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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF COCONUT SAP SUGAR/SYRUP

Trinidad P. Trinidad, Ph.D. Scientist II


Food and Nutrition Research Institute Department of Science and Technology

COCONUT SAP
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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

fresh oyster white liquid obtained from the tender unopened flower with neutral pH each tree can yield up to 1-3 liters of sap per day
unopened flower of coconut tree

Coconut sugar has great potential as a natural and cheaper alternative for synthetic sweeteners derived from natural ingredients .. ..

Data from PCA:

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

COCONUT SUGAR
2 gallons = 1 kg

COCONUT SAP
7 gallons = 1 gallon

COCONUT SYRUP
Present production from 2 hectares of coconut:
300 hybrid coconut varieties = 3.5 metric tons coconut sugar = 205 gallon of coconut honey

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

CHARACTERIZATION OF COCO SAP SUGAR AND SYRUP IN TERMS OF NUTRIENT AND NON-NUTRIENT (Phytonutrients) COMPOSITION

PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF COCONUT SAP SUGAR AND SYRUP


100 90 80

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Moisture Ash Fat Protein Carbohydrates

Coco Sap Sugar

Coco Sap Syrup

IRON, ZINC AND CALCIUM CONTENT OF COCONUT SAP SUGAR AND SYRUP
3.5

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

2.5

1.5

0.5

Iron

Zinc Coco Sap Sugar

Calcium Coco Sap Syrup

SODIUM AND POTASSIUM CONTENT OF COCONUT SAP SUGAR AND SYRUP

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0 Sodium Coco Sap Sugar Potassium Coco Sap Syrup

IRON (Fe) AND ZINC (Zn) CONTENT OF SUGARS*


(mg/100 g Sample)

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

2 .5

1.5

0 .5

C O C O S U G AR

B R O W N S U G AR Fe Zn

R E F I N E D S U G AR

*Data from PCA

DIETARY FIBER AND INULIN CONTENT OF COCONUT SAP SUGAR AND SYRUP

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

Dietary Fiber Coco Sap Sugar

Inulin Coco Sap Syrup

TOTAL SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS FROM COCO SAP SUGAR AND SYRUP

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

mg/g

200 150 100 50 0 Coco Sap Sugar Coco Sap Syrup

SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS PRODUCED FROM COCO SAP SUGAR AND SYRUP
mg/g

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Acetate Propionate Butyrate

Coco Sap Sugar

Coco Sap Syrup

CHOLESTEROL SYNTHESIS
Propionate (Chen et al, 1984)
similar to the action of Statins

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

PHYTONUTRIENT CONTENT OF COCO SAP SUGAR AND SYRUP


mg/100g

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0


Polyphenols Flavonoids Anthocyanidin

Coco Sap Sugar

Coco Sap Syrup

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF COCONUT SAP SUGAR AND SYRUP

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 DPPH Coco Sap Sugar FRAP Coco Sap Syrup

DPPH measures % inhibition FRAP measures reducing power expressed in mg Trolox/100g

SUB-CLINICAL TEST:

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

GLYCEMIC INDEX OF COCO SAP SUGAR AND SYRUP

GLYCEMIC INDEX is a classification of food based on the blood glucose response of a food relative to a standard glucose solution or a starchy food e.g. white bread. IT IS WIDELY RECOGNIZED AS A RELIABLE, PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED CLASSIFICATION OF FOODS ACCORDING TO THEIR POSTPRANDIAL GLYCEMIC EFFECT (Foster-Powell et al, 2002; FAO/WHO Joint Expert Consultation, 1997)

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

*incremental area under the glucose response curve

CLASSIFICATION OF GLYEMIC INDEX (GI) OF FOODS


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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
GI
10 0 90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

H IGH

M E D I UM

LOW

(75-100)

(56-74)

(55 or <)

12 10
Blood Glucose (mmol/L)

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

8 6 4 2 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 180

Time, min.

The glucose response of white bread (no dietary fiber) and macaroons containing 25% dietary fiber from coconut flour (Trinidad et al, 2003).

FAO/WHO endorsed the use of GI method

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

for classifying carbohydrate-rich foods and recommend that GI values of food can be used in conjunction with food composition tables to guide food choices (Joint FAO/ WHO Expert Consultation, 1997).
It also advocate the consumption of highcarbohydrate (CHO) diet (55% of energy from CHO), with the bulk of CHO-containing foods being rich in non-starch polysaccharides e.g. dietary fiber, with low GI (60).

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

LOW GI FOOD HAS BEEN SHOWN TO REDUCE POSTPRANDIAL GLUCOSE AND INSULIN RESPONSES AND IMPROVE THE OVERALL BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID CONCENTRATION IN NORMAL SUBJECTS AND PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS.
(Jenkins et al, 1987; Wolever et al, 1992; Brand et al, 1991; Collier et al, 1988; Fontevielle et al, 1988)

METHODS
Study Participants:

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

10 Apparently Healthy Human Adults


Inclusion Criteria: Fasting blood glucose 6.2mmol/L but not less than 3.5 mmol/L BMI: 20-25 kg/m2 Age: 30-65 years No medication for glucose Non smokers

July Seminar Series

PROTOCOL OF THE STUDY


A 50-gram available CHO of coco sugar and standard glucose solution were given to subjects on separate occasions after an overnight fast Blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min Blood was separated from serum and read in a Clinical Chemistry Analyzer

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

The Incremental Area Under the Curve of coco sugar and standard glucose solution w a s calculated t o determine the glycemic index of coco sugar

Feeding of test foods

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

July Seminar Series

Blood collection were at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 mins

Clinical Chemistry Analyzer

CALCULATION OF GI OF FOOD
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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

GI of food = IAUC* of test food x 100 IAUC of control food

July Seminar Series

*Incremental Area Under the Curve

RESULTS
GLUCOSE RESPONSE OF COCO SUGAR/SYSRUP AGAINST A STANDARD GLUCOSE SOLUTION
12.0

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0 0 15 30 45 60 90 120

Glucose

Coco Sugar

Coco Syrup

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

GI OF COCO SUGAR = 354 GI OF COCO SYRUP = 394

LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX FOOD

COMPARATIVE GIs OF SUGARS


GI
60

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50

FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

40

30

20

10

C O C O S U G AR

C O C O S YR U P

T AB L E S U G AR

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Coco sugar/syrup is a promising sugar for diabetics It can be a better substitute for synthetic sugars Coco sugar/syrup is a conventional food and may not have adverse effect in comparison to synthetic sugars A long-term nutrition intervention study should be conducted to validate the results obtained from this study

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FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARH INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY