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Maxwells Equations of Electromagnetic Fields and Waves / Maxwellsche Gleichungen elektromagnetischer Felder und Wellen

Maxwells Equations for Media at Rest / Maxwellsche Gleichungen fr ruhende Medien


Integral Form / Integralform

C =S E(R , t ) i dR = S C =S H (R , t ) i dR = S t D(R , t ) i dS + S J e (R , t ) i dS S =V D( R , t ) i dS = V e (R , t ) dV S =V B( R , t ) i dS = V m ( R , t ) dV

B ( R , t ) i dS J m ( R , t ) i dS S t

C =S E( R , t ) i dR
dR = ? dS = ?
dV = ?

S =V D(R , t ) i dS

V e (R , t ) dV

Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3

Vector Differential Line Element / Vektorielles differentielles Linienelement (1)


Definition: Contour / Kontur Curve / Kurve

dR = R ( + d ) R ( )

def

dR
R ( ) R ( + d )

R ( ) R ( + d ) dR
y

Contour Parameter / Konturparameter Position Vector / Ortsvektor Position Vector / Ortsvektor Difference Vector / Differenzvektor

x
dR = R ( + d ) R ( )
Taylor Expansion / Taylor-Entwicklung

d = R ( ) + R ( ) d R ( ) d d R ( ) d d =
Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3 2

Vector Differential Line Element / Vektorielles differentielles Linienelement (2)

dR =
( )

d R ( ) d d
( )
Tangential Vector / Tangentialvektor Tangential Unit Vector / Tangentialeinheitsvektor

= ( ) d = s ( ) dR
s ( ) =1

s ( )

s ( )

( ) dR = s ( ) dR = ( ) d
Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3 3

Example: Vector Differential Line Element / Beispiel: Vektorielles differentielles Linienelement (1)
z
Contour / Kontur Curve / Kurve Circle with Radius a in the xy plane / Kreis mit dem Radius a in der xy-Ebene

a
y

R ( )

dR

R ( + d )

R ( = ) = a cos e x + a sin e y 0 < 2

dR =

d R ( ) d = ( ) d = s ( ) d R d
( )

d d R ( ) = a cos e x + a sin e y d d

( (

) )
e ( )

d dR = R d = a e ( ) d ( ) d = d = d = ( )
= a sin e x + cos e y = a e ( )
= ( )

= e ( ) ad
= s ( ) = dR = dR

Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3

Vector Differential Surface Element / Vektorielles differentielles Flchenelement (1)


Definition: d S = n d S

n
dR
2

2
Surface / Flche

R (1, 2 + d 2 )

1, 2
R (1, 2 )
Position Vector / Ortsvektor

Surface Parameters / Flchenparameter

R ( 1 , 2 )
z

dR 1

dS

R (1 + d1, 2 )

R (1 + d1, 2 ) R (1, 2 + d 2 ) dR1 dR 2


Vector Differential Line Elements / Vektorielle differentielle Linienelemente Position Vector / Ortsvektor

Position Vector / Ortsvektor

x
Position Vector / Ortsvektor Vector Differential Line Elements / Vektorielles differentielles Linienelement Tangential Vectors / Tangentialvektoren

R ( 1 , 2 )

dR 1 = dR 2
Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3

R ( 1 , 2 ) d 1 = 1 ( 1 , 2 ) d 1 1

1 ( 1 , 2 ) = 2 ( 1 , 2 ) = R ( 1 , 2 ) 2

R ( 1 , 2 ) 1

= R ( 1 , 2 ) d 2 = 2 ( 1 , 2 ) d 2 2

Vector Differential Surface Element / Vektorielles differentielles Flchenelement (2)


Vector Differential Line Elements / Vektorielles differentielles Linienelement

dR 1 = dR 2 =

R ( 1 , 2 ) d 1 = 1 ( 1 , 2 ) d 1 1 R ( 1 , 2 ) d 2 = 2 ( 1 , 2 ) d 2 2

Scalar Differential Surface Elements / Skalares differentielles Flchenelement

dS = dR 1 dR 2 = 1 ( 1 , 2 ) 2 ( 1 , 2 ) d 1d 2
Normal UnitUnit-Vector / Normaleneinheitsvektor

n=

1 ( 1 , 2 ) 2 ( 1 , 2 ) 1 ( 1 , 2 ) 2 ( 1 , 2 )

Vector Differential Surface Element / Vektorielles differentielles Flchenelement

dS = n dS = = 1 ( 1 , 2 ) 2 ( 1 , 2 ) 1 ( 1 , 2 ) 2 ( 1 , 2 ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 ( 1 , 2 ) 2 ( 1 , 2 ) d 1d 2

1, 2

1, 2

d 1d 2
Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3 6

Example: Vector Differential Surface Element / Beispiel: Vektorielles differentielles Flchenelement (1)
z
Contour / Kontur Curve / Kurve Circle with Radius a in the xy plane / Kreis mit dem Radius a in der xy-Ebene

a
y

dR 2 1 = r dR 1

R ( 1 , 2 + d 2 )

x
R ( 1 , 2 ) R ( 1 + d 1 , 2 )

2 =

R ( 1 = r , 2 = ) = r cos e x + r sin e y ; 0 1 = r a; 0 2 = < 2

R ( r, ) = r cos e x + ra sin e y r r = cos e x + sin e y

(
= r sin e x + cos e y
e ( )

)
=

R ( r, ) r cos e x + r sin e y

)
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er ( r )

= e r ( )
= r e ( )
Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3

Example: Vector Differential Surface Element / Beispiel: Vektorielles differentielles Flchenelement (2)
1 ( 1 , 2 ) 2 ( 1 , 2 ) R ( r, ) R (r, ) = = e r ( ) r e ( ) r = r e r ( ) e ( ) = r
ez =1

R ( r, ) r

= e r ( )

R ( r, )

= r e ( )

n= 1 ( 1 , 2 ) 2 ( 1 , 2 )

1 ( 1 , 2 ) 2 ( 1 , 2 )

R ( r, ) R (r, ) e ( ) r e ( ) r e r r = = = z = ez r R ( r, ) R (r, ) e r ( ) r e ( ) dS = n dS = dS r r

( , ) 2 ( 1 , 2 ) dS = n dS = 1 1 2 1 ( 1 , 2 ) 2 ( 1 , 2 ) ( 1 , 2 ) 2 ( 1 , 2 ) d 1d 2 = 1 = ez n r d r d
dS

1 ( 1 , 2 ) 2 ( 1 , 2 ) d 1d 2

n = n r

dR dR
1

= dS r
Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3

Metric Coefficients and Vector Differential Line Elements / Metrische Koeffizienten und vektorielle differentielle Linienelemente
Cartesian Coordinate System / Kartesisches Koordinatensystem Cylindrical Coordinate System / Zylinderkoordinatensystem Spherical Coordinate System / Kugelkoordinatensystem

hx = 1, hy = 1, hz = 1 hr = 1, h = r, hz = 1 hR = 1, h = R, h = R sin

dR = s dR = e x hx dx + e y hy dy + e z hz dz
dR = s dR = er hr dr + e h d + e z hz dz = er dr + e r d + e z dz dRr = s dR dR R = s dR = eR dR + e R d + e R sin d dR = s dR = eR hR dR + e h d + e h d

= e x dx + e y dy + e z dz dR x = s dR = e x hx dx = er hr dr = eR dR dR = s dR d = e R d dR = s dR dz = e R sin d
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= eR hR dR

= e x dx = er dr dR = e h = e r d dR z = e z hz = e z dz = e h d = s dR = e h d = s dR dR y = s dR = e y hy dy = e y dy dR z = e z hz dz = e z dz
Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3

= s dR

Metric Coefficients and Differential Surface Elements / Metrische Koeffizienten und differentielle Flchenelemente
Cartesian Coordinate System / Kartesisches Koordinatensystem Cylindrical Coordinate System / Zylinderkoordinatensystem Spherical Coordinate System / Kugelkoordinatensystem

hx = 1, hy = 1, hz = 1
dS = n dS = (e y e z ) hy hz dy dz

hr = 1, h = r, hz = 1
dS = n dS = (e e z ) h hz d dz +(e z er ) hr hz dr dz +(er e ) hr h dr d = er r d dz + e dr dz +e z r dr d
dS z = n dS = (e e z ) h hz d dz = er r d dz dSrz = n dS = (e z er ) hr hz dr dz = e dr dz dSr = n dS

hR = 1, h = R, h = R sin
dS = n dS = (e e ) h h d d +(e eR ) hR h dR d +(eR e ) hR h dR d = eR R2 sin d d +e R sin dR d + e R dR d dS = n dS = (e e ) h h d d = eR R2 sin d d dSr = n dS = (e eR ) hR h dR d = e R sin dR d dSR = n dS

+(e z e x ) hx hz dx dz +(e x e y ) hx hy dx dy = e x dy dz + e y dx dz +e z dx dy dS yz = n dS = (e y e z ) hy hz dy dz = e x dy dz dS xz = n dS = (e z e x ) hx hz dx dz = e y dx dz dS xy = n dS = (e x e y ) hx hy dx dy = e z dx dy
Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3

= (er e ) hr h dr d = e z r dr d

= (eR e ) hR h = e R dR d

dR d
10

Metric Coefficients and Differential Volume Elements / Metrische Koeffizienten und differentielle Volumenelemente
Cartesian Coordinate System / Kartesisches Koordinatensystem Cylindrical Coordinate System / Zylinderkoordinatensystem Spherical Coordinate System / Kugelkoordinatensystem

hx = 1, hy = 1, hz = 1 hr = 1, h = r, hz = 1 hR = 1, h = R, h = R sin
dV = hx dx hy dy hz dz

dV = hr dr h d hz dz = hr h hz dr d dy = r dr d dz

dV = hR dR h d h d = hR h h dR d d = R2 sin dR d d

= hx hy hz dx dy dz = dx dy dz

Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3

11

Cartesian Coordinate System: Coordinate Surfaces, Unit Vectors, Surface Elements and Volume Element / Kartesischen Koordinatensystemen: Koordinatenflchen, Einheitsvektoren, Flchenelemente und Volumenelement

z = const.

dS xy

ez P ( x, y , z )

ey
ex

dS xz
dS yz

x = const. y = const.

Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3

12

Cylindrical Coordinate System: Coordinate Surfaces, Unit Vectors, Surface Elements and Volume Element / Zylinderkoordinatensystem: Zylinderkoordinatensystem: Koordinatenflchen, Einheitsvektoren, Flchenelemente und Volumenelement

dS xy
z = const.

dS rz

e
z

e ( )
dS z

P (r , , z )
r = const.

e r ( )

dr

r d

= const.
Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3 13

Spherical Coordinate System: Coordinate Surfaces, Unit Vectors, Surface Elements and Volume Element / Kugelkoordinatensystem: Kugelkoordinatensystem: Koordinatenflchen, Einheitsvektoren, Flchenelemente und Volumenelement

e R ( , )

R sin d dS

P ( R, , )

e ( )
e ( , )

dS r

R d

dS r

R sin

= const.
R = const.
Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3 14

Coordinates of Different Coordinate Systems / Koordinaten verschiedenen Koordinatensystemen

Transformation of the Coordinate / Transformation der Koordinaten

x
Cartesian Coordinates / Kartesische Koordinaten Cylindrical Coordinates / Zylinderkoordinaten Spherical Coordinates / Kugelkoordinaten
y

x y z

r cos r sin z
R sin sin R cos

R sin cos

x2 + y 2 arctan ( y / x ) z
x2 + y 2 + z 2

R sin

z
r2 + z2
R

R cos

arctan arctan ( y / x )
Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3

(
x2 + y 2 / z

)
arctan ( r / z )


15

Examples / Beispiele

1. Formulate x as a function of the cylinder and spherical coordinates. / Formuliere x als Funktion der Zylinder- und Kugelkoordinaten. x = r cos = R sin cos 2. Formulate r as a function of the Cartesian and spherical coordinates. / Formuliere r als Funktion der Kartesischen und Kugelkoordinaten.

r=

x 2 + y 2 = R sin

3. Formulate x 2 + y 2 as a function of the cylinder coordinates. / Formuliere x 2 + y 2 als Funktion der Zylinderkoordinaten.

x2 + y2 =

( r cos ) 2 + ( r sin ) 2 = r cos 2 + sin 2 = r


=1

Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3

16

Scalar Vector Components in Different Coordinate Systems / Skalare Vektorkomponenten in verschiedenen Koordinatensystemen Transformation Table / Umrechnungstabelle
Cartesian Coordinates / Kartesische Koordinaten Cylindrical Coordinates / Zylinderkoordinaten Spherical Coordinates / Kugelkoordinaten

A = Ax e x + Ay e y + Az e z

A = Ar er + A e + Az e z
A = AR e R + A e + A e
AR sin cos + A cos cos A sin AR sin sin + A cos sin + A cos AR cos A sin Ar cos A sin A sin + A cos
r

Ax A
y

Az
A cos + A sin
x y

Az

A
r
R

A sin + A cos A AR cos A sin


z

Ax sin + Ay cos

A Az
z

Az

A sin cos + A sin sin + A cos


x y

A sin + A cos
r

AR A A

Ax cos cos + Ay cos sin Az sin

Ar cos Az sin A

Ax sin + Ay cos

Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3

17

Example: Coordinate Transformation of the Position Vector / Beispiel: Koordinatentransformation des Ortsvektor
Position Vector in the Cartesian Coordinate System / Ortsvektor im Kartesischen Koordinatensystem

R= x
Rx ( x, y, z ) Ry ( x, y, z ) Rz ( x, y, z )

ex y z

+ ey ez

Position Vector in the Cylinder Coordinate System / Ortsvektor in dem Zylinderkoordinatensystem

R= r
Rr

er ( ) +

z ez
Rz

Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3

18

Example: Coordinate Transformation of the Position Vector / Beispiel: Koordinatentransformation des Ortsvektor
Position Vector in the Cartesian Coordinate System / Ortsvektor im Kartesischen Koordinatensystem Position Vector in the Cylinder Coordinate System / Ortsvektor im Zylinderkoordinatensystem

R= x
Rx ( x, y, z ) Ry ( x, y, z )
Transformation of the Coordinates / Transformation der Koordinaten

ex + y
Rz ( x, y, z )

ey + z
R(r,, z, Rr , R , Rz ) = Rr ( r,, z ) er ( ) + R ( r,, z ) e ( ) + Rz ( r,, z ) ez
Position Vector in the Cartesian Coordinate System as a Function of Cylinder Coordinates / Ortsvektor im Kartesischen Koordinatensystem als Funktion der Zylinderkoordinaten

ez

Rx (r, , z) = x(r, , z) = r cos Ry (r, , z) = y(r, , z) = r sin z (r , , z ) = z Rz (r, , z) =

R = r cos ex z
Rz ( r , , z ) Ry ( r , , z )

+ r sin ey + ez

Transformation of the Scalar Vector Components / Transformation der skalaren Vektorkomponenten

Rx ( r , , z )

Rr (r , , z , Rx , Ry , Rz ) = Rx cos + Ry sin R (r , , z , Rx , Ry , Rz ) = Rx sin + Ry cos Rz (r , , z , Rx , Ry , Rz ) = Rz

Rr = r cos cos + r sin sin = r (cos 2 + sin 2 ) = r R = r cos sin + r sin cos =0 R = R
Rr Rz
z z
Dr.-Ing. Ren Marklein - EFT I - SS 2008 - Lecture 3 / Vorlesung 3

Position Vector in the Cylinder Coordinate System / Ortsvektor in dem Zylinderkoordinatensystem

=1

R= r z ez

er ( ) +

19