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2.

200
+ 203.626
0.040
+ 201.426 m
0.400 + 201.386 m
0.750 + 200.986 m 4.439
1.100 + 200.236 m 5.339
+ 199.136 m 2.589
MFL + 198.647
GL + 197.647 m 1.100
2.000
+ 196.547 m
0.900
+ 195.647 m
1.200
4.800
CROSS SECTION OF THE PIER
4.350 0.200
3.750
0.075 0.7
+ 203.626
0.350
0.04 + 201.426
+ 201.386
200.986
+ 200.236
+ 199.136
GL + 197.647
1.200
1.100
0.900 + 196.547
+ 195.647
4.800
LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF PIER
IVRCL INFRASTRUCTURES AND
PROJECTS LIMITED
DESIGN OF PIER UNDER AQUEDUCT AT KM. 0.334
1.800 1.200 1.800
1.800
4.800 1.200
1.800
4.800
Clear span of trough = 8.800 m
Effective span of trough = 9.4 m
Overall length of slab = 10.000 m
Depth of slab = 0.350 m
Thickness of the wearing coat = 0.04 m
Diameter of the pier at top = 1.200 m
Diameter of pier at bottom = 1.200 m
Width of abutment 1.200 m
Width of pier cap = 1.200 m
Length of pier cap = 4.550 m
Width of trough slab = 4.350 m
Width of clear trough = 3.650 m
Width of foundation offset = 1.800 m
Depth of Water in the trough = 2.200 m
Free board = 0.000 m
Height of side walls = 2.200 m
Width of side wall = 0.350 m
Clear cover for pier and pier cap = 40.000 mm
## Main reinforcement provided for pier cap 25.000 mm
## reinforcement for stirrups 12.000 mm
79 Distribution steel 10.000 mm
## Hanger bars 12.000 mm
Effective depth for the pier cap = 0.75 + 1.1 - 40/1000 - 25/1000 -25/ 2000
(steel provided in two rows) = 1.7725 m
Half of the effective depth = 1.7725 / 2
= 0.886 m
0.849 m 1.200 m
0.175
Side of square inscribed in a circle = SQRT(0.6 + 0.6)
= 0.849 m
Half of the side of a square = 0.425 m
Distance from the outremost point of circle to side of the square
= 0.6 - 0.425
= 0.175
Clear span for LL = 1.675 + 0.175
= 1.850 m
Effective span for LL = 1.85 + 0.886
= 2.736 m
DESIGN OF PIER CAP
4.550
0.750
1.100
1.675 1.200 1.675
Self wt of the pier cap
Wt of major rectangular portion = 0.75 x 1.2 x 4.55 x 2.5 = 10.238 t
Wt of triangular portion = 1/2 x 1.1 x 1.675 x 1.2 x 2.5 x 2 = 5.528 t
Wt of minor rectangular Portion = 1.2 x 1.1 x 1.2 x 2.5 = 3.96 t
Total load = 19.726 t
Weight of trough slab:-
Reaction from side walls from staad out put = 178.12 t
Load due to self weight of cantelever portion
Wt. triangular portion = 1/2 x 1.1 x 1.675 x 1.2 x 2.5 = 2.764 t
Wt. major rectangular portion = 0.75 x (1.675 + 0.6) x 1.2 x 2.5= 5.119 t/m
Wt. minor rectangular portion = 0.6 x 1.1 x 1.2 x 2.5 = 1.98 t/m
9.863 t/m
Max. B.M at face of the support
BM due to LL = (178.12) x (2.736 - 0.1 - 0.175 ) = 438.353 t-m
BM due to DL = 9.863 x 2.736/2 = 13.493 t-m
Total Load = 451.846 t-m
DESIGN CONSTANTS
For M
25
grade concrete and F
e415
Fck = 25 N/mm
2
s
st
= 190
N/mm
2
s
cbc
= 8.5
N/mm
2
m = 10.980
k = 0.329
j = 0.89
Q = 1.244
Max required depth of pier cap = (4518.46 X 10^6/(1.244 X 1200))^0.5
= 1740 mm
Max depth provided = 1772.5 mm
HENCE SAFE
Area of stel required = 4518.46 x 10^6/(190 x 0.89 x 1772.5)
= mm
2
No of 25 mm dia bars required = 31.000 No's
Area of steel provided = mm
2
HENCE SAFE
15075.113
15223.214
Check for shear
Critical plane occurs at distance of d/2 from the face of the support
= 1.675-1.7725/2
= 0.789 m
Total depth of section at critical section = (1.1 x 0.789 / 1.675) + 0.75
= 1.268 m
Shear force at d/2 from face
Due to dead load = 19.726 x 1.268/2 = 12.506 t
Due to live load = 178.12 = 178.12 t
Total = 190.626 t
Nominal shear stress t
v
= 1906.26 x 10^3 = 1906260
1772.5 x 1200 2127000
= 0.896 N/mm
2
Area of steel provided = 15223.2 mm
2
% of steel provided = 15223.2 x 100 = 0.716 %
1850 x 1200
Permissible shear stress = 0.31 + ((0.36-0.31) / (0.75 - 0.5) x 0.216) = 0.3531 N/mm
2
Hence shear reinforcement is to be provided
Shear force carried by concrete = 1772.5 x 1200 x 0.3531
= 751043.7 N
Vs = V-(tv x bd)
= 1906260 - 751043.7
= 1155216.3 N
Provide 12 mm dia 4 legged stirrups
Spacing Sv = (175 x 113.143 x 4 x 1772.5) / 1155216.3
120 mm
Adopt Spacing of 120 mm
As per article 26.5.1.5 of IS : 456 - 2000, maximum spacing of shear
reinforcement is
( I ) 0.75d = 0.75 x 1850
= 1387.5 mm
( ii ) 300 mm whichever is less.
Hence provide a spacing of = 300 mm
Hence provide 12 mm dia @ 120 mm c/c 4-legged stirrups
Dead load due to super structure:-
Dead Load due to superstructure = 356.24 t/m
MOMENT DUE TO WIND FORCE:-
As per clause 212.2 of IRC:6 - 2000
CASE (I) DRAIN FULL CONDITION
As per clause 212.3 of IRC :6 - 2000
Height of side wall = 2.2 m
Exposed height over trough bottom = 0.35 + 0.04 + 2.2 + 0.05+0.35+0.7
= 3.69 m
Center of gravity of exposed area = 3.69 x 3.69 / 2
3.69
= 1.845 m
Center of gravity of exposed area acts at a elevation of
= 200.986 + 1.845
= 202.831
Height above FSL 200.986 - 198.647 + 1.845 = 4.184 m
Height above base of pier
202.831 - 196.547 = 6.284 m
Wind pressure for a height 4.184m = 63.92 Kg/m
2
Wind force at a height of 4.184m = 10 x 3.69 x 63.92 / 1000
= 2.359 t
Moment due to wind force at top of foundation of pier
= 2.359 x 6.284
= 14.824 t-m
Moment due to wind force at bottom of foundation of pier
= 2.359 x 7.184
= 16.947 t-m
CASE (II) DRAIN EMPTY CONDITION
Center of gravity of exposed area acts at a elevation of = 202.831 m
Height above CBL 200.986 - 197.647 + 1.845= 5.184 m
Wind pressure for a height 5.184m = 68.92 Kg/m
2
- + 1.845 = 6.284 m
Wind force at a height of 5.184m = 10 x 3.69 x 68.92 / 1000
= 2.543 t
Moment due to wind force at top of foundation of pier = 2.543 x 6.284
= 15.98 t-m
Moment due to wind force at bottom of foundation of pier
= 2.543 x 7.882 t-m
= 18.269 t-m
Condition:- I canal full condition
Moment due to wind force at top of foundation = 14.824 t-m
Moment due to wind force at bottom of foundation = 16.947 t-m
Condition:- II canal empty condition
Moment due to wind force at top of foundation = 15.98 t-m
Moment due to wind force at bottom of foundation = 18.269 t-m
CASE(2)
As per clause212.6 of IRC: 6 - 2000
The wind force as calculated should not be les than that obtained by 450 Kg/m on the trough
10 x 0.450 = 4.5 t
This force acts at center of the slab
Therefore lever arm from top of foundation of pier
4.439 + 1.845 = 6.284 m
Moment due to wind force at top of foundation
4.5 x 6.284 = 28.278 t-m
There fore lever arm at bottom of foundation
5.339 + 1.845 = 7.184 m
Moment due to wind force at bottom of foundation
4.5 x 7.184 = 32.328 t-m
CASE(3)
As per clause 212.7 of IRC-6-2000, Wind load on pier considered is
= 240
Span on which wind load acts = 10
Lateral wind force = 10 x 3.69 x 240 / 1000
= 8.856
Moment at base of the pier 8.856 x 6.284 = 55.651
Moment at bottom of foundation 8.856 x 7.184 = 63.622
THE MAXIMUM OF THE ABOVE THREE CASES IS CONSIDERED FOR DESIGN
Moment due to wind force at top of foundation = 55.651
Moment due to wind force at bottom of foundation = 63.622
MOMENT DUE TO WATER CURRENTS:-
CONDITION I: (IN DRAIN FLOW DIRECTION)
CASE: I
As per clause 213.2 of IRC:6 - 2000
Force due to water currents in direction of drain flow is given by
V = 1.414 x v
x x x
2
52 V k p =
v = Velocity of flow in drain
= 1.5 m/sec
V = 2.121 m/sec
Max velocity at the base of the pier
= 2 x 2.121 / 3
= 2.999 m/sec
K = 0.66
Pressure due to water currents at FSD
P = 52 x 0.66 x 2.121
= 154.393 Kg/m
2
Pressure due to water currents at drain bed level
= 52 x 0.66 x2.999
= 308.674 Kg/m
2
1.2
0.489 4.439
1.2 198.647
2.589 1
1.2 197.647
1.2
Pressure due to water currents at FSD = 154.393 Kg/m
2
Pressure due to water currents at bottom of drain
= 308.674 Kg/m
2
Area of pier profile immersed in water
1.2 x 1 = 1.2 m
2
Total pressure due to water currents.
(154.393 + 308.674) / 2 x 1/1000 x 1.2 = 0.278 t
lever arm (154.393 x 2 + 308.674) 1 = 0.444 m
(154.393 + 308.674) 3
Depth of pier from bottom level of drain to top level of foundation
= 1.1 m
Moment due to water currents at top of foundation
0.278 x (0.444 + 1.1) = 0.4292 t-m
Depth of pier from canal bed level to bottom level of foundation
= 2 m
Moment due to water currents at bottom of foundation
0.278 x (0.444 + 2) = 0.6794 t-m
x
CASE ( II ) (A)
Force parrllel to the length of the pier :-
Due to the cross currents as per para 213.5 of IRC - 6 - 1966
P = 52 x K x V
2
K = 0.66
V = 2
0.5
x V x cos(A)
Maximum variation in the direction of currents = 20
Pressure at FSL = 52 x K x V
2
x cos20
= 52 x 0.66 x 2.121 x cos (20)
= 145.082 Kg/m
2
Max velocity at the base of the pier
= 2 x 2.121 / 3
= 2.999 m/sec
Pressure at canal bed level = 290.059 Kg/m
2
Length of the pier = 1.2 m
Height of water column = 1 m
Area on which water pressure acts = 1.2 m
2
lever arm (145.082 x 2 + 290.059) 1 = 0.444 m
(145.082 + 290.059) 3
Total force = 0.261 t
Moment due to this force at the top foundation of the pier
= 0.261 x ( 0.444 + 1.1)
= 0.403 t-m
Moment due to this force at the bottom of foundation concrete
= 0.261 x ( 0.444 + 2)
= 0.638 t-m
CASE ( II ) (B)
Force perpendicular to the length of the pier :-
Due to the cross currents as per para 213.5 of IRC - 6 - 1966
P = 52 x K x V
2
K = 1.5
V = 2
0.5
x V x sin(A)
Maximum variation in the direction of currents = 20
Pressure at FSL = 52 x K x V
2
= 52 x 1.5 x 2.121 x sin 20
= 120.013 Kg/m
2
Pressure at canal bed level = 80.006 Kg/m
2
Length of the pier = 1.2 m
x
Height of water column = 1 m
Area on which water pressure acts = 1.2 m
2
lever arm (120.013 x 2 + 80.006) 1 = 0.533 m
(120.013 + 80.006) 3
Total force = 0.12 t
Moment due to this force at the top foundation of the pier
= 0.12 x ( 0.533 + 1.1)
= 0.196 t-m
Moment due to this force at the bottom of foundation concrete
= 0.12 x ( 0.533 + 2)
= 0.304 t-m
Maximum moments of both the cases are considered for the design
Moment at the base of the pier = 0.403 t-m
Moment at the base of the foundation 0.638 t-m
concrete
CONDITION II: (IN CANAL FLOW DIRECTION)
Water force in road way direction due to 250mm difference in water levels between the
opposite forces of the pier.
Depth of flow in drain = 1 m
Length of pier immersed in water = 1.2 m
Depth of pier from CBL to the top of foundation 1.1 m
Moment at top of foundation
M
1
1/2 x (1) x (1 /3 + 1.1) x 1.2 = 0.86 t-m
M
2
1/2 x (1.25) x (1.25 / 3 + 1.1) x 1.2 = 1.422 t-m
M
2
-M
1
= 0.562 t-m
Moment at bottom of foundation
M
1
1/2 x ( 1) x (1 /3 + 2) x 1.2 = 1.4 t-m
M
2
1/2 x (1.25) x (1.25 /3 + 2) x 1.2 = 2.266 t-m
M
1
-M
2
= 0.866 t-m
DRAIN FULL CONDITION:-
(I) TOTAL MOMENTS IN CANAL FLOW DIRECTION
TOP OF FOUNDATION BOTTOM OF FOUNDATION
CASE(I) CASE(I)
Water currents 0.562 0.866
Total moments 0.562 0.866
(II) TOTAL MOMENTS IN DRAIN FLOW DIRECTION
x
TOP OF FOUNDATION BOTTOM OF FOUNDATION
CASE(I) CASE(I)
Wind force 55.651 63.622
Water currents 0.429 0.679
Total moments 56.080 64.301
DRAIN EMPTY CONDITION:-
(II) TOTAL MOMENTS IN DRAIN FLOW DIRECTION
TOP OF FOUNDATION BOTTOM OF FOUNDATION
CASE(I) CASE(I)
Wind force 55.651 63.622
Total moments 55.65 63.622
SELF WEIGHT OF PIER:
Weight of bracket = 19.726 t
Weight of circular pier = ( 22/7) / 4 x (1.2) x 2.589 x 2.5 7.323 t
27.049
Weight of displaced water due to pier (with 100% buoyancy)
(22/7)/4 x 1.2 x 1 x 1 = 1.131 t
Self weight of pier with (100% buoyancy)
= 19.726 + 7.323 - 1.131 25.918 t
Direct loads at top of foundation (when drain is full)
Case(i) = 25.918 + 356.24 = 382.158 t
Direct loads at top of foundation (when drain is empty)
Case(ii) = 27.049 + 356.24 = 383.289 t
SELF WEIGHT OF FOUNDATION
Weight of foundation = 79.758 t
including top soil
Weight of foundation considering 100% Buoyancy
including top soil
= 43.912 t
Direct loads at bottom of foundation
Direct loads at bottom of foundation (when drain is full)
Case(i) = 382.158 + 43.912 = 426.07 t
Direct loads at bottom of foundation (when drain is empty)
Case(ii) = 383.289 + 79.758 = 463.047 t
SECTIONAL PROPERTIES:-
At the base of the pier
Area (a) = (22/7)/4 x(1.2) = 1.131 m
2
Section modulus:
Z
xx =
Z
yy
= PI x 1.2 / 32 = 0.17
m
3
At the base of the foundation
Area = 3.147 x 4.8 / 4 = 18.127 m
2
Section modulus
Z
xx
= 3.147 x 4.8 / 32 = 10.857
m
3
Z
yy
= 3.147 x 4.8 / 32 = 10.857
m
3
CONDITION - I
STRESSES AT TOP OF FOUNDATION (CONCRETE)
(when drain is full)
Case(I) = 382.158 0.562 56.080
1.131 0.17 0.17
= 337.894 3.306 329.884
Max = 671.084 t/m
2
Min = 4.704 t/m
2
STRESSES AT BOTTOM OF FOUNDATION (SOIL)
(when drain is full)
Case(I) = 426.07 0.866 64.301
18.127 10.857 10.857
= 23.505 0.08 5.923
Max = 29.508 t/m
2
Min = 17.502 t/m
2
CONDITION - II
STRESSES AT TOP OF FOUNDATION (CONCRETE)
(when drain is empty)
Case(I) = 383.289 55.651
1.131 0.17
= 338.894 327.359
Max = 666.253 t/m
2
Min = 11.535 t/m
2
STRESSES AT BOTTOM OF FOUNDATION (SOIL)
(when drain is empty)
Case(I) = 463.047 63.622
18.127 10.857
= 25.545 5.86
Max = 31.405 t/m
2
Min = 19.685 t/m
2
STRESS TABLE
CONDITION(I) TOP OF FOUNDATION BOTTOM OF FOUNDATION
MAX MIN MAX MIN
CASE(I) 671.084 4.704 29.508 17.502
CONDITION(II)
CASE(I) 666.253 11.535 31.405 19.685
Calculated direct compressive stress = 382.158 / 1.131 = 337.894
t/m
2
s
co(cal)
Permissible direct stress = 800
t/m
2
s
co
Permissible direct stress x 1.33 = 1064
t/m
2
s
co
Calculated bending compressive stress = (0.562 / 0.17) + (56.0802 / 0.17)
= 333.189
t/m
2
s
c(cal)
Permissible bending compressive stresses = 1000
t/m
2
s
c
Permissible bending compressive stress x1.33 = 1330
t/m
2
s
c
337.894 + 333.189 = 0.568 <1 Hence safe
1064 1330
The section is cracked and therefore it is designed as per IS : 456 - 2000
Diameter of the pier = 1.200 m
= 120.000 cm
Axial load coming on to the pier = 382.158 t
(value corresponding to max. bending compressive stress)
Factored axial load P
u
= 382.158 x 1.5
= 573.237 t
Moment acting about X - axis = 0.562 t-m
(value corresponding to max. bending compressive stress)
Factored moment about X - axis = 0.562 x 1.5
= 0.843 t-m
Moment acting about Y - axis = 56.080 t-m
(value corresponding to max. bending compressive stress)
Factored moment about Y - axis = 56.0802 x 1.5
= 84.12 t-m
Unsupported length of the pier l = 199.136 - 196.547
= 2.589 m
= 258.900 cm
Effective length of the pier 1.2 x l = 2.589 x 1.2
= 3.107 m
Cross - sectional area of the pier = (22/7 x 1.2/4)
= 1.131 m
2
Moment of inertia about X - axis = PI x 1.2^4 /64
= 0.102 m
4
Moment of inertia about Y - axis = PI x 1.2^4 /64
= 0.102 m
4
Radius of gyration about X - axis = SQRT (0.102 / 1.131)
= 0.3 m
Radius of gyration about Y - axis = SQRT (0.102 / 1.131)
= 0.3 m
Effective length / Least radius of gyration = 3.107 / 0.3
= 10.357
If ratio of effective length to least radius of gyration is less than 12 PEDESTAL
If ratio of effective length to least radius of gyration is greater than 12 and less than 50 SHORT column
If ratio of effective length to least radius of gyration is greater than 50 and less than 150 long column column
(a) Check for minimum eccentricity:-
Minimum eccentricity about X - axis = 258.9 / 500 + 120/30
= 4.518 cm
Minimum eccentricity as per IS: 456 - 2000 = 2 cm
Minimum moment about X - axis = 5732.37 x 0.04518
= 258.988 KN - M
Factored moment about X - axis = 258.988 x 1.5
= 388.482 KN - M
Minimum eccentricity about Y - axis = 258.9 /500+ 120/30
= 4.518 cm
Minimum moment about Y - axis = 5732.37 x 0.04518
= 258.988 KN - M
Factored moment about Y - axis = 560.802 x 1.5
= 841.203 KN - M
(b) Check for combined Bi - axial bending and thrust:-
Percentage of steel = 0.40 %
Gross - cross sectional area = 1131000 mm
2
P
uz =
[0.45 x 25 x (1131000 - 1131000 x 0.4/100) + 0.67 x 415 x 1131000x 0.4/100)] /1000
= 13930.753 KN
P
u
/P
uz
= 5732.37 / 13930.753
= 0.411
a
n
= 1.352
Clear cover provided = 40 mm
Reinforcement provided = 20 mm
Uniaxial moment capacity about X - axis
d' = 40 + 10
= 50 mm
D = 1200 mm
d' / D = 50 / 1200
= 0.042
P / f
ck
= 0.4 / 25
= 0.016
P
u
= 5732.37x 10 x /( 25 x 1.2 x 10^6)
f
ck
d
2
= 0.159
Refer chart 55
Mu = 0.04
f
ck
d
3
M
u
X
1
= M
ux
f
ck
d
3
10
6
= 0.04 x 25 x 1200/10^6
= 1728 KN - m
Uniaxial moment capacity about Y - axis
d' = 50 mm
d = 1.200 m
d' = 50 / 1200
b = 0.042 m
p = 0.016
f
ck
P
u
= 5732.37 x 10 / ( 25 x 1.2 x 10^6)
F
ck
d
2
= 0.159
Mu = 0.04
F
ck
bd
2
M
uy1
= 0.04 x 25 x 1200 / 10^6
= 1728 KN - m
Check
= 388.482 841.203
1728 + 1728
= 0.511 < 1 Hence safe
Area of steel required = 1.131 x 0.4/100 x 10^6
= 4524 mm
2
Diameter of bar considered = 20 mm
Number of bars required = 15 Nos
Area of steel provided = 4712.389 mm
2
4712.389 > 4524 mm
2
HENCE SAFE
Transverse reinforcement:-
(a) Diameter of transverse reinforcing bar is the largest of the following
n
uy
uy
ux
ux
M
M
M
M
n
o
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
1 1
1. 1
(i) 1/4 th of the dia of longitudinal bar = 20/4
= 5 mm
(ii) or 8 mm
Hence provide 8 mm dia bars
(b) Spacing of transverse reinforcement is the least of
(i) Minimum spacing = 300 mm
(ii) Least lateral dimension of the member = 1.2 x 1000
= 1200 mm
(iii) 12 times the dia of longitudinal bar = 12 x 20
= 240 mm
Hence provide a pitch of 240 mm
CHECK FOR PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN STEEL AND CONCRETE
Area of steel provided A
st = 4712.389
mm
2
Radius of the pier R = 600 mm
Clear cover provided = 40 mm
Dia of steel provided = 20 mm
Radius excluding cover r = 550 mm
Maximum axial load = 3821.580 KN
Moment acting on the column about X- axis = 5.620 KN - m
Hence eccentricity about X-axis ex = 5.62 / 3821.58 0.001 m
Moment acting on the column about Y- axis = 560.802 KN - m
Hence eccentricity about Y-axis ey = 560.802 / 3821.58 0.147 m
Resultant Eccentricity, e = e
x
2
+ e
y
2
= 0.147 m
Resutant Moment, M = P x e = 3821.58 x 0.147
= 561.772 kN-m
Modular ratio m = 10.980
m
c = 1.5 x 10.98
= 16.470
Assume the thickness of equivalent steel shell placed at a radius of r be Z
Z = 4712.389 = 1.364 mm
2 p r
e = 561.772 = 147 mm
3821.580
n = kd
The value of k may be assumed between 0.4 - 0.7, smaller value for larger eccentricity
d = 1200 - 40 - 40 - 10 - 10 = 1100 mm
Assume K = 0.700
n = 770 mm
0
o
1
o
2
R r
X
X
N A
a
1
= = 73.541
cosa
1 = 0.283
a
2
= = 72.017
sina
1 = 0.959 cosa
1 = 0.283
sin2a
1 = 0.543 sina
2 = 0.951
sin4a
1 = -0.912 cosa
2 = 0.309
sin2a
2 = 0.587
C
1
= 2 x 600C'/(1+0.283) x [0.959/3+3.14-1.284/2x0.283-0.283/4x0.543]
= 290842 C'
M
1
= 2x600C'/(1+0.283) x [(3.14 - 1.284)/8 -0.912/32+0.283/3 x 0.959]
= 96534846 C'
C
2
= 2 x 550x1.364(16.47-1)x C'/(600+550x0.309) x (0.951 + (3.14 -1.257) x 0.309)
= 25415.37 C'
M
2
= 2 x 550 x 1.364(16.47 - 1) c' / (600 + 550x0.309) x ((3.14 - 1.257)/2+0.587/4))
= 9924049 C'
T =
T = 2 x 550 x 1.364 x 10.98 x c' / (600 + 550x0.309) x (0.951-1.257 x 0.309)
= 6620.629 C'
|
.
|

\
|

1 cos
1
R
n
|
.
|

\
|
1
1
cos cos o
r
R
(


H
+
+
=
1
1
1
1 1
3
1
1 2
1
2 sin
4
cos
cos
2 3
sin
cos 1
2
o
o
o
o o
o
c R
C
(

+ +
H

+
=
1
3 1 1 1
1
3
1
sin
3
cos
32
4 sin
8 cos 1
2
o
o o o
o
R
M
( )
| |
2 2 2
2
1 2
2
cos ) ( sin
cos
1 2
o o o
o
H +
+

=
r R
c m Z r
C
c
( )
(

+
H

+

=
4
2 sin
2 cos
' 1 2
2 2
2
3
2
o o
o r R
c m Z r
M
c
| |
2 2 2
2
2
cos sin
cos
' 2
o o o
o

+

r R
c m Z r
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
4
2 sin
2 cos
' 2
2 2
2
3
3
o o
o r R
Zmc r
M
M
3
= 2 x 550x1.364x10.98/(600+550x0.309) x (1.257 / 2 -0.587/4)
= 3118128 C'
Equating the sum of internal forces to the external forces
C
1
+ C
2
- T = P
290841.979C' + 25415.365C' - 6620.629C' = 3821580
309636.7 C' = 3821580
C' = 12.342 N/MM
2
Equating the sum of internal moments to the external moment
M
1
+ M
2
+ M
3
= M 7.215
1.1E+08 C' = 561772000 N-MM
C' = 5.127 N/MM
2
Adopt C' = 1/2 x (12.342 + 5.127)
= 8.735 N/MM
2
HENCE OK
t = 10.98 x 8.735/770 x (1100 - 770)
= 41.104 N/MM
2
HENCE OK
( ) n d
n
mc
t =
'
DESIGN OF PIER FOOTING:-
Maximum load coming on to the foting = 3832.89 KN
Max. Moment = 636.22 Kn - m
Diameter of the pier = 1.200 m
Thickness of the footing at the face of support = 0.9 m
Thickness of footing at edge = 0.3
Footing offset = 1.8 m
Diamter of footing = 4.8 m
Reinforcement provided = 25 mm 491.719
Distribution reinforcement = 16 mm 201.408
Clear cover provided = 75 mm
height of soil above footing (at face of support) = 1.2 m
height of soil above footing (at edge of support) = 1.8 m
Average height of soil (above sloped portion) = 1.5 m
Area of footing
Area of major circular portion = 3.147 x 4.8 / 4
= 18.096 m
2
Thickness of footing for major portion = 0.3
Average diameter of the sloped portion of footing = (2.2 + 4.8) / 2
= 3.5 m
Area of footing = 3.147 x 3.5 / 4
= 9.621 m
2
Thickness of footing in sloped portion = 0.6 m
Weight of major rectangular portion of footing = 18.096 x 0.3 x 25
= 135.72 KN
Weight of footing in sloped portion = 9.621 x 0.6 x 25
= 144.315 KN
Total weight of footing = 135.72 + 144.315 = 280.035 KN
Area of soil above footing = 3.147 (2.2 - 1.2) / 4
= 2.67 m
2
height of soil above footing (at face of support) = 1.2 m
Weight of soil = 2.67 x 1.2 x 21
= 67.284 KN
Area of soil above sloped portion = 14.294 m
2
Average height of soil (above sloped portion) = 1.5 m
Weight of soil above footing = 14.294 x 1.5 x 21
= 450.261 KN
Total weight of soil = 67.284 + 450.261
= 517.545 KN
Total weight footing + soil = 280.035 + 517.545
= 797.58 KN
weight of footing + soil + pier = 797.58 + 3832.89 = 4630.47
Exposed area of footing in plan = 3.142 x 4.8 / 4 = 18.096 m
2
Section modulus of footing = 3.142 x 4.8 /321 = 10.857 m
3
P max. = 4630.47 + 636.22
18.096 10.857
= 314.484 Kn/m
2
P min. = 4630.47 _ 636.22
18.096 10.857
= 197.284 Kn/m
2
1.200
1.300 0.500 0.500
1.300
0.6
0.9
0.3
1.800 1.800
2.200
4.800
197.284
314.484
Stresses at foundation level
Maximum stress intensity = 314.484 KN/m
2
Minimum stress intensity = 197.284 KN/m
2
Intensity of stress at the face of the pier = 197.284 + ( 1.8 + 1.2) x (314.484 - 197.284)/4.8
= 270.534 KN/m
2
B.M at sloped portion =
R = 2.4
r = 1.1
= 270.534 x 3.142 / 20 (2.4 - 1.1) x (3 x 2.4 - 2 x 2.4 x 1.1 - 2 x 1.1)
= 529.237 Kn - m
There fore BM at the face of support = 732.79
Effective depth required = 732.79 x 10^6
1.244 X 10^3
= 767.502 mm
Effective depth provided = 0.9 - 75 / 1000 - 25 /2000
= 0.813 m Hence safe
Required area of steel = 732.79 x 10^6 / (190 x 0.89 x 0.813x1000)
= 5330.223 mm
2
Required spacing of 25 mm dia bars = 491.719 x 1000 / 5330.223
= 90 mm c/c (REQUIRED)
) 2 2 3 )( (
20
2 2
0
r Rr R r R p
t
Provided spacing of 25 mm dia bars = 90 mm c/c (PROVIDED)
Area of steel provided = 5464 mm
2
Hence safe
Min area of steel required = 0.12 x 1000 x 813
100
= 975.6 < 5464 mm
2
Hence safe
Distribution steel: 0.2% of the cross - sectional area is provided as distribution steel
= 0.2 x1000 x 813
100
= 1626 mm
2
Required spacing of 16 mm dia bars = 201.408 x 1000 / 1626
= 120 mm C/C (REQUIRED)
Provide spacing of 16 mm dia bars = 120 mm C/C (PROVIDED)
Area of steel provided = 1678 mm
2
Hence safe
TWO WAY SHEAR:-
Critical section is at d/2 from the face of the pier
As this is circular footing around the circular column, the punching shear is at a distance d/2
from the face of the column all around the column.
distance of punching shear from r
o
= 0.813 / 2 + 1.2/ 2
centre of the column = 1.007 m
Punching shear
F = 270.534 x 3.142 (2.4 - 1.007)
= 4033.62 KN
Hence from punching shear ponit of view
4033.62 x 10^3 / (2 x 3.142 x 1007 x 813) 0.16 x SQRT(25)
0.784 0.8
Hence SAFE
) (
2
0
2
0
r R P F = t
ck
f
d tr
F
16 . 0
2
0 0
s
t
8 mm dia at 240 mm c/c 15 Nos of 20 mm dia bars
1.800 1.200 1.800
1.800
4.800 1.200
1.800
4.800
25 mm dia bars at 90 mm c/c spacing
16 mm dia bars at 120 mm c/c spacing
4.800 m
4.800 m
25 mm dia bars at 90 mm c/c spacing
16 mm dia bars at 120 mm c/c spacing
REINFORCEMENT DETAILS OF FOOTING
% of steel
% OF STEEL Permissible stress in 0.27 0.375
shear for M25
0.15 0.19
0.25 0.23 0.23 0.25
0.5 0.31
0.75 0.36 0.31 0.5
1 0.4
1.25 0.44
1.5 0.46 % of steel
1.75 0.49 #REF! #REF!
2 0.51 #REF! #REF!
2.25 0.53 #REF! #REF!
2.5 0.55
2.75 0.56
3 0.57 % of steel
0.3531 0.715713
0.5 0.31
0.75 0.36
% of steel
0.3306 0.603
0.5 0.31
0.75 0.36
% of steel
0.3296 0.598
0.5 0.31
0.75 0.36
HEIGHT VELOCITY OF WIND WIND PRESSURES
0 80 40
2 91 52 HEIGHT VELOCITY
4 100 63 4 100
6 107 73 6 107
8 113 82
10 118 91 4.184 100.644
15 128 107
20 136 119 HEIGHT VELOCITY
25 142 130 #REF! #REF!
30 147 141 #REF! #REF!
40 155 157
50 162 171 #REF! #REF!
60 168 183
70 173 193 HEIGHT VELOCITY
80 177 202 4 100
90 180 210 6 107
100 183 217
110 186 224 5.184 104.144
HEIGHT VELOCITY
10 118
15 128
10 118
HEIGHT VELOCITY
10 118
15 128
10 118
HEIGHT VELOCITY
10 118
15 128
10 118
HEIGHT VELOCITY
10 118
15 128
10 118
pu/pz alphan
<= 0.2 1
>= 0.8 2
0.2 1 1
0.8 2 2
0.411 1.352
0.2
2 0.23
0.31
3 0.37
0.41
0.45
0.48
0.5
#REF! 0.53
#REF! 0.55
0.57
0.58
0.6
3
4
3
4
3
4
PRESSURE
63 3
73 4
63.92
PRESSURE
#REF! #REF!
#REF! #REF!
#REF!
PRESSURE
63 3
73 4
68.92
PRESSURE
91 6
107 7
91
PRESSURE
91 6
107 7
91
PRESSURE
91 6
107 7
91
PRESSURE
91 6
107 7
91