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Cagayan de Oro College PHINMA Education Network Carmen Cagayan de Oro City



DEFINITION OF TERMS: Admission-is a self-incriminating statement falling short of acknowledgement of guilt. Black lie- is a kind of lie used by a person to deceive others. Blood Pressure Cuff Assembly- part of the cardio component attached on the right arm of the subject. Cardiospygmograph- a device which consist of blood pressure cuff and rubber pump and is fastened around the subjects right arm. It records the changes in pulse rate and blood pressure. Chart or Polygrams- refers to the composite record of the pneumograph, galvanograph, and cardiosphygmograph tracing recorded from one series of questions. Circumstantial evidence- is a series of events upon which the guilt or innocence of a person is inferred. Confession- is the voluntary statement made by a person and given to proper authorities herein he acknowledged himself to be guilty of an offense and discloses circumstances of his felonious act of the share and participation which he had in it. Control Questions- these are answerable by NO and it is designed to produce a resonse from an innocent subject. Deception- is an act of deceiving or misleading usually accomplished by lying. Detection-is an act of discovering the existence, presence or fact of something hidden or obscure. Dicrotic Notch- is a short horizontal line on cardio tracing located at the middle of diastolic stern. Emotion- is an acute disturbance of an individual as a whole, psychological in origin involving behavior conscious experience and visceral functions. Evidence Connecting Questions- these are intended to stimulate the subject and focus his attention on the probability of incriminating proof that would tend to establish his guilt. Examiner or Polygraph expert-is one who is conducting polygraph examination. Finger Electrode Plate- a part of the galvanograph assembly attached on the left fingers of the subject. Fear- is an emotional response to specific danger that appears to be beyond the persons defensive power. Keymograph- is a motorized component of the polygraph machine that pull or drive the chart paper under the recording pen at the rate of 6 to 12 inches per minute. Lying- is the, with conveying or uttering of the falsehood or misleading impression the intention of affecting wrongfully the acts, opinion or affection to another. Lie detector Machine-is a device or instrument that helps determine whether the person is telling a lie or the truth. Normal Response- a tracing on the chart wherein the subject answered the irrelevant questions. Normal Tracing- a tracing of the subject which produced when no irrelevant question was asked. Galvanograph- a component part of a polygraph machine that is used to record the subjects skin resistance to a small amount of electricity. It is made up of electrodes attached to the finger of the left hand, or to the index and ring finger of the left hand or to the palmar or dorsal surface of the left hand.

General Question Test-consists of a series of irrelevant and relevant questions ask in a planned manner. Heredity- is the transmission of mental and physical traits from parents to offspring. Irrelevant Questions-are those query that do not relate to the matter under investigation and deals with a known fact which the subject cannot lie.

Peak of Tension Test- this is answerable only by NO and this test is only made possible when there is no widespread publicity about a crime where intimate details as to the method of commission of certain facts of the case is only known by the suspect, the victim and the investigator. Keymograph- is a motorized component of the polygraph machine that pull or drive the chart paper under the recording pen at the rate of 6 to 12 inches per minute. Lying- is the conveying or uttering of the falsehood or misleading impression, with the intention of affecting wrongfully the acts, opinion or affection to another. Lie detector Machine-is a device or instrument that helps determine whether the person is telling a lie or the truth. Normal Response- a tracing on the chart wherein the subject answered the irrelevant questions. Normal Tracing- a tracing of the subject which produced when no irrelevant question was asked. Pneumograph-is a device which records the changes of respiration and breathing of the subject, consisting of a ten (10) inches convoluted tubes fastened together around the subjects abdomen and chest. Polygraphy- is the scientific method of detecting deception with the use of a polygraph machine. Reaction- refers to any activity aroused in an organism by a stimulus. It is an action or mental attitude induced by an external influence. Relevant Questions-are direct query having precise and specific relation with the felony. It is designed to produce emotional response in the subjects trying to craft deceptive statements. It is answerable by NO. Response- refers to any inhibition or activity of previous motion of an organism or of effector organ or part of the organism resulting from stimulation or suggestion. Specific Response-is any variation or deviation from the normal tracing of the subject. Spygmomanometer-is the part of the cardio component which indicates the air pressure in the system in millimeter of mercury. Stimulus-refers to the motion or force reaching the organism and excite the receptors. It is a force that produces the organism or any of its part to activity. Strong Relevant Question-refers to a verbal motivation of primary importance projected in a form of a question which overcomes the psychological excitement level and causes three major component tracing change from the subjects psychological norm. Subject or the examinee is a person undergoing a polygraph examination or test. Weak Relevant Questions- are secondary queries which are concerned with the less important elements of the offense and deals mostly on guilty knowledge and partial involvement.

METHODS OF DETECTING DECEPTION Balance ordeal Boiling water ordeal Donkeys tail ordeal Red Hot Iron Ordeal

Red Water Ordeal Rice Chewing Ordeal SCIENTIFIC METHODS OF DETECTING DECEPTION Polygraph Examination Word Association Test Use of Hypnotism Use of Alcoholic Beverages Administration of Truth Serum or Narco-analysis Test SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF EMOTIONAL TENSION Color change Sweating Inability to look straight in the investigators eyes Change in heart rate and pulse beat Holding of breath Dryness of mouth and throat Peculiar and unusual expression Unusual behavior KINDS OF LIE White lie Black lie Red lie Malicious lie

KINDS OF LIAR Pathological Professional MAJOR COMPONENTS OF A POLYGRAPH MACHINE Cardio-sphygmograph Component Blood pressure cuff which is to the upper right arm of the subject, slightly above the brachial artery. Sphygmomanometer which is utilized to indicate the amount of air pressure inflated to the system. Pump bulb assembly which inflates air into the system, also known as an air pump it has a hose connecting the blood pressure cuff through which the blood pressure changes and passed into the recording pen. Resonance control unit which is used for reducing or increasing the amount of air pressure to reach the brass bellows (tambour) and thus reduce or increase the amplitude of pen excursions.

Centering control which is used to provide adjustment of the tracing so that the composite records pattern would be on the guideline. Vent which provides the means by which air in the system can be released. Recording pen (5 inches long) which is used to record blood pressure pulse rate changes on the chart paper by means of a five (5) inch recording pen. Pioneers that contributed to the development & use of the Cardiospyghmograph in lie detection:

Cesare Lombroso An Italian scientist who in 1885 used hydrospygmograph procedure and was credited to be the pioneer who envisioned the idea of using scientific procedures to lie detection. He is considered as the first person to use an instrument for the purpose of detecting deception. Angelo Mosso A pioneer who developed in 1895 a type of sphygmanometer and utilized a scientific cradle and focus on the significance of fear as an indication of deception. Dr. William Moulton Marston (1893-1947) was born in Cliftondale, Massachusetts where he received three degrees, an A.B. in 1915, an LL.B. in 1918 and a PH.D. in 1921. He was a physician, the developer o the theory we use today for the DISC system and other important devices, and the creator of the comic book character Wonder Woman. Marston was also the creator of the systolic pressure test, which lead to the creation of the polygraph (lie detector). Because of his discovery, Marston was convinced that women were more honest and reliable than men and could work faster and more accurately. Galvanograph Component Finger electrodes assembly which has a finger electrode plate and retainer bond attached to the left index and ring finger of the subject. And a connecting plug designed to fasten the system to the polygraph machine. Recording pen unit which is usually 7 inches in length. Amplifier unit which is made to support the galvanometer in converting electrical to mechanical current. Personalities involved in the development & use of galvanograph: Sticker-(1897) worked on the galvanograph component & studied the influence and relation of the sweat glands to skin resistance. Veraguth- (1907)formulated the term psycho-galvanic skin reflex. He claimed that electrical phenomena are due to the activity of the sweat glands. Richard O. Arthur- developed an improvised polygraph machine with two galvanic skin resistance. Pneumograph component Rubber convoluted tube which is ten (10) inches in length corrugated rubber attached to the chest and abdominal area of the subject. One end of the tube is sealed and the other end is connected to the instrument by a rather thick walled rubber tube considerably larger in diameter than the pneumograph tube itself, it expands and contracts as the subject breathes. The beaded chain another component of the pneumograph assembly is used to fix in place the rubber convoluted tube. Pneumograph recording unit is made up of brass bellows, a frame, crankshaft, countershaft, adjustable fulcrum, baring with adjusting screw, pen cradle and pen centering control. Volume changes of the chest caused by breathing is transmitted to the chest assembly to the recording unit. Contributors to the development of Pneumograph: Vittorio Benussi-(1914) noted the changes in inhalation and exhalation ratio occuring during deception. He recorded the respiratory curves of the pneumograph. Harold Burtt- a scientist who, in 1918 determined that the respiratory changes were signs of deception and concluded that systolic pressure changes are valuable in determining deception. Keymograph Component

A motor which drive or pull the paper or chart under the recording pen at the rate of 6 to 12 inches per minute. The chart must travel at uniform speed to facilitate valid interpretations. Chart rolls are approximately 100 ft. Holes spaced inch apart. The paper is imprinted with horizontal lines at inch interval twenty (20) divisions and vertical lines at 1/10 inch interval with heavy lines at inch divisions across the paper which represents 5 seconds of time. Pulse rate per minute may be computed by multiplying the number of beats counted in one division by 12. The Parts of KEYMOGRAPH: Chart is a rolled graph paper composed of 12 divisions in sixty (60) seconds run designed to measure the rate of various body functions. Rubber roller which pull the paper out of the machine. Paper rail guide serves to secure or ensure the chart papers forward movement without shaking. Personalities involved in the development of KEYMOGRAPH: Leonard Keeler (1926) An American criminologist who invented the kymograph machine. In 1949, the KEELERs Polygraph incorporated the galvanograph with measurement, blood pressure & respiration component & keymograph component.Her also devised a metal recording bellow, rolled chart paper and the method of question formulation used in polygraph examination. Other contributors: Sir James Mackenzie- an English heart specialist who first described the polygraph machine as the Ink Polygraph. Cleve Backster created the numerical scoring on the polygraph chart and standardized quantitative polygraph technique. E. Calton credited for devising the word association test John E. Reid developed improvement with the conventional polygraph by incorporating muscular resistance his device was known as the Reid Polygraph. He was also credited for the development of the SAT and Control Question test. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF DECEPTION Emotion refers to an acute disturbance in origin involving behavior conscious experience and instinctive functioning. It is generally accepted that the human mind greatly influences all bodily functions. The principle and theory behind detecting deception relies of the dogma that involuntary and automatic bodily changes accompany deception. Such alterations are not derived from consciousness of guilt but viewed as a result of fear of exposure and being detected. The origin of such physiological changes is the hypothalamus, the area of the brain which acts as the control center for the integration of emotional expressions. This ends out the automatic response to physical and psychological stimulation. When a warning of danger is perceived, this control center dispatch message through the nervous system to prepare the whole organism for fight or fight defense mechanism. An evident and manifested result would be an increase in pulse rate and blood pressure. External responses are easy to learn. Any person may control his postural and facial reaction. A lying subject can master the art of telling story which although is untrue, but sticks together. VARIOUS SYMPTOMS OF GUILT RESPONSE OBSERVABLE IN LYING SUBJECTS Symptoms of deception under internal guilt response:

Quickening of heart palpitation; Gripping of the intestine; Dryness of the mouth; Sinking feeling in the fit of the stomach; Uncontrollable impulse to swallow saliva.

Symptoms of deception under external guilt response: Postural reaction Subjects hands and feet exhibiting state of uneasiness; In ability of the subjects eye to look straight to the investigator or examiner; Peculiar monotone of voice; Fidgeting with the fingers, tapping or drumming on the table or chair; Excessive movement of the Adams apple in male subjects. Facial Expression Dilation of the eyes, protrusion of the eyeballs and elevation of the upper eyelid. Blushing, paling and profuse sweating on the forehead Twitching at the corner of the lips. Excessive winking and movement of the vein at the temple. PHASES INVOLVED IN THE CONDUCT OF POLYGRAPH TEST Initial Interview Pre-test Interview Actual Test Post Test Interview INITIAL INTERVIEW - How conducted? This is usually conducted by the investigator handling the case or a polygraph examiner who was given brief but significant details of the case & it is designed to obtain pertinent information necessary for the conduct of the test. Test questions are prepared by the polygraph examiner based from the facts and information. The investigator on case should brief the examiner of the facts pertaining to: 1. Background information specifically previous police records and verified facts which the subject denies; 2. Exact amount of money or specific articles stolen;

3. Exact type, make of firearm, weapon or tool used in the commission of the crime; 4. Exact place, date & time when the crime occurred; 5. Un-usual aspects of the offense or any odd, strange or obscene acts committed at the crime scene; 6. Known facts pertaining to the suspects actions and movements immediately preceding or after the incident; 7. Facts indicating a connection between victims, suspects and witnesses; 8. Unpublicized facts of the offense known only by the victim, the offender and the investigator; 9. Results of the laboratory tests conducted like DNA, blood type, firearm identification and the like. Pre-test Interview

This is administered by the polygraph examiner designed to condition or prepare the subject for the actual polygraph test. Its duration usually lasts for 20 to 30 minutes. At this stage, the rights of the subject are explained, his consent are obtained as well as personal data and the determination whether the subject is mentally, physically and psychologically prepared to undergo the test. Prior to the polygraph examination the following considerations are taken into account: 1. The subject must refrain from smoking at least two (2) hours prior to the test; 2. The patient should avoid taking medication for at least two (2) days prior to the examination; 3. The subject should not be hungry; 4. The subject must refrain from consuming alcoholic beverages for at least twelve (12) hours prior to the actual test; 5. The subject should not be suffering from physical or emotional abuse; 6. The subject should calm down and relaxed; 7. If the female subject is pregnant or having menstruation, the test will not be undertaken; 8. The subject should not wear tight apparels or clothing as this may cause inference in the test results; 9. The subject should have at least five (5) hours of sleep prior to the examination. Before the actual polygraph examination is administered on the subject, the examiner must undertake the following necessary preparations: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The appraisal of the subjects constitutional rights; Obtain the subjects consent to undergo a polygraph examination; Take notes of the subjects personal data; Advise subjects involvement about the case; Evaluate subjects psychological preparedness; Determine subjects suitability to undergo the test.

Actual Test This is the stage wherein the component parts of the polygraph machine are actually installed on the body of the subject. The Ideal Examination Room 1. The room must be spacious for two persons with a polygraph desk, subjects chair with arm rest and an examiners stool; 2. The room must be devoid of pictures, paintings, ornaments and other decors; 3. The room must be well ventilated & lighted; 4. The room must be private and 90 percent soundproof free from outside noise & distracting influence; 5. Installed with a one way mirror and remote sound system or video device and amplifier for monitoring and recording the test proceedings to authorized observers; 6. The polygraph machine should be tested and widely used by most Asian countries, latest version, well maintained and in a well running condition. Post Test Interview

A method of interrogation is administered by the examiner to obtain admission or confession. An interview is conducted when the subject indicates innocent response while interrogation is undertaken if symptoms of deception are indicated by the results of the actual polygraph test. The subject, when innocent is cordially released & thanks extended by the examiner for his/her consideration & cooperation. The interrogatory technique is applied to secure admission or confession using the ff. procedures: 1. Inform the subject that he cannot be cleared from his chart; 2. Convince the subject that the responses were result of his emotion & not by means of any mechanical manipulations; 3. Use sympathetic and persuasive attitude as well as perseverance in eliciting confession or admission; 4. Point out recorded reactions with brief explanations of their importance as objective, tangible & concrete evidence to be used against the subject; 5. Listen attentively to any implications; pursue a line of mild interrogation as to the reasons why the criminal act was committed; 6. Rationalize the subjects act by offering a way to excuse his conduct or minimize the significance or swing the blame to someone or to some situation. 7. If confession is coming allow the subject to relate it in his own version; 8. Carefully listen to specific details & write it down at first instance; 9. Never make any promise as to immunity, reward or leniency; 10. Inform the investigator on case; 11. If no confession was given, cordially release the subject; POLYGRAPH TECHNIQUES AND TEST QUESTIONS Test Question techniques Rules to be observed in formulating test questions; Types of questions POLYGRAPH TECHNIQUES AND TEST QUESTIONS A. Irrelevant questions are those pertaining to basic data and information regarding the background of the subject not related to the case but are ask to establish the normal response of the subject. Eg. Name, address, age etc.. Such questions is only answerable by Yes. B. Relevant questions are those queries related to the issue which may be classified as strong relevant or weak relevant which indicate deception on the part of the subject. Weak relevant may be divided into three, namely: (a) knowledge questions which is given for the purpose of determining information known to the subject; (b) Evidence connecting questions which is designed to link the subject and the crime; (c) Sacrifice questions which is used to determine truthfulness on the part of the subject. It is answerable by No. Relevant questions are further classified with respect to their stimulation effect as strong or primary relevant or secondary or weak questions. Strong relevant or crucial questions is designed to test for direct involvement which is specifically designed to produce an emotional response in guilty subjects it having an intense specific relationship to the crime. Secondary questions on the other and are formulated and given to bring about guilty knowledge or partial involvement. Secondary or weak relevant questions is further classified as either: 1) Sacrifice relevant questions that which reveals subjects norms & stimulus excitement level and gives a clue which pertains to the attitude of the subjects acceptance; such as Do you wish to truthfully answer all the questions? 2) Knowledge questions designed to test whether the subject possesses information regarding the location of the evidence, identity of the suspect or other similar secondary elements of the case under investigation.

3) Evidence connecting questions is formulated to arouse the guilty subject & focus his attention on the likelihood of incriminating proof that would tend to establish his guilt. C) Control questions which refers to queries which may either be relevant or irrelevant designed to establish & obtain response from an innocent subject. It is sometimes referred to as a probable lie. It provides a basis for evaluating the subjects perceptual set. It is classified into primary control questions which is based on a lie & a secondary control question which is based upon other aspects of wrongdoing. TEST PROCEDURES 1.All test or polygraph examination must be conducted only after having a pre-test interview with the subject to condition him for the test; 2. The polygraph examination should consist of asking the subject a list of not more than twelve (12) prepared questions in a planned sequence. 3. There should be at least three (3) charts taken with each chart which should not exceed for four (4) minutes with a rest interval of fro five (5) to ten (10)minutes between charts. TYPES OF TESTS The number of test required when the subject indicates deception is at least five (5) test which may be any of the foregoing: General Question Test- answerable by Yes or No, questions in which the subject knows it to be true. Peak of Tension Test refers to the series of questions in which only one has a bearing on the matter under investigation. This is conducted where there is a widespread knowledge pertaining to a crime but the intimate details are known only by the offender. It is answerable by No only.

Card Test- It is conducted immediately after the completion of the first test while the pressure cuff is still deflated. The subject is ask to choose one from seven numbered cards, take it and return the same without telling the examiner or otherwise identifying the chosen number. The card is then shuffled by the examiner and instruct the subject to answer No concerning the cards when shown. This is to single out which among the answers given by the subject is a lie. This is undertaken to stimulate lying subjects into specific responsiveness to the subsequent relevant questions and to afford the lying subject an opportunity to try to distort the polygraph examination tracings which would result in exposing his deception with respect to the matter under investigation. Silent Answer Test -is a confirmatory test because the subject is afraid of the unfamiliar and the unknown. It is an examination in which the subject is instructed by the examiner to avoid audible response to the questions being asked. Guilt Complex Test in cases where the subject is overly responsive, this test is given which consists of a test pertaining to a purely fictitious incident of a similar nature to the one under query. It is designed to compare the responsiveness on it with those that appeared on the actual test record wherein questions are those which pertains to that which is under Investigation. This test is designed for diagnostic purpose to aid in the post examination interrogation of a lying subject. Mixed Question Test- This is consists of an arrangement of first and third test questions, administered for the purpose of discounting possible factor of accidental responses and to compare the degree of reaction between control and relevant questions. The objective of such changes in question choice of words is to direct the subjects attention to certain particular items or situations and in so doing arouse his concern that his earlier test records may have disclosed some deception respecting one or more of the previous questions.

This question: 1) would indicate or refer to a subject who is considered a moderate responder to both control and relevant questions; 2) Would refer to an erratic responder & 3)Would refer to an unresponsive subject. Advantages in using Mixed Test Questions are as follows: a) The mixed question test would permit additional pin-pointer pairings of the relevant & control question responses; b) The mixed question test would allow the examiner to check responsibility of spot responses since some subjects would respond at certain times during the test without regard to questions being asked. c) Mixed Questions is administered during the fourth exam which would guard against subjects who may have anticipated the asking of certain questions and may give anticipatory response. d) A subject may have given a response at the end of the of the test due to discomfort, by changing on the fourth test, the mixed question such occurrence would be excluded. Re-examination after all the five tests have been administered and the polygraph examiner was not able to make a definite diagnosis, an arrangement should be made for a reexamination of the subject at a later date. His situation occurs 10% of cases under investigation where the polygraph examination has been used. During this discussion where examiner finalizes the arrangement for re-examination, it would e helpful to observe the subjects comments and general behavior ordinarily different from those of a subject who is determined to be lying. Experience would show that persons who are truthful would comply and adhere to the pre-scheduled re-examination even if not under the custody of the police; on the other hand untruthful subjects are prone to break the promise or arrangement to come back for a re-examination. PROCEDURE FOR THE SUBJECTS REEXAMINATION 1. The subject is required to sit on the chair as soon as he/she enters the examination room; 2. Attachment of the component parts of the polygraph machine on the subjects body follows; 3. Any comments or suggestions from the subject should be given attention immediately after attachment of all the parts of the polygraph machine on the subjects body; When no comment or admission has been made by the subject, proceed with the card test and this time when the subject answers NO, the test is ended without asking the remaining cards; This will give a greater positive ness pertaining to the efficiency of the polygraph technique. 5. When the subject make a fuss or distortions on the tracing when his chosen card was mentioned, the examiner should ask one other unselected card question and then repeat the one pertaining to the chosen card. On the other hand, controlling internal responses is hard to accomplish seemingly next to impossible. No person ahs been known to suppress completely the internal activity of the body such as the rapid heart palpitations, the rush of blood on the face and the gripping of the intestines. The conscious mental effort of a normal person with intent to deceive stimulates the emotion of fear which leads to physiological changes capable of being transmitted and recorded into different components of the polygraph machine and accurately interpreted and diagnosed with certainty by a competent polygraph examiner. KINDS OF RESPONSE 1. Normal Responses are responses of the subject that has no bearing on the matter under investigation. 2. Specific Responses are responses which contain deviations or signs of deception which has direct bearing on the matter under investigation. General Rules to be followed in formulating Test Questions:

1. Questions must be short as possible. 2. Questions must be direct and simple. 3. Questions should not be in the form of an accusation. 4. All queries must be answerable by yes or no. 5. The terms to be used should be clear & understood by the subject. 6. All questions must refer to must refer to one offense only. All questions must refer to one element of a felony. 8. Questions must not involve legal terminologies. 9. All questions should not contain inferences to ones knowledge, religion, race, ideology or belief. CHART MARKING AND INTERPRETATION THE DESCRIPTIVE TYPES OF BREATHING a) Normal b) Rapid c) Slow d) Shallow e) Deep f) Serrated inhalation or exhalation or both g) Deviations caused by coughing or mechanics of answering

PNEUMOGRAPH TRACINGS INDICATIVE OF DECEPTION a) Change in amplitude or volume; b) Change in rhythm or regularity; Ex. Shallow c) Change in the inhalation and/or exhalation ratio; d) Change of baseline; e) Loss of baseline; f) Hyperventilation; (deep breathing) g) Suppression; h) Respiratory block. GALVANOGRAPH TRACINGS INDICATIVE OF DECEPTION The galvanograph tracing is located at the center portion of the chart when properly balanced takes the form of a slightly wavering line across the middle portion of the chart with a minor response to spoken stimuli. The ff are the tracings: a) Vertical rise at point of deception; b) Double saddle response; c) Plunging galvo tracing; d) Long degree and/or duration of response following point of deception. CARDIOSPHYGMOGRAPH TRACINGS INDICATIVE OF DECEPTION The tracing is usually found at the bottom of the chart & it records the activity of the heart which is made up of three physiological phenomena: a systolic rate; a diastolic stroke & a dicrotic notch. The normal pulse rate of an average individual is 72 to 80 beats per minute. The tracings are the following: a) Increase or decrease in amplitude; b) Increase or decrease in pulse rate; c) Increase or decrease in blood pressure; d) Change in the position or disappearance of dicrotic notch; e) Extra systoles which is the premature contraction of an auricle or ventricle while the fundamental rhythm of the heart is maintained. INTERPRETATION & ANALYSIS OF CHARTS TAKEN IN THE PEAK OF TENSION TEST 1. Any increase or decrease to point of deception than a level tracing;

2. An increase to point of deception and then decrease; 3. A decrease to point of deception and then an increase; 4. Level tracing to point of deception and then an increase or decrease; 5. Irregular to point of deception and then a smooth tracing; 6. Smooth to point of deception and then an erratic tracing; 7. Any alteration that may take place at point of deception. SOME FACTORS OTHER THAN SPECIFIC RESPONSE WHICH ARE CONSIDERED AS POSSIBLE DECEPTION 1. Degree of reaction; 2.Distribution of reactions; 3. Duration of reaction; 4. Latent period of time; 5. Rate of change of the curve; 6. Trend of gross curve.

LEGAL STATUS OF POLYGRAPHY Point of cross-examination during court appearance Qualifications of an examiner Barriers and limitations of polygraph Minimum Requirements for a valid Polygraph Examination The Polygraph Examiner The Subject or Examinee The Polygraph Technique The Polygraph Instrument END.. GOOD LUCK & GOD BLESS!