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Four-stroke Spark Ignition (SI) Engine Stroke 1: Stroke 2: Stroke 3: Stroke 4: Fuel-air mixture introduced into cylinder through

intake valve Fuel-air mixture compressed Combustion (roughly constant volume) occurs and product gases expand doing work Product gases pushed out of the cylinder through the exhaust valve
FUEL I R Fuel/Air Mixture Ignition

Combustion Products

Intake Stroke

Compression Stroke

Power Stroke

Exhaust Stroke 1

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S.I. ENGINE EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT


Faster Combustion Complete Combustion Higher Compression Ratio Lean Burn Reduced Heat Loss Reduced Mechanical Friction Reduced Pumping Loss
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FACTORS GOVERNING

S.I.ENGINE COMBUSTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. FUEL MIXTURE TURBULENCE SPEED TRAVEL DISTANCE ENGINE SIZE CHAMBER SHAPE PLUG LOCATION CR INLET CONDITIONS SPARK TIMING ENGINE LOAD
:COMPOSITION FACTOR :COMPOSITION FACTOR :TIME FACTOR :TIME FACTOR :TIME FACTOR :TIME FACTOR

:TIME FACTOR
:TIME FACTOR :DENSITY FACTOR :DENSITY FACTOR :DENSITY FACTOR :DENSITY FACTOR
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Auto Ignition Temperature:


The temperature at which a fuel (for practical purposes, in atmospheric air) will spontaneously combust without an ignition source present.

Flash Point:
The temperature at which a fuel (for practical purposes, in atmospheric air) will sustain continuous combustion once an ignition source is introduced.
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0.38b 0.12b 0.44b SI ENGINE COMBUSTION 30

0.03b

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Dual Spark Plug


Spark plug 2 Spark plug 1

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DUAL PLUG SYSTEM


The performance of

Dual Spark Plug System


is better than all other systems

Torque is higher by 10% BSFC is lower by 15~20% HC emission is less by 20%


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OPERATING PARAMETER

TURBULENCE
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TYPES OF AIR MOTION

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FACTORS GOVERNING

CYCLIC VARIATION
MIXTURE MOTION: WITHIN CYLINDER & IN MANIFOLD MIXTURE IN EACH CYCLE(DILUTION)
MIXTURE NEAR SPARK PLUG RESIDUAL GASES IN EACH CYCLE

CYLINDER TO CYLINDER MOTION TURBULENCE VARIATION SPARK TIMING OPTIMISED FOR AVERAGE CYCLE DEPOSITS MALDISTRIBUTION
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SPARK PLUGS: WHAT'S NEXT AFTER PLATINUM


As the electrodes wear, the air gap across which the spark must jump becomes wider and wider.

PLATINUM PLUGS HAVE :

A SOLID PLATINUM

CENTER ELECTRODE

OR A SMALL BUTTON OF PLATINUM WELDED ONTO THE TIP THE CENTER ELECTRODE OR BOTH ELECTRODES

WHY
DURABILITY BEST CONDUCTORS OF HEAT AND ELECTRICITY. RESISTS CHEMICAL CORROSION RESISTS ELECTRICAL EROSION MINIMIZE ELECTRODE WEAR.

DOUBLE OR EVEN TRIPLE A SPARK PLUG'S NORMAL


SERVICE LIFE THEY REDUCE THE RISK OF MISFIRE PROLONGS THE LIFE OF THE CATALYTIC CONVERTER ALMOST ELIMINATE PERIODIC MAINTENANCE
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BEYOND PLATINUM
BOSCH :
CHAMPION : NICKEL-YTTRIUM ALLOY
PREMIUM PLUG : GOLD- PALLADIUM CENTER ELECTRODE & COPPER FILLED SIDE

ELECTRODE.

AUTOLITE : ACDelco :

CHROMIUM-NICKEL ALLOY WITH ITS PLATINUM TIPPED CENTER ELECTRODE PLUG SILVER-NICKEL ALLOY SIDE ELECTRODE WITH ITS PLATINUM TIPPED PLUGS. better than platinum in terms of corrosion, and resistance and ignition performance.

Denso & NGK : IRIDIUM ALLOY ELECTRODES. Iridium is even

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FUEL EFFICIENT S.I. ENGINES: STRATEGIES


Fuel System Technology Multi-valves Variable valve timing and lift (VVT, VTEC) Variable charge motion (5 to 8% FE benefits) Variable swept volume/Cylinder deactivation Downsizing and Supercharging Gasoline Direct Injection HCCI Alternative drives, hybrid etc. Reduce parasitic losses
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