto the upright. This process also decreases material cost
and wastage.

ANSYS validation of Upright

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 15 
 
Engine: The engine chosen was based on the best power to weight ratio, availability and the
restriction of using a maximum 610cc displacement engine for the FSAE competition. The
Honda CBR 600F4i was best suited for the above needs and is the most powerful 600cc engine
producing 103.5bhp for a weight of just 59kgs.The engine has a cassette built 6 speed wet
multiplate clutch gearbox with a primary reduction of 1.822, and a final sprocket for output. This
sprocket was linked to the final differential.

The specifications of the engine are as follows:

Inline 4 cylinder 4 stroke


Compression ratio =12:1
Bore x Stroke=67 x 42.5 mm
Fuel system: Injection. Programmed Fuel Injection (PGM-FI) with automatic enricher circuit
Dual Overhead Camshafts
Computer controlled transistorized with Coil-on-plug Ignition System
Liquid Cooled

Engine mounted on Space Frame

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 16 
 
The main objective was to mount the engine on the chassis and ensure its proper running, design
of the intake manifold, manufacture of a new fuel tank, and fuel metering.

Engine mounting and running: This was achieved by thorough understanding of the engine
manual and troubleshooting, and the engine electronics map. The fuel and ignition system
diagrams were studied in detail and the sensors involved were carefully understood along with
their relationship with each other as well as the ECU (Electronic Control Unit).For example the
MAP (Manifold Absolute Pressure sensor) sensor was directly used for load measurement along
with the IAT sensor. But if the IAT was not connected the ECU could extrapolate the load data
from the MAP alone. Similarly the Bank angle sensor used as a safety measure in the original
bike, was coupled with the ignition circuit and its function was to break the ignition circuit in
case the vehicle toppled. The troubleshoot guide in the engine manual was used whenever the
engine was not firing, to understand and overcome electronics problems for example the
breaking of the main ignition fuse, any fault with the pressure regulator, loss of battery voltage or
a faulty spark plugs etc.

Intake Restrictor Design: The Intake Restrictor is a component which is to be designed and
fabricated by the students for the FSAE competition. Except the diameter of the throat the rest
parameters are flexible and can be designed according to our specific requirements. The basic
design for the restrictor with all the parameters in terms of the throat diameter and the length of
the restrictor is shown below.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 17 
 
The throat diameter is fixed andd its value is
i 20mm. Foor the engine we were working
w witth we
decided to
t choke it at 10,500 RPM
R to get the
t maximum m mass floww rate throuugh the restrrictor.
This RPMM was arrivved at by using
u the baasic equationns used to calculate
c thee mass flow
w rate
through a converging
g-diverging nozzle.
n

The Macch number iss equal to 1 for choked flow


f at the throat.
t Usingg these we got
g the mass--flow
rate as 0.7kg/s,
0 which would be b ideal for our purposee. After carrrying out much
m iteratioon on
FLUENT T we arrived
d at the follow
wing geometrical dimennsions of the restrictor:

The inlett diameter = 38mm


The outleet diameter = 60mm
The taperr half-angle at the divergging section = 4.5 degreees
The taperr half-angle at the conveerging sectioon = 3.5 degrrees

The folloowing are the t results obtained byy modellingg the restricctor in the 3-dimensionns on
GAMBIT T and analy yzing it on FLUENT.
F T k-epsilonn model of turbulence was
The w used foor the
analysis and around d 2000 iteraations were carried outt. The channge in the density
d of sir
s is
accordingg to the ideaal gas equatioon. The bounndary condittions given were:
w

Pressure Inlet and Prressure outleet with an avverage presssure differennce between them beingg 0.08
bars.

Departmeent of Mechaanical and Maanufacturingg Page 18 
 
It is clear that the air is accelerated at the throat. The magnitude of the static pressure starts
increasing as it moves through the diverging section of the nozzle. Its maximum value is at the
inlet and minimum at the throat.

Design of the Intake Manifold: The Intake manifold was redesigned because of requirements of a
20mm restrictor at the upstream of the plenum, just after the air filter as per the competition
rules.
The aim was to keep a large plenum volume for good power surge at low RPMs. This was due to
the relatively high weight of the car and requirement of good initial acceleration. The plenum
volume was kept at 1960cc. The volume was decide depending on empirical equations from
years of research from automotive firms, as is given in the following paragraph.
Tunnel Ram intake runners with bell mouth ends were chosen for easy manufacturing and their
extensive use in race applications. The runner lengths were chosen for effective 3rd order
reflections of the reflected wave from the bell mouths, for 9000 RPM , which is on the lower side
given that maximum engine RPM was close to 16000. This method of ram charging is effective
in increasing power by about 15 to 20 percent. The lower RPM design was again for good low
speed acceleration.
Intake manifold design for 9000 rpm
Intake valve opens =22BTDC
Intake valve closes=43ABDC
Crank angles for which inlet valve is open=245 degrees
Crank angles for which inlet valve is closed=475 degrees.
Time for which inlet valve is closed=0.008796 second=EVCD(Effective valve closed duration)
Let RV=6
Then 12 total reflections give 12L=0.008796 * 342.9
L=0.2513m=251.3mm
Let RV=8
16L=0.008796 * 342.9
L=0.1885m=188.5mm
By david vizerds formula
L=17.8 + (1 * 4.3)=22.1cm=221mm
Diameter of Intake Runners
SQRT(target rpm * displacement * percent volumetric efficiency)/3330)

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 19 
 
=SQRT((9000 * 0.599 * 0.9)/3330)=1.20737 inch=30.6mm
But due to the throttle body bore on the Honda cbr(stock) being 38mm we keep intake runner
diameter as 38mm.
Using formula in GRAPEAPE racing ,we get
L= ((EVCD * 0.25 * V * 2)/(RPM * RV)) – (0.5 * diameter of runner inches)
For RV=2,L=16.404inch=416.68mm
For RV=3,L=10.687inch=271.45mm
For RV=4,L=7.828inch=198.84mm
For RV=5,L=6.1130inch=155.272mm
For RV=6,L=4.96956inch=126.22mm
For reflective value of RV=3,L=271.45mm is selected
PLENUM VOLUME
As per suggestions from 92TypeR racing
We select plenum diameter=1.5 to 1.7 * (diameter of runner)=57mm to 64.6mm
Taking plenum diameter as 58mm.This would ensure good initial acceleration
According to Mr Leela Krishnan who is an Ex-national rally champion and a professional racer,
we take plenum volume=1.5 * volume of a runner
The volume of runner =3.14* {(40/1000)^2}/4 * 270/1000.=3.3929 * 10^-4
The plenum volume=1.5 * 3.3929*10^-4=5.08935 * 10^-4mm3
The length of the plenum to accommodate the runners is 310mmTherefore diameter of the
plenum is= 45.7mm.We keep plenum diameter as 45mm.The CFM for maximum rpm of 10000
and 90 percent Volumetric efficiency comes out to be 95.
RAM Tube Diameter
D in inches =SQRT ((Cubic inch displacement * volumetric efficiency * rpm)/(V * 1130))
V=speed of pressure wave =180ft/sec
Designing this for 8000 rpm since 1000 rpm less than plenum rpm design.
D in inches=SQRT((36.55 * 0.9 * 8000)/(180 * 1130))=1.1374inch=28.89mm
But the Honda ram tubes fitted on the cylinder head with 38mm.Thus we have to keep the
Runner diameter at 38mm
The design of the restrictor nozzle was done by use of Fluent and basic Bernoulli’s treatment of
nozzles. We obtained a shockwave in the calculations, just after the throat(20mm) by which
Mac number dropped from supersonic to subsonic suddenly and our aim was to make the exit

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 20 
 
large enough for the air to reduce speed to about 223feet/sec i.e. around 0.75gms/sec. at the
plenum. For this we obtain 70mm as the final exit diameter and we freeze the plenum diameter
at 80mm.Thus the plenum would serve as a good storage of air.
The restrictor design along with the final design of the manifold is given below.

The Maruti 800cc throttle body for inlet of air was selected based on advice from literature
sources which specify that a large plenum of volume between 1200cc to 1800cc should have
throttle body size ranging from 20mm to 40mm.The Maruti throttle body was easily available
and was an average of the above reading.
The Intake manifold was manufactured of Stainless Steel with sheet folding and TIG welding the
lines. The Plenum was internally buffed to give as fine a finish as possible. The restrictor was
also made with sheet metal. Due to lack of experienced hands the internal surfaces were not very
well finished, with weld juts which had to be removed by grinding and buffing. Also smooth
bend of the designed restrictor was not possible thus increasing friction head loss in flow.
The restrictor analysis as was done is given below. The pressure at the plenum was approximated
at 0.8 bar so that the design can produce minimum drop in pressure. Due to the throat restriction
of 20mm the air speed at the throat reaches sonic speed and causes the drop in pressure. The
nozzle design ensures recovery of the pressure as much as possible to 0.8 bar so that the plenum
has full of air at this pressure for the engine to take in.
Fuel Metering:
The metering and control of fuel injection was accomplished by making use of the DYNOJET
POWER COMMANDER for the Honda CBR f4i .
The power commander is essentially a piggyback ECU which is connected to the ECU through
its fuel injection plug loom. This device alters the signal of the ECU to the injectors as per the
map we feed into its memory.

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The input map consists of the RPM on y axis and throttle opening percentage on the x axis. The
values entered in the boxes are percentage decrease or increase of duty cycle of fuel injectors
altered from basic ECU signal. Thus a negative sign indicates the duty cycle is reduced and thus
lesser opening of the injector, supplying lesser fuel.
The map is inputted into the device by computer USB and the fuel is controlled as per RPM and
throttle opening.
The fuel opening at lower rpms had to be made about -30 to -20(duty cycle percentage decrease)
due to large pressure at the plenum to which the MAP was connected. Thus probably the ECU
would sense the MAP reading as high air concentration, thus increasing fuel supply to maintain
set A/F ratio.
The idling was tuned for 8.5 percent Throttle opening.
Due to lack of a dynamometer and lack of time we could not perform a dyno test of the engine
for further optimization of the manifold and fuel metering control.
The fuel metering performance was tuned with assistance from Mr Leela Krishnan due to his
vast experience in race engine tuning. Further optimization is still possible with help of a
dynamometer test.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 22 
 
FINANCES of FM-08
The Cost Report of Formula Manipal 08 (Manipal University) is a financial analysis of the one-
off production of the FM 08 600cc race car. This report is intended for the perusal of a race-car
production firm, with the objective of mass-production of this car, looking at the “weekend
amateur racer” as its potential market. The FM 08 has been designed and manufactured for the
FSAE Italy competition held during 20th – 22nd September, 2008.

Since Formula Manipal was a first year team, several obstacles were faced during the design and
manufacture of this first-year vehicle. Numerous changes made in design and purchase decisions
over the passage of one and a half years, have had their impact on the Cost Report.Since the
inception of the project, cost-friendliness has been a major design goal. Before any purchasing
decision was made, we have made efforts to find lesser-cost alternatives offering similar
performance and reliability.

However, in the efforts to reduce cost, one must not discount on car performance and reliability.
Due to shortage of racing-standard equipments in India, we have imported a significant number
of car-parts from Europe and America. Cost-reducing measures must take a hit sometimes, if
performance is to be guaranteed to the “weekend amateur racer”. This policy is reflected in our
resolute decision to purchase the Taylor Race Engineering differential with pre-constructed
housing, over slightly cheaper available substitutes. On the other hand, we have purchased parts
indigenously whenever they were found to match desired performance, since they come at far-
lesser costs. In this respect, Bajaj Pulsar brake calipers and Rado wheels have been purchased
over more popular conventionally preferred international products.

The exchange rate for the US Dollar with respect to the Indian Rupee was $1 to Rs.39.40, to the
Euro was $1 to € 0.6785, and to the Pound was $1 to £ 0.504 as on 2nd January 2008. This is the
standard henceforth used to budget the money spent within the $25,000 limit.

The fabrication of FM-08 was possible by getting funding from various corporate. Following is
the list of sponsors who were associated with FM-08:

Main Sponsors
1) Manipal University
2) Maruti Udyog Ltd
3) Manipal Universal Learning
4) National Instruments Ltd

Associate Sponsors
1) Sparco
2) Bosch
3) L G Balakrishnan and Bros.-engine, gear box and overall design evaluation
4) J K Tyres

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 23 
 
Addition nal sponsorss
1) Delphi
D TVS ltd
l
2) Ricardo
R
3) Rane
R TRW Steering Systtems Limitedd
4) Altair
A Engineeering
5) Adsync
A - Marrketing Suppport
6) TEBMA
T Ship
pyard
In total we
w have gen nerated Rs. 2.4
2 million in
i cash and Rs. 2.5 milllion in-kind sponsorshipp. All
this weree done withh dedication of all team
m members. Handling
H finnances of teeam helped team
memberss to make bu udget and execution of plan. They learned many things like marketing,
m b of
bill
material, planned andd un-plannedd budget andd cost break up.

Brake System

Enginee and Drivetraiin

Framee and body

Instrumentation and

Wiringg
Miscellaneous, Fit an
nd 
Finish
Steering System

Suspension and Shoccks

   
Co
ost Summ
mary off FM 08
8
 
als Sub Total ($)
Area Tota Labor forr Assembly to Vehicle ($) Total ($)
Brrake System 397.87 192.5 590.37
Enngine and Driv
vetrain 5053.25 490 5543.25
Frrame and body y 2113.68 437.5 2551.18
Instrumentation and Wiring 1393.66 262.5 1656.16
M
Miscellaneous, h
 Fit and Finish 593.23 122.5 715.73
Stteering System
m 208.85 140 348.85
Suuspension andd Shocks 1214.88 245 1459.88

 
W
Wheels, bearin ngs and tires 1951.41 122.5 2073.91
Total Cosst 14939.33

 
Departmeent of Mechaanical and Maanufacturingg Page 24 
 
SUMMARY
The successful participation in FSAE, Italy 2008, has marked the culmination of our project. We
were extremely pleased with our performance. The FM 08, had met with all our expectations
in terms of design and part operations. Having completed all end-level manufacture and
some amount of track- testing at the Kari Motor Speedway in Coimbatore, India helped us
give a strong representation at the FSAE Italy competition this year. In the process of the
competition, we became the first Indian team in the current year to qualify for all the four
dynamic events at the competition.

Although we did successfully complete the task we started out on, we do believe there are
several aspects of the car that need to be redesigned. Design being an iterative process, this
would take several complete cycles of prototyping and testing, before we arrive at a world
championship winning car. The major areas of design consideration would be weight reduction
and packaging optimization. Also, at the end of it all the successful implementation of the Data
Acquisition system would help us fine tune the car, and be ready for a much improved
performance in the 2009 competition.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing  Page 25