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1. Objective Understanding the calibration of different mol of CaCO3 to obtain Cm value. Demonstration of liquid diffusion. Determine the diffusion coefficient of CaCO3 solution in deionized water.

2. Introduction Diffusion can be described as a mixing process on a microscopic scale, caused by the molecular motion of the particles. In liquids it is a slow process, and this slowness is responsible for its importance. It can be the rate determining step in many mass transfer operations, such as distillation, extraction, and in industrial reactions using porous catalyst. It controls, for instance, the release of flavour from food. Therefore, knowledge of diffusion rates is important for the design of process equipment. The common models can describe molecular diffusion in multicomponent liquids is a generalisation of Ficks Law to multicomponent system. Ficks law is a phenomenological description of diffusion for binary liquid systems. Molecular diffusion describes the relative motion of individual molecules in a mixture induced by their thermal energy causing random, irregular movements. But it may also arise from pressure gradients, temperature gradients, external force fields, and concentration gradients. The resulting net diffusion flux is down the potential gradient, i.e. in the case of a concentration gradient from regions of higher to lower concentration until uniformity of the system is reached.

3. Equipment

LEGEND A = J- Tube stand B = J- Tube with honeycomb C = Conductivity probe D = Conductivity meter E = Magnetic stirrer F = Liquid vessel

4. Safety and precaution Be careful when handling the glassware Do not attempt to change the setting of the digital conductivity meter Wear protection glove and eyewear when preparing the test solution

5. Procedure 5.1 Pre-procedure 1. Before conducting the experiment read the safety instruction. 2. Before lab sessions read and understand the theory for liquid diffusion. 3. The accessories need to be prepared for the experiment. 5.2 Experiment Procedure Experiment A 1. The solution for 0.001, 0.0012, 0.0014, 0.0016, 0.0018 and 0.002 M of CaCO3 was prepared. 2. The conductivity value for all the different M of CaCO3 was determine by using the conductivity probe and meter (C,D). 3. The reading was recorded in the table provided. 4. The graph of concentration of Ca2CO3 versus conductivity (Siemens) was computed. The slope of this line is the (CM). 5. By using deionized water clean and washed the probe to removed all traces of salt after finished the experiment. Experiment B 1. The solution of 0.1 M CaCO3 was prepared. 2. The number of capillaries (holes) of the PVC round plate in the J-tube (B) was determined. (the diameter is 2mm while the height is 6.8mm) 3. The higher end of the J-tube was clamped to the J-tube clamper (A). During clamping the J tube need to be careful. 4. CaCO3 solution was poured into the J-tube until the liquid just reached the tops of the capillaries. The excess solution need to wipe kindly by using soft tissue. 5. The conductivity probe (C) was inserted to the liquid vessel (F). The cable are ensured connected to the digital conductivity meter (D).

6. The digital meter was connected to laboratory 240V AC power supply. The power supply was switched on. 7. The liquid vessel was placed on the magnetic stirrer (E). The white magnetic bar was placed into the liquid vessel. 8. 1000ml of deionized water was poured into the test vessel (F). 9. The magnetic stirrer was switched ON. Regulated the stirring speed to about 200 rpm. 10. The conductivity meter was switched ON. Reading shown in the meter was ensured. 11. The J-tube was placed into test vessel. During this procedure make sure that is careful. No solution should be dropped to the deionized water. 12. The test vessel was filled with small amount of deionized water until the capillary tops are submerged approximately 5mm below the surface of the water. 13. Start the stop watch when the capillary tops was submerged. 14. Kindly take the conductivity value for every 5 minutes elapsed until 30 minutes. 15. Removed all the glassware and rinse with deionized water after the experiment is done. 16. Disposed the test liquid in the laboratory sink. 6. Results Experiment A Concentration (Mol/L) 0.001 0.0012 0.0014 0.0016 0.0018 0.002 Mass (g) 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 Conductivity (S) 204 201 206 202 205 203

CaCO3 = 100.23 g, Volume of solution: 500ml = 0.5 L Calculation for Determining the Mass of CaCO3 To prepare 0.001 M, 0.0012 M, 0.0014 M, 0.0016 M,0.0018 M, 0.002 M solution;

100 g/ mol x 0.001 mol/L = 0.1 g/L x 0.5 L = 0.05 g 100 g/ mol x 0.0012 mol/L = 0.12 g/L x 0.5 L = 0.06 g 100 g/ mol x 0.0014mol/L = 0.14 g/L x 0.5 L = 0.07 g 100 g/ mol x 0.0016 mol/L = 0.16 g/L x 0.5 L = 0.08 g 100 g/ mol x 0.0018 mol/L = 0.18 g/L x 0.5 L = 0.09 g 100 g/ mol x 0.002 mol/L = 0.2 g/L x 0.5 L = 0.1 g Experiment B Concentration = 0.1 M, Volume of solution: 50 mL = 0.05 L Calculation for Determining the Mass of CaCO3 100 g/ mol x 0.001 mol/L = 0.1 g/L x 0.05 L = 0.005 g Time (Minute) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Conductivity (S) 190 190 190 191 191 192 192

Graph for experiment A :

Graph for experiment B :

For experiment B, the diffusion of CaCO3 can be determined using the following equation;

D = (4VX / MN d2CM) x (Dk/Dt) Where D = diffusion V = volume of water container for the J tube (1000mL) X = height of J tube M = moles of CaCO3 N = number of capillary on J tube d = diameter of J tube CM = slope value from experiment 1 (Dk/Dt) = slope value from experiment 2

7. Discussion From experiment A, it can be observed that the values given off by the conductivity meter fluctuates to inconsistent values. The value changes so well that it is as though as the concentration is increased (0.001M, 0.0012 M so forth) they have no direct relation with the conductivity displayed. This is due to the amount of moles of calcium carbonate in the solution that is too low, not every particle within the solution participates actively in the reaction with water. Experiment B is somewhat similar to experiment A. As time lapses, the conductivity meter increases but lands flat under certain interval. For instance, during the first 10 minutes, the value remains at 190 S before it rises to 191S 5 minutes later. The experiment ends after it is conducted for 30 minutes and the final value reads 192 S. Difference with experiment A is that the value gradually increases with time, instead of fluctuating inappropriately when more concentrated mixture is introduced to the conductivity meter. Reason why this phenomenon occurs is because the solution used is only at 0.1 M of calcium carbonate, therefore large difference of value cannot be expected.

8. Question

8.1 Give three (3) example of liquid phase diffusion phenomenon in the environment. Diffusion phenomenon of sugar molecules from high concentration to low one. Diffusion phenomenon when one drop of ink is spreading in a cool and hot water. Diffusion phenomenon when I2 molecules are spreading in alcohol.

8.2 Describe why conductivity can be use as a parameter to measure the rate of mass transfer in this experiment. The parameters to describe the retention properties of the liquid and the capillary movement of the liquid were determined by using experiment. The conductivity can use to measure the rate of mass transfer because the readings are accurate and this is one the equipment that suitable to use in laboratory and easier to handle. 9. Conclusion The objective of the experiment is to understand the calibration of different mol of CaCO3 to obtain Cm value. Besides that, it is aimed to demonstrate the diffusion of liquid. It is also conducted to determine the diffusion coefficient of CaCO3 solution in deionized water. Based from the experiment, it is found that diffusion, a mixing process on a microscopic scale, caused by the molecular motion of the particles, of calcium carbonate in water can be observed and determined by its conductivity. This is done by conducting the experiment based on the instructions found in this written report. On that basis as well, safety aspects was not neglected. Glassware was handled with care, the setting of the conductivity meter was not readjusted and necessary protective gear was worn when preparing the test solution. Knowledge of diffusion rates is important for the design of process equipment. Therefore this is the reason why the experiment was conducted, so to provide students with necessary exposure, especially with a simple experiment as such.

10. Reference