Sie sind auf Seite 1von 15

Quality Improvement: Problem Solving

ME 04 801: QUALITY ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT (Jinto A J jintoaj.webs.com)

What is QC Problem Solving?

Problem solving, the isolation and analysis of a problem and the development of a permanent solution, is an integral part of the qualityimprovement process.

Not hit or miss, but objective and systematic Not directed at symptoms, but rather at root causes

ME 04 801: QUALITY ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT (Jinto A J jintoaj.webs.com)

Problem Solving Process


Symptom Recognition Fact Finding Problem Identification Idea Generation Solution Development Plan Implementation
ME 04 801: QUALITY ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT (Jinto A J jintoaj.webs.com)

Follow Up

All Managers Need Problem Solving Skills

80% of problems are external to QC organizations Quality problems transcend individual functions Companies need multi-discipline problem solving approach Management involvement and commitment is crucial
Source: Feigenbaum, Total Quality Control, 1991, p. 151.

ME 04 801: QUALITY ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT (Jinto A J jintoaj.webs.com)

Problem Solving Skills for Managers

Understand and utilize a systematic problem solving process Ask the right questions Present information clearly and unambiguously Make judgments based on information

PDSA Cycle

Seven QC Tools

ME 04 801: QUALITY ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT (Jinto A J jintoaj.webs.com)

10 Problem Solving Steps


Recognize Problem

ACT

PLAN

STUDY

DO

ME 04 801: QUALITY ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT (Jinto A J jintoaj.webs.com)

Gap Analysis
Internal or External Supplier Internal or External Customer
Requirements and Expectations

Input

Process A

Output

Quality Characteristics

Are there any gaps?


ME 04 801: QUALITY ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT (Jinto A J jintoaj.webs.com)

10 Problem Solving Steps


Continuous improvement Ensure performance

ACT

Evaluate Solution

STUDY

DO
Implement Solution

Recognize Problem Form quality improvement teams Define Problem Analyze PLAN Problem Determine Possible Causes Identify Possible Solutions

ME 04 801: QUALITY ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT (Jinto A J jintoaj.webs.com)

Florida Power & Lights 7 step model


Identify a problem area Identify the problems component parts Search data for root causes Identify and select countermeasures Confirm the problem responds to the correction Assure non-recurrence Decide what will be done with future problems - evaluate team effectiveness

ME 04 801: QUALITY ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT (Jinto A J jintoaj.webs.com)

Xerox Problem Solving Process

ME 04 801: QUALITY ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT (Jinto A J jintoaj.webs.com)

Process Analysis Method


UNDERSTAND SELECT ANALYZE

ADOPT CHECK

PLAN DO

ME 04 801: QUALITY ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT (Jinto A J jintoaj.webs.com)

Why do we need the 7 QC tools?

TQM is data driven: data are impersonal; opinions are not. Experience is gained quickest by collecting and analyzing data. The 7 QC tools provide common methods of analysis to help problem solving teams operate effectively.

ME 04 801: QUALITY ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT (Jinto A J jintoaj.webs.com)

PDSA and QC Tools


Brainstorming Pareto analysis

ACT
Run charts Control charts Histograms Check sheets

PLAN

Why-Why diagram

STUDY

DO

Cause and effect diagram Scatter diagrams Control charts

Scatter diagrams Pareto charts

Check sheets Run charts

ME 04 801: QUALITY ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT (Jinto A J jintoaj.webs.com)

Brainstorming

Purpose - generate a list of


problems opportunities ideas


no criticism no arguing no negativism no evaluation

Success requires

ME 04 801: QUALITY ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT (Jinto A J jintoaj.webs.com)

Problems for Why-Why discussion

What are the root causes?


Construct a Whywhy diagram


787s not being delivered on time Utility outages too frequent Fast food outlet profits falling

List problem statement Ask why 5 times; record responses

ME 04 801: QUALITY ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT (Jinto A J jintoaj.webs.com)