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Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Study of Air Consumption on Air Jet Weaving Machine

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

By: Arif K Naikwade & Nilesh Zambare

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

OBJECTIVE:
To study the consumption of air in air jet weaving machines.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE:
Reduction in the consumption of air on existing machines.
By:
ARIF K NAIKWADE & NILESH ZAMBARE

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

ABSTRACT
As it is well known, power consumption due to compressed air is the main disadvantage of Air jet loom when compared to rapier and projectile looms. This is making air jet less preferable where energy cost is the problem, despite their high production speeds. Studies which have been taken to reduce them, included manufacturing of different parts i.e. researches have been taken place on the manufacturing levels. But, we decided to reduce the consumption of air which may be due to some wrong settings, ignorance, etc. without any investment which can give profits to the mill by reducing the consumption of air. A decrease of air consumption by 18% was accomplished in a weaving mill by just changing the process parameters consisting mainly the blowing time of nozzles. By improving work practices i.e. by implementing KAIZEN we could save the compressed air.

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Introduction to AIRJET
For the weft insertion mechanisms of air jet looms, the profile reeds with sub-nozzle systems are the most advantageous in terms of improving high speed weaving and wider cloth width. Not only the airflow from the main nozzle and sub-nozzles but also the airflow in the weft passage is closely related to the flying state of the yarn at the time of weft insertion in this system. In order to manufacture high quality textiles with air jet looms, it is necessary to establish optimum weaving conditions. These conditions include the supply air pressure and air injection timing for the main nozzle and sub-nozzles according to the kind of well yarn. Energy saving is the most important of the technical subjects related to air jet looms today. Research about the improvement in performance of main nozzles and sub-nozzles, which plays an important role for weft insertion, has been performed by various researchers. Although some effort has been made to improve the efficiency of compressed air usage, the effort has not been uniform. There is still a critical need to understand the energy loss or consumption in filtration, distribution and machine usage in the textile industry. Due to technical barriers, reducing energy
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

consumption by compressed air systems has been viewed as a complicated task. Intensive efforts have been made by researchers and air-jet loom makers to overcome this problem and achieve a dramatic reduction in air consumption without any decrease in loom performance and fabric quality, but due to faulty mill practices and ignored settings, air consumed by looms is on higher side. So, our project aims to reduce the air consumption significantly, by optimizing some loom parameters. These parameters, includes mainly the relay nozzles because they consume 80% of the compressed air produced.

TERMS
Air Index value A term designated to quantify the velocity of yarn in air as well as the deviation in velocity when tested on a diagnostic testing machine known as the Air Index Tester. Arrival Time The amount of time required for the pick to travel the width of the fabric being manufactured during weaving, expressed either in terms of degrees of shed rotation or units of time.

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Count A numerical designation of yarn size indicating the relationship of length to weight, defined as the amount of 840-yard skeins required to weigh one pound. Filling Stop A temporary shut down of a weaving machine due to an error in filling yarn insertion. Pick the length of yarn required to be woven into a particular width of fabric. Spun Yarn A cotton-based yarn consisting of staple fibers usually bound together by twist. Yarn Hairiness A quantitative method of describing the surface roughness of cotton based spun yarn by counting the amount of broken fibers that protrude from the surface of the yarn, giving it a fuzzy appearance. Yarn Package a large spool of yarn.

Brief Description of Air Jet Looms

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Fig. a modern AIR JET weaving machine.

Filling feeding system

The air jet loom feeds the filling as in Figure 1. The filling length is measured according to the width of the fabric by 1 rotation of
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

the loom. It is accelerated by the main nozzle at a specific timing, and is inserted into the air guide o the reed. Groups of sub-nozzles are located across the whole width. Each group jets compressed air in a specific order to feed the filling tip to the right end of the fabric. The compressed air is supplied from the compressor, its pressure is adjusted by the regulators for the main nozzle and the sub-nozzles, and it is stored in the proper tank. The control system of the loom opens and closes the electro-magnetic valve, and sends the compressed air to the nozzles.

Cost Effectiveness of Shuttle less Looms


Shuttle less looms have numerous advantages over shuttle looms. Some of these are: Increase in loom productivity, Increase in weaver productivity, Improvement in the quality of fabric, Longer lengths and wider widths fabrics can be produced, As many as 16 colours of yarn in the weft can be used without sacrificing the speed of the machine, Increase in versatility, Use of weft accumulators, which reduces average tension on weft during insertion of weft, equalizes yarn tension caused
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

by the diminishing diameter of weft supply package, avoids snarls in the weft and gives fewer weft breakages, Reduces cost of production due to higher productivity and better value realization due to improved fabric quality.

Comparative labour costs (excluding fringe benefits) for inserting 10,000 picks are worked out and are given in Table-2. The assumptions made for arriving at the labour costs are also give in this table.

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Comparative power consumption figures for different types of shuttle less looms and the shuttle loom (for 190 cm width looms) are worked out (i.e. estimated) and are given in Table-3.

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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Figures in Table-3 are only for loom drive and do not include power requirement for humidification, lighting, etc.

Optimisation of Compressed Air Cost


Compressed air cost can be minimised broadly in two ways. One, by minimising wasteful consumption of compressed air i.e. by preventing compressed air leakages and secondly by improving the efficiency of compressors. Ways and means for both these aspects are discussed.

Preventing Air Leakages


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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Leakages usually occur in small openings; but the cumulative effect is great. Some tips for preventing the air leakage are given herewith. Standardise on good hose clamps; Inspect steam packing of valves in the system periodically, repack when necessary. Replace/repair leaky shut-off valves. Install condensate separators with automatic traps to eliminate the need for operators, opening the manual valve to clear water, thereby wasting air. Use good quality air hoses to avoid breaks and leaks.

Dont blow away your money!


Leaks may cost you significant amounts of money and CFM each year. A 1/16 leak may cost $523, 6.49 CFM A 1/8 leak may cost $2,095, 26 CFM A 1/4 leak may cost $8,382, 104 CFM

Improving Volumetric Efficiency of Air Compressors


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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Volumetric efficiency of an air compressor has a significant bearing on the operational cost of air compressors. Low volumetric efficiency results in higher per unit cost of compressed air. The main contributing factors for low efficiency are: Clogged air inlet filters. Obstruction at the inlet valve. Piston ring leakage. Hot inlet air. Inter cooler working inefficiently. Increase in impeller-diffuser clearance in case of centrifugal compressors. It is therefore, necessary to check the volumetric efficiency periodically and if it falls below stipulated value the compressor should be checked and attended.

Cost Reduction Opportunities


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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Cost reduction opportunities that were explored include reuse of plant air, compressor motor selection, optimizing compressor control schemes, recovering the heat of compression, ensuring that the distribution lines are properly configured and free of leaks, and determining the minimum pressure and flow requirements at the end use.

Air Intake
Typically, the air being compressed is taken from outside the plant, from air at ambient temperature and relative humidity. This creates wide varieties of conditions that the compressor has to be adjusted to meet. During the summer months, the compressor is under the greatest load. The volumetric flow rate of the inlet must be higher (around 10%) to provide the same SCFM (standard cubic feet per minute) during the summer months as in the winter. After air is used at its point of operation, it is added to the air already in the plant. This additional volume of air must leave the plant somehow, i.e. open doors, cracks in door and window frames, etc. This air that is being leaked from the plant would have much lower moisture content than the outside air. The air inside the plant will also have a higher density in the summer months due to a lower temperature. The implementation of a system that recovers the conditioned plant air may prove to be useful in
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

reducing air compression costs. The potential energy savings from reusing this already dry air could be significant when the conditions outside the plant are extremely hot and humid. Certain geographic locations would benefit more than others from this reuse which has extremely hot and humid summer months. The installation cost of such a system can be very high for an existing plant, but this option should be considered when a new plant is designed.

Compressor Motor Efficiency


Improvements in motor design have led to increased energy efficiency in motor operation. New motors that are suitable for textile manufacturing plants operate at an efficiency of 95%, comparing to motors designed 15 years ago at 90% or less. Over time, the efficiency of the motors may be reduced. It is not uncommon for the efficiency to drop several percentage points after 10 years of operation. High efficiency new motors should be considered when a replacement or major maintenance is needed on the motors.

Compressor Controls

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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Centrifugal compressors typically use inlet guide vanes to control the airflow through the compressor. This throttling is beneficial in that the efficiency is not reduced significantly with this method of control. The typical throttle range is down to around 80% of maximum airflow capacity. The highest efficiency is reached when the compressor is operating at 100% capacity. If air is not being used on the demand side as fast as it is being produced, the pressure will rise in the air receiver. A compressor (or multiple compressors) must be throttled to prevent this. All of the compressors should be operating at full capacity except for the one(s) being throttled. If the total compressor output is still greater than the demand after the compressor(s) has been throttled to their limit, air must be exhausted from the system through the blow-off valve. An appropriate control scheme can reduce or eliminate this wasteful blow-off. A precise compressor control scheme with little pressure variation is desired. The compressor does not need to produce air at a higher pressure than the minimum pressure required for proper plant operation. The typical pressure output by a compressor tends to fluctuate somewhat throughout the day. A good control scheme would minimize these fluctuations.

Distribution Lines
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

The distribution system represents a great source for energy savings. There are pressure drops associated with the flow through all equipment in the line, even in the piping itself. The pressure drop from the point of use and from the output of the compressor should be as low as possible. Equipment should be properly sized to give a minimum pressure drop. End use equipment should be evaluated so that it is using the lowest possible pressure and flow. The ultrasonic detector is able to focus the sensor at a specific point, making it suitable for detecting leaks while machinery is in operation. Escaping air produces the highest noise levels at a frequency around 40 kHz, well beyond the human audible frequency range. The device measures the loudness level at this frequency. Estimates of the amount of air can be obtained from the dB reading.

End Use
Compressed air savings at the end use leads to a direct reduction in the amount of compressed air needed for operation. A general rule of thumb is that 1 SCFM of air costs approximately $65 per year in a large manufacturing plant. Savings at end use can be achieved by either reducing the airflow through the equipment, or by lowering the pressure at the point of use. Lowering the pressure at end use will also have a natural flow reduction effect.
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

The flow and pressure reduction must occur without impacting performance. Manufacturing plants should continually monitor production equipment to make sure the minimum pressure and airflow are being used.

Physical properties and characteristics of yarn


Several physical properties and characteristics of yarn are thought to have an effect on yarn velocity in air jet weaving applications. The yarn characteristic thought to have the most effect on yarn velocity (and therefore, Air Index value) is the yarn hairiness, which is a quantitative means of describing the surface roughness of a cotton-based spun yarn. Yarn hairiness is a means of counting the broken fibers that protrude from the surface of a spun yarn, giving the yarn a fuzzy appearance. It is hypothesized that yarns with higher hairiness values will result in higher Air Index values, due to an increase in surface area of the yarn for the air to push on; i.e., an increased aerodynamic drag. Other physical characteristics of yarn will be investigated in this report to determine whether or not they have an influence on Air Index value, especially yarn count. The count of a spun yarn is a numerical designation of yarn size that relates the length of the
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

yarn to its weight, as well as describing its diameter. The higher the yarn count, the smaller the diameter and density of the yarn is, so it is thought that higher yarn counts will result in higher Air Index values. This is due to the increased surface area-to-mass ratio as yarn count is increased.

Figure: Schematic of Air-Jet Weaving Machine and Process

Fig. shows a schematic of a typical air-jet weaving machine with the primary machine components labeled. As previously mentioned, air-jet weaving is a process that uses compressed air to drive filling yarn perpendicular to and through a warp. The warp is a set of longitudinal yarn threads on a large spool that runs parallel to the selvage (fabric edge) and is interwoven with the filling. The filling yarn is supplied to the pre winder, which wraps the yarn until the correct pick length has been detected. The pick is the length of yarn required to be woven into a particular width of fabric. The pick is then supplied to the
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Programmable Filling Tensioner (PFT) which stretches the pick so that there is enough tension for the pick to travel through the air nozzles. A fixed air nozzle at the end of the PFT uses compressed air at high pressures to move the pick to the movable main nozzle, which then sends the pick in air across the reed. The reed is a comb-like device that separates warp ends to provide a tunnel (known as the shed) for the pick to travel through and also beats each succeeding filling thread against that already woven. The filling detector at the end of the machine senses the arrival of the pick, which is cut by two electric cutters at opposite ends of the woven fabric, and the process is repeated. The movable main nozzle provides the major force on the yarn during the pick insertion process. To assist in moving the pick through the shed, a set of relay nozzles are incorporated across the shed and are sequentially activated to prevent pick buckling and maintain velocity. The overall forces that the pick experiences during insertion is the sum of the forces applied from the fixed, moving, and relay nozzles minus friction forces from the reed insertion channel and pre winder. In order to successfully weave fabric via air-jet weaving, some of the components of the air-jet weaving machine must constantly rotate at high rotational velocities. Beginning with the movable main nozzle, the entire shed rotates at rotational velocities of up to
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

1000 RPM. Filling insertion usually begins somewhere between 70 and 90 degrees of rotation, and the pick arrives at the filling detector anywhere between 200 and 300 degrees, depending on the user-programmed specifications. The amount of time it takes the pick to travel from the pre winder to the filling detector is defined as the arrival time and is also specified in degrees of rotation. However, if the rotational velocity (often expressed in RPM) the machine is operating at is known, the arrival time can be easily converted to a time unit, usually milliseconds. Typical air-jet weaving machines have two filling insertion channels that alternate consecutively as to which channel is providing the pick to be woven. The arrival time, and therefore the speed at which the pick travels through the shed, is primarily governed by the air efficiency of the filling yarn. Therefore, the arrival time is used by weavers as a means of indicating how well the yarn is matched up to the amount of air being applied to send the pick through the shed. However, pick insertion is a process in which many errors can occur. A filling stop is a temporary weaving machine shut down that occurs when there is an error in the process of the pick traveling from end to end in the shed during weaving. There are many causes of filling stops in air jet weaving, and the microprocessor of the weaving machine detects and records filling errors, temporarily shutting down the machine until a weaver
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

corrects the mishap and restarts the machine. Filling stops result in monetary losses for the weaver and affect the efficiency of the fabric manufacturing process. The complete filling insertion process is complex and difficult to simulate. Studies have been performed to simulate insertion and understand yarn behavior in air during weaving, but the results of these tests often differ from the actual insertion procedure on the weaving machine. The Air Index tester can be used to measure the ability of a particular yarn to be woven in airjet weaving applications. The Air Index provides a means of checking the regularity of a particular yarn style in air-jet weaving, which can be used as a way of benchmarking different yarn suppliers. In addition, it can also be used to provide an additional criterion for choosing weaving machine settings, permitting the possibility of reduced air consumption requirements in

manufacturing a particular style of cloth. As previously mentioned, the two yarn properties thought to have the most influence on Air Index are yarn count and hairiness. The hairiness of a yarn is a quantitative way to describe the surface roughness of a cottonbased spun yarn. The most common method of measuring yarn hairiness is the Zweigle yarn Hairiness Tester, which

microscopically counts the number of protruding fiber ends over twelve different length groups. These lengths range from 1 to 25
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

mm, and the results are presented in the form of a histogram and as a numerical representation of frequency distribution. The Shirley Hairiness Meter, on the other hand, provides a means of measuring the absolute hairiness of a yarn by counting the frequency of hairs at any specified length between 1 and 10 mm. Yarn types can be classified by a number of ways. For cotton-based spun yarns, the yarn is generally classified by its count, with the measured count value rounded to the nearest whole number. Most yarn suppliers manufacture spun yarns in a manner to achieve a count very close to the whole number count value being produced. Synthetic yarns (filaments) are often classified by their denier, which is a unit of measure for the linear mass density of fibers. Denier is defined as the mass of a fiber strand in grams per 9000 meters. The denier system is used in the United States to number synthetic filaments, with higher deniers corresponding to heavier filaments. It is common practice to number synthetic filaments based on the denier system by a set of three numbers, each corresponding to a different quantity. This relationship is beneficial to the manufacturer for two main reasons. First, it allows the weaver to determine which manufacturer of a particular yarn style is going to be more economic to use in air jet weaving. Since higher Air Index values result in quicker arrival times, packages of yarn with higher Air
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Index values will require less air consumption to travel from one end of the weaving machine to the other during manufacturing. This presents the opportunity for a monetary savings in energy cost since less air is required to weave that particular style, and energy costs are a big contributor to the overall manufacturing cost in a weaving plant. In addition to energy cost reduction opportunities, the relationship between Air Index value and arrival time could be used to help determine optimal weaving machine settings for that particular yarn style. Although the exact relationships between Air Index value and arrival time are not known for every style of yarn in air jet weaving applications, the possibility exists that Air Index values could be used to determine expected arrival times at a given air pressure for all styles.

Measure steps to reduce air consumption


Ultra sonic cleaning Cleaning of main nozzle, relay nozzle, air filter, hose pipes etc. ultra sonic cleaning is important to maintaining the efficiency of weaving. It should avoid the damaged or error portion of the surface so such condition of deposition is micro fiber can drop the
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

pressure of air blowing through it so these can be avoided due to these cleaning.

Opening nozzle

&

closing

timing

of

Correction made delayed opening loss pressure through valve enhance the efficiency of machine. Early opening will reduce the air consumption. Improper opening & closing timing of valves lead to undue stress on yarn thereby leading to break. After proper adjustment the no. of end breaks can be reduced. The air consumption can be reduced up to 5 to 6%.

Pressure on the nozzle


Pressure on nozzle has more impact on the m/c performance. pressure

Improper

adjustment will causes the weft stop during working so quality & productivity can be minimized. To avoid the problem, proper setting of pressure can be required. These can be adjusted according to count, rpm, width of m/c. Proper combination between main & relay nozzle will reduce the air consumption.
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Setting of nozzle
1- Distance between two nozzles - Improper setting between to relay nozzle will cause to variation in air pressure and will cause m/c performance to be in decreasing the air consumption will be unnecessary increases.

2- Nozzle height Proper height setting of relay nozzle will causes reduction in air pressure during weft insertion & air consumption can be reduced. Proper setting of the nozzle height will provide the uniform displacement of yarn during insertion. 3- Nozzle angle- For uniform weft insertion of yarn during insertion proper nozzle angle will reduce air consumption. Pressure required for insertion can be reduced.
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Multi hole versus single hole


The multi hole relay nozzles guarantee a very stable blowing angle at different pressure levels. This is recommended for style changes that require different relay nozzle pressure settings. The single-hole nozzles need to be adjusted by hand whereas multi-hole nozzles keep their blowing angle stable and do not need any adjustment or fine tuning. Due to the pre-given horizontal and vertical jetting angles, the multi-hole nozzle requires less space between the warp yarns, which prevents nozzle marks in your fabric. The multi hole pattern allows also a more efficient air stream, thus delivering a better performance over single hole nozzles, giving up to 15% higher yarn speed for the same air consumption. Single-hole nozzles are recommended in case of a dusty environment or low air quality.

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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

The perfect nozzle for any air jet loom


Over 40 years ago, Te Strake Textile revolutionized weaving with the introduction of its unique air jet weaving system. Today, Te Strake Textile is worldwide recognized as the trendsetter and innovator in air insertion technology. With their complete range of relay nozzles, Te Strake Textile delivers the perfect relay nozzle for your needs, no matter which loom type you are using.

Innovation for better weaving performance


D-type relay nozzle Based on their extensive experience in air insertion technology, Te Strake Textile takes another step in air jet weaving with its innovative D-type nozzle. This D-type nozzle incorporates unique characteristics to outperform any other model in terms of:

Reduced weft stops Improved machine performance Extra stability of nozzle body Prevention of nozzle marks Reduction of air consumption
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Increased lifetime

Unique body design


The new design makes the D-type nozzle the most robust and stable nozzle currently available, with up to 45% higher resistance to deformation. This stronger nozzle requires an absolute minimum of adjustments for higher productivity.

New nozzle head


With the successful experience of a round or convex nozzle head, the D-type nozzle head has been further optimized for better fabric quality. Filamentation, nozzle marks or having your warp yarns staying on top of the nozzle, belong now to the past.

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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Different hole patterns


The D-type nozzle is available with different hole patterns (1 7 16 19 holes) to suit your specific need. The highest performance is given by the 16 hole nozzle, offering you specific benefits.

Different types of nozzles

C TYPE

S TYPE

D TYPE

B TYPE

Insertion time
With the revolutionary 16-hole pattern, the air stream is now perfectly parallel to the warp yarns, thus making maximum use of the insertion time. As a result, higher weaving speed for increased productivity or a gentler yarn passage for better fabric quality is guaranteed.
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Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Higher performance
The D-type 16 hole nozzle can offer you significant cost savings. This nozzle can generate the same yarn speed with less air consumption in some cases up to 15 20 % depending on the weaving condition. Either, with the same air consumption, you are able to increase the yarn speed.

DLC Coating
The D-type nozzles are exclusively coated with Diamond-Like carbon coating which is superior to any other coating. It increases life time up to 5 times and avoids wear and yarn cuts. DLC coating is therefore specially recommended for abrasive warp yarns.

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Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Control of sub-nozzles

Control of sub-nozzles by increased groups conventionally, as in Fig. 02; sub-nozzles are arranged in groups of 4 nozzles. An electro-magnetic valve is attached to each group and the subnozzles of the same group jet simultaneously. Tsudakomas new arrangement, as in Figure 3, has an electro-magnetic valve with a smaller inner volume so that it matches to 2 sub-nozzles. The control of valve is improved, and extra jetting time is reduced.

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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Improvement of nozzle for feeding the filling and reed

The main nozzle pulls the filling with compressed air and guides it to the air guide of the reed as in Figure 4. A Laval-type nozzle: the interior is wider at one end than the other. The nozzles pulling force is increased by 30%, and air consumption of the main nozzle is reduced by 10%. (Compared with the cylindrical nozzle) In addition, the sub-nozzles use almost all of the air consumption in the air jet loom because of their number. Tsudakoma invented a new sub-nozzle. The part around
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Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

the jetting outlet of the new sub-nozzle is hollowed (See Figure 5), and the flow speed is increased by 10%. Because the filling does not touch the edge of the jetting outlet, damage to the filling is lowered. For the reed, the air guide of the reed for feeding the filling is narrowed, and the air flow speed is raised.

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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

ACTION PLAN
Selection of machines working with same fabric qualities. Study of air consumption on selected machines. Factors responsible for variation in air consumption. Air leakages and its effect on air consumption.

Check points
1) Distance of machine from compressor A] Leakages B] Bends in pipe 2) Settings:A] Shedding 1. Shedding height 2. Shed angle B] Picking 1. Nozzle settings 2. Opening & closing time 3. Distance between the nozzles 4. No of nozzles 5. Weft insertion rate
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Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

C] Timing Opening & closing timing of main nozzle, Tandem nozzle, relay nozzle, stretch nozzle. D] Machine maintenance 1. Condition of gears, belts, oiling and greasing 2. Condition of spares i.e. healds, reeds 3. Machine cleaning E] Worker practices F] Vibration of machines G] Air leakages

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Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Experimental details
Firstly, we have studied about two looms i.e. A & B having same sorts but running with different settings. Loom A Model: TSUDAKOMA ZAX 9100 Professional. Loom speed: 517 rpm Sort particular: 80*80 120 (satin weave) 208*88*2 Insertion start timing: 90o Arrival set: 250o On 68o 78o 78o 350o Off 260o 190o 180o 34o

Pin Main Aux. Main Cutting

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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Relay nozzle timings (o): Loom A On Off 80 156 86 162 94 168 100 174 106 180 112 186 120 194 126 200 132 206 138 212 146 220 152 223 158 232 164 240 172 246 178 254 184 260 190 266 198 270 204 274 210 276 216 278 224 280 228 282 232 284

Valve no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Difference 76 76 74 74 74 74 70 74 74 74 74 71 74 76 74 76 76 76 72 70 66 62 56 54 52

Air consumed: 41.5 44 cfm


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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Loom B Model: TSUDAKOMA ZAX 9100 Professional. Loom speed: 516 rpm Sort particular: 80*80 120 (satin weave) 208*88*2 Insertion start timing: 88o Arrival set: 250o On 72o 82o 82o 350o Off 260o 192o 182o 34o

Pin Main Aux. Main Cutting

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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Relay nozzle timings (o): Loom B On Off 82 152 88 158 94 164 100 170 106 176 112 182 120 190 126 196 132 202 138 208 146 216 152 222 158 228 164 234 172 242 178 248 184 254 190 256 198 262 204 266 210 270 216 272 224 278 228 282 234 284

Valve no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Difference 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 66 64 62 60 56 54 54 50

Air consumed: 40 43 cfm


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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Though, the qualities on both the looms are same, due to different settings the requirement of compressed air on these looms showed difference. On loom B, we have taken same count of yarn i.e. 80s but of different companies/makes and following studies were taken: Yarn
s

Pressure (kg/cm2 or bar) M1 M2 S 2.5

Yarn arrival Avg. Earliest C1 251 248 C2 C1 C2 C1 248 258 255 258 250 246 254 250 256 248 Latest 254 248 260 258 260 254

80 Indo count 2.0 2.2 combed 80s Compact yarn 2.2 2.2 combed 80s Compact slip 2.2 2.2 spinning mills

2.3

2.4

C2

This shows that, even the same count being weaved, the pressure requirement i.e. the compressed air requirement for them vary due to different makes or companies.

41

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Now we observed loom C & D. Quality particular: 60*60 119.2 (2/1 twill weave) 178*58*2 Loom speed: 520 rpm Loom C 86 240 Loom D 88 238

Insertion timing Arrival set

Loom C C1 & C2 Pin Main Aux. Main Cutting On 72 82 82 350 Off 260 192 182 34

Loom D
On 72 82 82 350 Off 260 190 180 34

On loom C: We changed the opening timings of relay nozzles and following observations were made: When relay nozzles opens at 82 and closes at 282, the air consumption is 52.5-54 cfm. And when relay nozzles opens at 86 and closes at 282, the air consumption is 49-50.5 cfm.

42

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

On loom D: 1) We changed insertion and arrival timings and following observations were made: Sr. no. Insertion Arrival Pressure (kg/cm2 or bar) M1 M2 S 1.9 1.9 2.6 2.8 2.8 3.2 2.2 2.0 3.0 Cfm

1. 2. 3.

78 98 88

226 225 238

47.5-49 52-54 48-49.5

2) We changed the opening timings of relay nozzles and following observations were made: Sr. no. 1. 2. Opening 84 86 Closing 278 276 Cfm 50-51.5 49.5-50.5

3) We changed the nozzle angle by relay nozzle angle gauge of first seven relay nozzles following observations were made: a) Firstly angle was made to 7o Nozzle angle Arrival set Pick arrival Pressure Cfm 2 time (kg/cm or bar) C1 C2 M1 M2 S Avg. 251 253 Ear. 248 248 2.0 2.1 3.2 49.5-51 Lat. 260 264

238

43

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Then we increased some pressure, Nozzle angle Arrival set Pick arrival Cfm Pressure 2 time (kg/cm or bar) C1 C2 M1 M2 S Avg. 241 243 Ear. 238 240 2.2 2.2 3.4 52.5-54.5 Lat. 246 246

238

We observed here more fillings. b) Now, we changed the nozzle angle to 0o Nozzle angle Arrival set Pick arrival Cfm Pressure 2 time (kg/cm or bar) C1 C2 M1 M2 S Avg. 238 237 Ear. 234 236 2.2 2.2 3.4 52.5-54.5 Lat. 242 240

238

Then we decreased some pressure, Pick arrival Pressure Nozzle Arrival angle set time (kg/cm2 or bar) C1 C2 M1 M2 S Avg. 257 257 0 238 Ear. 254 254 1.8 1.8 2.8 Lat. 264 260 We observed excessive fillings here.

Cfm

48-49.5

44

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Then with some increase in pressure, Nozzle angle Arrival set Cfm Pick arrival Pressure 2 time (kg/cm or bar) C1 C2 M1 M2 S Avg. 244 244 Ear. 240 240 1.9 2.1 3.2 51.5-53.5 Lat. 248 248

238

Here also fillings were more. c) Now, the angle is changed to the 2o again which was at start of changing the nozzle angles. Nozzle angle Arrival set Pick arrival Pressure time (kg/cm2 or bar) C1 C2 M1 M2 S Avg. 241 242 Ear. 240 240 2.0 2.1 3.2 Lat. 244 246 Cfm

238

51.5-53

At relay nozzle angle of 70, Though less pressure is required, it gave moderate filling stops. At relay nozzle angle of 00, Compared to above the pressure required was less, but it gave excessive filling stops. Even then by increasing some pressure the filling stops were unavoidable.

45

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

At relay nozzle angle of 20, Though some more pressure was required, the loom performance was good. 4) We changed the opening and closing time of each individual relay nozzle valve: Relay nozzle timings (o): Loom D On Off 86 144 92 146 98 154 104 160 112 168 118 174 124 180 130 186 136 192 142 198 148 204 156 212 162 218 168 224 174 230 180 236 186 242 192 248 200 256 206 262 212 260 218 270 224 270 230 270

Valve no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Difference 58 54 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 48 52 46 40
46

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

By these relay nozzle valve timings, we have succeeded in reducing the air consumption up to 44.5-46.5 cfm with a good running of loom.

Loom E: Quality particulars: 56cvc*40cvc 123.2 148*55*2 Loom speed: 527 rpm Insertion start timing: 84o Arrival set: 234o On 70o 78o 78o 350o Off 260o 188o 178o 34o

Pin Main Aux. Main Cutting

Now, this time we have played with the settings of relay nozzles of loom E and following observations were made:

47

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Relay nozzle timings (o) on loom E: Mill settings On Off 72 146 78 150 84 156 90 164 96 168 102 174 108 180 114 186 120 192 126 198 132 204 138 210 144 216 152 224 158 230 164 236 170 242 176 248 182 254 188 260 194 264 200 268 206 272 210 274 214 274

Valve no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Difference 72 72 72 74 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 70 68 66 64 60

48

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

By these timings, we found Pick arrival timings Average Earliest Latest 233 230 236 233 232 238

C1 C2

Here air consumption was 64.5-66 cfm. There was some leakage in the pre-winder knob. After removing that leakage, i.e. by replacing it, air consumption was reduced to 63-64.5 cfm.

49

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Then we have changed the relay nozzle settings, Our settings On Off 80 144 84 148 90 154 96 160 102 166 108 172 114 178 120 184 126 190 132 196 138 202 144 208 150 214 158 222 164 228 170 234 176 240 182 246 188 252 194 258 198 262 204 266 208 270 212 272 216 272

Valve no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Difference 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 62 62 60 56

50

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

By our settings, following was the observation: Pick arrival timings Average 236 236 Earliest 232 234 Latest 238 240 Pressure (kg/cm2 or bar) M1 M2 S 2.8 2.8 3.8

C1 C2

Air consumption = 57-58.5 cfm.

Running of loom E with mill and our settings, Mill settings (shift-1) 86.1% 7hr 55min 525rpm 2.141 24 19.8 min 49 65.8 min C1 C2 17 5 2 23 Our settings (shift-2) 91.4% 8hrs 524rpm 2.297 20 14.1 min 43 41 min C1 C2 10 7 1 2 17 3

Efficiency Time Loom speed Woven cmpx Fillings break Down time Total break Down time Stop analysis: H1 H2 Dropper Others

51

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Loom F: Sort particular: 56cvc*40cvc 148*55*2

123.2

Loom speed: 543 rpm Insertion start timing: 86o Arrival set: 240o On Pin Main Aux. Main Cutting 72o 82o 82o 350o Off 260o 188o 178o 34o

52

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Relay nozzle valve settings: Mill settings On Off 80 144 80 150 86 156 92 162 98 168 104 174 110 180 116 186 122 192 128 198 134 204 140 210 146 216 152 222 158 228 164 234 170 240 176 246 182 252 188 258 194 264 200 268 206 272 214 280 220 282

Valve no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Difference 64 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 68 66 66 62

53

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Pick arrival timings Average 242 239 Earliest 238 236 Latest 244 244

C1 C2

Pressure (kg/cm2 or bar) M1 M2 S 3.4 3.0 4.8

Air consumption: 75.5-77.5 cfm. Now, we have reduced some pressure, Pick arrival timings Average 244 245 Earliest 240 240 Latest 248 248 Pressure (kg/cm2 or bar) M1 M2 S 2.9 2.8 4.0

C1 C2

Air consumption: 72-73.5 rpm

54

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Now, we have changed the relay nozzle timings, Relay nozzle valve timings set by us, Our settings On Off 88 138 88 144 94 150 100 156 106 162 112 168 118 174 124 180 130 186 136 192 142 198 148 204 154 210 160 216 166 222 172 228 178 234 184 240 190 246 196 252 202 258 208 262 214 266 222 274 228 276

Valve no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Difference 50 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 54 52 52 48

55

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Pick arrival timings Average 244 245 Earliest 240 240 Latest 248 240

C1 C2

Pressure (kg/cm2 or bar) M1 M2 S 2.7 2.7 4.1

Air consumption: 65.5-67.5 cfm.

Loom G: Loom speed: 593 rpm Sort particular: 40*40 115.6 (plain weave) 106*86 Insertion start timing: 84o Arrival set: 240o On 66o 78o 78o 350o Off 260o 188o 178o 34o

Pin Main Aux. Main Cutting

56

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Relay nozzle timings by mill, Mill settings On Off 78 146 78 150 84 156 92 164 98 168 104 174 112 180 118 186 124 192 130 198 138 204 144 210 150 216 158 224 164 230 170 236 176 242 184 248 190 254 196 260 204 264 210 268 216 272 224 274

Valve no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Difference 68 72 72 72 70 70 68 68 68 68 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 64 64 64 60 58 56 50

57

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

On these settings, Pick arrival timings Average 246 246 Earliest 244 242 Latest 252 252 Pressure (kg/cm2 or bar) M1 M2 S 2.4 2.4 3.6

C1 C2

Air consumption: 60.5-62.5 cfm. Following are the settings changed by us, Insertion start timing: 78o Arrival set: 236o On 58o 70o 70o Off 260o 160o 170o

Pin Main Aux. Main

58

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Relay nozzle timings: Our settings On Off 74 132 76 132 80 136 86 142 92 148 100 156 106 162 112 168 120 176 126 182 132 188 140 196 146 202 152 208 160 216 166 222 172 228 180 236 186 244 192 252 198 258 206 266 212 266 220 268

Valve no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Difference 58 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 58 60 60 60 54 48

59

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

On these settings, Pick arrival timings Average 240 241 Earliest 234 238 Latest 244 246 Pressure (kg/cm2 or bar) M1 M2 S 2.3 2.3 2.9

C1 C2

Air consumption: 50-51 cfm. Running of loom no 73 with mill and our settings, Mill settings (shift-1) Our settings (shift-2) Efficiency 92.6% 93.2% Time 8hrs 8hrs Loom speed 593rpm 593rpm Woven cmpx 2.632 2.712 Fillings break 27 22 Warp break 7 5 Total break 40 30 Stop analysis: C1 C2 C1 C2 H1 16 09 12 7 H2 2 3

Firstly, we have changed i.e. played with single settings like relay nozzle timings, angle, opening and closing timing of different valves, insertion & arrival, etc. and got some reduction in the consumption of compressed air. Then we decided to do all the settings on a single loom and observed that, there is significant reduction in the consumption of compressed air.
60

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Factors affecting increase and decrease in the air consumption


Opening time of the relay nozzles & main nozzle. Air pressure on relay nozzles & main nozzle. Power fluctuation. Coils on pre-winder. Proper alignment of 270 o. Pin setting- more space is less pressure. Yarn tension- yarn turns on guide. Nozzle height & angle. Waste present on reed support. Filter cleaning. WBS setting. Increase in the yarn tension, increases the pressure.

61

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Effect of costing
The main aim of our project was to save the compressed air required for the air jet weaving which is a major cost element in the fabric costing i.e. about 40%. And by saving this compressed air we can make the profits of our company by saving power units required. Because of this, fabric conversion cost is also reduced. We have saved about 11cfm in our project. So, its cost calculation is as below.

Saving = 11cfm 1kwh = 5.5cfm 1kwh = Rs 2.98 Therefore, 5.5cfm = Rs 2.98 We have saved 11cfm. So, savings = Rs 5.96/ hr/ loom = Rs 52209/ year/ loom = Rs 6682828/ year/ 128 looms

Earning of about Rs 67 lakhs/ year for the shed of 128 looms by saving 11cfm/ loom is possible. So, this gives additional turnover of Rs 67lakhs in the company without investing any money. The above calculations are in terms of only compressed air, the effect of it on fabric cost is as below:
62

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Power cost is directly proportional to fabric cost.

Expecting, fabric cost to be Rs X at 61cfm. Now we have saved 11cfm.

Therefore fabric cost will be: X-Y @ 50cfm Where, Y = (saved cfm x 2.98) / 5.5 5.5 is cfm generated/ kWh 2.98 is Rs/ kWh Other all parameters of cost remain same. Only power cost is deducted.

63

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Conclusion
This study showed that the weaving mills could obtain considerable saving in energy cost by just improving the work practices and by avoiding ignorance in settings. We could reduce air consumption by about 18% on a loom by achieving shortest possible blowing time of various nozzles, and optimizing this setting by trial and error method without affecting the performance of loom and quality of fabric. We have saved about Rs 52 thousand by saving 11cfm per loom in our project.

64

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

Future scope for the project


In a decentralized sector like Ichalkaranji, till now there may be only 500 Air jet looms but in future they will surely increase. But in this sectors owner dont know or they dont think about the cost of air, wasting a lot of compressed air and money behind that. They dont think about small leakages & extra opening timings of different types of valves, extra pressure etc. They think what is it going to cost to them, and they neglect it. But if we convince them & make aware about the cost of the compressed air and go practically & save the compressed air which can give lakhs of profits to the owner and also less consumption of energy. By this, fabric cost will also be reduced.

65

D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

REFERENCES MADE FOR PROJECT WORK


Literature Cited 1. Adanur, S., "Air-Jet Filling Insertion: Velocity Measurement and Influence of Yarn Structure", M.S. Thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 1985.

2. Adanur, S., "Air-Jet Dynamic Analysis of Single NozzleAir_Jet Filling Insertion", Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 1989. 3. Adanur, S., and Mohamed, M. H., Analysis of Air Flow in Air-Jet Filling Insertion, Text. Res. J., 61(5), 253-258 (1991). 4. Adanur, S., and Bakhtiyarov, S., Analysis of Air Flow in Single Nozzle Air-Jet Filling Insertion: Corrugated Channel Model, Text. Res. J., 66(6), 401-406 (1996). 5. Adanur, S., and Turel, T., Effects of Air and Yarn Characteristics in Air-Jet Filling Insertion Part II: Yarn Velocity Measurements with a Profiled Reed, Text. Res. J., 74(8), 657-661 (2004). 6. Mohamed, M. H., and Salama, M., Mechanics of a Single Nozzle Air-Jet Filling Insertion System Part I: Nozzle Design and Performance, Text. Res. J., 56(11), 683-690 (1986). 7. Krause, H. W., "The Air-Jet Weaving Machine in Practical Use", Melliand Textilberichte (Eng. Ed.), September, 1980.

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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

8. Kissling, U., "Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Weft Insertion by Air-Jet", Melliand Textilberichte (Eng. Ed.), February, 1985. 9. Ishida, T, "Air-Jet Loom, Present and Future, Part 5: Technical Problems Caused by Air-Jet", JTN, November, 1982. 10. Hasegawa, J., et al., A Study of Weft Insertion System on Air-Jet Loom, in "ASME Textile Engineering Conference, Raleigh, NC", 1981. 11. Poppe, T., "The Influence of Rotor Yarn Properties on Air Consumption in Air Jet Weaving", Master's Thesis, Institute of Textile and Process Technology, University of Stuttgart, 1995. 12. Wahhoud, A., "Investigations into the Behavior of Yarns in Pneumatic Weft Insertion", Melliand Textilberichte (Eng. Ed.), April, 1983. 13. Tarabadkar, S. A., Sharma, H. M., and Yadav, D. H., "Assessment of Compressed Air Requirement for Spinning and Weaving Machines", Vol. XXXI, No. 3, The Bombay Textile Research Association, September, 2001. 14. Ishida, M., and Okajima, A., Flow Characteristics of the Main Nozzle in an Air-Jet Loom Part I: Measuring Flow in the Main Nozzle, Text. Res. J., 64(1), 10-20 (1994).More Articles of Interest

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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.

Study of AIR CONSUMPTION on AIR JET weaving machines.

15. Ishida, M., and Okajima, A., Flow Characteristics of the Main Nozzle in an Air-Jet Loom Part II: Measuring High Speed Jet Flows from the Main Nozzle and Weft Drag Forces, Text. Res. J., 64(2), 88-100 (1994). 16. Jeong, S. Y., Kim, K. H., Choi, J. H., and Lee, C. K., Design of the Main Nozzle with Different Acceleration Tube and Diameter in an Air-Jet Loom, Int. J. Precision Eng. Manufact., 6(1), 23-30 (2005). 17. Picanol NV, "The Air Index, a New Reference for Yarn Evaluation", Picanol News, October, 8-11 (2001). 18. Picanol NV, Picanol News, June, 17-27 (2006). 19. www.lindauer-dornier.com (date of access: 21.09.2007) 20. www.sultex.com/15500-e.pdf (date of access: 21.09.2007) 21. www.toyotaindustries.com/textile/products/weaving_jat710 (date of access: 21.09.2007) 22. www.tsudakoma.co.jp/textile/english/product/1000.html (date of access: 21.09.2007) 23. Adanur, S., "Handbook of Weaving", Technomic Publishing Company, Inc., U.S.A., 2001. 24. Ajmeri, J. R., and Ajmeri, C. J., Electronic Controls for Efficient Filling Insertion, Pakistan Textile J., June, 2004.
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D.K.T.E's, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji.