You are on page 1of 27

Subnetting

Rick Graziani Cabrillo College Note: These example use classless addressing. Instead of a default classful mask, a network mask is given.

What is subnetting?
Network Network 172 16 Host 0 Host 0

Network Network

Subnet

Host

Subnetting is the process of borrowing bits from the HOST bits, in order

to divide the larger network into small subnets. Subnetting does NOT give you more hosts, but actually costs you hosts. You lose two host IP Addresses for each subnet, and perhaps one for the subnet IP address and one for the subnet broadcast IP address. You lose the last subnet and all of its hosts IP addresses as the broadcast for that subnet is the same as the broadcast for the network. In older networks, you would have lost the first subnet, as the subnet IP address is the same as the network IP address. (This subnet can be used in most networks.)
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 2

Analogy
Dividing the barrel of apples into small barrels or baskets does not give us any more apples 100 Apples

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

Analogy

10 barrels x 10 apples = 100 apples


10 10 10

100 Apples (10 * 10)

10

10

10

10

10

10

It is the same as taking a barrel of 100 apples and dividing it into 10 barrels of 10 apples each.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

10

Analogy

100 2 apples = 98 Usable Apples


Before subnetting: In any network (or subnet) we can not use all the IP addresses for host addresses. We lose two addresses for every network or subnet. 1. Network Address - One address is reserved to that of the network. 2. Broadcast Address One address is reserved to address all hosts in that network or subnet.

98 Apples (100 2)

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

10 barrels x 8 apples = 80 apples 8


(less 2)

8
(less 2)

8
(less 2)

80 Apples 10 * (10 - 2)

8
(less 2)

8
(less 2)

8
(less 2)

8
(less 2)

8
(less 2)

8
(less 2)

In subnetting we will see that we continue to lose two apples per subnet, one for the address and one for the broadcast.

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

10 barrels x 8 apples = 80 apples --8

(less 2)

8
(less 2)

8
(less 2)

64 Apples 8 * (10 - 2)

8
(less 2)

8
(less 2)

8
(less 2)

8
(less 2)

8
(less 2)

8
(less 2)

We might also lose the last basket of apples, subnet, as it contains the broadcast address for the entire network. In older networks, we might also lost the first basket, subnet, as it contained the address of the entire network, but this is usually no longer the case. Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

--8

Subnet Example
Network address 172.16.0.0 with /16 network mask Network Network 172 16 Host 0 Host 0

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

Subnet Example
Network address 172.16.0.0 with /16 network mask Network Network Host Host 172 16 0 0 Subnet
00000000 11111111

Using Subnets: subnet mask 255.255.255.0 or /24 Network Network


Network Mask: 255.255.0.0 or /16 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 or /24

Host
00000000 00000000

11111111 11111111

11111111 11111111

Applying a mask which is larger than the default subnet mask, will divide your network into subnets. Subnet mask used here is 255.255.255.0 or /24
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 9

Subnet Example
Network address 172.16.0.0 with /16 network mask Using Subnets: subnet mask 255.255.255.0 or /24 Network Network 172 16 Subnet 0 Host Host Subnets

172 172 172 172 172


172
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

16 16 16 16 16
16

1 2 3 Etc. 254
255

Host Host Host Host Host


Host

255 Subnets 28 - 1

Cannot use last subnet as it contains broadcast address 10

Subnet Example
Network address 172.16.0.0 with /16 network mask Using Subnets: subnet mask 255.255.255.0 or /24 Network Network 172 16 Subnet 0 Host 0 Subnets Addresses
255 Subnets 28 - 1

172 172 172 172 172


172
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

16 16 16 16 16
16

1 2 3 Etc. 254
255

0 0 0 0 0
0

Cannot use last subnet as it contains broadcast address 11

Subnet Example
Class B address 172.16.0.0 with /16 network mask Using Subnets: subnet mask 255.255.255.0 or /24 Network Network 172 16 Subnet 0 Hosts 1 Hosts Addresses 254

172 172 172 172 172


172

16 16 16 16 16
16

1 2 3 Etc. 254
255

1 1 1 1 1
Host

254 254 254 254 254


Each subnet has 254 hosts, 28 2
12

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

Subnet Example
Network address 172.16.0.0 with /16 network mask Using Subnets: subnet mask 255.255.255.0 or /24 Network Network 172 16 Subnet 0 Host 255 Broadcast Addresses
255 Subnets 28 - 1

172 172 172 172 172


172
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

16 16 16 16 16
16

1 2 3 Etc. 254
255

255 255 255 255 255


255

Cannot use last subnet as it contains broadcast address 13

Subnet Example
Network address 172.16.0.0 with /16 network mask Using Subnets: subnet mask 255.255.255.0 or /24 172.16.0.0/24 172.16.10.0/24

172.16.5.0/24

172.16.25.0/24

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

14

Important things to remember about Subnetting


You can only subnet the host portion, you do not have control of the
network portion. Subnetting does not give you more hosts, it only allows you to divide your larger network into smaller networks. When subnetting, you will actually lose hosts: For each subnet you lose the address of that subnet For each subnet you lose the broadcast address of that subnet You may lose the first and last last subnets (coming)

Analogy: Large barrel of 100 apples. Why subnet?


Divide larger network into smaller network. Limit layer 2 and layer 3 broadcasts to their subnet. Better management of traffic.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 15

Subnetting Example #1 (on the board)



Host IP Address: 172.16.18.33 Network Mask: 255.255.0.0 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0

Given the following Host IP Address, Network Mask and Subnet mask find the following information: Major Network Information Major Network Address Major Network Broadcast Address Range of Hosts if not subnetted Subnet Information Subnet Address Range of Host Addresses (first host and last host) Broadcast Address Other Subnet Information Total number of subnets Number of hosts per subnet
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 16

Subnetting Example #2

Host IP Address: 138.101.114.250 Network Mask: 255.255.0.0 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.192

Given the following Host IP Address, Network Mask and Subnet mask find the following information: Major Network Information Major Network Address Major Network Broadcast Address Range of Hosts if not subnetted Subnet Information Subnet Address Range of Host Addresses (first host and last host) Broadcast Address Other Subnet Information Total number of subnets Number of hosts per subnet
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 17

Major Network Information


Host IP Address: 138.101.114.250 Network Mask: 255.255.0.0 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.192 Major Network Address: 138.101.0.0 Major Network Broadcast Address: 138.101.255.255 Range of Hosts if not Subnetted: 138.101.0.1 to 138.101.255.254

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

18

Step 1: Convert to Binary


128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
IP Address Mask 138. 10001010 11111111 255. 101. 01100101 11111111 255. 114. 01110010 11111111 255. 250 11111010 11000000 192

Step 1: Translate Host IP Address and Subnet Mask into binary notation

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

19

Step 2: Find the Subnet Address


IP Address Mask Network 138. 10001010 11111111 10001010 138 101. 01100101 11111111 01100101 101 114. 01110010 11111111 01110010 114 250 11111010 11000000 11000000 192

Step 2: Determine the Network (or Subnet) where this Host address lives: 1. Draw a line under the mask 2. Perform a bit-wise AND operation on the IP Address and the Subnet Mask Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1, 0 AND anything results in a 0 3. Express the result in Dotted Decimal Notation 4. The result is the Subnet Address of this Subnet or Wire which is 138.101.114.192
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 20

Step 2: Find the Subnet Address


IP Address Mask Network 138. 10001010 11111111 10001010 138 101. 01100101 11111111 01100101 101 114. 01110010 11111111 01110010 114 250 11111010 11000000 11000000 192

Step 2: Determine the Network (or Subnet) where this Host address lives: Quick method: 1. Find the last (right-most) 1 bit in the subnet mask. 2. Copy all of the bits in the IP address to the Network Address 3. Add 0s for the rest of the bits in the Network Address

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

21

Step 3: Subnet Range / Host Range


G.D. S.D.

IP Address Mask Network

10001010 11111111 10001010

01100101 11111111 01100101

01110010 11 111010 11111111 11 000000 01110010 11 000000 subnet host counting range counting range

Step 3: Determine which bits in the address contain Network (subnet) information and which contain Host information: Use the Network Mask: 255.255.0.0 and divide (Great Divide) the from the rest of the address. Use Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.192 and divide (Small Divide) the subnet from the hosts between the last 1 and the first 0 in the subnet mask.
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 22

Step 4: First Host / Last Host G.D.


IP Address Mask Network 10001010 11111111 10001010 01100101 11111111 01100101

S.D.

01110010 11 111010 11111111 11 000000 01110010 11 000000 subnet host counting range counting range 01110010 114 01110010 114 01110010 114 11 000001 193 111110 254 111111 255

First Host

10001010 138 10001010 138 10001010 138

01100101 101 01100101 101 01100101 101

Last Host

11

Broadcast

11

Host Portion Subnet Address: all 0s First Host: all 0s and a 1 Last Host: all 1s and a 0 Broadcast: all 1s
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 23

Step 5: Total Number of Subnets


G.D. S.D.

IP Address Mask Network

10001010 11111111 10001010

01100101 11111111 01100101

01110010 11 111010 11111111 11 000000 01110010 11 000000 subnet host counting range counting range 01110010 114 11 000001 193

Total number of 10001010 subnets First Host


138

Number of subnet bits 10 10001010 01100101 01110010 11 111110 Last Host 10 2 = 1,024 138 101 114 254 1,024 total subnets 10001010 01100101 01110010 11 111111 Broadcast 138 101 subnet cannot 114 255 Subtract one if all-zeros be used Subtract one if all-ones subnet cannot be used
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 24

01100101 101

Step 6: Total Number of Hosts per Subnet


G.D. S.D.

IP Address Mask Network

10001010 11111111 10001010

01100101 11111111 01100101

01110010 11 111010 11111111 11 000000 01110010 11 000000 subnet host counting range counting range 01110010 114 11 000001 193 111110 254 111111 255

Total number of 10001010 hosts per subnet 01100101 First Host


138 101

Number of host bits 6 10001010 01100101 01110010 Last Host 6 2 = 64 138 101 114 64 host per subnets 10001010 01100101 01110010 Broadcast 138 101 address 114 Subtract one for the subnet Subtract one for the broadcast address 62 hosts per subnet
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

11

11

25

Your Turn!
Problem 1 Host IP Address: 10.10.10.193 Network Mask: 255.255.0.0 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 Problem 2 Host IP Address: 10.10.10.193 Network Mask: 255.255.255.0 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.240

Problem 3 Host IP Address: 10.10.10.193 Network Mask: 255.255.255.0 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.252
Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 26

Subnetting
Rick Graziani Cabrillo College