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Chapter 6 Bodies in Equilibrium Fundamentals of Physics: A Senior Course

SHORT ANSWER 1. Several children are playing on the smooth, frictionless, level floor of a nursery. They hold strings tied to a small toy truck, which they pull horizontally. Barbara (B) pulls with a force of 16 N [east], Scott (S) pulls with a force of 19 N [west]. With what force must Kevin (K) pull to keep the truck in equilibrium, horizontally? ANS:

REF: K/U MSC: SP

OBJ: 2.2

LOC: FMV.02

KEY: FOP 6.1, p.205

2. A guy wire attached to the top of a gate post is anchored to the bottom of the next post, as illustrated. Assuming that the gate post does not move, what are the horizontal and vertical components of the force exerted on the top of the post by the guy wire, if the tension in the wire is 500 N?

ANS:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 2.2

LOC: FMV.02

KEY: FOP 6.1, p.208

3. A cyclist applies a downward force of 65 N on the pedal of her bicycle, as illustrated. Find the torque for each position.

(a )

(b)

(c )

(d)

ANS:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) REF: K/U KEY: FOP 6.3, p.215 MSC: SP

4. Calculate the torque of each force about the corresponding point P.

(a )

(b)

(c )

(d)

ANS:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) REF: K/U KEY: FOP 6.3, p.219 MSC: P

5. A uniform, 12.0 m long girder has a mass of 500 kg. It rests unattached, on a concrete slab with one end overhanging the edge by 5.5 m. How far can an 80 kg man walk out on the girder before it tips?

ANS:

Taking torques about P:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.3, p.219

MSC: P

6. A short-wave aerial is attached to the top of a mast 20 m high, and exerts a force of 600 N on the top of the mast (see diagram). The mast is supported by a guy wire running to the ground from a point 6.0 m below the top of the mast, inclined 60 to the horizontal. The mast is pivoted on a hinge pin at its base. Determine the tension in the guy wire.

ANS:

Taking torques about P:

REF:

K/U, MC

KEY: FOP 6.3, p.219

MSC: P

7. A 12 kg plank has four concrete blocks placed on it, as illustrated. If each block has a mass of 10 kg and a width of 24 cm, where is the centre of gravity of the system, located from the left end?

ANS:

Taking moments about B:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.4, p.223

MSC: P

8. The centre of gravity of a person may be located by the arrangement shown in the diagram. Assuming the scales to be adjusted to zero with the plank alone, locate the centre of gravity of the person.

ANS:

Taking moments about A:

Therefore the centre of gravity is located 1.2 m from his feet. REF: K/U KEY: FOP 6.4, p.223 MSC: P

9. Locate the centre of gravity of an extended leg relative to the sole of the foot, given the locations of the centres of gravity of the upper and lower leg, as shown in the diagram.

ANS:

Taking moments about P:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.4, p.224

MSC: P

10. A 60 kg woman bends 90 forward from the waist, keeping her legs vertical. The centre of gravity for her upper body is located 70 cm from her hips. If two-thirds of her mass is in her upper body, how far forward from the line of her legs is her new centre of gravity? ANS:

Taking torques about the centre of gravity:

The centre of gravity is 47 cm from the line of her legs. REF: K/U KEY: FOP 6.4, p.224 MSC: P

11. What is the tipping angle for a 2.0 kg brick, 6.0 cm by 12.0 cm by 20 cm, when it is placed on end?

ANS: Since the brick is a uniform object, its centre of gravity will be located at its geometric centre. Also, at the critical tipping angle, the centre of gravity will be directly above the edge P, as illustrated. Given the dimensions in the diagram, it follows that

Note that the mass of the object has no effect on the value of the tipping angle. The only important criteria are the dimensions of the object and the location of the centre of gravity. Of course, would be different if we tipped the brick on another edge. REF: K/U KEY: FOP 6.5, p.227 MSC: SP

12. Using the following diagram of a brick, find the critical tipping angle for rotation about an edge for the following. (a) if it is standing on its side (b) if it is standing on its face

ANS: (a)

(b)

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.5, p.230

MSC: P

13. What is the critical tipping angle for the table illustrated?

ANS:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.5, p.230

MSC: P

14. A triangular steel sheet, with equal sides of 10 cm, is pushed at its peak. If the triangle is pushed parallel to its base, what angle will the base of the triangle make with the horizontal when it just begins to tip over? ANS:

Centre of gravity is located at

or 2.9 cm from the base.

Note: Symmetry alone would tell us this. REF: K/U KEY: FOP 6.5, p.230 MSC: P

15. What force is necessary to stretch a spring whose force constant is 120 N/m by an amount of 30 cm? ANS:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 4.5

LOC: EM1.08

KEY: FOP 6.6, p.232

16. A spring with a force constant of 600 N/m is used in a scale for weighing fish. What is the mass of a fish that stretches the spring 7.5 cm from its normal length? ANS:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 4.5

LOC: EM1.08

KEY: FOP 6.6, p.232

17. A spring in a pogo stick is compressed 12 cm when a 40 kg boy stands on the stick. What is the force constant for the pogo stick spring? ANS:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 4.5

LOC: EM1.08

KEY: FOP 6.6, p.232

18. The force applied to a dynamics cart is measured with a stretched spring. What is the acceleration of a 2.0 kg cart on a flat, frictionless surface if pulled by a spring with a force constant of 40 N/m, stretched by a constant amount of 8.0 cm? ANS:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 4.5

LOC: EM1.08

KEY: FOP 6.6, p.232

19. A rectangular steel column 2.5 m long, with a cross-sectional area of 2.7 104 m2, is used vertically to support a sagging floor. If the column supports a load of 5.5 103 kg, how much is it compressed? ANS:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.7, p.238

MSC: P

20. During knee exercises, a mass is attached to the foot, as illustrated. Find the torque exerted on the knee joint by the leg and mass, if the mass of the lower leg and foot is 5.4 kg.

ANS:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.9, p.249

MSC: P

21. The deltoid muscle raises the upper arm to a horizontal position, as illustrated in the diagram. If the mass of the arm is 4.1 kg and its centre of gravity is considered to act 36 cm from the shoulder joint, find the following. (a) the tension in the deltoid muscle (b) the components Rx and Ry of the force exerted by the shoulder joint (c) the magnitude of the resultant force on the shoulder joint

ANS:

(a) Taking torques about P:

(b) Taking horizontal components:

Taking vertical components:

(c) REF: K/U, MC KEY: FOP 6.9, p.249 MSC: P

22. If the coefficient of friction between your running shoes and the gym floor is 0.80, how fast could you run around a circle with a radius of 2.0 m? ANS:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 2.4

LOC: FMV.02

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.256

23. You are wearing shoes that have a coefficient of friction on rock of 0.70. On how steep a rock slope could you stand without slipping? ANS:

REF: K/U, MC MSC: P

OBJ: 2.4

LOC: FMV.02

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.256

24. An arrow is drawn back against a bowstring with a force of 280 N. If the arrow makes an angle of 55 with the string above and below the arrow, find the tension in the string. ANS:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 2.2

LOC: FMV.02

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.256

25. A guy wire makes an angle of 55 with the ground, and applies a force of 1600 N to the top of a vertical clothes-line pole. Find the vertical and horizontal components of the force exerted on the pole by the wire.

ANS:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 2.2

LOC: FMV.01

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.256

26. A tennis net is supported at each end by a steel post, as illustrated. If the maximum tension in the net rope is 800 N and the angles are as shown, calculate the tension in the guy wire and the compression in the steel post. (Assume a hinge pin at the base of each post.)

ANS:

Horizontal components:

Vertical components:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 2.2

LOC: FMV.02

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.256

27. The Russell traction apparatus is used for a fractured femur. When the femur is healing, the muscles of the upper leg tend to pull the two sections of the femur together, which could result in a shortened leg after healing. The Russell apparatus provides a force parallel to the femur that prevents contraction of the femur. The sling supports the weight of the lower leg. (a) Find the magnitude and direction of the horizontal force on the leg (i.e., the sole of the foot). (b) To adjust the size of this force, the angles at the pulley on the foot can be changed. Would the angles be made larger or smaller, to decrease the force on the leg? Explain your reasoning. (c) Why are the angles kept equal, as shown?

ANS:

(a) (b) The larger the angle, the lower the force. (c) If they were not equal, there would be a vertical net force and the foot would be lifted. The force would not be along the length of the leg as required. REF: K/U, MC MSC: P OBJ: 2.2 LOC: FMV.02 KEY: FOP 6.11, p.257

28. The tendons pull on the bones of the lower leg with a total force of 100 N, as illustrated. What torque is exerted on the leg by the tendons alone?

ANS:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.257

MSC: P

29. Two children balance on a seesaw. One, with a mass of 30 kg, is seated 2.0 m from the pivot. The other is seated 2.5 m from the pivot. What is the mass of the second child? ANS:

Taking moments about P:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.257

MSC: P

30. Find the tension in the bicycle chain shown. The bottom is slack.

ANS: Net torque about axle of crank is 0.

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.257

MSC: P

31. What total vertical force is required to lift the handles of the loaded wheelbarrow illustrated in the diagram?

ANS:

Taking moments about P:

(The force per handle would be 105 N.) REF: K/U KEY: FOP 6.11, p.257 MSC: P

32. A marcher in a parade holds a flag at an angle of 60. What force must the hand provide perpendicular to the pole?

mass of pole and flag = 3.8 kg ANS:

Taking torques about P:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.258

MSC: P

33. Three men, 4.0 m apart as illustrated, are carrying a heavy load on a pole. Two are at one end of the pole and the third is at the other end. Where should the load be placed so that each man gives equal support?

ANS:

Taking vertical components:

Taking moments about P:

The load should be placed 1.3 m from the end closest to the two men, or 4.0 1.3 = 2.7 m from the single man. REF: K/U KEY: FOP 6.11, p.259 MSC: P

34. The diagram shows a forearm supporting a shot put whose mass is 5.44 kg. Using the dimensions on the diagram, find the force exerted by the biceps and the force on the elbow joint.

ANS:

(a) Taking moments about P:

(b) Taking vertical components:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.259

MSC: P

35. To make larger pictures, an enlarger can be moved to the edge of a table so that the image is projected onto the floor, as shown. (a) What is the minimum mass required on the base at point A to keep the enlarger from tipping off the table? (b) With this mass in place, what will be the reaction force at B?

mass of base = 2.0 kg mass of support = 2.0 kg mass of enlarger = 6.0 kg ANS: (a)

Taking torques about B:

(b) Taking vertical components:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.260

MSC: P

36. Earth and the Moon are 3.8 108 m apart, and their masses are 6.0 1024 kg and 7.3 1022 kg, respectively. Where, approximately, is the centre of gravity (relative to Earth) of the EarthMoon system? ANS:

Imagine a force supporting Earth and the Moon in balance. To give some meaning to this supporting force, assume a gravitational field g due to the Sun, located perpendicular to the EarthMoon axis.

Taking torques about E:

Note that the centre of gravity lies inside Earth! REF: K/U KEY: FOP 6.11, p.261 MSC: P

37. The four-legged table shown has a mass of 30 kg. Assuming that the legs are massless and the table does not slide, at what angle will it tip over?

ANS:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.261

MSC: P

38. A tall water glass with a mass of 300 g is about to be pushed (horizontally at its rim) across a table. The glass has a base 1.8 cm diameter and is 6.0 cm tall. If the coefficient of friction with the table surface is 0.20, determine whether the glass will slide or tip. ANS:

Taking torques about P:

Since the glass will tip. This is the minimum force to tip the glass. But the minimum force to slide the glass on the horizontal table is the maximum frictional force calculated as follows:

Hence the glass will tip and not slide when REF: K/U KEY: FOP 6.11, p.261

. MSC: P

39. A 50 kg high wire artist carries a weighted pole, as illustrated. Her centre of gravity is 80 cm above the high wire, and the two 23 kg masses are located 120 cm vertically below the wire. Find the vertical location of the centre of gravity of the walker and the weighted pole, relative to the high wire. Is this a case of stable or unstable equilibrium?

ANS:

Taking moments about T:

She is stable since the centre of gravity lies on a line with her feet. REF: K/U KEY: FOP 6.11, p.261 MSC: P

40. Find the minimum lateral shift in position of the centre of gravity of a standing man, whose mass is 80 kg, when he is carrying a 14 kg pail of water. Assume that he wishes to have an equal load on each foot. How is this shift in his centre of gravity accomplished?

ANS:

Taking moments about M:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.262

MSC: P

41. In a Hookes Law experiment, a force of 160 N produces a stretch of 8.00 cm in a spring. What is the spring constant? ANS:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 4.5

LOC: EM1.08

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.262

42. A 100 N force stretches a spring from 12 cm to 14 cm. What will be the length of the spring when a force of 500 N is applied, assuming that the spring remains within its elastic limit? ANS:

The new length is 12 cm + 10 cm = 22 cm. REF: K/U MSC: P OBJ: 4.5 LOC: EM1.08 KEY: FOP 6.11, p.262

43. A rectangular steel bar 5.00 m long, with a cross-sectional area of 1.3 103 m2, supports a mass of 1500 kg. How much is the bar stretched? ANS:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.262

MSC: P

44. A wire 0.80 mm in diameter and 1.8 m long was stretched 1.3 mm by a force of 18 N. Find Youngs Modulus for the wire. ANS:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.262

MSC: P

45. A 48 cm long leg bone, with a cross-sectional area of 5.0 cm 2, supports a load one-half the force of gravity on a 65 kg person. What is the compression experienced by the leg bone? ANS:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.262

MSC: P

46. An oar is held by a rower at 0.35 m from the oarlock. The oar makes contact with the water at an average of 1.3 m from the oarlock. If the force applied by the rower on the oar is 80 N, answer the following. (a) What is the force of the oar on the water? (b) What is the force on the oarlock?

ANS: (a)

Taking torques about P:

(b) Taking components at right angles to the oar:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.258

MSC: P

47. A designer wishes to construct a mobile (as shown in the diagram) using strings and light rods (of negligible mass). If the mass of the figure on the bottom left is 125 g, what are the required masses of the other figures so that the rods are horizontal?

ANS:

REF: PROBLEM

K/U, MC

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.259

MSC: P

1. Forces as given below are acting on a common point. Using two different solutions for each combination of forces, find the additional force required to maintain static equilibrium. (a) 160 N [east], 120 N [west] (b) 200 N [east], 160 N [north] (c) 100 N [N45E], 150 N [W] (d) 6.0 N [N30E], 10.0 N [N45W], 12.0 N [W10S] ANS: (a) 160 N [E] + 120 N [W] = 40 N [E] or 160 N [E] 120 N [E] = 40 N [E] (b)

(c)

(d)

Using Components:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 2.2

LOC: FMV.02

KEY: FOP 6.1, p.208

2. A helium balloon is attached to the middle of a light fishing-line anchored at both ends, as illustrated. If the upward force of the balloon is 0.05 N, find the tension in the fishing-line.

ANS:

Note that the tension in each string is about 6 times the balloon force. REF: K/U MSC: P OBJ: 2.2 LOC: FMV.02 KEY: FOP 6.1, p.209

3. The sign for Pierres restaurant has a mass of 82 kg. It is held out from the wall by a light horizontal steel rod, which supports no weight, and a wire at 40 to the horizontal, as illustrated. Find the tension in the wire and the compression in the steel rod.

ANS: Solution 1: Components

Taking vertical components:

Taking horizontal components:

Solution 2: Triangle of Forces

Thus the tension in the wire is REF: K/U, MC MSC: P OBJ: 2.2

and the compression in the rod is LOC: FMV.02 KEY: FOP 6.1, p.209

4. A simple roof truss is composed of two rafters and a horizontal tie, held together by one single pin at each vertex. If a 100 kg mass is hung from the apex of the rafters, as illustrated, what is (a) the additional compression in each rafter, (b) the additional tension in the tie, and (c) the additional compression in each stud?

ANS:

(a) Taking vertical components:

(b) Tension in the tie will be the horizontal component of the compressive force on the rafter at the stud.

(c) The additional compression at the stud will be the vertical components of the compressive force on the rafter at the stud.

Alternate Solution: Total force down on both studs is 980 N. Thus force on each stud is REF: K/U, MC MSC: P OBJ: 2.2 LOC: FMV.02 . KEY: FOP 6.1, p.209

5. A horizontal pull is being exerted on a 10 kg box with a string. If the coefficient of static friction is 0.40, what is the maximum force in the string just before the box moves? ANS:

Since the box is in equilibrium,

Taking horizontal components

Taking vertical components,

REF: K/U MSC: SP

OBJ: 2.4

LOC: FMV.02

KEY: FOP 6.2, p.210

6. A 1.0 kg block is placed on an adjustable ramp. To what maximum angle can the ramp be raised before the block just begins to slide, if the coefficient of friction is 0.40? ANS:

Taking components parallel to the ramp and making up positive,

Taking components normal to the ramp, and again making up positive,

Thus,

Therefore the ramp must be elevated 22 to the horizontal in order for the block to begin to slide down it. REF: K/U MSC: SP OBJ: 2.4 LOC: FMV.01 KEY: FOP 6.2, p.211

7. A 0.50 kg block of cheese sits on a level table, as shown. The coefficient of static friction is 0.60. Three strings are tied together in a knot at K. Kc is horizontal and fastened to the cheese. Kw angles up to the wall at 30 to the horizontal. Km hangs vertically, supporting a mouse. What is the maximum mass of the mouse, if the cheese and the mouse remain in equilibrium?

ANS:

Since the knot is in equilibrium, we know that

Taking horizontal components, with right as positive, this vector equation gives us

Taking vertical components, with up as positive, gives us

Since Tm = Fg, the force of gravity on the mouse is 1.7 N, and its mass would be

REF: K/U MSC: SP

OBJ: 2.4

LOC: FMV.01

KEY: FOP 6.2, p.211

8. A flat rock with a mass of 20 kg rests on a rough horizontal plane. If the coefficient of friction is 0.22, find the least force required to just move the rock, if the force acts in the following ways. (a) horizontally (b) at an angle of 37 above the horizontal (c) at an angle of 37 below the horizontal ANS: (a)

(b)

Taking vertical components:

Thus Taking horizontal components:

(c)

Taking vertical components:

Taking horizontal components:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 2.4

LOC: FMV.01

KEY: FOP 6.2, p.212

9. Three children are playing in the snow with a sleigh. One child exerts a maximum force of 40 N and another 58 N, on ropes, to just get the sleigh to move with the third child seated in it. The angles the horizontal ropes make with the direction of travel are 30 and 20, respectively. If the combined mass of the seated child and the sleigh is 75 kg, and the sleigh moves in a straight line, what is the coefficient of friction between the sleigh and the snow?

ANS:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 2.4

LOC: FMV.01

KEY: FOP 6.2, p.212

10. A 2.0 kg wooden block is attached to a 0.50 kg mass by a string passing through a frictionless pulley, as illustrated.

(a) If the mass of 0.50 kg provides the minimum force required to just get the block to move, what is the coefficient of friction? (b)

If the same plane surface is now inclined 20 to the horizontal, what minimum mass, attached to the string, will just get the block moving? ANS: (a)

(b)

Taking components along the plane with down the slope negative.

The mass required is

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 2.4

LOC: FMV.02

KEY: FOP 6.2, p.213

11. A 2.5 kg block rests on a plane inclined at 15 to the horizontal. If the coefficient of static friction for the surface is 0.30, will the block slide down the plane? ANS:

Since

, the block will not move down the slope.

Alternate Solution:

Therefore 15 is less than angle of repose and object will not slide. REF: K/U MSC: P OBJ: 2.4 LOC: FMV.02 KEY: FOP 6.2, p.213

12. A 41 kg trapdoor, 1.2 m long, is supported by a hinge at A and a sloping rope at B. Find the tension in the rope and the vertical and horizontal reactions of the hinge if the rope is just about to open the trap door.

ANS:

Taking torques about A:

Taking horizontal components:

Taking vertical components:

REF:

K/U, MC

KEY: FOP 6.3, p.219

MSC: P

13. A 40 kg plank 6.0 m long is supported by sawhorses A and B, as shown. A 60 kg crate is placed on the plank, 2.0 m from B. (a) Find the reaction forces at A and B.

(b) If the box and sawhorse B are moved as illustrated, find the reaction forces at A and B.

ANS: (a)

Taking torques about A:

Taking torques about B:

Alternate Solution:

(b)

Taking torques about A:

Taking vertical components:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.3, p.220

MSC: P

14. A 12.0 m ladder, whose mass is 20 kg, is leaning against a wall, with its base 6.0 m from the wall and at a slope of 60 to the floor. Because both the wall and the floor are frictionless, a rope is tied horizontally 0.50 m from the bottom of the ladder to the wall. A 72 kg plasterer climbs threequarters of the way up the ladder and stops. What is the tension in the rope and what are the reactive forces at the wall and the floor?

ANS: (a)

Taking moments about A:

Taking horizontal components:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.3, p.220

MSC: P

15. A cheerleaders baton consists of a 4.0 cm diameter sphere weighing 3.6 N and an 8.0 cm diameter sphere weighing 18 N, joined by a thin tube whose weight is 4.4 N and whose length is 86 cm. Calculate the centre of gravity.

ANS:

Applying Fnet = 0 in the vertical direction gives

Taking A as the point of rotation,

since the baton is balanced in equilibrium. Therefore

The centre of gravity is located 71 cm from A. REF: K/U KEY: FOP 6.4, p.222 MSC: SP

16. A cylindrical steel rod of radius 2.0 cm and length 40 cm is turned down on a lathe to one-half of its radius for a distance of 30 cm from one end. Find the centre of gravity, measured from the thicker end (density of steel = 7.89 103 kg/m3). ANS:

Taking torques about P:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.4, p.224

MSC: P

17. The CN Tower, opened in Toronto in 1976, is still the tallest free-standing structure in the world. Made of reinforced concrete, it soars 553.2 m from the base of the tower to the highest antenna on its communication mast. A massive foundation plunges an additional 16.7 m below the base, to solid rock. The foundation has threefold symmetry, with the three corners lying on a circle of radius 55.0 m. The total tower mass is 1.18 108 kg, and the centre of gravity is located about 75 m above the bottom of the foundation. For the purposes of the problem given below, do not consider the effects of the earth and rock around the foundation, but assume the tower and foundation to be resting on horizontal bedrock. (a) A blimp fastens a cable to the uppermost tip of the tower, and pulls horizontally so that the tower pivots on two corners of the foundation. So long as nothing bends, breaks, or slides, what tension is needed to just start the tower tipping? Convert your answer to a fraction of the towers mass.

(b) Suppose the blimp succeeds in starting the tower tipping, and carefully pulls it over to balance at the critical tipping angle: calculate this angle. ANS: (a) The centre of gravity of the tower will be directly above the centre of the foundation, which is located one-half the circle radius from the pivot line (see diagram).

This is a large force, but it is only about 5% of the force of gravity on the tower, as seen below.

(b) The critical angle will occur when the centre of gravity of the tower is vertically above the supporting edge, as illustrated.

At the critical tipping angle,

Thus, the tower will fall back to its upright position if the tipping angle is less than 20. REF: K/U KEY: FOP 6.5, p.228 MSC: SP

18. A 1.0 m steel guitar string has a diameter of 0.20 cm. What is the value of the tension in the string if it stretches 0.20 cm when tightened? ANS:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.7, p.236

MSC: SP

19. How much mass would have to be suspended on a vertical copper wire with a diameter of 0.30 cm to cause its length to increase by 0.20%? ANS:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.7, p.236

MSC: SP

20. A lighting engineer is designing a large chandelier for the lobby of a concert hall. The chandelier has a mass of 750 kg and is to be supported by a single steel cable. Assuming a safety factor of 5, what is the minimum diameter of the cable (steel tensile strength = 5.0 108 N/m2)? ANS: For a safety factor of 5,

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.7, p.236

MSC: SP

21. A marble column supporting a load of 1.0 105 kg has a diameter of 0.5 m. (a) What is the stress in the column? (b) What is the strain in the column? (c) If the column is 12 m high, how much will it be compressed? ANS:

(a)

(b)

(c) REF: K/U KEY: FOP 6.7, p.238 MSC: P

22. An aluminum wire 1.0 m long is elongated 0.02 cm when under stress. If a brass wire with an identical diameter were used to support the same load, what would its initial length have been for it to have had the same extension? ANS:

But

and stress is equal.

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.7, p.238

MSC: P

23. How much will a 40 m steel elevator cable stretch if its diameter is 2.0 cm and it is supporting a static load of 1.5 104 N? ANS:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.7, p.238

MSC: P

24. A 50 cm long rod with a diameter of 1.0 cm is used to support a load of 100 N along its length. As a result, the rod is compressed 9.1 103 mm. What is the Youngs Modulus of the rod? What is the material? ANS:

Thus, the substance is probably aluminum. REF: K/U KEY: FOP 6.7, p.238 MSC: P

25. A steel cable supports a 3000 kg elevator. Allowing for a safety factor of 4, calculate the diameter of the cable required if the maximum acceleration is 1.0 m/s 2. ANS: Tensile strength of steel is Allowing for a safety factor,

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.7, p.238

MSC: P

26. A 10 kg mass is held in a hand, as illustrated. The mass of the forearm is 2.0 kg, and its centre of gravity is located 14 cm from the joint. The biceps muscle is attached to the radius bone at 4.0 cm from the joint, and the mass is 32 cm from the joint. (a) Find the tension in the biceps muscle. (b) Find the tension in the biceps muscle if the forearm forms an angle of 45 with the horizontal. (c) What is the reaction force of the radius on the humerus, at the joint, when the forearm is outstretched, as in (a)?

ANS: (a)

(b) When the elbow forms an angle of 45, the forces act at 45 to the forearm, as illustrated. The torque equation in (a) will be the same, except that each factor will be multiplied by sin 45. The result will be the samea tension in the biceps muscle of 8.5 102 N. It follows that the tension in the biceps muscle will be the same for all angles of the elbow, when the same mass is held. (c) The net force on the forearm is zero, since there is equilibrium; that is,

Take vertical components, with up as positive.

The humerus bone pushes down on the forearm at the elbow. REF: K/U, MC KEY: FOP 6.9, p.244 MSC: SP

27. Given the dimensions on the diagram of the forearm holding a mass of 5.4 kg, find the following. (a) the tension in the biceps muscle (b) the reactive force of the radius on the humerus, at the joint

ANS:

(a) Taking torques about P:

(b) The net force on the forearm is zero. Thus Taking the vertical components,

REF:

K/U, MC

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.256

MSC: P

28. A pioneer farmer hitches a horse and an ox to a stump in order to remove it from a field. The horse pulls with a force of 1.2 104 N [W], while the ox pulls with a force of 1.6 104 N [W30N]. What is the resultant force on the stump? ANS:

Using Components:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 2.2

LOC: FMV.02

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.256

29. A patient is in neck traction with skull calipers, as illustrated. Find the maximum value of the suspended mass that will cause no tension or other force in the neck, given that mass of the head is 4.2 kg and the coefficient of friction between the bed and the head is 0.20.

ANS:

Components of F:

Taking vertical components:

Taking horizontal components:

But,

REF: K/U, MC MSC: P

OBJ: 2.2

LOC: FMV.02

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.256

30. A 0.60 g spider hangs on its thread from the branch of a tree. A horizontal wind blows the spider and the thread to an angle of 35 from the vertical. Find the force of the wind on the spider and the tension in the thread.

ANS:

Taking vertical components:

Taking horizontal components:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 2.2

LOC: FMV.02

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.257

31. To keep Robin from being captured, Batman tosses him out of a third-storey window, knowing that a 17.0 m rope hangs slack between hooks of equal height on adjacent buildings 13.0 m apart. Robin grabs the rope and hangs on at a point 5.0 m from one end. Assuming that Robins mass is 45.0 kg and the rope withstands the initial impulse, what is the tension in each part of the rope when equilibrium is established? ANS:

Taking horizontal components:

Taking vertical components:

Substitute (1) in (2):

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 2.2

LOC: FMV.02

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.257

32. A pole-vaulter runs down the track at constant velocity, carrying a 6.0 m pole with a mass of 4.0 kg. Assume that the centre of gravity of the pole is located at its midpoint, and the vaulters hands are placed 1.0 m apart.

(a) Find the vertical force of each hand on the pole when the pole is carried horizontally. (b) Find the force on the pole-vaulters upper hand during the high carry if it is perpendicular to the pole, as shown.

ANS: (a)

Taking torques about P:

Taking vertical components:

(b)

Taking torques about P:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.258

MSC: P

33. Two painters, Mike and Ned, have been lowered over the side of a ship on an 8.0 m plank supported by two ropes P and Q. The distance relationships are shown on the diagram, and the masses are as follows: Mike 60 kg, Ned 80 kg, and the plank 40 kg. Find the tension in the two ropes.

ANS:

Taking torques about P:

Taking vertical components:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.260

MSC: P

34. A 6.0 m ladder with a mass of 12.5 kg leans against a smooth wall at an angle of 50 to the horizontal. If the coefficient of static friction between the ladder and the ground is 0.40, how far up the ladder can a 70 kg woman climb before the ladder starts to slip? ANS:

Taking torques about P:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.261

MSC: P

35. A copper wire 2.0 m long and 2.0 103 m in diameter is suspended from a solid support. A mass of 10 kg is hung from the bottom of the wire. What will be the stress and strain in the wire? ANS:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.262

MSC: P

36. A brass rod has a diameter of 5.0 mm. What force will stretch it by 0.02% of its length? ANS:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.262

MSC: P

37. A load of 250 kg is supported by two steel cables, as shown in the diagram. (a) Find the tensions in the cables. (b) If both cables have a diameter of 2.0 mm, how much does each cable stretch?

ANS:

(a) Taking horizontal components:

Taking vertical components:

REF:

K/U, MC

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.262

MSC: P

38. A spring whose force constant is 48 N/m has a 0.25 kg mass suspended from it. What is the extension of the spring? ANS: If the spring obeys Hookes Law,

REF: K/U MSC: SP

OBJ: 4.5

LOC: EM1.08

KEY: FOP 6.6, p.232

39. Find the resultant of the following concurrent forces. (a) 20 N [W] and 16 N [N30W] (b) 1200 N [N65E], 800 N [E15S], 1000 N [S30W] ANS: (a)

(b)

Using Components:

REF: K/U MSC: P

OBJ: 2.2

LOC: FMV.02

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.256

40. Calculate the force at the hands and toes of a 58 kg athlete holding a push-up position.

ANS:

Taking torques about P:

Taking vertical components:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.259

MSC: P

41. A 5.0 m diving board with a mass of 30 kg is supported at X and Y. Calculate the forces at X and Y when a 50 kg diver stands at the outer end of the board.

ANS:

Taking torques about x:

Taking vertical components:

REF:

K/U

KEY: FOP 6.11, p.260

MSC: P

42. Find the tension in the quadriceps tendon for the situation shown, assuming that the weight of the leg is ignored.

ANS:

Taking moments about P:

Force on bottom of vertebrae:

Horizontal components:

Vertical components:

Note the direction of REF: K/U

is really below the horizontal. KEY: FOP 6.9, p.249 MSC: P