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PROCESS CONTROL

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PROCESS CONTROL
Introduction


  

   
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application) #1 #!$+
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$*+, -2 * + PID simulator 
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1. Process definition
 "#$%&'()*+%&,-."/0", physics 1# 0",$2'3 ,--"#1# "#$%&'()*#4%3 ,/&5,,"* $67*
- 389*"#0:"9"2$);*
- 389*"#&5(**<:"25*
- 389*"#=&>?@AAB" $%C*?D*

2. Instrument
$%C* E%#FG0'(*:"2"H6D$/( 95I7"3 , Process $/( H1D#58#4DJK,-."/3 , Process LI)2'95?JE%#M-,G$/( "#%#58+?7,98
E2 (Control) H1D Process $%C*@%?"20'(?D ,"# (Set Point)H*"#95I+&M"#98E2 $/( H1D2'EF-285?>?"20'(?D ,"#2' ?59+%#
0'($'()93D ,0'(?D ,"#95I7" $67*
- EF1.42> (Temperature)
- 9"21*I (Viscosity)
- 9"2I5* (Pressure)
- 9"2$#;9 (Velocity or Speed)
- #MI58 (Level)
- 9"26<* (Moisture)
- %#>2"F"#@1& (Flow Rate)
- 9"2?D"*0"* (Resistance)
- *<:"1*5 (Weight)
- 5?#"$#7, (Acceleration)

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PROCESS CONTROL

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- +#,I5*@AAB" (Voltage)
- #M+-@AAB" (Current)
$%C*?D*

- "#-5(*-M$0 * (Vibration)
- 7" pH

2.1  !" Instrument


-

0'(*:"2"H6D,"*2'1&")+88 ?"2&5XFM9"2?D ,"#H6D,"* @ID+7


Indicator $/( +-I,7"3 ,?59+%# @27-"2"#J-7,-5YY"F@AAB"@ID $67* pressure indicator
Transmitter (Tx) $/( +-I,7"3 ,?59+%# LI)-"2"#J-7,$%C*-5YY"F@AAB"@IDID9) 2'05<, Analog +&M Digital Signal
$67* pressure transmitter
Switch $/( +-I,7"3 ,?59+%# LI)-7,$%C*-5YY"F@AAB"@IDID9) $%C*+88 On-Off (Digital Signal) $67* pressure
switch
Recorder Device $/( $;885*0K3 ,?59+%# %]^^E85**>)2H6DH*#4%+883 , Electronic Format $67* $;8@9DH* Hard
Disk
Controller $%C* E%#FG0'(H6D98E2389*"# $%C*&5XFM3 ,"# programming $67*
PLC , PID control
Alarm Device $%C* E%#FG0'(2'@9D$/( $? *7"3 ,?59+%#0'( "^$%C* 5*?#")?7 #M881# Process
Interlocking Device $%C* E%#FG-:"1#58%B ,5* 5*?#")3 ,#M881# process LI)2'#4%+88?7", $67* ?D ,2'-5YY"F
3 ,"#^7")*<:" (Flow Rate) $>I3K<*7 *^K,^M-"2"#J^7")-"#$2'8",-79*@ID
Transducer 2'EF-285?>&D") a 58 Transmitter +?7@27@ID Generate -5YY"F@AAB"2"?#c"* 2" (Standard
Signal : 4 -20 mA ,1-5 V )

3. Control Function
1*D"0'(1&53 ,"#98E2-"2"#J^:"+*@ID 3 %#M"# 
- Gathering Information $%C*"##58#98#923D 24&$'()958?59+%#0'($#"?D ,"#98E2 +&M$'()93D ,
- Decision %#M29&=&+&M?5I->*H^H*3D 24&0'(#58$3D"2"H*35<*? * Gathering
- Take Action -7,7" Output @%-5(,"# Final Drive ^"=&3 , Decision
&'(!)*+",-*.
Desired Temperature
(Set Point)

More Steam Flow


Comparison

Actual Temperature

Constant combustion rate (No Action)


Less Steam Flow

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3.1 Type of Control


"#98E2-"2"#J#M0:"@IDID9)"#98E2+88 Manual +&M Automatic H*"#98E2+88 Manual "#?5I->*H^
-5(,"#2*EX)G^M$%C*=4D#M0:" -79*H*"#98E2+88 5?L*25?> (Automatic Control) "#?5I->*H^-5(,"#^M#M0:"ID9) E%#FG 1#
0'(#4D^55* Controller $67*H*"#98E29"2$#;93 ,#J)*?G+88 Manual =4D0'(^M98E2?5I->*H^; *358#J
9"2+??7",3 ,"#98E2+88 Manual +&M+88 5?L*25?> (Automatically) />^"#F"^""#?5I->*H^ (Decision)
97"@ID#M0:"LI) M@# 2*EX)G1# $#( ,^5# (Man or Machine)

3.1.1 ('&1234"56 !" process control







$/>(2%#M->0l>."/"#=&>?
%B ,5*9"2$-')1")3 ,#M88 +&M=4D%m>85?>,"*
&I7"H6D^7")H*"#=&>? $67*H6D operator *D )&,
H6D58389*"#=&>?+88?7 $*( ,+&M^:"*9*2"a

3.2 Process Control Terms ( 5(89+5(+:, ;+<= >3=9+<?;@A; )


Terms 1# :"^:"5I9"20'(/8$1;*87 ) a H* Process Control 2'I5,*'<
3.2.1 Controlled Variable
 ?59+%#3 , Process 0'($#"?D ,"#98E2 7"?59+%#98E20'(H6D-79*2" @ID+7 EF1.42>, 9"2I5*, 5?#""#@1&,
#MI58 $67*H*"#98E2 EF1.42>3 ,@ *<:" Controlled Variable ; EF1.42>
3.2.2 Measured Variable
$%C*"#95I7"3 ,?59+%#0'($#"?D ,"#98E2 "^^M$%C*?59$I')958 Controlled Variable 1# @27;@ID
3.2.3 Set Point
$%C*7"$%B"12")H*"#98E2 $67* Steam Temp. Set Point = 560oC $%C*?D* H*"#98E2?59+%#0'($#"95IqK(,;
Measured Variable +&M Controlled Variable LI)05(9@%^M$%C*?59$I')95* $67*"#98E2 EF1.42>3 ,*<:" Measure Variable
+&M Controlled Variable  EF1.42>
H*8",#F' $67*"#98E2#MI58*<:"H*J5, Controlled Variable ; #MI58*<:" +?7 Measured Variable -"2"#J95IH*
#4%3 ,9"2I5*1# 95I9"2I5*+??7",^"*5<*^K,+%&,7"9"2I5*@%$%C*#MI583 ,*<:"@ID 1# "#95I Flow Rate 7"
Measured Variable  Differential Pressure

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3.2.4 Deviation or Error


$2( 7" Set Point +&M7" Controlled Variable J4*:"2"$%#')8$0')85*JD"$>I9"2+??7",#M197",7" 2 7"*'<$#"$#')
97" Deviation 1# Error
Error $%C*:"0'(H6D$#')$2( 7"05<,- ,+??7",5* 2>H6712")9"297" 7"9"2=>I/&"I -79*2"H6D58 instrument  2'
7"$07"58 7"0'(95I@ID -7"2"?#c"*1# 7"0'(95I@ID0'($0'(),?#,97"
Deviation ^M$*D*679, Error 0'($>IH*679,$#>(2?D* +&M$%C*:"0'(H6D5*H*#M88 control
3.2.5 Manipulated Variable
$2( 2' Deviation $>I3K<*H*"#98E2?5998E2 (Controller) ;^M-7, Control Output @% $/( 3^5I7" Deviation *'<
Control Output *'<^M@%0:""#%#58+?7,7"?59+%#0'($#')97" rManipulated Variales qK(,$%C*?590'(0:"H1D$>I"#$%&'()*+%&,3 ,
rControlled Variables
$67*H*"#98E2 EF1.42>3 ,*<:"ID9)"#=7"* Heat Exchanger ID9)"#H6D@ *<:" EF1.42>3 ,*<:"^MJ495I+&M*:"2"
$%#')8$0')8587" Set Point JD"7"05<,- ,*'<@27$07"5* ;?D ,2'"#%#587"%#>2"F3 ,@ *<:" $/( 0:"H1D EF1.42>$3D"-477" set point H*
#F'*'<@ *<:"; Manipulated Variable qK(,; ?59+%#%#58+?7, process *5(*$ ,
Manipulted variable is the variable that causes a change in the controlled variable

3.2.6 Disturbances or Upset


"#98E2 EF1.42>3 ,*<:"0'(=7"* Heat Exchanger 0'(&7"92"+&D9 "#98E2 EF1.42>^M3K<* )4758"#%#58%#>2"F
steam flow LI)?#, +?7)5,2'%]^^5) (*0'(0:"H1D EF1.42>3 ,*<:"0'($#"98E2(water flow out temperature ) $%&'()*@%05<, a 0'(
%#>2"F flow rate @ *<:"$07"$I>2$#"$#')97" rDisturbances 1# rUpsets $67* 2'"#$%&'()*%#>2"F"#H6D*<:"0'(%&")0", , EF1.42>
3 ,@ *<:"$%&'()*+%&, , 9"2-M "I3 , Heat Exchanger , Ambient Temperature $%C*?D*
3.2.7 Closed Loop Control
$%C*"#98E26*>I1*K(,qK(, Control Action ^M3K<* )4758 Process Output
3.2.8 Feedback Control
$%C*-79*1*K(,3 , Closed Loop Control LI)0'( Control Action ^M3K<* )4758 Process Output LI)"#95I7"?59+%#0'($#"

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?D ,"#98E2+&D9*:"&58$3D"2"$%#')8$0')8587" Set Point


"#98E2+88 Feedback Control +87,@ID$%C* 2 )7", 
Negative Feedback $%C*"#98E20'(*:"7"-5YY"F0'(?D ,"#98E2%B *&58$%#')8$0')8587" Setpoint LI)*:"
2"&8587" Set point
Positive Feedback $%C*"#98E20'(*:"7"-5YY"F0'(95I@ID%B *&58$3D"2"89587" Set point

4A" Feedback control


3.2.9 Feed Forward Control
$%C*"#98E2 '+881*K(,0'(*:"$ "7"3 ,-5YY"F3 , Disturbance $3D"2"$/( 0:""#%#58+?7, Manipulated
Variable 7 *0'( Controlled Variable ^M$%&'()*+%&,@%2" *>)2H6D58 process 0'(2'"#$%&'()*+%&,3 , load 87 ) a $2(
*:""#98E26*>I*'<$3D"2"H6D#792H* Feedback Loop ^M0:"H1D Controlled Variable $>I$%&'()*+%&,1# 2' Deviation *D )0'(-IE
^"#4%
water temperature outlet = controlled variable
steam flow rate(inlet)
= manipulated variable
water flow rate(inlet)
= disturbance

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4A" Feedforward Control

4. Feedback Control Loop


#M8898E2-79*H1Y7^M "u5)1&5"#3 , feedback control loop
H*"#98E2+88*'< $#"^MH6D sensor $%C*?5995I7" controlled variable +&M-7,3D 24&H1D58 controller LI)2' comparator qK(,
$%C*-79*1*K(,H* controller ^M0:""#$%#')8$0')8-5YY"F controlled variable *'<58 Set point 9"2+??7",0'(@ID^"7"05<,
- ,^M$#')97" error 1# deviation ^"*5<* controller ^M*:"7" error signal @%$%C*?59:"1*I3*"I +&M0>u0","#$%&'()*
+%&,3 , final control element $67* control valve , damper $%C*?D* $/( 0:""#$%&'()*7" manipulated variable
7" controlled variable 1# measured variable ( water temperature :out) ^MJ495ILI) Sensor +&D9-7,7"&58
2"0'( controller ^"*5<* controller ^M-7,-5YY"F0'(=7"*"#%#M29&=&+&D9 ?"2 control mode $/( 0:""#%#58+?7,
manipulated variable( steam flow : in ) $/( #5X"7" controlled variable H1D@ID7"?"20'(?D ,"# ( Set point ) )47?& I
$9&" ^""#0:","*&5XFM*'<$#"^K,$#')8#M88*'<97" feedback control loop 1# closed loop control ?"2#4%

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4A" Feedback control loop


^"#4% $%C*?59 )7",3 , feedback control loop
JD" EF1.42>3 ,*<:"#D *0'(95I2"-4,97"7" set point , controller ^M-7,-5YY"F@%1#'( control lvalve &I steam flow
rate 0:"H1D EF1.42>3 ,*<:"#D *&I&, &58$3D"1" set point
H*0",&585* JD" EF1.42>3 ,*<:"#D *0'(95I2"@ID?(:"97"7" set point controller ;^M-7,-5YY"F@%$%vI9"&G9$/>(23K<*
$/( $/>(2%#>2"F@ *<:" 0:"H1D EF1.42>3 ,*<:"#D *$/>(23K<* $%C*$67**'<-&58@%2"

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4A" basic control loop

5. SENSOR
$%C* E%#FG95I7"?59+%# (PV) @ID+7 temperature sensor , pressure sensor , level sensor $%C*?D* H*-79*3 ,
#")&M$ ')I 9#uKX"H*$#( ,3 , sensor and transducer '#5<,
H*0'(*'<^M&7"9JK,$w/"MH*$#( ,0'($'()93D ,58 control system $07"*5<* LI)2' term 0'($'()93D ,I5,*'<

5.1 Response Time


$%C*$9&"H*"#? 8-* ,3 , process 3 ,?59 Sensor $2( 2'"#$%&'()*+%&,7"3 , input. LI)%?> Response
Time 25J4H6D95IH*#4%3 , Time Constant 1*K(,a
Time Constant 12")JK, "#$%&'()*+%&,7"3 , Output 0'($%&'()*+%&,?"2$9&"3K<*587" input LI)>I$2( Output
$#>(2$%&'()*+%&,@%^*JK, 63.2% 3 , Output 0'($%&'()*+%&,05<,12I ?"2#4%

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 4A" time constant


^"#"A$%C* Response 3 ,$#( ,2 95I EF1.42> %?>95I EF1.42> )470'( 100 oF JD" EF1.42>$>I$%&'()*$/>(23K<*#M05*
15*$%C* Step Change JK, 700 oF +?7=&? 8-* ,3 ,$#( ,95I^M2'7"7 ) a $/>(23K<*?"2^*JK, 63.2% 3 ,"#$%&'()*+%&,
600 oF (700-100)
^"#"A ^M$1;*97"=&"#? 8-* ,"#95I3 ,?59 Sensor ^*6'<JK,7" 63.2% 1# 0'( 479.2 oF (600*63.2%) *5<*H6D
$9&" 3 9>*"0' qK(,; 1 Time Constant I5,*5<*^K,&7"9@ID97" 1 time constant 2'7"$07"58 3 9>*"0'
"#:"F9*$%C*I5,*'<
2 Time Constant (6 9>*"0')
700 o F - 479.2 o F = 220.8 o F
(220.8oF x 0.632) + 479.2 oF = 618.7 oF
3 Time Constant (9 9>*"0')
700 oF ~ 618.7 oF =81.3 oF
(81.3 oF *0.632) + 618.7 oF = 670.5 oF

5.2 Accuracy
$%C*9"2-"2"#J3 ,?59 Sensor 0'(^M6'<+-I,7"0'(+0D^#>, $#( ,2 95I0'(2' Accuracy I'; $#( ,2 0'(-"2"#J6'<+-I,
7"@ID$07"587"^#>,1# H&D$'),3 ,^#>,2"0'(-EI +?7@27^:"$%C*97"0E a #5<,3 ,"#95I7"$I>2^M+-I,7"@ID$07"5*0E#5<,

4A" accuracy profile

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5.3 Precision
$%C*9"2-"2"#J3 ,?59 Sensor 0'(^M+-I,7"H*"#95I0'(H&D$'),1# $07"5*0E#5<, $2( J4*:"@%95I7"?59$I>2H*
-."9M$I>2H*+?7&M#5<, qK(,7"0'(@ID^M$07"581# H&D$'),587"^#>,1# @27;@ID 1"H&D$'),587"^#>,;$#')97" accuracy @IDID9)
LI)%?> sensor 0'(I'^M2'7" accuracy and precision )47H&D$'),587"0'( *^#>,$-2

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