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# Astable Multivibrator Experiment: 4 Aim: To setup an Astable Multivibrator using BJT to generate a Square wave of 1Khz frequency, duty

cycle=1/2. Theory: Astable Multivibrator is used to generate a square wave for a given frequency, amplitude, and duty cycle. It is also called free running oscillator. Astable circuit switches back and forth between two quasistable states, depending upon the charging and discharging periods of two timing capacitors. Consider the circuit diagram. Suppose transistor Q1 is OFF and transistor Q2 is ON. Then capacitor C2 starts charging to Vcc through R2 and Q2 and capacitor C1 is charged. When the potential at the left side of the capacitor C2 becomes the cut in voltage of the diode (0.6) Q1 starts conducting and base voltage of Q1 =0.6, and capacitor C1 discharges through Q1, when Q1 conducts, Q2 goes to off state. Sudden conduction of Q1 causes a voltage fall at the collector of Q1 this gets coupled to the base of Q2 and turns off Q2 even more. The capacitor C1 starts charging towards Vcc through R1 and Q1. When the potential at the right side of capacitor C1 reaches the cutin voltage(0.6) , Q2 starts conducting and the voltage at its collector falls and is coupled to the base of Q1 and Q1 goes to cutoff. This cycle repeats.

The duration in which Q2 remains in On state and Q1 remains in Off state is given by T2= 0.69R2C2 The duration in which Q1 remains in On state and Q2 remains in Off state is given by T1= 0.69R1C1 If R1=R2=R C1=C2=C Then T1=T2=T=0.69RC Period of the Output square wave T= T1+T2= 1.38RC Duty cycle of waveform= 1/2 Procedure: 1) Verify the components,devices and probes 2) Set up the circuit and observe the collector and base waveforms of both transistors on CRO