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OVERVIEW AND SUMMARY OF THE BIBLE

This document was created by Rev. Ken Byerly in 2009-2010 with much help from Dr. H.L. Willmington’s book Willmington’s Guide to the Bible.” This document’s purpose is to give you a general layout of the Bible’s content in regard to dates, people involved, major events that occurred, and the books of the Bible that cover each period. My hope and prayer is that it helps you to understand God’s Word better which in turn will lead you closer to God by seeing His devotion to those who follow Him, His willingness to ALWAYS be true to His covenant promises, and His longsuffering but eventual punishment for those who deliberately turn from Him.

I. Compartmentalization

A. Old Testament Stages

1. Creation

2. Patriarchal

3. Exodus

4. Conquest

5. Judges

4004BC - 2165BC

2165BC - 1804BC

1804BC - 1405BC

1405BC - 1382BC

1382BC - 1043BC

6. United Kingdom

1043BC - 931BC

7. Chaotic Kingdom

931BC - 605BC

8. Captivity

605BC - 539BC

9. Return

539BC - 400BC

10. Intertestamental

400BC - 6BC

B. New Testament Stages

1. Gospel

6BC - 30AD

2. Early Church

30AD - 68AD

3. Epistle

48AD - 95AD

II. Context

A. Old Testament Stages

1. Creation Stage (4004BC - 2165BC)

a. Books of the Bible

Genesis 1-11

b. Main People

Chapters

Adam

2

Cain and Abel

4

Enoch, Methuselah

5

Noah

6

Noah’s sons (Shem, Ham, Japheth)

9

c. Facts Concerning This Period

Period covers approximately 1839 years (4004 BC – 2165 BC)

Period begins with creation and ends with Terah (Abraham’s father) leaving Ur of the Chaldeans

There are four distinct periods of time in this stage: the creation of all things (Gen. 1-2),

the corruption of all things (Gen. 3-5), the condemnation of all things (Gen. 6-9), and the confusion of all things (Gen. 10-11).

Three Heavens of creation: the first heaven is clouds and atmosphere (Dan. 4:12; Matt. 6:26), the second heaven is the stars and planets (Psalm 19:1), and the third heaven is Heaven itself (2 Cor. 12:2).

Creation involved six days of work (the main punishment to men for Adam’s sin), God rested for a day (rest is important to the mind, body, and spirit of man).

Corruption involved Satan, pride of man, redemption of God, martyrdom of Abel, and the ministry of Enoch.

Condemnation involved conditions before the flood (universal wickedness), salvation through the flood, and the tragedy after the flood (Noah and his sons’ sin).

Confusion involved the arrogance of man, the judgment of God, and the origin of the nations.

The first three covenants between God and man are established:

 

1.

Issuance of the first covenant from God to man: the Edenic Covenantman is

 

charged with responsibility for propagating the race, subduing the earth, exercising dominion over the animals, caring for the garden in Eden, and refraining from eating of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

 

2.

Issuance of the second covenant from God to man: the Adamic Covenant(1)

 

A

curse on the serpent: Gen 3:14, Rom. 16:20, 2 Cor. 11:3,14, Rev. 12:9.

(2) The first promise of a redeemer; Messiah would come in the line of Seth, Noah. Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Judah and David. (3) A changed state of woman including bondage and subservience to man's headship, and suffering and pain in motherhood. (4) Loss of the garden in

Eden as a dwelling place and light occupation changed to heavy burden of

work because of a cursed earth. (5) Inevitable sorrow and disappointment

in

life. (6) Shortened life span and tragedy of death.

 

3.

Issuance of the third covenant from God to man: the Noahic Covenant(1)

 

Sanctity of all human life established. Man responsible to protect life, even to capital punishment. (2) A Promise that another universal flood will not occur and the ground will not be cursed further. (3) Man's relationship

to

the animals and to nature is confirmed (Gen. 8:22, 9:2). (4) Man,

presumably a vegetarian before the flood, is now allowed to eat meat. (5) Special characteristics are assigned to the three sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

d.

Main Events

 

Creation

(world, man)

1-2

Fall of Man

(fall, fallout)

3-5

Flood

(before, during, after)

6-9

Tower of Babel

(family, judgment)

10-11

2.

Patriarchal Stage (2165 - 1804BC)

a. Books of the Bible

Genesis 12-50

Job

b. Main People

Abraham

12-25

Isaac

25-26

Jacob

27-36

Joseph

37-50

Job

Job’s friends (Eliphaz, Bildad, Zophar, Elihu)

c. Facts Concerning This Period

Period covers approximately 361 years (2165 BC – 1804 BC)

The period begins with God calling Abram and ends with the death of Joseph in Egypt.

Abraham is considered to be the second of the seven greatest men to ever live (Adam, Abraham, Moses, David, John the Baptist, Peter, and Paul).

The first mentioning of Jerusalem (a type of Heaven) and Egypt ( a type of the world) in the Bible.

Issuance of the fourth covenant from God to man: the Abrahamic Covenant— (1) God gave Abraham the promise of a great nation---primarily meaning Israel, but also includes great peoples in the line of Ishmael and Abraham's others sons.

In all Abraham, had eight sons, six through his second wife Keturah after Sarah died, (Gen. 25:3). Two peoples descended from Abraham are named specially. They are an earthly group (Israel) "as numerous as the grains of sand on the seashore," and a heavenly group (the true church) "as numerous as the stars in the heavens." These two "family trees" form the subject of the mainstream of redemptive history in the Bible. (2) Abraham was chosen to be the father of numerous descendants, to be blessed personally, to be personally honored, to be a channel of blessing to others. (3) Those who bless Abraham are to be blessed and those who curse him will be cursed. Blessings on the nations are to come through Abraham. (4) Reaffirmation of the promise of a Messiah was made by God to Abraham.

d. Main Events

Giving of the Abrahamic Covenant

12

Beginnings of the Hebrew Nation

21

Jews Move To Egypt

46

God Allows Satan To Test Job

1

3. Exodus Stage (1804BC - 1405BC)

a. Books of the Bible

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

b. Main People

Moses (God’s chosen vessel for the deliverance of Israel)

Aaron (first High Priest of the Levites and Moses’ brother)

Pharaoh

Caleb

Joshua

Miriam (Moses and Aaron’s sister)

Eleazer (second High Priest of Israel, Aaron’s son, Phinehas’ father)

Phinehas (third High Priest of Israel)

c. Facts Concerning This Period

Period covers approximately 399 years (1804 BC 1405 BC)

Period begins with the Israelites suffering oppression in Egypt (birth of a savior—Moses) and ends with Moses dying on the banks of the Jordan (just shy of Canaanthe Promised Land).

Issuance of the fifth covenant between God and man: Mosaic Covenanta conditional covenant between God and the Israelites (Exodus 19-24) where God promises to make Israel His chosen nation of people among all people if they obey Him and His commandments, to make them a kingdom of priests and a holy nation, to give them the Sabbath as a permanent reminder of the Mosaic Covenant, and involves the issuance of the Ten Commandments.

Issuance of the sixth covenant between God and man: Palestinian Covenant—this

partly conditional covenant has several parts: (1) dispersion of the Jews was to be a consequence of disobedience. (2) Future repentance will be accomplished by God. (3) God will regather his scattered people and restore them to the land. (4) The people of Israel will be brought to the Lord as a nation. (5) The enemies and oppressors of Israel will be punished. (6) Future national prosperity and preeminence is guaranteed. See also Deut. 28, 29. Because of this covenant, the right of the Jews to live in the land is conditional upon their behavior.

d. Main Events

Deliverance from Egypt

Exodus 1-14

Appearance of Shekinah (“settling”) Glory Cloud

Exodus 13:21-22

Appearance of Manna (means “What is it?”)

Exodus 16:14

Institution of the Sabbath

Exodus 16:23-30

Giving of the Law

Exodus 20:3-17

Building of the Tabernacle

Exodus 40

The Failure at Kadesh-Barnea (Num. 13-14). Unbelief results in missed opportunity and punishment. Failure is due to man’s will and not God’s (Duet. 1:22). Forty days pass and

the 12 return: 10 say “no” while 2 (Joshua from Ephraim, Caleb from Judah) say “yes” (Num. 13:30-33). The majority rules (14:1-3) and God punishes (14:29-37).

Aimless Wondering

The Sin and Death of Moses

The Choice of Joshua as Leader

4. Conquest Stage (1405BC - 1382BC)

a. Books of the Bible

Joshua (opposite of Exodus)

b. Main People

Joshua

Caleb

Rahab

c. Facts Concerning This Period

Num. 14:33-34 Num. 20:7-13; Deut. 34:5-8 Num. 27:15-23; Deut. 34:9

Period covers approximately 23 years (1405 BC – 1382 BC)

Period begins with Joshua’s commission as leader of Israel (three days later they enter Canaan) and ends with Joshua’s death and the burying of Joseph’s bones which they had carried from Egypt to Canaan).

God parts the River Jordan to bring His people into the Promised Land. He parted the Red Sea earlier in order to bring them out of captivity.

Three miracles in 25 years: parting of the Jordan River, the falling of the wall of Jericho, and the standing of the sun (Josh. 3:15-17, 6:20, 10:12-14).

d. Main Events

Invasion of the Land

1-5

1. The Crossing of the Jordan

2. The Spies

3. Rahab

4. The Circumcision

5:3

5. The Visitor

5:13-15

Subjection (conquest) of the Land

6-12

1. Falling Walls

6:20

2. Standing Sun

10:12-14

Division of the Land

13-24

1. Reuben, Gad, ½ tribe of Manasseh to the east of Jordan

2. The rest on the west of Jordan River

3. Final words from Joshua—Joshua reminds the Israelites of God’s goodness, warns them of disobedience, reviews their history, and challenges them to serve God.

5. Judges Stage (1382BC - 1043BC)

a. Books of the Bible

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel 1-7

b. Main People

Gideon—warrior called by God to lead Israel; overthrew the altar of Baal and its sacred surrounding grove and erected in its place a new altar naming it Jahveh-Shalom (Jehovah gives peace), Judges 6:17-24; ruled as judge for 40 years; is best known as the one who sought to know the surety of his faith by the testing of fleece (Judges 6:36-40); begot 71 sons of which Abimelech was one; later Abimelech, an extremely wicked man, would kill all but one of his brothers, would be made king of Shechem, and would be killed by

his armor bearer after having a millstone dropped on his head by a woman (Judges 8:31,

9:1-57).

Samsonlast judge of Israel before Samuel; a Nazirite chosen by God before birth to deliver Israel out of the hands of the Philistines; his great power was not his but God’s; his power was taken through the craftiness of Delilah, a woman hired by the Philistines to find the source of his strength, which she did through enticement and deceit; Samson died in a martyr’s death, burying himself and a multitude of Philistines when he moved two pillars from their foundation causing a building to fall; he is listed in the Hall of Faith (Hebrews 11).

Naomia woman from Bethlehem who lost her husband and two sons after a sojourn to Moab to escape famine; Naomi returned to Bethlehem with her Moabite daughter-in-law (Ruth), later advising her to marry Boaz and subsequently nursed Ruth’s child.

Rutha widow, whose decision to conform to the Isrealite customs made her a servant of her dead husbands family; after returning to Judah with Naomi in order to fulfill her duty she married Boaz; this marriage made her the great-grandmother of King David and heir to the Messiah.

Boaz well to do Hebrew from Bethlehem

Eli from the family of Ithamar, 4 th son of Aaron, who acted as both judge and high priest in Isreal; had two wicked sons; met Hannah when she came to the temple to pray for her son; almost blind; Eli, after hearing the news of the slaughter of his sons and the taking of the Arc of the Covenant(this is a major event in the judges state in which the Philistines stole the Arc from the Isrealites, it would not be returned until generations later when King David returned), Eli fell off his seat and died of a broken neck

Deborah – 4 th and greatest of Isreals judges; a prophetess;

Samuel last of the judges and first of the prophets; son of Hannah who upon birth presented her son, who was born from a barren womb to Eli; anointed David as king; listed in the Hall of Faith in Hebrews.

c. Facts Concerning This Period

Period covers approximately 339 years (1382 BC – 1043 BC)

Period begins with Israel electing a judge rather than a leader and ends with Samuel as judge.

The darkest period of Israel’s history

Joshua dies and no one is available for God to choose as leader (Judges 17:6; 18:1; 19:1; 21:25). This is the single most contributing factor to Israel’s rebellion against Godthis dark stage, which lasted 335 years.

This stage involves seven apostasies (a renunciation of one’s faith or belief) by Israel, seven servitudes to seven heathen nations, and seven deliverances. Each time Israel was guilty of compromising (not doing what God told her to dothat is, drive out her enemy) and apostasy (doing what God told her not to do—worship the gods of her enemies). Each time God provided deliverance from oppression through a godly and chosen judge.

Counting Eli, Samuel, and Deborah (only woman), there were 15 judges in all; these judges were more military reformers than legal experts.

80 times in the OT an “angel of the Lord” is mentioned (Christophony). 20 of those times are in the Judges stage.

d. Main Events: Instead of main events, here is an outline of the judges of Israel during this period, the Bible verses that cover him or her, the oppressing nation during their reign as judge, the years Israel spent in oppression against that nation, and the years of peace Israel enjoyed after God relieved them of their oppression through each judges leadership.

 

Judge

Bible Verses

Oppressing Nation

Yrs of Opp.

Yrs of Peace

1. Othniel

3: 7-11

Meopotamia

8

40

2. Ehud

3: 12-30

Moab

18

80

3. Shamgar

3:31

Philistia

?

?

4. Deborah

4-5

Canaanites

20

40

5. Barak

4-5

N. Canaanites

20

40

6. Gideon

6-8

Midian

7

40

7. Abimelech

9

Considered by many as an outlaw and not a judge

 

8. Tola

10:1-2

?

?

23

9. Jair

10: 3-5

?

?

22

Jephthah

10. 10:6-12:7 Ammon

 

18

6

11. Ibzan

12:8-10

?

?

7

12. Elon

12:11-12

?

?

10

13. Abdon

12:13-15

?

?

8

14. Samson 13-16

Philistia

40

20

Samuel

15. 1 Sam. 1-7

Philistia (1 Sam 7:13)

?

?

6. United Kingdom Stage (1043BC - 931BC)

a. Books of the Bible

1 Samuel 8-31

2 Samuel

1 Kings 1-11

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles 1-9

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

b. Main People

Saul

1. Rise

1 Samuel 8-15

a. Israel demands a king (1 Sam. 8:19-20)

b. Saul is chosen by Samuel at God’s command (1 Sam.9:17)

c. Saul is anointed by Samuel (1 Sam. 10:1)

d. His leadership is confirmed at Jabesh-Gilead (1 Sam.11-12)

2. Fall

a. He offers a burnt offering (1 Sam 13:8-14)

b. He orders the death of his own son (1 Sam. 14:44-45)

c. He spares Agag of Amalek, God’s enemy (1 Sam. 15:1-9)

d. He is rejected by God (1 Sam. 15:11)

e. He is possessed by an evil spirit (1 Sam. 16:14; 18:10; 19:9)

f. He attempts to kill David (1 Sam. 18:11, 21, 25; 19:1, 10, 15; 20:31)

g. He curses and attempts to kill his own son (1 Sam 20:30-33)

h. He slaughters 85 priests of God at Nob (1 Sam. 22:17-19)

i. He goes to the witch of En Dor (1 Sam. 28:7-25)

j. He is slain on a battlefield (1 Sam. 31)

David

1 Samuel 16 2 Samuel 31; 1 Chronicles 11-29

1. The Shepherd

1 Samuel 16:1-3

a. David is plucked from the sheep pasture; Samuel ignores his physical appearance as compared to his brothers and anoints him king of Israel as commanded by God.

b. David is God’s choice, as compared to Saul who was the people’s choice, and will go down in history as the greatest king Israel will ever see, that is until Jesus returns.

c. David is anointed as king of Israel on three separate occasions

2 Sam. 2:1-4

2 Sam. 5:1-5; 1 Chron. 12:23-40 Three day celebration that included

1 Sam. 16:13

By Samuel

By men of Judah in Hebron

400,000 troops from the 12 tribes of Israel.

2. The Singer

1 Samuel 16:14-23

a. From this point until his death King Saul is troubled by a evil spirit (1 Sam. 16:14-16, 23; 18:10; 19:9).

3.

The Soldier

1 Samuel 17:1-58

4.

a. Israel verses the Philistines (Amalekites were just destroyed)

b. Goliath taunts Israel’s army for 40 days (1 Sam. 17)

c. David kills Goliath in the name of the Lord with a stone and a shepherd’s sling (1 Sam. 17).

The Sought

a. David begins his lifelong friendship with Jonathan

b. David is made commander-in-chief of Saul’s armies

c. Saul attempts to kill David, fails and then demotes David from general to captain (1 Samuel 18.11-13)

d. Saul’s attempts to kill David

1 Samuel 18-31

1 Sam. 18:11

1 Sam. 18:19

1 Sam. 19:10

1 Sam. 19:12

e. Jonathan warns David of Saul’s renewed attempt to kill him

f. David backslides twice (1 Sam. 21:1-9; 27:1-6)

g. Saul’s increase rage of jealousy results in the slaughter of 85 priests simply because Ahimelech offers some bread to David (1 Sam. 22:12-19)

h. David spares Saul’s life in the cave (1 Sam. 24:1-15)

1 Sam. 24:1-15

1 Sam. 26:1-16

i. Saul visits witch at Endor in attempt to gain advice from Samuel’s spirit

concerning military threat from the Philistine army (1 Sam. 28:1-11; 1 Chron. 10:13). Samuel appears, because of God and not the witch, and predicts Saul’s demise the following day.

j. Saul and David’s beloved friend Jonathan are slain in battle (1 Sam. 31:1-7). Jonathan is killed and Saul commits suicide.

5. The Sovereign

2 Samuel 1-10; 1 Chronicles 11-19

a. This is a time of blessing where God blesses David and his kingdom. Israel flourishes by defeating enemies at the hand of God. David marries multiple wives and concubines and has many children that would bring him much grief later in his life.

b. David captures Jerusalem (2 Sam. 5:6-16)

c. David brings the Arc of the Covenant back to Israel (2 Sam. 6:1-19; 1 Chron. 13:1-14; 15:1-16:43). The following is a history of the Arc to this point:

Moses makes the Arc

Ex. 25:10-22

Carried through the desert for 40 years

Set up in Shiloh/1 st Israelite capitol

Jos. 18:1

Carried to battle/captured by Philistines 1 Sam. 4:11

It was passed among Philistines cities

Brought to Bethshemesh/caused plague 1 Sam. 6:19

Brought to Kirjath-jearim/stayed 20 yrs. 1 Sam. 7:1-2

1 Sam. 5

d. David desires to build a temple for the Arc but God denies his request (2 Sam. 7:1-17; 1 Chron. 17:4). The reason—God will choose who builds the temple, not David. And besides, God chose David to lead His people, not to build God a temple to dwell in.

e. The Davidic Covenant is given (2 Sam. 7:8-17). It promises:

David will have a child who will succeed him

This son (Solomon) will build the temple

David throne will be established forever

The throne will not be taken away from Solomon even though his sins will justify it.

David’s house, throne, and kingdom will be established forever.

6.

The Sinner

a. David lusts after and lies with Bathsheba

2 Samuel 11

b. Bathsheba becomes pregnant; Uriah is hurried from battled to be with his wife in

order to make it appear Uriah was the father of the child; this fails and so David, in desperation, sends Uriah to the front lines of battle with a sealed letterthe very letter containing his fate

c. David marries Bathsheba

7. The Sorrowful

2 Samuel 12-21; 1 Chronicles 20-21

a. Nathan reports to David a story of a rich man, who stole from a poor farmer his

only lamb, slaughtered and ate it.

b. David vows to have the man pay back fourfold for his sin.

c. Nathan declares David to be that man; David immediately repents; God requires the fourfold payback from David. It was:

The death of his son (2 Sam. 12:18)

Amnon, David’s eldest son, rapes his half-sister Tamar (2 Sam. 13:14)

Absalom, the full brother of Tamar and son of David and Maachah, begins plotting the murder of Amnon and kills him 2 years later (2 Sam.

13:29)

Absalom plots a revolt against his father David, and David is forced to leave Jerusalem because of the support Absalom had from all of Judah

and Israel (2 Sam. 15:12-14).

d. David sends his troops, the Cherethites and Pelethites, into battle at the woods of Ephraim and gives specific instructions to Joab, his nephew and captain of his army, to be gentle with Absalom. Joab hears that Absalom is hung up in an oak tree and orders young Absalom killed. Joab was the obedient captain David order to send Uriah the Hittite into battle knowing it would lead to his death. Joab had also killed Abner, King Saul’s cousin, who had befriended David. Joab was obedient to David but his acts of disobedience were spanned from his own desire to maintain rank in the army and to reestablish David’s reign as king.

8. The Statesman

2 Samuel 21:1-14

a. Three-year plague settles on Israel. David is told it is because of Saul’s bloody deeds.

b. In Joshua 9 the Israelites had made a covenant with the Gibeonites which God was now issuing punishment for.

c. David negotiates with the Gibeonite leaders who demand the lives of seven of

Saul’s sons in exchange for the previous Gibeonite massacre. This is accomplished.

9. The Statistician

2 Samuel 24

a. David numbers Israel which is an act of sin (pride, lack of faith)

b. David repents and God offers a choice of three punishments: seven years of famine, a fleet of ninety days from his enemies, or a three-day pestilence. David

chooses the third.

c. The results: 70,000 men die

d. The plague is lifted as David pleas with God’s death angel

10. The Sponsor

1 Chronicles 22-29

a. David is 70 and at 37 he had determined to build the Temple for the Lord. He

never did but was allowed to lead in the preparations of it that Solomon his son will later build.

b. David calls for a special dedication ceremony

11. The Scribe

2 Samuel 22:1; 23:1-3

a. David wrote 77 of the 150 Psalms.

12. The Sage

1 Kings 2

Wives and Children of King David (1 Chronicles 3:9; 2 Samuel 5:14) Wives (besides concubines)

1. Mikal (Michal) (Saul’s daughter—her bitterness toward David caused her to be barren (2 Samuel

6:18-27).

3.

Abigal the Carmelelitess

4. Maachah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur

5. Haggith

6. Abital

7. Eglah

8. Bathsheba—she bore David 5 sons, the first one dying after birth due to David’s sin— Shammuah, Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon. Nathan and Solomon are direct descendents of Jesus Christ (Matt. 1:6; Luke 3:31).

Children (besides children born from concubines)

1. Amnon (2), murdered by Absalom

2. Daniel (Chileab) (3)

3. Absalom (4), Tamar was his sister (2 Sam. 13:1) so we assume Maachah was Tamar’s mother

4. Adonijah (5) Tried to usurp the kingdom from David; Bathsheba tells David; Solomon has him killed (1 Kings 2:25).

5. Shephatiah (6)

6. Ithream (7)

7. Shammuah (8)

8. Shobab (8)

9. Nathan (8) helped David secure Solomon’s reign as king at David’s deathbed.

10. Solomon (8)

11. Ibhar (mothers 11-19 unknown)

12. Elishama

13. Eliphelet

14. Nogah

15. Nepheg

16. Japhia

17. Elishama

18. Eliada

19. Eliphelet

Solomon

1 Kings 1-11; 2 Chronicles 1-9

1. Solomon, because of David’s righteousness, is blessed by God with the following:

a. Power

b. Wisdom

c. Abundant riches

d. 40 years of peace and prosperity

e. The great privilege of building the Temple

2. Compare this to David who was punished by God for both his sin as well as Saul’s, and that Israel would be a divided kingdom after Solomon’s death simply because of

the sin of Solomon.

3. Solomon was blessed by God and was righteous at first, but he allowed his riches, his elevated status as leader, and his wives pagan idol-worshipping practices to divert his attention toward sin. This was a direct violation of God’s warnings (Deut. 17:14-17), all of which he ignored. His sin was:

a. Too much silver and gold (1 Kings 10:14-27)

b. Too many horses (1 Kings 4:26)

c. Too many wives and concubines (1 Kings 11:3)

4. He was warned about any future transgressions on his part:

a. From David:

First (1 Chron. 22:13)

Last (1 Kings 2:3)

b. From God:

First (1 Kings 3:14)

Second (1 Kings 9:6-7)

Last (1 Kings 11:11)

Period covers approximately 112 years (1043 BC 931 BC)

Period begins with Israel requesting a king rather than a judge and ends with Solomon’s death.

Most prosperous and peaceful time ever for the nation of Israel

Issuance of the seventh covenant between God and man: the Davidic covenant includes

the following promises(1) a temple in Israel, (2) an everlasting kingdom, (3) a throne (i.e., royal authority in the line of David), (4) chastisement on the sons of disobedience, and (5) the promise of Messiah in the line of David.

d. Main Events

Most of Israel’s songs and proverbs were written during this period

Period begins with selection of a ruler (1 Samuel 9) and ends with the rejection of a ruler (1 Kings 12).

Two babies are noted as dying: 2 Sam. 12 represents the wages of sin while the second (1 Kings 3) points out the wisdom of Solomon.

The Ark of the Covenant is carried into Jerusalem twice, once representing celebration (2 Sam. 6:15, 17) and once representing revolution (2 Sam. 15:14, 24-25).

The Threefold Anointing of David: In Bethlehem by Samuel (1 Sam. 16:13), In Hebron By Two Tribes (2 Sam. 2:1-4), In Hebron By Twelve Tribes (2 Sam. 3-5).

The Capture of Jerusalem By David

The Giving of the Davidic Covenant

The Construction of the First Temple

(2 Samuel 5:6-10) (2 Samuel 7) (1 Kings 5-8; 2 Chron. 2-7)

7. Chaotic Kingdom Stage (931BC - 605BC)

a. Books of the Bible

1 Kings 12-22

Isaiah

2 Kings

Micah

2 Chronicles 10-36

Nahum

Obadiah

Zephaniah

Joel

Jeremiah

Jonah

Habakkuk

Amos

Lamentations

Hosea

b. Main People

Elijah (“Yahweh is God,” prophet to Israel in 9 th century BC), raised the dead, brought fire from sky, ascended into Heaven in whirlwind accompanied by chariots (2 Kings 2:11), returned from Heaven before Christ’s second coming prophesy of Messiah

Malachi coming 4:5, Jesus and John the Baptist are both compared to him and sometimes thought to be him, he appears with Moses during the transfiguration of Jesus, and he is thought by Mormons to have returned in 1836 to visit Joseph Smith.

Elisha: the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah; he became the attendant and disciple of Elijah (1 Kings 19:16-19), and after Elijah was taken up in a fiery chariot into the whirlwind, he was accepted as the leader of the sons of the prophets, and became noted in Israel. He possessed, according to his own request, "a double portion" of Elijah's spirit (2 Kings 2:9); and for sixty years (892-832 BC) held the office of "prophet in Israel" (2 Kings 5:8). He preformed many miracles with God’s help including parting the waters of the Jordan (2 Kings 2:14) and raising a dead boy back to life (2 Kings 4:18-21, 32-47).

Major Prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah)

Minor Prophets (Obadiah, Jonah, Nahum, Amos, Hosea, Joel, Micah, Zephaniah, Habakkuk)

19 Northern Rulers

20 Southern Rulers

c. Facts Concerning This Period

Period covers approximately 326 years (931 BC – 605 BC)

Period begins with revolt for power over the kingdom of Israel’s (following Solomon’s death) and ends with the fall of the kingdom of Judah to the Babylonians.

Israel (northern kingdom, and sometimes referred to as Ephraim, captured by the Assyrians in 721 BC, hence 210 year existence) was ruled by 19 rulers, of which none were righteous

Judah (southern kingdom, captured by the Babylonians in 606 BC, hence 325 year history) was ruled by 20 rulers, of which 7 were righteous (only 5 were really good)

Israel (capitol was Samaria) consisted of 10 tribes

Judah (capitol was Jerusalem) consisted of 2 tribes (Judah and Benjamin)

Vast majority of all rulers were predominantly evil (good ones marked with an asterisk *, 2 of which were only good in the beginning of their reign, marked with a double asterisk **). Also, the number out from each name represents how long (in years) they reigned.

Judah (Southern Kingdom)

Israel (Northern Kingdom)

Rehoboam

17

Jeroboam

22

Abijam

3

Nadab

2

*Asa

41

Baasha

24

*Jehoshaphat

25

Elah

2

Jehoram

8

Zimri

7 days

Ahaziah

1

Omri

12

Athaliah

6

Ahab

22

**Joash

40

Ahaziah

2

**Amaziah

29

Jehoram

12

Uzziah

52

Jehu

28

*Jotham

16

Jehoahaz

17

Ahaz

16

Jehoash

16

*Hezekiah

29

Jeroboam II

41

Manasseh

55

Zechariah

6 months

Amon

2

Shallum

1 month

*Josiah

31

Menahem

10

Jehoahaz

3 months

Pekahiah

2

Jehoiakim

11

Pekah

20

Jehoiachin

3 months

Hoshea

9

Zedekiah

11

Prophets during this period and the destination of their prophecies:

Obadiah

850 840

Edom

Jonah

785 750

Nineveh

Nahum

650 620

Nineveh

Amos

760 753

North

Hosea

760 700

North

Joel

841 834

South

Isaiah

739 681

South

Micah

735 700

South

Zephaniah

640 620

South

Habakkuk

609 606

South

Jeremiah

627 575

South

Lamentations

586

South

d. Main Events

Israel’s Tragic Civil War (1 Kings 12; 2 Kings 17, 25)—Northern and Southern Kingdoms of Israel continuously feud against each other throughout this entire period. In fact, many of the Kingdom rulers were killed by the opposing ruler and his army.

The Capture of the Northern Kingdom by the Assyrians (721 BC)—God warned them numerous times to turn back to Him but they failed to heed His warnings from the prophets. God finally had enough and He lifted His sovereign protection from Israel and the Assyrians finally prevailed. Interesting to note here is that the Assyrians wanted to

progress further south and conquer the Southern Kingdom of Judah and Egypt. They prevailed in conquering Egypt, but God supernaturally protected Judah (2 Chronicles 32). However, the sad irony of Judah’s future is that they would suffer the same fate and the

same result as their sister Israel (Northern Kingdom) 135 years later, only to a different army (Babylonians). Further irony occurs when the Persian army defeats the Babylonian army and the Persian army’s ruler, Cyrus the Great, frees the Israelites and even gives them a massive amount of money to return to their homeland and rebuild. God orchestrated it all.

The Salvation of Jerusalem From the Assyrians (2 Chronicles 32:22)—Sennacherib was king of Assyria; God miraculously saved Jerusalem from the Assyrians but 135 years later would refuse to grant them a similar pardon for their unrepentant sins.

The Great Preaching Ministry of the Oral Prophets—Elijah, Elisha

The Great Preaching Ministry of the Writing Prophets (Listed above starting with Obadiah).

The Giving of the New Covenant (Jeremiah 31): it will be immutable, unconditional, and eternal, unlike the Old (Mosaic) Covenant (Ex. 19:5-8)it will be entirely based on grace and the sacrificial blood of Christ; it is the foundation of Israel’s future regeneration, restoration, and salvation; it ensures the everlasting nature of Israel as a nation (Romans 11).

The Capture of the Southern Kingdom by the Babylonians: this is perhaps the saddest moment in Israel’s history—God’s chosen people and nation completely destroyed, annihilated, and dispersed. However, the beauty of it all is that God did not fully destroy them or forget them. He, through His infinite grace, mercy, love and promise, restored Israel through a Remnant of the Captivity (a small band of pure blooded Israelites that returned from Babylon and restored Jerusalem and the nation of Israelsee next stage).

8. Captivity Stage (605BC - 539BC)

a. Books of the Bible

Daniel

Ezekiel

b. Main People

Daniel: means "God is my judge;" at a young age, Daniel was carried off to Babylon where he was trained in the service of the court under the authority of Ashpenaz; became famous for interpreting dreams and rose to become one of the most important figures in the court and lived well into the reign of the Persian conquerors; retained his high position there and had influence in the decision to restore the Jews to their homeland; Christianity regards Daniel as a saint and a prophet. The time and circumstances of Daniel's death have not been recorded. However, Daniel was still alive in the third year of Cyrus according to Daniel 10:1, and he would have been in his late 60’s at that point, having been brought to Babylon when he was in his teens.

Ezekiel (ministry was twofold: remind exiles of their sins, and encourage them concerning God’s future blessings)

Nebuchadnezzar: ruler of Babylon from 605 BC 562 BC; conquered Judah and Jerusalem; sent the Jews into exile; is credited with the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon; is featured extensively in Jeremiah and Daniel, and is also mentioned in several other books of the Bible (2 Kings, 1 & 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, and Ezekiel).

Shadrach, Meshach, Abednego (three dudes in the furnace; refused to bow to Nebuchadnezzar’s idol; Daniel 1)

Belshazzar (the last king of Babylon who, after requesting gold goblets from the Jerusalem temple to be presented to him and drinking wine from them, witnessed a hand writing an encrypted message on the wall which when translated means “Thou art weighed in the balance and art found wanting(Daniel 5:1-4).

Darius (550 486 BC): Persian king; also known as Darius the Great; held the empire at its peak which including Egypt and parts of Greece; the decay and downfall of the empire commenced with his death and the coronation of his son, Xerxes I.

Cyrus of Persia (Cyrus the Great): ruler of Persia from 559 BC – 530 BC; was instrumental in getting the Temple of Jerusalem rebuilt, though indirectly, by issuing a

decree, or edict, known as the edit of Cyrus, in which he allowed the Israelites permission to rebuild the Temple and even sent them home with a considerable amount of money.

c. Facts Concerning This Period

Period covers approximately 66 years (605 BC – 539 BC)

Period begins with the fall of Judah and the first wave of exiles to Babylon and ends with the Decree from Cyrus the Great (this decree frees the Israelites from bondage in Babylon) after his army defeats the Babylonians.

Captivity occurred in three stages

Complete destruction of Jerusalem and Solomon’s Temple in 586 BC (Ezekiel 4-34)

d. Main Events

Captivity Occurs in Three Stages: 605 BC (Daniel and friends are carried off to Babylon—2 Chronicles 36:6-7), 597 BC (Ezekiel along with many others are carried off2 Kings 24:10-16), and 586 BC (Zedekiah taken along with the rest of the noble citizens of Judah, city is destroyed through fire, including Solomon’s elaborate Temple2 Kings 25:1-7).

Personal Deliverance of Daniel and His Friends (Daniel 3)

Destruction of the First Temple

Ezekiel’s Vision of the Temple (Ezekiel 8-11)this occurred in 592 BC; Ezekiel was transported to Jerusalem as he witnessed the horrible false worshipping and defiling of the Temple that was taking place at that time.

Description of the Future Millennial Temple (Ezekiel 40-48)

A Panorama of Gentile World Powers and Their Condemnation—Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia, Tyre, Sidon, Egypt (Ezekiel 25-32; 35)

A Preview of Israel’s Future Restoration (Ezekiel 37-38)

The Fall of Babylon (539 BC)

9. Return Stage (539BC - 400BC)

a. Books of the Bible

Haggai (520): partner to Zechariah in getting the construction of the Temple accomplished under Zerubbabel. Book is divided into four sermons (1:1-11; 2:1-9; 2:10- 19; 2:20-23) with three messages [perform (1:1-11), patience (2:1-9), ponder (2:123)].

Zechariah (520): was of priestly descent, slain in the Temple (Josephus tells us this), book has more Messianic prophecies than any other minor prophet (seven: 3:8; 3:8; 9:9;

11:12-13; 12:10; 13:7; 14:3-8). Book is divided as follows: Visions of the Prophet (1-6), Vanities of the People (7-8), and Visitations of the Prince (9-14). There are 10 visions and two visits (1 st and 2 nd Comings of Christ).

Esther (478-464): takes place in Persia; illustrates the providence (God will take care of us) of God; the rise of Esther (1-2), the lies of Haman (3-5), and the prize of faith (6-10).

Ezra (445):Period under Zerubbabel (1-6); period under Ezra (7-10); period of 60 years between chapters 6 & 7 no biblical record

Nehemiah (445): last historical book of the OT; Nehemiah is an autobiographical book concerning his dealings with getting the wall rebuilt.

Malachi (435-396): a miniature summary of the entire OT (the selection, transgression, and purification of Israel; the tribulation upon the nations; and the manifestation of the Messiah), or another way of stating it might be: God’s love stated, scorned, and shown.

b. Main People

Cyrus

Joshua (High Priest)

Zerubbabel (Governor)

Ezra

Ahasuerus

Esther

Mordecai

Haman

Nehemiah

Artaxerxes

Sanballat

c. Facts Concerning This Period

Period covers approximately 138 years (539 400 BC)

Period begins with the release of the Jews from Babylon and ends with the Messianic prophecies from Malachi.

Restoration of the Feast of Tabernacles (Nehemiah 8:13-18)

The institution of the Feast of Purim (Esther 9:20-32)

This period included six Perisan kings: Cyrus the Great (539-530; conquers Babylon and issues return decree), Cambyses (530-522; not referred to in OT), Smerdis (522-520; stops work on the Temple), Darius the Great (520-486; allows work on the Temple to continue), Ahasuerus (486-465; makes Esther his queen), and Artaxerxes (465-424;

allows Ezra and Nehemiah to return).

Three return trips correspond to three captivity trips: 606 (Daniel), 597 (Ezekial), and 586 (Zedekiah) BC; 536 (Zerubbabel), 455 (Ezra), and 445 (Nehemiah) BC.

d. Main Events

The Decree of Cyrus: releases Jews from captivity

The Construction of the Second Temple (Ezra 6): this was a rebuilding project that was completed in 515 BC

The Rebuilding of the Walls of Jerusalem

The Deliverance of the Jews in Persia

10. Intertestamental Stage (400BC - 6BC/a period of silence from God)

a. Books of the Bible

None

The Apocrypha

b. Main People

Alexander the Great

Epiphanes

The Maccabees

Pompey

Julius Caesar

Herod

c. Facts Concerning This Period

Period covers approximately 400 years (400 BC 6 BC): lasted from Malachi (last OT prophet) to the birth of Jesus

Silence from God (similar in nature, purpose, and length of time to the 400 years of silence between Joseph (Genesis 50) and Moses (Exodus 1). Moses would lead the Israelites out of the bondage of the Egyptians, while Jesus would lead the people out of the bondage of sin.

d. Main Events

Alexander the Great defeats the Persians

331 BC

Alexander the Great dies

323 BC

The translation of the Septuagint (Greek OT)

260 BC

The Great Wall of China begun

214 BC

Apocryphal literature completed

175 BC

Epiphanes defiles the Temple

169 BC

The revolt of the Maccabees

166 BC

The cleansing of the Temple

165 BC

Pompey conquers Jerusalem

63 BC

Julius Caesar is assassinated

44 BC

Herod is appointed governor of Jerusalem

37 BC

The rebuilding and enlargement of the Temple

20 BC

B. New Testament Stages

a. Books of the Bible

Matthew

Mark

Luke

John

b. Main People

The Twelve Disciples

Mary and Joseph (Jesus’ parents—his biological birth mother and step father)

Mary and Martha

Pilate, Herod, Ananias

Barabbas

Two thieves on crosses

John the Baptist

Nicodemus

Lazarus

Mary Magdalene

Pharisees

Samaritan woman at the well

The woman caught in adultery

c. Facts Concerning This Period

Period covers approximately 36 years (6 BC – 30 AD)

Period begins with the birth of John the Baptist and ends with the ascension of Christ.

Issuance of the eighth covenant between God and man: the New Covenant—an everlasting, unconditional covenant imparting a renewed mind and heart to the recipients, restored favor and blessing for Israel, complete and final forgiveness and removal of sins, indwelling of the Holy Spirit, a rebuilt temple in Israel (Ezek. 37:26,27a), and cessation of war and institution of world peace.

d. Main Events

Birth, life, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ

Joseph and Mary’s flight to Egypt

Wise men visit the Messiah

Jesus wilderness temptation

The birth and ministry of John the Baptist

Choosing of the 12 disciples

Cleansing of the Temple by Christ

Salvation of a Pharisee (Nicodemus)

Upper room events

Trials and death of Christ

Jesus teaching in the Temple

Introduction of the Lamb of God by John the Baptist

Baptism of Jesus Christ

Multitudes of miracles preformed by Jesus (36 recorded in all)

Sermon on the Mount

The Lord’s Prayer

Transfiguration of Christ

Raising of Lazarus from the dead

The Parables of Christ (38 in all)

Messiah’s triumphal entry (entered as a king, five days later crucified as a criminal)

The Lord’s Supper

The Prayers of Christ (19 in all)

The Predictions of Christ (45 in all)

The Sermons of Christ (16 in all)

Our Savior’s Words (36 dialogues, 16 OT references, and 22 OT quotes)

Prayer in the Garden of Gethsemane

The crucifixion of Christ, the Son of the Living God

The resurrection of Christ

Jesus prayer (John 17; second longest prayer in the Bible)

Ascension of Christ to Heaven

2. Early Church Stage (30AD – 68AD)

a. Books of the Bible

Acts

b. Main People

Peter

Philip

Stephen

Paul

Barnabas

Silas

James

c. Facts Concerning This Period

Period covers approximately 38 years (30 AD – 68 AD)

Period begins with the choosing of Matthias as a twelfth disciple to replace Judas Iscariot and ends with Paul preaching the Gospel in Rome.

The Holy Spirit comes and brings tremendous power, comfort, and fellowship with Him.

The Holy Spirit fills both the Jew and Gentile heart

Where would the Church be without Peter and Paul, the sixth and seventh greatest men to

have ever lived (Adam, Abraham, Moses, David, John the Baptist, Peter, and Paul)?

Cities visited by Paul and their corresponding missionary journey:

Paphos in Cyrus

1

Antioch in Pisidia

1, 2

Iconium

1

Lystra

1, 2

Antioch in Syria

1

Troas

2, 3

Philippi

2

Thessalonica

2

Berea

2

Athens

2

Corinth

2

Ephesus

2, 3

Miletus

3

Tyre

3

Caesarea

3

d. Main Events

Choosing of a twelfth disciple—Matthias (Acts 1)

Pentecost (Acts 2)

Peter’s simple sermon encouraging his listeners to repent and be saved, which resulted in 3000 salvations in one day (Acts 2:41)!

The early Church spends tremendous amounts of time together (Acts 2:42 – 47)

The healing miracles of the Apostles

The persecutions of the Apostles

The persecutions of Paul

The choosing of the seven deacons (Acts 6)

The arrest, speech, and martyrdom of Stephen (Acts 6-7)

The Church is persecuted and scattered, but survives (Acts 8)

Philip preaches and in his travels leads the Ethiopian eunuch to Christ (Acts 8)

Saul’s salvation—later became Paul (Acts 9)

Paul’s commission from the Lord (Acts 9)

Peter’s divine encounter with Cornelius, their dreams, and the purpose of it all (to show Peter that God’s grace extends to all people—both Jew and Gentile) Acts 10

The criticism of Peter from the Jews (Acts 11)

The church in Antioch is established and Barnabas is sent to them (Acts 11)

Peter miraculously escapes from prison (Acts 12)

Herod is killed by an angel of the Lord, and eaten by worms (Acts 12)

Barnabas and Saul are sent by the Holy Spiritthis is Paul’s first of three missionary journeys (Acts 13 - 15)

Barnabas and Paul split up, Barnabas takes Mark and Paul takes Silas—this is Paul’s second missionary journey (Acts 15 18)

Timothy joins Paul and Silas (Acts 16)

The conversion of Lydia in Philippi (Acts 16)

Paul and Silas are imprisoned, they miraculously escape, jailer is converted (Acts 16)

Paul’ third missionary journey (Acts 18 21)

Paul in Ephesus, where he remained approximately three years (Acts 19)

Paul goes to Jerusalem and is arrested (Acts 21)

Paul is transferred to Caesarea (Acts 23)

Paul appears before Felix (Acts 24), Festus, and King Agrippa (Acts 25 - 26)

Paul sails for Rome and is shipwrecked on Malta where he performs many healing miracles (Acts 27 - 28)

Paul arrives and stays in Rome preaching from his rented house to all who would listen (Acts 28)

3. Epistle Stage (48AD – 95AD)

a. Books of the Bible

Romans

1 Corinthians

2 Corinthians

Galatians

Ephesians

Philippians

Colossians

1 Thessalonians

2 Thessalonians

1 Timothy

2 Timothy

Titus

Philemon

Hebrews

James

1 Peter

2 Peter

1 John

2 John

3 John

Revelation

b. Main People

Paul, the list of authors above, and a host of other people we cannot name here. The important thing to remember here is that God used various people throughout history (Jew, Gentile, short, tall, male and female) to accomplish His purposes and His will. He does the same today with those whose heart is bent toward Him and have a heart to obey

and trust in Him.

c. Facts Concerning This Period

Period covers approximately 47 years (48 AD 95 AD)

Period begins with Paul writing Galatians (? = some believe 1 Thessalonians) and ends

with John writing Revelation around 95 AD.

Five writers (Paul, John, James, Peter, Jude) wrote, under God’s inspiration, 22 letters.

Paul’s epistles in written order and the missionary journey or imprisonment at the time of the writing:

Galatians

1 Thessalonians

2 Thessalonians

1 st Missionary Journey

2 nd Missionary Journey

2 nd Missionary Journey

3 rd Missionary Journey

3 rd Missionary Journey 3 rd Missionary Journey

1 Corinthians

2 Corinthians

Romans

Hebrews (? = unknown author) 3 rd Missionary Journey

Ephesians

1 st Imprisonment

Colossians

1 st Imprisonment

Philemon

1 st Imprisonment

Philippians

1 st Imprisonment

1

Timothy

2 nd Imprisonment

Titus

2 nd Imprisonment

2

Timothy

3 rd Imprisonment

d. Main Events

Too numerous to mention, but remember that the main event in this period was the continuous preaching of the Gospel to the Gentiles, something that has still to this day not fully been accomplished, and that the early Church continued to grow despite unbelievable odds against them and the persecutions they endured for the cause of the Christ and the furtherance of the Gospel.

C. Closing Comments

It is my prayer and most heartfelt desire that this writing, which I so much enjoyed putting together, will fall on fertile ground, take root, sprout, and produce spiritual fruit for the kingdom of God. My prayer is that you will see what I have seen: that God is faithful, loving, merciful, kind, longsuffering, jealous, sovereign, holy, and righteous. He wants nothing more than to communicate with His people and for them to love Him with all their heart. When they do, He is gracious to abundantly bless and prosper those who do. He is also slow to anger but does get angry, leading Him to pour out wrath and punishment upon those who continually neglect, deny, or avoid Him. He proposes His will and accomplishes it through those He chooses. Usually, they are those who love Him, believe in Him, and long to please Him. My prayer is that one of those people is you. May God receive all the glory for this paper, because it is for Him and for the hope of spiritual fruit being produced that it was created and made available to all.