ABBREVIATIONS
OF
AIAA
ORGANIZATIONS
AISC
API ASCE ASME ASTM AWS SEM
h I
flexibility,
allowable stress computed stress (AISC of elasticity in shear of gravity depth of beam
of inertia of crosssectional
(AISC notation)
notation)
area
American American
American
Institute Institute
Petroleum
of of
Aeronautics Steel
Institute
and Construction
Astronautics
K
k
L
M
Society of Civil Engineers Society of Mechanical Engineers Society for Testing and Materials Welding Society for Experimental Mechanics
ABBREVIATIONS
O!:
UNITS
allow
av
O!:
allowable
average
MEASURE
AND
OTHER
TERMS
cr
critical
F.S.
factor ft foot, hp horsepower Hz hertz in inch, k kip(s) kg kilogram(s) kip kilopound ksi kips lb pound(s) m meter,
N newton neutral
of safety
feet
per
second)
bending moment, mass moment m moment caused by virtual unit force N of revolutions per minute P force, concentrated load P pressure intensity, axial force due to unit or statical moment of area Afhj around Q first load intensity, shear flow q distributed R reaction, radius S elastic sectionmodulus (S = l/c) S Sshape (standard) steel beam s second(s) radius, radius of gyration
torque, temperature
t
of inertia
factor,
constant
of circular effective
crosssectional length
factor
force
neutral
axis
per
libra,
weight)
w w
w
NA
thicknesss, width, tangential deviation strain energy internal force caused by virtual unit shear force (often vertical), volume deflection of beam, velocity total weight, work Wshape (wide flange) steel beam weight or load per unit of length plastic section modulus
load,
axial
or
radial
displacement
Pa psi
rad
pascal pounds
radian
per
square
per minute
inch
GREEK
LETTER
SYMBOLS
rpm
ult
revolutions
ultimate
yp
ROMAN LETTER SYMBOLS
yield
point,
yield
stress
Afghj
A
c
area,
area
bounded
area
of cross
width
from
by center
section
axis
line
of the
perimeter
area
of a thin
tube
b breadth,
distance
partial
area
of beam
neutral
crosssectional
or from
center
of
twist
to
extreme
fiber
d diameter, E modulus
distance, of elasticity
depth in tension
or compression
e / A e 0 K k r p cr 'r qb to
coefficient of thermal expansion, shear strain, weight per unit total deformation or deflection,
normal strain
slope
curvature
angle
ratio
for
elastic
curve,
buckling
angle
problems
of inclination
of line
on body
eigenvalue
Poisson's
in column
radius
stress
radius,
of
curvature
tensile
shear
or compressive
angle velocity of twist, general
stress
(i.e.,
angle
normal
stress)
total angular
PRENTICEHALL
IN CIVIL
Wil iam
ENGINEERING
J, Hall,
INTERNATIONAL
Editor
AND
ENGINEERING
SERIES
MECHANICS
Popov, p.
E.
P. (Egor cm. 
Paul)
Engineering
engineering Bibliography:
Includes ISBN
mechanics
(PrenticeHall
of solids
mechanics)
international
/ Egor
P. Popov.
series
in civil
and
index. 0132792583
engineering p.
of materials.
1990
I. Strength
TA405.P677
620. I' 12dc20
I. Title.
I.
Series.
898860 CIP
Cover
Interior
Editorial/production
design:
design:
Bruce
Jules
supervision:
Kenselaar
Perlmutter;
Mary
Sophie
Noonan
OffBroadway
Papanikolaou
Graphics
Abbreviations
Preface
and
Symbols:
See
Inside
Front
Cover
XV
Cover Il ustration:
Manufacturing
buyer:
Artist's
Conception
of stress transformation.
1990
A Division
by
PrenticeHall,
of Simon
Inc.
& Shuster
11
Introduction
Method
of
Sections
3 4 7
11
Englewood
Clifs,
New
Jersey
07632 Part
of
Stress
Tensor
*'15
Derential
B
Equations
ANALY$1$
of Equilibrium
P ALLY
$T$$
reproduced,
All rights
reserved. permission
without
in any
form
No part
in writing
or by any
means,
may
be
16 17 Stresses
Loaded
'12
the publisher.
on
Bars
Inclined Nomal
Sections Stress
in ial y
12
Mimum
Shear Stresses
in iy
Loaded
Bars
16 19
22
Printed
10987654321
in the
United
States
of America
18
19
Part
Analysis
DTNISTIC DSiN
for
BASS
Normal
AND
and
Shear
POBABIHSTC
Stresses
ISBN
PrenticeHall
PrenticeHall
0132792583
International
Canada
PrenticeHall
of Australia
Inc.,
Pty.
(UK)
Toronto
Limited,
Limited,
S.A.,
Sydney
London
34
Simon
& Schuster
Asia
Pte.
Ltd.,
Limited, To3'o
*'112
38
*'113 *'114
Singapore
clc :oblcs
ons
47 5O
52
vi
Contents
Contents
vii
Part
21 Introduction
**34 **35
36
AND
Mathematical
Strain
HOOKE'$
Definition
Tensor
LAW
of Strain
143 145
Part
22 23 24 25
A
6O
Normal Hooke's Strain Law
**38
37
Generalized E, G and
Dilatation
Hooke's v R61ationshipss
and Bulk
Law
Modulus
for
Isotropic
Materials
146 150
Stressstrain
Relationships
60 62 64
Part
39 '310
THiNWALLED
Remarks
PRESSURE
on
VSSELS
Pressure
Further
Deformation
Poisson's
Other
Idealizations
Strain
Remarks
Ratio
on Stressstrain
of Axial y
and
of Constitutive
Loaded
Deformation
Relationships
Bars
Relations
67 68
71 82
Cylindrical
and
Thinwalled
Spherical
Pressure
Vessels
Vessels
157
Thermal
Part
*'311
D
Introduction
159
Dynamic
B
Elastic Deflections
SaintVenant's
Strain
and
Principle
and Stress
Uniaxial Method
Stress
Concentrations
84 86 91 94 96
*'312
*'313 *'314
Solution
of
the
General
Problem
160
165
Loads
Special Behavior
Problems
Cases of Ideally
Plastic
Thickwalled
Cylinders
167
171
Part
214 215 216 *'217 218
General
Considerations
Displacement
Freedom Problems
Method
with
Several
Indeterminate
Method
100
Degrees
Nonlinear
of
106
41
Introduction
175
42
Application
of the
Method
of Sections
175
Introduction
Deflections
108 112
Part
43 44
45
'219
for
Alternative
Equation
Approach
Basic
The Remarks
Assumptions
Torsion on Formula the Torsion
for
Circular
Formula
Members
Problems
125
127
46 47
48 *49
Design
Stress
of Circular
Concentrations
Members
of Circular
in Torsion
Members Problems Equation
*'410
Oyfincer
31 Introduction
Approach
197 199 201
*'411 *'412
Energy Shaft
B
413
and Couplings
Impact
Loads
Part
A 0ONSTTUTIVE
32
33 Elastic
RELATIONSHIPS
Relationships
Energy for Shear
FOR
for Shear
Stresses
139 141
Part
TORSIION
Shear Stresses
OF
Inelastic
INELASTIC
and Deformations
011ROULAR
in Circular
BARS
Shafts
202
202
Stressstrain
Strain
in the
Range
vii
Contents
Contents
JX
Part
*'415
'414
C TORSION
Warping
Solid Bars
OF $OHD
of ThinWalled
of any Cross
NONCIRCULAR
207
Section
with
Part
Pure
61
ial
A
Iending
Ii=orce$
O;
SECTIONS
and
Iending
280
280
Open
Sections
21!
Introduction
Part
'416
D TORSION
Thinwalled
Problems
O: THINWALLED
Hollow Members
TUBULAR
213 217
BENDING
CROSS The
The
BEAMS
WITH
Assumption
Formula
SY'dMETffiC
281 283
62 63
Basic
Elastic
Kinematic
Flexure
*64
65
Computation Applications
Stress Concentrations
of Inertia Formula
5
51 Introduction
224
*66 *67
Elastic Beams
Curved
Energy
Inelastic
B
Bending
Part
'52
A
*53 *54
*55
CALCULATION
Classification
OF
of Beams
REACTIONS
Part
225 226
611
Diagrammatic Diagrammatic
Conventions Conventions
Calculation
of Beam
Part
SH=AR,
56 57 58 59 510
AND
Force
in Beams
WITH
AXIAL
LOADS
*'614
about both Principal Axes Bending with Axial Loads Bending with Axial Loads of Beams with Unsymmetric
MOMENTS OF
and Products
319
324 333
(Arbitrary)
234
Section
336
Axial
Application
of the
Moment
in Beams
Method
in Beams
of Sections
Part
'615 '616
AREA
Area
INERTIA
of Inertia
340
340 34l 343
Shear
Moments
Bending Diagrams
Principal
Problems
Axes
of Inertia
AxialForce,
Shear,
and
BendingMoment
240
Part
511
SHEAR
BY
Element
INTEGRATION
AND
BENDING
Equations
MOMENTS
248
Shear and
71
Stresses Ielated
Introduction
in
357
Dif erential
Shear Moment Effect
of Equilibrium
for a Beam
of the Load of the Shear on Moment
Curve
248
Part
A
72 73 74 '75
SHEAR
elimina
She Flow
STRESSES
Remks
Shearstress Fomula
IN
57
357 361
512 513
514
515
Diagrams
*'516
250
252 258 261 263
The
for
Betas
367
Moment
Problems
Singularity
and
the
Elastic
Waage
77
*76
78
269
Some She
Shear
Limitations Stresses
Center
of Plane
of the in Beam
Sections
Shestress Flanges
Due
to She
373
Formula
Contents
Contents
xi
386
79
Combined
Direct
and
Torsional
Shear
Stresses
*'710 *'711
Stresses Deflection
Problems
in Closely of Closely
Coiled Coiled
Helical Helical
Springs Springs
91
391
Introduction
459
Part
92 93
ELASTII
State of
ST:SS
Stress for
ANALYSS
Some Basic Cases
46!
*'94
Comparative Experimental
Accuracy Methods
of Beam of Stress
Solutions Analysis
466
81
Introduction
Part
403
470
Part
82 83
A
The Problems 84 85 Basic Problem
4O3
403
Transformation
of
Stresses
in Twodimensional
40?
Principal
Maximum
Problems
Stresses
Shear
in Twodimensional
Stresses in Twodimensional
Problems
409 410
of Axial y Loaded Members of Torsion Members Criteria for Prismatic Beams of Prismatic Beams of Nonprismatic Beams of Complex Members
470 471
472
475
Mohr's
Problems
*87
Circle
of
of St3ess
Mohr's
Construction
Transformation
**88
89
Principal
Mohr's
Stresses
Circle for
for
a General
for
Twodimensional
for
Circles
Stress
101
Introduction
498
a General
State
of Stress
424 426
State
of
Stress
Part
499
499 501
Part
810 811
B
Strains in Two Dimensions
43O
430
102
103
MomentCurvature
Relation
*'104
105 106 107
Transformation Alternative
in Two Mohr's Dimensions Circle
of
Strain
Derivation
for
Dimensions Transformation
Strain
430
Twodimensional
433 43.5
/'108
109
Part
815
816 '817
818 819 820
'1010
44'
'1011 '1012
Governing Dif erential Equation Alternative Drivation of the Governing Alternative Forms of the Governing Boundary Conditions DirectIntegration Solutions Singularity Functions for Beams Deflection by Superposition Deflection in Unsymmetrical Bending Energy Method for Deflections and
Inelastic Deflection of Beams
Equation
Equation
504
505 505 507 523 525 529
Impact
531 535
Introductory Maximum
Remarks ShearStress
44!
Theory
Maximum Comparison
Energy Maximum Comparison
Problems
DistortionEnergy of MaximumShear
Theories for Plane Normal Stress of Yield and Stress Theory Fracture
Theory
and Distortion
444
**Part
*'1013
B
;THOD Introduction
MomentArea
537
to the
Theorems
448 449
MomentArea
Method
Criteria
450
453
*'1014 *'1015
Statically
Problems
Indeterminate
Beams
xii
Contents
Contents
Xll
574
111 Introduction
574
Part
'1210
C
General
'112 113
Part
114
115
Examples Criteria
A
'111
'1212 '1213 *'1214
Strain
Energy
Remarks
661
and
Complementary
Systems
StrainEnergy
of Equilibrium FO
with with
Formulas
Theorems
Castigliano's Statically
BUCKLING
Euler Euler
Restraints
THEORY
Load Loads for Columns for Columns
the Euler
COLU/INS
Pinned Dif erent Ends End
583
83 585
Elastic
Energy'for
Theorems Indeterminate
Buckling
Loads
674 676
Problems
$TA'I OALL
'131
INDE'ERIINA'E
686
Limitations
of
588
Generalized
Eccentric
BeamColumns
Euler
Loads and
BucklingLoad
the Secant
Formulas
Formula
590 592
Introduction
'119 *'1110
596
Alternative
Columns
Dif erential
Equations
for
Beam600
Part
'132 '133
ELASTIC
Two
Force
/IETHODS
Basic
Method
OF
for Elastic
ANALYSIS
Analysis
687
687 687 690 697
Methods
Part
'1111 '1112
'1113
'134
General
Concentrically Eccentrically Lateral
Problems
Considerations
Stability
'1114
Method
Method
700 703
Part
B PLASTIC
708
70
73
623
'138
Plastic
Limit
Analysis
of Beams
Frames
'139
Continuous
Beams
Problems
121
Introduction
634
APPENDICES:
TABLES
ANSWERS
INDEX
TO
Factors
See Inside
ODDNU/IBERED
between
Back Cover
PROBLEMS
U.S. Customary and
Part
122 123
A
635
Conversion
SI Units:
Elastic
Strain
Energy
535
Displacements
B
by Conservation
WORK ETHODS
of Energy
537
Part
'124
125
VIIRTUAL
Virtual
Virtual
Work
Forces
Principle
for Deflections
638
642
126 127
Virtual
Virtual
Force
Forces
Equations
for
Indeterminate
for
Elastic
Equilibrium Systems
Problems
Systems
644
650
651
*'128 *'129
Virtual Virtual
Discrete
for
657
This book
Materials chanics
plement
is an update
disciplines.
the traditional
Among
rigorous treatment is selectively provided. A few more advanced topics have also VERSION been introduced. As a result, the book is larger than its predNONACTIVATED ecessors. This has an advantage in that the user of this text has a larger choice for study, according to needs. Moreover, experience shows that www.avs4you.com the serious student retains the text for use as a reference in professional
life.
structural analysis, modest exposure to the matrix methods, and il ustrations using the method of finite elements are discussed. Further, to conform with the more mathematical trend in teaching this subject, more
these,
topics
some treatment
2nd Ed., 1976) and Introduction Inc., 1968). It was felt important
earlier
texts,
Mechanics
of the probabilistic
to newly
emerging
to Meto sup
of
basis for
up course
text
material
on the subject
can
for a basic
It is the belief of the author that the serious wealth of available material in the text, even should become more knowledgeable. Several
integrated
sequence
of the subject, numerous sections, examples, and with a ** can be omit ed, To a lesser extent, this also marked with a *. These guides to possibilities for delethroughout the text. In a few instances, suggestions for
by means
course
ht an intermediate
that
easily be covered in a one quarter it should prove useful for a fol ow
is consecutive,
level.
As an aid in selecting
with no gaps
in the
in studying
of crossreferencing.
the subject
The
text
tioned
lowable
glance
thinwalled
suggests
the limitations
126,
design
For example,
of axial y a design.
pressure
of such
showing
histograms
loaded
while
limitations
vessels;
are place
even
The
by the ASME
a superficial
same
for two
members
the student
is true
materials,
in Chapter
is studying
examination
should
1, a mere studying
the alreveal
of Fig.
324
xvi
Preface
Preface
xvii
variation
structor.
can text
diately minate
depending
of the text.
of the subject and issues of possible Chapter 2 forms the cornerstone careful y. The introduced concepts
and brought
formulas for thinwalled pressure vessels. Modest exposure to some matrix solutions and il ustrations obtained using finiteelement methods should arouse interest. Some exposure to the plasticlimitstate methods given in the last section of the last chapter warrants attention. In the hands of an instructor, these side issues can be discussed in a minimum of time
der Kiureghian
probabilistic
in wherever
desired.
Next,
on preference.
Further,
the sequence
For
in introducing however,
example,
of study
some
remarks
by studying
are raised. and has to be studied used in the remainder Section 219
on the philosophy
Herrmann (UCD), and J. M. Ricles (UCSD) gave useful Chapter 2; E. L. Wilson (UCB) offered useful comments S. B. Dong (UCLA) encouraged more rigorous development of composite beams resulting in significant improvements;
methods
(UCB)
in Chapter
provided
valuable
1; M. D. Engelhardt
assistance
(UCD)
tions.
can be varied,
couraged Roeder
suggested
useful refinements
for Chapter
(UTA),
L. R.
on
require
method approach.
assistance
imme
an in
velopment of the text: M. S. Agbabian (USC), H. Astaneh (UCB), D.O. Brush (UCD), A. K. Chopra (UCB), F. Hauser (UCB), J. M. Kelly (UCB), P. Monteiro (UCB), F. Moffit (UCB), J. L. Sackman (UCB), R. Stephen (UCB), R. L. Taylor (UCB), and G. Voyiadjis (LSU). Dr. K. C. Tsai (NTU) provided valuable assistance in supervising the assembly of
In addition
to these,
with oughly
The
in U.S.
in addition
to its virtually
for aXes. If needed, it can easily be modified The engineering sign convention for shear used,
however,
it is in conflict
problem
results
the
solutions
in using
integrations.
universal
it in hand
with
The introduction
the basic algebra and comprehensive meaning of the concircles is the same, two alternative methods are in general are strong advocates for each method. Therefore, both developed; the choice of procedure is left to the reader,
one remaining as a reference. of this book, over 30 people to its development. Among
of Mohr's
NONACTIVATED on one VERSION of the earlier books, Drs. S. Nagarajan use in design, requires no sign changes Experience has shown that fewer mistakes In producing this book, Douglas Humphrey of PrenticeHall spared no effort in preparing circles of stress www.avs4you.com and strain presented a probsuggested
contributed
The
author
for
figures
Among the proceeding, M. D. Engelhardt, also assisted with the preparation of finite
thanks
713,
the remainder
98.
was compiled
to each
sincerely
improvements.
to this
714,
97
and
R. L. element
for
The author
a debt
also thanks
of gratitude
and Z. A. Lu,
his collaborators
who
indi
calculations.
text
also.
an excellent Lastly, as in all previous books, the author again is deeply his wife, Irene, for unstinting support and continual help'with
uscript.
EaoR
and Sophie
Papanikolaou
P.
and
(ASU)?,
encouragement
t Letters
(UCB),
entire
UCSB),
M. E. Criswell
manuscript
J. J. Tuma and
J. L. Lubliner
and offered
made
(ASU),
(CSU),
(UCB),
numerous
useful
and
J. Dempsey
G. A. Wempner
(CU),
H. D. Eberhart
Berkeley,
California
(UCB
and A. C. Scordelis
suggestions
the fol owing
valuable
suggestions;
Clarifying
for
(UCB)
provided
ASU,
F. Filippou
text;
the A.
much
Uni versity; InstituteCSU, of ColTechnol orado ogy; State LSU, UniversitLoui y; siana CU, StatCl emson University; NTU, GINaT, Georgia e University;
Taiwan University; UCB, University of California, Berkeley; UCD, Uniof California at Davis; UCLA, University of California at Los Angeles; University of California at Santa Barbara; USC, University of Southern
in parentheses
identify
universities:
Arizona
State
California;
of Queensland;
ter
NONACTIVATED VERSION properly proportioned to resist the actual or probable forces that may be imposed upon them. Thus, the walls of a pressure vessel must be of adwww.avs4you.com equate strength to withstand the internal pressure; the floors of a building
In all engineering machine must construction, be assigned definite the component physical sizes. parts
11.
Introduction
must be sufficiently strong for their intended purpose; the shaft of a machine must be of adequate size to carry the required torque; a wing of an airplane must safely withs.tand the aerodynamic loads that may come upon it in takeoff, flight, and landing. Likewise, the parts of a composite structure must be rigid enough so as not to deflect or "sag" excessively when in operation under the imposed loads. A floor of a building may be strong enough but yet may deflect excessively, which in some instances may cause misalignment of manufacturing equipment, or in other cases result in the cracking of a plaster ceiling attached underneath. Also a member may be so thin or slender that, upon being subjected to compressive loading, it wil collapse through buckling, i.e., the initial configuration of a member may become unstable. The ability to determine the maximum load that a slender column can carry before buckling occurs or the safe
level of vacuum that can be maintained by a vessel is of great practical
importance.
In engineering practice, such requirements must be met with the minimum expenditure of a given material. Aside from cost, at timesas in the design of satel itesthe feasibility and success of the whole mission may depend on the weight of a package. The subject of mechanics of
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.'l2.
Method
of
Sections
naterials,
work of Galileo in the early part of the seventeenth investigations into the behavior of solid bodies fol owed precedents and empirical rules. Galileo
to explain the behavior of some of the members
stif ness (deformation characteristics), and stability of the various loadcarrying members. Alternately, the subject may be called the nechanics of solid defornable bodies, or simply nechanics of solids. Mechanics of solids is a fairly old subject, generally dated from the
in the
past,
or the
involves
strength
analytical
ofnaterials,
methods
as it has
for
determining
been
traditionally
the
strength,
called
part of the subject, but this branch is left to other books. I Here the end
results of such investigations are of interest, and this book is concerned with the analytical or mathematical part of the subject in contradistinction to experimentation. For these reasons, it is seen that mechanics of solids is a blended science of experiment and Newtonian postulates of analytical mechanics. It is presumed that the reader has some familiarity in both of
these areas. In the development
dominant role.
century. Prior to his under loads, constructors was the first to attempt
under load on a rational
of this subject,
statics
plays a particularly
basis. beams
course,
members construction
has
in tension of hulls
been made
Italian
but
and
notably navy. Of
it must be
This text wil be limited to the simpler topics of the subject. In spite of the relative simplicity of the methods employed here, the resulting techniques are unusually useful as they apply to a vast number of technically
noted in passing that much is owed in the development of this subject to the French investigators, among whom a group of outstanding men such as Coulomb, Poisson, Navier, St. Venant, and Cauchy, who worked at the break of the nineteenth century, has left an indelible impression on
this
of mechanics of solids cuts broadly across all branches the engineering profession with remarkably many applications. Its ods are needed by designers of offshore structures; by civil engineers the design of bridges and buildings; by mining engineers and architectural
The
subject. subject
The subject matter The number of basic structural and machine of solids is relatively must develop an ability tities being computed.
important
problems.
of
of problems
complete
chinery
design
who and
each
by metal urgists,
NONACTIVATED VERSION stress are discussed in the last part of the www.avs4you.com
in
meth
who
by nuclear engineers and chemical engifor the design of maneed the fundamental the
There are three major parts in this chapter. The general concepts of stress are treated first. This is fol owed with a particular case of stress distribution in axial y loaded members. Strength design criteria based on
chapter.
masterly
to be solved
can be mastered best by solving formulas necessary for the members by the methods of small; however, throughout to visualize a problem and Complete, carefidly drawn
subject.
of this
numerous problems. analysis and design of engineering mechanics this study, the reader the nature of the quandiagrammatic sketches
in a quicker
and more
of this
further;
subject
finally,
in order
by
electrical
to understand
how
who
to improve
need
methods
existing
of this
subject
because
It is a definite
of the
importance
of the
and
mechanical
engineering
continuum
mechanics
me
of the
the
alongside
most
two
funda
ap
1=2.
Method
of
Sections
mental
other trical
basic theory.
subjects
subjects
of an engineering
as fluid
mechanics,
curriculum?
thermodynamics,
standing
depends govern
as well
as elec
such
laws
but
of a member of Newtonian
also on
subjected
the
mechanical
mechanics
to forces
characteristics
that
of the
not the
One of the main problems of engineering mechanics of vestigation of the internal resistance of a body, that is, the set up within a body to balance the effect of the externally For this purpose, a uniform method of approach is employed. diagrammatic sketch of the member to be investigated
which
is observed of breaks,
is fabricated. The necessary information regarding the laboratory, where materials are subjected known forces and the behavior of test specimens
etc.
regard to such Determination phenomena of such as the phenomena
forces
Such a sketch is called afi'eebody diagram. including the reactive forces caused by the
1985).
acting
6n a body
are shown
to
occurrence is a vital
W. D. Callister, Materials Science and Engineering (New York: Wiley, 1985). J. F. Shackelford, Introduction to Materials Science for Eng#eers (New York: Macmil an, 1985). L. H. Van Vlack, Materials Science for Engineers, 5th ed.,
of Stress
internal
p,,
Fig.
(c),
where
parts.
11(a)
into
an arbitrary
two
The
result
plane
parts.
ABCD
a process
This
separates
can
concerns completely
the
be seen wil
process
original
in Figs.
be referred
body
and
of
(a) (b)
method of sections. Then, if the body as part of it must also be in equilibrium. For some of the forces necessary to maintain section. These considerations lead to the sion: the externally applied forces to one be balanced by the #zternal forces developed
external forces are balanced by the internal
a whole is in equilibrium, any such parts of a body, however, equilibriummust act at the cut fol owing fundamental concluside of an arbitrmy cut must at the cut, or, briefly, the
forces. Later it wil be seen
Fig. t2 Sectioned body: (a) free body with some internal forces, (b) enlarged view with components of Ap.
and
inthey
tensity
of these
forces
to forces
on the
depends
various
portions
of a section
In general,
as resistance
that the cutting planes wil be oriented in particular requirements. However, the method of sections first step in solving all problems where internal
$1
tigated.
(b)
In discussing
the
method
of sections,
multiplied
m of the
directions to fit special wil be relied upon as a forces are being investo note that some
vary
section.
from
It is advantageous
point
to point
and
to resolve
are inclined
with
intensities shown
respect
to the plane
perpendicular in Fig.
of the
and this In
parallel
to the
section
investigated.
section
As an example,
the body
the components
12(b).
of a
to the
The
it is significant
a force
force
particular
diagram,
so computed
is applied
acceleration,
to the
the
body
dynamic
at its mass
instantaneously
problem
center
With
is reduced
in a direction
one
op
stresshold
is
the directions .of AP. and of the normal to AA'coincide. parallel to the section is further resolved into components and z axes. components of the intensity of force per unit areai.e.,
the
through
is perpendicular
true
only
at a point,
the
mathematical
definition
3 of stress
of
of
d'Alembertprinciple. of as being
of view, of static
From
body.
Fig.
tt
Sectioning
of a
any
in static on vhich
can
before.
be shown.
equilibforces
and
then
on infinitesimal
areas
These
of a cut
are
of
where, in all three cases, the first subscript of r (tau) indicates that the plane perpendicular to the x axis is considered, and the second designates the direction of the stress component. In the next section, all possible combinations of subscripts for stress wil be considered. The intensity of the force perpendicular to or normal to the section is called the nortnal stress at a point. It is customary to refer to normal
stresses that cause traction or tension on the surface of a section as tensile
varying
(c),
magnitudes
and
as is again
and
shown
directions,
as was
12(a).
shown
earlier
forces
in Figs.
are
vectorial
11(b)
stances,
manner
associated
center
these
of mass.
body
with
forces
can be considered
units
of volume
loads
However,
those that are pushing against it are cotnnormal stresses wil usually be designated of by a double subscript on r. A single
the
in
3 As AA  0, some
question
from
the atomic
point
(uniform)
of view
model
exists
for
in defining
nonhomo
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
t4.
Stress
Tensor
subscript then suffices to designate the direction of the axis. The other components of the intensity of force act parallel to the plane of the elementary area. These components are called shear' or shear#zg stresses. Shear stresses wil be always designated by The reader should form a clear mental picture of the stresses called normal and those called shearing. To repeat, normal stresses result from force components perpendicular to the plane of the cut, and shear stresses result from components tangential to the plane of the cut. It is seen from the definitions that since they represent the intensity of force on an area, stresses are measured in units of force divided by units of area. In the U.S. customary system, units for stress are pounds per square inch, abbreviated psi. In many cases, it wil be found convenient to use as a unit of force the coined word kip, meaning kilopound, or 1000 lb. The stress in kips per square inch is abbreviated kM. It should be noted
Some conversion factors from U.S. customary the inside of the back cover. It may be useful 1 in = 25 mm, 1 poundforce  4.4 newtons, It should be emphasized that stresses multiplied on which they act give forces. At an imaginao, these forces, called stress resultants, keeps
to SI units are given on to note that approximately and 1 psi  7000 Pa. by the respective areas section, a vector sum of a body in equilibrium. In
engineering
are
stresses
generally
mechanics
are determined.
determined
of.solid,
first,
the stress
and
then,
resultants
using
established
at a selected
formulas,
section
14.
Stress
Tensor
plane
an infinitesimal
the
to the
section
that
the
unit
pound
referred
to here
implies
a poundforce,
not
a pound
mass. Such ambiguities are avoided in the modernized version of the metric system referred to as the International System of Units or SI units. 4 SI units are being increasingly adopted and wil be used in this text along with the U.S. customary system of units in order to facilitate a smooth
distance
implied
away
and parallel
free
body be
would normal
to the first
of Fig.
were
I2,
another
Then, pair,
passed
if an a cube
of infinitesimal is shown
transition. The base units in SI.are meter 5 (m) for length, kilogram (kg) for mass, and second (s) for time. The derived unit for area is a square neter (m2), and for acceleration, a tneter pet' second squared (m/s2). The
unit of force is defined as a unit mass subjected to a unit acceleration,
i.e., kilogrammeter pet' second squared (kgm/s2), and is designated a newton (N). The unit of stress is the newton pet' square meter (N/m2), also designated a pascal (Pa). Multiple and submultiple prefixes representing steps of 1000 are recommended. For example, force can be shown in mil inewtons (1 mN = 0.001 N), newtons, or kilonewtons (1 kN = 1000 N), length in mil #neters (1 mm = 0.001 m), meters, or kiloneters (1 km = 1000 m), and stress in kilopascals (1 kPa = 103 Pa), megspascals (1 MPa = 106 Pa), or gigspascals (1 GPa = 109 Pa), etc. 6
dimensions would be isolated from the body. Such a cube in Fig. 13(a). All stresses acting on this cube are identified on the diagram. As noted earlier, the first subscripts on the r's associate the stress with a plane perpendicular to a given axis; the second subscripts designate the direction of the stress. On the near faces of the cube, i.e., on the faces away from the origin, the directions of stress are positive if
coincide
toward
the
with
origin,
the
positive
from
directions
the
actionreaction
of the
axes.
equilibrium
On the faces
concept,
of the
positive
If at a point
axes. (Note that for normal from r to , a single subscript ambiguity.) The designations used in the mathematical
stresses
act
in the
direction
in question
a dif erent
stresses, by changing the symbol for on cr suffices to define this quantity for stresses shown in Fig. 13(a) are theories of elasticity and plasticity.
opposite
to the
positive
directions
set of axes
are
chosen,
the
corre
The
stress
expressed
numerically
in units
of N/m
2 may
appear
to be
unusually small to This is because the and 1 square meter inch. Therefore, it in terms of a force
those familiar with the U.S. customary system of units. force of 1 newton is small in relation to a poundforce, is associated with a much larger area than 1 square is often more convenient in most applications to think of 1 newton acting on 1 square mil imeter. The units
for
(MPa).
such
4 From s Also
a quantity
the French, spelled metre.
usage can
are
Syst6me
be found
N/mm
2, or,
International
in preferred
d'Unit6s.
notation,
megapascals
(a)
General acting on
element
state an
in the
initial General
coordinate state
an infinitesimal
system. of stress
element
acting
system
(b)
style,
86.
a A detailed
and
discussion
of SI units,
back cover.
SocieFor ty conveni for ence,Testing anda short Materialtsable as ASTM Standard for is Met ric Practonice the E380of conversion factors included inside
in a comprehensive
including
guide
conversion
published
factors,
by the
rules
American
for SI
(a) (b)
(7/
on
defined
of
sense.
in a rotated
coordinate axes.
All
stresses
have
positive
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
t4.
Stress
Tensor
sponding
stresses
are
as shown
in Fig.
13(b).
These
stresses
are
related,
but
are
not
generally
from
equal,
one
to those
set
shown
in Fig.
13(a).
to another which can
The
process
is termed be defined
'iry x
B
The state components on each of the three mutually perpendicular (oraxes in mathematical terminology is called a tensor. Precise processes apply for transforming tensors, including from one set of axes to another. A simple case of stress trans
wil
examination
be encountered
in the
8.
symbols
next
section,
in Fig.
and
13(a)
a more
shows
complete
is given
are three
stresses: three
manner
An
normai
a column
stresses:
ry., ryz, P.,
six shearing
that
there
,.y, components:
as
ry, Py,
vector:
, . ,
Mc where area,
= 0
+
arm.
dz)(dy) correspond
(Txy)(dy
dz)(dx) respectively
= 0 to stress,
Analogously,
the
stress
components
can
be assembled
as fol ows:
(12)
in indicial designations
it in
'ri. This fol ows For this purpose, dy, and dz, and axis in Fig. 14.
Next,
it wil
be shown
directly sum Only let the the the
from
that
the
equilibrium
stress
tensor
is symmetric,
for an element. element be dx, axis such as the z are shown in the
i.e.,
*i =
planes
Similarly, it can be shown that r. = r and scripts for the shear stresses are commutative, interchanged, and the stre. ss tensor is symmetric. The implication of Eq. 12 is very important. are commutative signifies that shear stresses
the submay be
of an infinitesimal
element
are numerically
equal,
and
M = 0
is not satisfied by a single pair 14(b), the arrowheads of the opposite corners of an element In most subsequent situations
pairs of shear stresses wil
of shear stresses. On diagrams, as in Fig. shear stresses must meet at diametrically to satisfy equilibrium conditions. considered in this text, more than two
seldom act on an element simultaneously.
figure.
equivalent point
By
neglecting
the
infinitesimals
moment about representation
of higher
the
order,
7 this
process
about
is
change in stress from one presence of body (inertial) and proceeding to the limit, .higher order and therefore
the subscripts used before to identify the planes and the directions shear stresses become superfluous. In such cases, shear stresses designated by r without any subscripts. However, one must rethat shear stresses always occur in two pairs. notation simplification can be used to advantage for the state of shown in Fig. 15. The twodimensional stress shown in the figure
as
is referred
writ en
to as plane
stress.
In matrix
representation
such
a stress
can
t0
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
t.5.
Dif erential
Equations
of
Equilibrium
*'915.
An in.nitesimal dimensional
Equations in Fig.
of Equilibrium
For
thickness in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the paper. Note that the possibility of an increment in stresses from one face of the element to another is accounted for. For example, since the rate of change of x in the x direction is Ox/Ox and a step of dx is made, the increment is (0/
between The
volume
(dx)(dy)(1)
the element
is of unit
the twoelement
Ox) dx.
the inertial
of the
The
directions. or body
material.
partial
derivative
notation
has
to be used
by
to dif erentiate
weight
forces,
With
such
these
as those
notations,
caused
the
or the
magnetic
{a)
effect,
are designated
X and
Y and
are
associated
with
the
unit
(b)
Fig.
t5
Elements
in plane
stress.
F
(13)
= 0> +,
1)
x 1) = 0
obtains together the
yield fore,
selected system of axes may not NONACTIVATED VERSION examined on other planes. Using such procedures,www.avs4you.com it wil be shovn later that a particular set of coordinates exists which diagonalize the stress It. should
the by
b noted
that
the initial y
of
with
basic
an
most using
read
information
about
stress
the transformation,
stress
one
y direction,
+
Ox
Oy
+x=o
(15)
tensor
to
O +__
Ox
Oy
+ Y=0
without loss of continuity in the
9 Sections
identified
Y
with'**
cal
be
omit ed
(14)
text.
Note the absence of shear stresses. For the threedimensional case, the stresses are said to be triaxial, since three stresses are necessary to describe the state of stress completely. For plane stress 3 = 0 and the state of stress is biaxial. Such stresses occur, for example, in thin sheets stressed in two mutually perpendicular directions. For axial y loaded members, discussed in the next section, only one element of the stress tensor survives; such a state of stress is
l 7yFydy
ary
dy
x +
dx
referred
cussed:
of a stress
to as uniaxial.
how this
tensor.
In Chapter
term can be resolved
8, an inverse
to yield
problem
four
8 wil
or more
be diselements
Fig. t6 Infinitesimal element
one
Chapter
8 Some
8.
readers
may
prefer
at this
time
to study
the
first
several
sections
in
with
x forces.
stresses
and
body
t2
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
t6.
Stresses
on
Inclined
Sections
in Axial y
Loaded
Bars
t3
The
by
from
moment
having It can
a set of
equilibrium
r. = ry.. be shown that
three is
of the
for the
element
threedimensional
requiring
Mz
case,
= 0 is assured
equation
a typical
Oo
Ox
OTyx
Oy
z
OTz. r
+ X = 0
(a)
Note that in deriving the previous equations, mechanical properties of the material have not been used. This means that these equations are applicable whether a material is elastic, plastic, or viscoelastic. Also it is very important to note that there are not enough equations of equilibrium to solve for the unknown stresses. In the twodimensional case, given by Eq. 15, there are three unknown stresses, ., %, and %,., and only two equations. For the threedimensional case, there are six stresses, but only three equations. Thus, all problems in stress analysis are internally statically intractable or indetermbate. A simple example as to how a static equilibrium equation is supplemented by kinematic requirements and mechanical properties of a material for the solution of a problem is given in Section 314. In engineering mechanics of solids, such as that presented in this text, this indeterminacy is eliminated by introducing appropriate assumptions, which is equivalent to having additional equations. A numerical procedure that involves discretizing a body into a large number of small finite elements, instead of the infinitesimal ones as above, is now 6ften used in complex problems. Such finite element analyses rely on highspeed electronic computers for solving large systems of simultaneous equations. In the finite element method, just as in the mathematical approach, the equations of statics are supplemented by the kinematic relations and mechanical properties of a material. A few examples given later in this book show comparisons among the "exact" solutions of the mathematical theory of elasticity, and those found using the finite element technique and/or conventional solutions based on the methods
of engineering mechanics of solids.
(c)
bar
on arbitrary
planes.
bar, end.
is drawn
for To
equilibrium, distinguish.
across
the
an equal between
reaction
but
the
force
opposite applied
vector
force
force
P.
This
and
on
identification
of reactions
wil
be used
frequently
in this
text.
Finding
the
reactions
P is determined,
free
body diagrams for the bar segments, isolated by sections such as aa or bb, are prepared. In both cases, the force P required for equilibrium is shown at the sections. However, in order to obtain the conventional stresses, which are the most convenient ones in stress analysis, the force P is replaced by its components along the selected axes. A wavy line through the vectors P indicates their replacement by components. For
il ustrative 17Co)
purposes,
three
1.
Stresses
on Inclined
Sections
in Axial y
Loaded
Bars
The traditional approach of engineering mechanics for determining the internal stresses on arbitrarily axial y loaded bars. The first steps in this procedure 17. Here, since. an axial force P is applied on the
of solids wil be used inclined sections in are il ustrated in Fig. right end of a prismatic
the other
is in the
Instead, the case shown of P in the plane of symmetry in detail. One of these components
plane
of the
section.
the case shown in Fig. analysis simply becomes in Fig. 17(c), having only of the bar cross section, is normal to the section;
on inclined to the bar 0 with the
As planes, sides,
an
analysis of stresses in a bar 90 degrees apart perpendicular The section aa is at an angie
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
P
on Inclined
Sections
in Axial y
Loaded
Bars
t5
bJ
Cross
section
ofarea A
The negative sign in Eq. 17 is used to conform to the sign convention for shear stresses introduced earlier. See, for example, Fig. 15. The need for a negative sign is evident by noting that the shear force P sin 0 acts
in the dii:ection
(a)
Y',
P
p cosy
x'
P
x
It is important to note that the basic procedure of engineering mechanics of solids used here gives the average or mean stress at a section. These stresses are determined from the axial forces necessary for equilibrium at a section. Therefore they hlways satisfy statics. However based on the additional requirements of kinematics (geometric deformations) and mechan'ical properties of a material, large local stresses are known to arise in the proximity of concentrated forces. This also occurs at abrupt changes in crosssectional areas. The average stresses at a section are accurate at a distance about equal to the depth of the member from the concentrated forces or abrupt changes in crosssectional area. The use of this simplified
opposite
Equations 16 and 17 show that the normal and shear stresses vary with the angle 0. The sense of these stresses is shown in Figs. 18(c) and
(e)
P cos 2 e
A
0
(c) (d)
termined from the fol owing equation: NONACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com where P is the applied force, and A is the
P sin e cos 0
A 1'0_90'
when the section is perpendicular to the axis of the rod. The shear stress then correspondingly would be zero. This leads to the conclusion that the maximu m normal stress (Truax in an axial y loaded bar can be simply de(Truax = O'r ' = A
(18)
90
P sin 2 e
A
(f)
(g)
of a prismatic
0 with
bar on mutually
perpendicular
planes.
the reaction,
Equations
16 and 17 also show that for 0 = +90 , both the normal
stresses vanish. This is as it should be, since no stresses
crosssectional
vertical.
An isolated
to the section
well as the equilibrating force P at the section of the bar section. As shown in Fig. 18(b),
resolved
A/cos
The applied
coinciding
force,
is shown
act along the top and bott6m free boundaries (surfaces) of the bar. To find the maximum shear stress acting in a bar, one must dif erentiate
the shear
0. Therefore,
component,
two
the normal
equations:
(T o
the normal
force
stress
cross
P cos 0, and
'to are given
(16)
as
the results,
one obtains
tan 0 = + 1
leading
acts is usually
of 0 into Eq.
45 with
to the conclusion
17, one
immaterial,
Since
the sense
force area
P sin
P cos A/cos
0
0
finds
in which
of either
a shear
+ 45 or
stress
2 0
(110)
and
tO 
A/cos
= 
sn 0 cos
(17)
Therefore,
the maximum
loaded
Stress, Axial
Loads,
and Safety
normal
Concepts
stress.
the
Normal
Stress In Axial y
Loaded
Bars
17
procedure, bb. On from the vertical is best measured as in the former case, this angle in Eq. 17. Hence, the subscript designating the stresses. From
P
as large as the maximum studied using Eq. 17. Following the same found on the section
variation
ofto
with
0 can
be
P P
and shear stresses can be noting the angle locating this plane clockwise, instead of counterclockwise should be treated as a negative quantity (90  0)= 0  90 wil be used in Fig. 18(e), one obtains
sin 0
Bar
Axis
Centtold
(b)
(a)
cr09oo
A/sin
P cos
0
0
A sin  0
(111)
and
Note axis 112 sense
'ro9oo
A/sin 0
A sin 0 cos 0
P
(112)
(c)
f.qodA=P
a dx(d)
dy
= PA
normal stress
dx
(e)
dz
(f)
that in this case, since the direction of the shear force and the y have the same sense, the expression in Eq. 112 is positive. Equation can be obtained from Eq. 17 by substituting the angle 0  90 . The of o_9o o and ,0_9o o is shown in Fig. 18(f). The combined results of the analysis for sections aa and bb are shown on an infinitesimal element in Fig. 18(g). Note that the normal stresses on the adjoining element faces are not equal, whereas the shear stresses are. The lat er finding is in complete agreement with the earlier general
steps
in determining
the largest
in an axial y
loaded
bar.
19(e).
commonly For maximum
However,
future
used.
a simplified
reference, stress
the
diagram
such
Eq. 18 for loaded bar
bar axis.
as shown
determining is restated
in Fig.
19(f)
the
the
is
coficlusion
reached
in Section
must
14, showing
equal.
perpendicular
planes
be
directly in customary
equation
form
added
without
to indicate
any
subscript
direction
on
of
. Subscripts,
the
however,
This
are
frequently
gives
that
shear
stresses
on mutually
largest
normal
stress
at a section
taken
perpendicular
to the
axis
of a
member.
Thus,
17.
Maximum
Normal
situations the maximum section, these
Stress
with
in Axial y
Loaded
Bars
to
is a
area
applied

or
i
A is the crosssectional
(113)
resulting
of a bar in a maximum
In calculations,
axial
it is often
force,
and
convenient
to use N/mm
normal
in Fig. freebody bar, as centroid. brated of these resultant bar with the two stress
stress.
19.
The
procedure
for determining
this
stress
directly
is shown
case, a of the the bar's is equiliThe sum a stress of the sense on state of in Fig.
Similar to the steps discussed earlier for the general diagram is prepared either for the left or the fight part il ustrated in Fig. 19(b). All force vectors P pass through As shown in Fig. 19(c), the reaction on the left end at section aa by a uniformly distributed normal stress . stresses multiplied by their respective areas generate that is statically equivalent to the force P. A thin slice equal uniformly distributed normal stresses of opposite parallel sections is shown in Fig. 19(d). This uniaxial may be represented on an infinitesimal cube, as shown
= MPa in the SI system of units and ksi in the U.S. customary system. It is instructive to note that the normal stress given by Eq. 113, and schematically represented in Fig. 19(e), is a complete description of the state of stress in an axial y loaded bar. Therefore, only one diagonal term remains in the matrix representation of the stress tensor given by Eq. llb. This remaining term is associated with the direction of the bar axis. If dif erent axes are chosen for isolating an element, as in Fig. 18(g), the stress tensor would resemble Eq. 13. A detailed study of this topic wil be pursued in Chapter 8. Equation 113 strictly applies only to prismatic bars, i.e., to bars having a constant crosssectional area. However, the equation is reasonably ac
t8
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
t8.
Shear
Stresses
t9
curate
an abrupt
turbation
for
slightly
change
in stress,
tapered
in the
see
members.
crosssectional
Section 210.
o For
a discussion
area occurs,
of situations
causing severe
where
per. Tension
(a)
Section
= Pe
noted before, the stress resultant for a uniformly distributed stress acts through the centroid of a crosssectional area and assures the equilibrium of an axial y loaded member. If the loading is more complex, such as that, for example, for the machine part shown in Fig. 110, the stress distribution is nonuniform. Here, at section aa, in addition to the axial force P, a bending couple, or moment, M must also be developed. Such problems wil be treated in Chapter 6. Similar reasoning applies to axial y loaded compression members and Eq. 113 can be used. However, one must exercise additional care when compression members are investigated. These may be so slender that they may not behave in the fashion considered. For example, an ordinary fishing rod under a rather small axial compression force has a tendency to buckle sideways and could collapse. The consideration of such instability of compression members is deferred until Chapter 11. Equation 113 is applicable only for axial y loaded conpression tnenbers that are rather chunky, i.e., to short blocks. As wil be shown in Chapter 11, a block whose least dimension is approximately onetenth of its length may usu
As
Compression
(a)
(c)
(b)
tensile
a plate
il ustration
during
of stress
a rolling
irregularity
operation,
in material
plate.
(b) variation
of
(b)
ally
with
be considered
a short
block.
Fig.
110
A member
at stress Section
a nonuniform distribution
aa.
be 20 in long and stil be considered a short block. Sometimes compressive stresses arise where one body is supported another. If the resultant of the applied forces coincides with the centroid of the contact area between the two bodies, the intensity of force,
may
stress, between the two bodies It is customary to refer to this 111, where a short block bears
on the soil, il ustrates such
can normal on
For
example,
a 2 by 4 in wooden
piece
again
stress a concrete
used
It is also important to note that the basic equations for determining stresses, such as given by Eq. 113, assume initial y stressfi'ee material. However, in reality, as materials are being manufactured, they are often rolled, extruded, forged, welded, peened, and hammered. In castings, materials cool unevenly. These processes can set up high internal stresses called residual stresses. For example, hot steel plates during a rolling
a stress.
Numerous
situations
in
operation .are pulled between rollers, 12(b). This process causes the development
forces
plied bearing In havior
mechanical
force
These
problems
P by
bearing
Eq.
under
the
corresponding
stresses
washers
can be approximated
contact
for
distributing
giving
area
by dividing
a useful
concentrated
nominal
the ap
tribute
the
equally
to the
is implied
113, Each
resistance
by
of the
force.
A perfect
wood
Real
homogeneity
beto consuch
the outer surfaces than in the middle of a plate. These stresses are equivalent to an average normal stress flay that may be considered to generate a force that propels a plate through the rolls. On leaving the rolls, the plate shown in Fig. 112(c) is relieved of this force, and as per Eq. 113, the flay is subtracted from the stresses that existed during rolling. The
of
metals,
material
consist
of a great
many
such
grains,
an
assumption.
whereas
materials,
is fibrous.
In real
as
stress
to the
pattern
calculated
of the residual
stresses
are selfequilibrating, .i.e., they applied forces. In real problems, and should be careful y investigated
for the initial y stressfree
normal
stresses
is shown
material.
in Fig.
112(c).
Fig.
occur
141
Bearing
between the
stresses
block and
materials, some particles than others. Ideal stress (e) actually do not exist stress distribution varies jagged affair somewhat,
the Goodier,
wil contribute more distributions such if the scale chosen in each particular as shown in Fig.
for
3rd
to the resistance as shown in Figs. is sufficiently small. cas.e and is a highly 112(a). However,
S. P. Timoshenko,
McGrawHil , 1970)
pier pier
For
accurate
Theory
solutions
of Elasticity,
tapered
ed. (New
bars,
see
York:
J. N.
slip
planes
the
for example, lowcarbon steel, are weaker at large loads, slip develops along the planes shear stress. According to Eqs. 19 and 110, these glide or in a tensile specimen form 45 angles with the axis of a bar, maximum shear stress Xm = P/2A occurs. On the polished
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
P/2
Concepts
__
Stresses
,v, shown
P/2
in Fig. 113(c),
shown
aa.
can be found
A similar
(a)
proach,
proach,
strength Section
then
surfaces
employing
force, surfaces
are available
imaginary
for transferring
in Fig. 113(d).
procedure
using
clamping tacting)
it is assumed
sections,
the applied
However
for determining
P by
ap
(b)
(e)
page occurs,
from
so that prevents
that a tightened
are shown in Figs. 114(a) and (e). in two dif erent ways. In one ap
is applicable
to solid members.
a sufficiently
same
bolt develops
force
a,b
a
(c)
Tav
a, b
(f)
Tar
bolt
'r in these bolts, a similar procedure as discussed One simply uses the crosssectional area A of a bolt of the joint contact surface to compute the average
shown in Fig. 114(a) is said to be in single
requires as the
plate,
is transferred
(conhigh
large
first
in Figs.
to a bolt and
114(b)
slip
in
shear,
Fig. 1t3
Loading
conditions
causing
shear
stresses
between
surface of a specimen, these lines can Laders lines. This kind of matehal In many routine engineering applications, velop at critical locations. To determine dif icult. However, by assuming that distributed shear stress develops, a using this approach, the average shear the shear force V in the plane of the
A.
interfaces
of glued
blocks.
whereas the one in Fig. 114(e) In bolted connections, another eration. In cases such as those
consid
force
P is
The average nominal intensity of this pressure is obtained by dividing the force transmit ed by the projected area of the bolt onto the plate. This is referred to as the bearing stress. The beating stress in Fig. 114(a) is 0.b = P/td, where t is the thickness of the plate, and d is the diameter of the bolt. For the case in Fig. 114(e), the beating stresses for the middle plate and the outer plates are 0. = P/hd and 0'2 = P/2t2d, respectively. The same procedure is. also applicable for fiveted assemblies.
of a connection
applied,
a highly
irregular
pressure
develops
between
a bolt
Another
manner
occurs
with
of joining
fil et
welds
members
aa
is shown
together
bb,
in Fig.
is welding.
115.
The
An exampie
maximum
shear
stress
in the
planes
and
as shown
in Fig.
115(b).
area
or
i
(114)
(a) (b) (c)
(d)
Some examples as to where Eq. 114 can be used to advantage shown in Figs. 113 to 115. In Fig. 113(a), a small block is shown to a larger one. By separating the upper block from the lower one imaginary section, the equilibrium diagram shown in Fig. 113(b)
T!
P/2
tained.
perpendicular
Also
The small
known
to the
applied
section
couple
aa,
Pe, causing
is commonly
in honor,
snall
neglected.
normal
stresses
On
this
acting
(e)
'
t2
PI2
(f)
P/2
(h)
as Piobert
lines.
investigators.
Named
respectively,
of German
French
nineteenthcentury
Fig. lt4
Loading
conditions
causing
shear
and bearing
stress
in bolts.
22
Stress,
Axial
Weld
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
t9.
Analysis
for
Normal
and
Shear
Stresses
23
I]
(a)
Section
a/b 45
cc
These bodies.
(b)
welds discussion
in units connections
If the equations of statics suffice for determining the external reactions as well as the internal stress resultants, a structural system is staticall), deterninate. An example is shown in Fig. 116(a). However, if for the same beam and loading conditions, additional supports are provided, as in Figs. 116(b) and (c), the number of independent equations of statics is insufficient to solve for the reactions. In Fig. 116(b), any one of the
vertical reactions can be removed and the structural system and tractable. Similarly, any two reactions can be dispensed beam in Fig. 116(c). Both of these beams are statically The reactions that can be removed leaving a stable system remains stable with for the indeterminate. statically de
with the overall dimensions of structures. Thereof obtaining the forces in members, the initial unof nenbers are used in computations.
]9.
Analysis
for
Normal
and
Shear
Stresses
termi.nate
within redundant minate
Once the axial force P or the shear force V, as well as the area A, are determined in a given problem, Eqs. 113 and 114 for normal and shear stresses can be readily applied. These equations giving, respectively, the maximum magnitudes of normal and shear stress are particularly important as they appraise the greatest imposition on the strength of a material. These greatest tresses occur at a section of n#dnt,n crosssectional area and/or the greatest axial force. Such sections are called critical sections. The critical section for the particular arrangement being analyzed can usually be found by inspection. However, to determine the force P or V that acts through a member is usually a more dif icult task. In the majority of problems treated in this text, the lat er information is obtained from
statics.
the
provide an introduction to the methods NONACTIVATED VERSION ginning with the next chapter. Problems www.avs4you.com
Procedures for solving such problems
the equations of statics require
arise
Fig.
116(c),
are superfluous
in practice,
etc.
and
Multiple
or redundant.
one
of the important
degrees
of statical
wil
Depending on the number of the the system is said to be indeter116(b), to the second degree, as in
Such
redundancies
can also
arise
of solution
with
objectives
indeterminacy
be introduced
for
of this
such
subject
gradually
frequently
problems.
is to
be
For
the
the
fulfil ment
equilibrium
of the
of a body
fol owing
in space,
conditions:
termin. acy are considered in Chapters 10, 12, and 13. Equations 115 should already be familiar to the reader. However, sew eral examples where they are applied wil now be given, emphasizing solution techniques generally used in engineering mechanics of solids. These statically determinate examples wil serve as an informal review of some of the principles of statics and wil show applications of Eqs. 113 and 114.
multiple
degrees
of inde
Additional
are given
(115)
examples
in Sections
for
113
determining
and 114.
shear
stresses
in bolts
and
welds
= o,j
lie in a single plane, such
first
y plane,
problem,
column of Eq. 115 in any (x, y, z) direction the summation of moments (x, y, z) direction must
states
trivial.
relations
i.e.,
all members
and forces
that the sum of all forces acting on a must be zero. The second column notes of all forces around any axis parallel to also be zero for' equilibrium. In a planar
(a)
(b)
(c)
stil
as the xvalid,
deee.
Fig. M6 determinate,
[dentic
with
identical indeterminate
conditions: ideteinate
Stress,
Axial
Weld
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
19.
Analysis
for
Normal
and
Shear
Stresses
These bodies.
''1
c
a b
Section cc
negligible
in comparison
(a)
(b)
welds discussion
in units connections
If the equations of statics suffice for determining the external reactions as well as the internal stress resultants, a structural system is staticall), determinate. An example is shown in Fig. 116(a). However, if for the same beam and loading conditions, additional supports are provided, as in Figs. 116(b) and (c), the number of independent equations of statics is insufficient to solve for the reactions. In Fig. 116(b), any one of the
of obtaining of members
dimensions
of structures.
the initial
There
19.
Analysis
for
Normal
and
Shear
Stresses
Once the axial force P or the shear force V, as well as the area A, are determined in a given problem, Eqs. 113 and 114 for normal and shear stresses can be readily applied. These equations giving, respectively, the maximum magnitudes of normal. and shear stress are particularly important as they appraise the greatest imposition on the strength of a material. These greatest'stresses occur at a section of ninint,n crosssectional area and/or the greatest axial force. Such sections are called critical sections. The critical section for the particular arrangement being analyzed can usually be found by inspection. However, to determine the force P or V
vertical reactions can be removed and the structural system remains stable and tractable. Similarly, any two reactions can be dispensed with for the beam in Fig. 116(c). Both of these beams are statically indeterminate. The reactions that can be removed leaving a stable system statically determi.nate are superfluous or redundant. Such redundancies can also arise within the internal system of forces. Depending on the number of the redundant internal forces or reactions, the system is said to be indeterminate to the first degree, as in Fig. 116(b), to the second degree, as in
that
statics.
through
treated
a member
in this
is usually
text,
NONACTIVATED VERSION ginning with the next chapter. Problems www.avs4you.com Equ. ations 115 should already be familiar
Procedures for solving such problems
Fig. arise
116(c), etc. Multiple degrees of statical indeterminacy frequently in practice, and one of the important objectives of this subject is to provide an introduction to the methods of solution for such problems.
wil
a more
lat er
dif icult
task.
In the
majority
of problems
the
information
is obtained
from
the
fulfil ment
equilibrium
of the
fol owing
of a body
conditions:
in space,
the
equations
of statics
require
to the eral examples where they are applied wil now solution techniques generally used in engineering These statically determinate examples wil serve of some of the principles of statics and wil show
13 and 114.
termin.
acy
are
considered
in Chapters
with
be introduced
multiple
reader. However, sevbe given, emphasizing mechanics of solids. as an informal review applications of Eqs. 1in bolts and welds
13.
degrees
gradually
of inde
be
IEe.,=0Eu.=01
Ee:=0 Euz=0
Additional
are
(115)
examples
in Sections
for
113
determining
and 114.
shear
stresses
given
7F
problem, y plane,
are
first
states
the (x,
summation y, z) direction
trivial.
i.e., all members and forces lie in a single plane, such as the xrelations F = 0, M = 0, and My = 0, while stil valid,
of moments must
the sum of all forces acting on a zero. The second column notes of all forces around any axis parallel to also be zero for' equilibrium. In a planar
must be
that
(a)
(b)
(c)
Identical
with
identical indeterminate
conditions: indeterminate
Stress,
EXAMPLE
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
t9.
Analysis
for
Normal
and
Shear
Stresses
F,
The beam BE in Fig. 117(a) is used for hoisting machinery. It is anchored by two bolts at B, and at C, it rests on a parapet wall. The essential details are given in the figure. Note that the bolts are threaded, as shown in Fig. 117(d), with d
= 16 mm at the root of the threads. If this hoist can be subjected to a force of
MB = 0 + Md = 0 +
Check: Fy
=0
= 0'+ that
Rcy
= 35 kN
RBy
= 25 kN
bearing
with
that
To solve
is made
on
this
which
proble
all
m, the actual
known and
unknown
situation
of B and the first
unknown
forces
is idealized
are
indicated.
and
a freebody
This
is shown
diagram
minimum
in
Crosssectional
The
crosssectional
area
of a bolt;
bolt:
of one 20mm
it.
is not the
is
of the threads
the
of the
They
long
Anet
Maximum normal tensile stress?
= 11' 82 = 201
in each of the
= BD: 39.8 N/mm 62
at C is assumed
effective proper
are
in resisting
and
and
marked for
the
horizontal
the
as Rc.. unknown
force,
The
applied forces.
only
an unknown
known
force
horizontal equations
P is shown
reaction
bolts
2 =
BD:
62 MPa
in its
location.
applied
After
solved
a freebody
diagram
is prepared,
the
of statics
Tensile stress
O'm
in the
RBy = '2.4
shank 25
2
25 x 103 2 x 201
of the x 103 = bolts
2.5
E
200
mm
/
D
Building
rl I
314
2 =
39.8
MPa
Contact
area
at
C:
A = 200
Bearing stress at C:
x 200
= 40
x 10 gmm
P=10kN
(a)
x
View
(c)
O b
Rcy
A
_.
35 X 103 = 0.875
40 x 103
N/mm
2 = 0.875
MPa
The
Eq. llb
calculated
as
stress
for
the
bolt
shank
can
be represented
in the
manner
of
+39.8
0
MPa
(b)
(d)
where the y axis is taken in the direction of the applied the complete result is implied but is seldom writ en
See also discussion on stress concentrations,
load. down
Section
Fig.
tt7
Concepts
either part is sufficient
is loaded the state 25 kN/m at the of stress 3. top with a uniformly at a level 1 m above
solved
for Normal
For comparison,
Fig. 118(b),
= 9.4kN
The concrete pier shown distributed load of 20 kN/m the base. Concrete weighs
Solution
included
pier above
the upper
ways.
is
of the
the section:
W = (0.5
problem,
in the calculations.
x 1 x 25/2
In this
the
weight
pier:
of the
structure
itself
is appreciable
and
must
be
From
Weight
of the
whole W ='
= 14.4kN
[(0.5
1.5)/2]
x 0.5
2 x
25
25
kN
Hence,
using
Eq.
113,
the normal
stress
at the level
1
aa
is
Total
applied
force:
P = 20 x 0.5 x 0.5 = 5kN
cr = A
This
Fa
14.4
0.5x
= 28.8
kN/m
From
F. = 0, reaction
at the base:
R = W + P = 30kN
pier
diagrams as concentrated to determine the forces at the
Using
stress
below
the lower
is compresslye
the section:
as F, acts
on the section.
Fig.
118(c),
= 15.6
the weight
kN
of the
These acting
forces through
are their
desired
level,
the
body
is cut
into
two
W2 = (1 + 1.5)
x 1 x 25/2
separate
parts.
A freebody
diagram
for
From
Fy = 0, the force
at the section:
= R 
F
W2
14.4
kN
P=SkN
The remainder
has a vertical
EXAMPLE t3
axis of symmetry,
of the problem
is the same
making
the application
as before.
The
pier
considered
here
2
L
aa( .5 m
A bracket
Pertinent
diameter.
P of 3 kips.
of negligible
dimensions
For interconnection
weight
shown
are shown
and shear
in the figure.
purposes,
in Fig.
stresses
119(a)
is loaded
with
a vertical
in members
(forked).
force
in in
1.5
Fig. 1t8
Sidvieew
(c)
First, an idealized freebody diagram consisting of the two bars pinned at the ends is prepared, see Fig. 119(b). As there are no intermediate forces acting on the bars and the applied force acts through the joint at B, the forces in the bars are directed along the lines AB and BC, and the bars AB and BC are loaded axial y.
2 Strictly speaking, the solution obtained is not exact, as the sides of the pier are sloping. If the included angle between these sides is large, this solution is altogether inadequate. For further details, see S. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier,
Themy of Elasticity, 3rd ed. (New York: McGrawHil , 1970) 139.
28
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
t9.
Analysis
for
Normal
and
Shear
Stresses
29
P=3k
m/:A__ 2
3k
The magnitudes of the forces are unknown and are labeled FA and diagram.3 These forces can be determined graphically by completing of forces FA, Fc, and P. These forces may also be found analytically simultaneous equations F:. = 0 and F.,. = 0, writ en in terms of the FA and Fc, a known force P, and two known angles ct and fl. Both
cedures
to proceed components
are possible.
into F,t and FAy, as in Fig. 119(c). Conversely, if any one of the components of a directed force is known, the force itself can be determined. This fol ows from similarity of dimensions and force triangles. In Fig. 1~19(c), the triangles Akin and BAD are similar triangles (both are shaded in the diagram). Hence, if F, is known,
FA = (AB/DB)FA.
Any force
in a dif erent way. Instead of treating forces FA and Fc directly, their are used; and instead of F = 0, M = 0 becomes the main tool.
can 15e resolved into components. For example, FA can be resolved
However,
in this book,
it wil usually
be found
advantageous
Fc
(a)
{b}
Similarly, Fay = (AD/DB)FAx. Note further that AB/DB or AD/DB are ratios; hence, relative dimensions of members can be used. Such relative dimensions are shown by a lit le triangle on member AB and again on BC. In the problem at hand,
FA = (X//2)FA.
and
FAy
= FA.d2
0.20"
/
B
o.8,5,
0.20"
0.20"
Fc
After thinking
of resolving components
by statics, of an individual
forces, a revised freebody diagram, Fig. of force are necessary at the pin joints.
Eq. 113 member: is applied several times,
Mc=00+
+ FA.(3
+ 6)  3(6)
Fay
= 0
FA = 2(X//2)
= Fa.d2
FA. = 2/2
= +2.23
= =
+2 +1
k k
k
k k
MA
=00
+ 3(6)
+ Fc(9)
= 0,
Fc>,
Fc. = Fc.
= 2 = 2
Fc
(d)
= X/(2)
= 2.83
(e)
(f)
Check:
Tensile stress
Fig.
1t9
F;, = 0 EFy=O
in main bar AB:
FA.
+ Fc
= 2 
2 = 0
FAy
 Fcy
 P = 1  (2)
 3 = 0
FA
A 0.25
2.23
x 0.50
17.8
ksi
3 In frameworks
it is convenient
to assume
all
unknown
forces
are
tensile.
negative
answer
in the
solution
then
indicates
that
the
bar
is in compression.
3O
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
MO.
Member
Strength
as
a Design
Criterion
3t
Tensile
stress
in clevis
of bar FA
AB,
Fig.
119(e): 2.23
(ffAB)clevs
Compressive stress
Anet
in main
(YBC 
=
bar
Fc
A
2 x 0.20
BC:
2.83
0.875
x (0.875
0.375)
1 1.2
ksi
DESIGN
DETERMINISTIC
BASES
AND
PROBABILISTIC
0.25
12.9
ksi
critical.
pin
C and

the
clevis:
2.83
need stress
orb
Abearing
pin C and
Fc

Fc
0.375
the main
x 0.20
plate:
2.83
x 2
18.8
ksi
is [o compare them with the experimental y determined material strengths in order to assure desired performance. Physical testing of materials in a laboratory provides information regarding a material's resistance to stress. In a laboratory, specimens of known material, manufacturing process, and heat treatment are careful y prepared to desired dimensions. Then these specimens are subjected to successively increasing known forces. In the most widely used test, a round rod is subjected to tension
and the specimen to cause rupture used for this
system
Bearing
between
the
orb  A
Double shear in pin C:
r 
0.375
by the original crosssectional area of the specimen, the uhitnate (stress) of a material is obtained. Figure 121 shows a testing
purpose. Figure 122 shows a tensiontest
is loaded until it finally ruptures. The force necessary is called the ultbnate load. By dividing this ultimate load specimen.
strength machine
Fc
2'rr(0.375/2)
The
12.9
ksi
ever, either
For
a complete analysis of this bracket, other pins should be investigated. it can be seen by inspection that the other pins in this case are the same amount as computed or less.
Howstressed
F
Fc
Fig.
[
t Fcy
[a
120
tively, the force F, can be resolved at A, and since F4y = (y/X)FA, the applicatio n of Mc = 0 yields FAx. In frames, where the applied forces do not act through a joint, proceed as before as far as possible. Then isolate an individual member, and using
diagram,
acting on the
of the method used in the last example for finding forces now be apparent. It can also be applied with success as the one shown in Fig. 120. The force F, transmit ed curved member AB acts through points A and B, since the forces at A and B must be collinear..By resolving this force at A', the
can be fol owed. Wavy lines through F, and Fc indicate
are
replaced
by
the
two
components
shown.
Alterna
complete structure,
the
determination resolve
them
If inclined
com
Fig.
machine Systems
t2t
Universal
(Courtesy Corporation).
testing
of MTS
Fig. test
before
Strength
a phenomenon
some
as a Design Criterion
called
of the examples the rate of load ap
250 200
Experience
wooden where
plastica!ly
150
100 50 0
plication
with
turbines,
under
a sustained
tightened
load,
Fig.
188
t23
stainless
Fa[igue
steel
strength
at
various
of
stronger at very rapidly applied loads. Likewise, the effect of temperature usually has a very important effect on the endurance limit. Some of these issues are discussed further in Sections 23 and 25. At the design level, most of these problems can be controlled by reducing design stresses.
has a major
effect,
as some
bolts
in mechanical
equipment,
creep.
materials
become
considerably
beam
temperatures
test).
(reciprocating
103
104
10 s
Cycles
10 s
107
The aforementioned facts, coupled with the impossibility of determining stresses accurately in complicated structures and machines, necessitate a substantial reduction of stress compared to the ultimate strength of a material in a static test. For example, ordinary steel wil withstand an
ultimate stress in tension of 60 ksi and more. However, it deforms rather suddenly and severely at the stress level of about 36 ksi, and it is customary in the United States to use an allowable stress of around 22 ksi for structural work. This allowable stress is even further reduced to about 12 ksi for parts that are subjected to alternating loads because of the fatigue
characteristics of the material. Fatigue properties of materials are of t t
gives
ultimate
is used tests
strengths
and
other
times
the force
123
materials cases,
of cycles
can
required
be seen
is applied
the
as the material
the
physical
properties
for
to break
Fig.
of tests 5 on Experimental
works
specimen
As
123, the
a number points
at a particular
materials.
of the indicate
same the
stress
level.
of
parts
tnost
the
Section cluded
can be traced
inportance
in nechanical
"fatigue
material
tests," diagrams.
For
As pointed
to disregard
of this important
(104 cycles in seismically
equipnent.
Many
out in Section
stresses.
17, in some
situations,
consideration.
failures
in machine
cannot structures.
(See
be ex
also
it is also
appropriate
to consider
residual
with
stand
materials,
an everincreasing
notably
steels,
number
of cycles
of load
low
stresses
application.
becomes
essen
some
of reversals of stress can take place limiting stress at which this occurs material. This limit, being dependent
tial y
horizontal.
This
means
that
at a low
stress,
an infinitely
large
number
The decision process in choosing an appropriate allowable stress is further complicated since there is great uncertainty in the nagnitudes of the applied loads. During the life of a machine or a structure, occasional overloads are almost a ce.rtainty, but their magnitudes can only be estimated at best.
Some care must be exercised in interpreting SN diagrams, particularly with regard to the range of the applied stress. In some tests, complete reversal (tension to compression) of stress is made; in others, the applied
load is varied in a dif erent manner, such as tension to no load and
this
are now resolved using two alternative apapproach, in the spirit of classical mechanics, assigned to the applied forces as well as to the
manner, these two' principal parameters are
back
major
or allowable an unpermissible
stress
since Some
is bending. in selecting
some mamaterials
of ASTM
4 ASTM
Standards
(American
tigue,
t J. L. Zambrow,
of Aircraft
now consisting
at Very
Society
Alloys
and M. G. Fontana,
Low
of 66 volumes,
Temperatures,"
and Materials)
divided
issues
into
"Mechanical
Trans.
Properties,
detailed Used
16 sections,
an Amzual
ASM
41 (1949):
Including
giving
Book
498.
Fa
to in this text. However, as the complexity systems increases, less reliance can be placed a limited number of experiments. Instead, after parameters in a given stressanalysis problem, is assessed, leading to the probabilistic method safety. This approach has found favor in the offshore structures, and is emerging in structural and bridges. A brief discussion of the probabilistic design is given in Section 112. The traditional
is discussed next.
This wil
deterninbe largely
identification of the their statistical variof estimating strucdesign of advanced design of buildapproach to strucdeterministic ap
proach
and Safety
Design
design
Concepts
of Members:
a stress
Design
of Members
Deterministic
Bars
Loaded
is determined
recast
of members,
and is known
to read
as the margin
ofsafeO'.
ultimate stress
deterministic
loaded minimum
stress
at the highest
bars,
O'a,o,v
stressed
determining Then,
chosen.
section
using
for
the
conventional
internal
mechanics.
material,
axial
force P at a an allowable
For
axial y
maximum
stress
caused
by
the
design
load
and federal authorities, dif erent materials, called the allowhble allowable ultimate a significant
Professional
engineering
groups,
large
companies,
as well
as city,
stresses stresses
state,
for are
Since
according
and forces
to Eq.
113,
stress
be converted that
times
area
is equal
the
to a force,
and Also
the
the' text as they occur, can provide reasonable estimates loads for complex systems and should be used in the F.S. as well as of margin of safety. For example, instead of designing members at working loads using alternative approach consisting of selecting member mate or limit load is becoming widely adopted. In such
load chosen to the other ever,
largely
The
newer
analytical
methods,
some
of which
wil
load
load
for
for
a member
a member
is usually obtained by multiplying the working loads by a suitably load factors. For bars in simple tension or compression, this leads same results. Significantly dif erent results may be obtained in many cases where inelastic behavior is more complex. In this text, howthe customary allowable stress design (ASD) approach wil be
application simple and
fol owed.
of the ultimate basic definition of for static loadings, allowable stress, an sizes for their ulticases, the ultimate
be pointed
out
in
This
of
always
stresses
is the basic
be greater
as
definition
than
unity.
of the factor
Traditionally
maximum
useful
of safety,
F.S.
This
ratio
must
both
area
The
that
loaded
net
is
A of
a member
material
strength
(stress)
allowable
stress
O'al ow
(116)
and
type
is widely
subsequent stresses
of member aircraft
used
reading, is satisfactory
and
not
whereas for
loading
only
for
conditions.
this
axial y
loaded
defined
In the
as
industry,
As
wil
members,
become
but
apparent
also
for any
from
factor
load
of safety
is replaced
by another,
design
load
where P is the applied axial force, and trno,, is the allowable stress. tion 116 is generally applicable to tension members and short sion blocks. For slender compression members, the question of bility arises and the methods discussed in Chapter 11 must be The simplicity of Eq. 116 is unrelated to its importance. A large of problems requiring its use occurs in practice. The fol owing il ustrate some application of Eq. 116 as well as provide additional
in statics.
Equacomprestheir staused.
6 For example, see the American Institute Building Construction Code of any large city, ments issued by the ArmyNavy Civil Commit ee
etc.
of Steel Construction Manual, ANC5 Strength of Ah'craft Eleon Aircraft Design Criteria,
7 The
adjective
were that
fiber
in this sense
which
is used
for two
in character. filament
masons.
Many
original
ex
EXAMPLE
t4
Reduce
the
size
13 by
strength
using
of this
a better
steel
material
is approximately
such
as
120
$6
Stress,
Solution
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
650
Sec.
kN
11t.
Deterministic
Design
of
Members
$7
below
120/2.5 = 48 ksi. From Example 13, the force in the bar AB: FA = kips. Required area: Anet = 2.23/48 = 0.0464 in 2. Adopt: 0.20in by 0.25This provides an area of (0.20)(0.25) = 0.050 in 2, which is slightly in excess required area. Many other proportions of the bar are possible. the crosssectional area selected, the actual or working stress is somewhat
the allowable
in
stress:
O'actual
i 2.23/(0.050)
= 44.6
ksi.
The
actual
factor
of
dimensions.
0.75
if possible,
(c)
EXAMPLE
P of
'i5
650
Select
members
kN.
Set
FC
the
and
allowable
CB in the truss
tensile
stress
of Fig.
at
124(a)
140
MPa.
to carry
an inclined
force
390
kN
650
kN
Solution
r/520
in all members
kN
Fc
If all members
veloped
to be found.
truss by the method of joints. However, if only a few members are to be designed or checked, the method of sections il ustrated here is quicker. It is generally understood that a planar truss, such as shown in the figure, is stable in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the paper. Practically, this is accomplished by introducing braces at right angles to the plane of the truss. In this example, the design of compression members is avoided, as this wil be
treated in the determine chapter the forces on columns. in the To members to be designed, the reactions for the
on the basis
of matrix
structural
computer
would programs
have
de
,r
2.5 m
520kN f325 kN
(d)
Fc
(b)
whole'
structure
are computed
Only
are
reaction indicated
first.
and
force components definitely located at their on a freebody diagram of the whole structure; are determined, freebody diagrams of a part the forces in the members considered; see
124(b):
This
is done
by completely
disregarding
the
Using the freebody diagram in Fig. 124(c):
Fig.
t24
MA
Ac
= OG
= Fc/crnow
Frc
= 86.7 x
X 0.75
103/140
+ 325
= 620
x 1  520
mm 2
(use
X 0.75
Fc =
= 0
+ 86.7 kN
Using
the
in Fig.
= 0 = 0
Rm
520
= 0
Rzx
520
kN
12.5
50mm
bar)
+ +
RDy
RE
325
X 3 X

390
520
+ 65
x 0.5
x
=

520
390 X
x
2.5
1.5 RDy
=
3 +
390
1.5
0
= 0 =
0 RE =
325
65kN
kN
Using
the freebody
diagram
in Fig.
124(d):
Fy = 0
for example,
McGrawHil ,
Fy = 0
ed. Ac = Fc/crnow
(FcB)y
= 391
8 See,
O. C. Zienkiewicz,
1977).
The
Fitrite
Element
Method,
3rd
mm 2
(use
= + 325 kN = q 391 kN
two bars 30 x 50 mm)
38
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
142.
Probabilistic
Basis
for
Structural
Design
39
EXAMPLE
6
AC
0.5
'on
for
m
Consider
a frictionless
the
the
idealized
plane
system
at 10 Hz.
shown
9 If a light
is the the rod
in Fig.
125,
rod
where
CD
size
is attached
a 5kg
mass
at C, and
is to be spun
the
the
allowable weight
what that
required is enlarged
Solution
.
0 10
Maximum
r I11
Mean
238
MPa
51
Tests
20
S = 26.2 V= 0.11
v=o.8
'vI
O'R
The
Fig. t25
rod
angular the
velocity acceleration,
to is 20r
rad/s. force
The
acceleration
a of the
mass
toward
the
mass
center
m by
of rotation
figure,
direction
is to2R,
the
where
d'Alembert's
acceleration.
R is the
F acting
Therefore,
distance
on the rod
CD.
this
By
is obtained.
multiplying
As shown
the
in the op
in the
posite F =
according
to that = mto2R
to the
of the
principle,
force
acts
ma
= 5 x (20r)
Anet an area
by
9870
2 x 0.500
200
= 9870
mm 2
kg.m/s
2 = 9870
49.3
l, o[ , , , ,_o,rm,
20 Compression 30 40 X [MPa]
Strength
I/I I I I't
fR{r)
t
10
f(r)
100
Compression
200
300
Yield Strength
[MPa]
An
The
ered,
8mm
is
round
additional
rod
pull
having
A = 50.3
the mass
mm 2 would
of the rod,
be satisfactory.
which was not consid
I
(a)
.
I
(b)
at C caused
fir  40 R
fIR
fIR + 40 R
fIR  40 R
fIR
S1R + 40 a
where m is the mass of the rod per unit length, and (m mass at a variable distance r from the vertical rod AB. The by the rod and the mass of 5kg at the end is F + F.
compression of ASTM
strength grades
for
Hemlock steels.**
(wood)*;
(b) frequency
structural systems
risk premises.
analyses
of complete
engineering
Experimental As an example the behavior of set, experimental wooden blocks steel stub columns correspond to
Evidence of the probabilistic specimens for two results of several are plot ed in Fig. in Fig. 126(b). a narrow range of approach based on statistics, consider sets of similar experiments. For one compression tests for identical short 126(a)? Similar results are shown for 22 The bar widths in these histograms compression stress for which a given
*'2112.
Probabilistic
Basis
for Structural
Design
In the conventional (deterministic) design of members, the possibility failure is reduced to acceptably small levels by factors of safety based on judgment derived from past successful and unsuccessful performances. By contrast, in the probabilistic approach, variability in material properties, fabricationsize tolerances, as well as uncertainties in loading and even design approximations, can be appraised on a statistical basis. As far as possible, the proposed criteria are calibrated against wellestablished cases, as disregard of past successful applications is out of the question. The probabilistic approach has the/tdvantage of consistency in
number
In these diagrams, the inner scales apply to direct The meaning of the outer scales wil be discussed
Metals
of specimens
were
either
crushed
(wood)
or have
yielded
23 (steel).
results.
2 j. M.
Copyright,
(New
Il ston,
the factors
2o The
of safety,
remainder
not
of this
only
chapter
for
individual
can be omit ed.
members,
but
also
for
complex
2 T. V. Galambos, and M. K. Ravindra, Tentative Criteria for Steel Buildings, Research Report No. ington University, September 1973. dition
Building
York:
J. M.
Research
Van
Nostrand
Dinwoodie,
Establishment,
Reinhold,
and
A. A. Smith,
U.K.
1979),
Fig.
p. 439,
Timber,
Crown
and
Design Wash
23 Since
9 Hz (abbreviation
for hertz),
or cycles
per second,
is the SI unit
for frequency.
Section
can in many
23.
yielding
applications
is accompanied
be considered
by a large
failure.
amount
of deformation,
this
con
see
4O
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
1t2.
fz(z)
Probabilistic
Basis
for
Structural
Design
4t
In statistical
terminology,
the
test
results
are
termed
"population"
sam
ples.
are
other
defined
generally
computed.
of such
variance,
One
data,
S 2. For
of these
several
n samples
is sa/nple/nean
quantities
of major these
(tests),
(average),
importance
quantities
X;
are
an
= I1 i=X; x, l
(117)
Area
Fz (zO
and
Dividing S by X, one obtains
S2 = I 1 i=1 (Xi
the coefficient
V =
)2
of vartaaon,
(118)
z
density
Fig.
t27
Z.
function
Normal
(PDF)
probability
i.e.,
S, is called
the
standard
,5 V, i.e.,
deviation.
of
The
(119)
constant
diagram
1/X/
encloses
in Eq.
120
a unit
is selected
area, i.e.,
so that
the
normalized
fre
S/X
quency
In Fig.
cases are
126,
also
in addition
shown.
to the
These
histograms,
bellshaped
fimctions
continuous the most form, the
(PDFs)
are based
on normal
of probability. of dispersion
+fz(z) dz = 1
which means that the occurrence ofz within its entire range is a certainty.
(123)
is the standard is shown in R relating them a__pplications, the X, and rz = S.
by
curves
for
the
two
of probability
density
or Gaussian
26 distribution.
These
In the previous equations [ z is the mean and Crz deviation. A typical PDF of Z with normal distribution Fig. 127. Il ustrations of normal PDFs of resistances to experimental results are shown in Fig. 126. In theoretical model is usually selected by setting [z =
For the theoretical gz and is equal
PDFs for approximating the dispersion widely used model in applied probability PDF of Z, i.e., z(Z), is given as
of observed theory. In
data analytical
are
Some
fz(z)
interesting
coefficient
defined of z(Z)
of variation experimental
wil
are
il ustrated
fz(z)
Thus,
fz(z):
V'2r1
(120)
(121) (122)
where and
24 In order to remove
J_+ (z
in X, instead
"
'used
dz
by n, one uses n 
Area
0.00135
of dividing
1. For
large
text.
values 25 In this
of n, the dif erence section, the notation in honor who first of the introduced great
in the on
remainder considera
of the Gauss
(a) (b)
Fig. 128
mean.
Examples
of probabilities
of outcomes
at dif erent
amounts
of standard
deviation
from
the
42
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
%t2.
Probabilistic
Basis
for
Structural
Load
Design
43
from
an
Fig.
outcome
128(a),
between
it can
one
be seen
standard
that
in Fig.
this
are
the
deviation
probability
on either
of the
side
occurrence
of the mean
of
deareas
the from
is 68.27%.
viations
enclosed
Whereas,
on
under
as shown
side
the curve
128(b),
value
three
between
becomes
standard
two
95.45%.
deviations
standard
The
either
of the
tails
mean,
that
fo(q)
Load
mean are only 0.135% later, the small number eral standard deviations in appraising structural
Practical F ortnulations
outcomes. As wil become likely to take place under the mean is of the utmost
Resistance
fR (r)
0 n
city)
q orr
or resistance
x/
Qs Unsafe
R>Q Safe
Q>R
. fR(r)
safety
or fRO'), Again
a
Fig.
functions
Load
R
R2
and
R3
unsafe
Resistance
129
Probability
for the two
density
main
Fig.
definition
30
Probabilistic
of se
statistical studies show that since the loads are susceptible to variations, their effect on a member or a structure can be expressed in probabilistic form. Such load effects, resembling fRO'), wil be designated as fo(q). For a given member or a structure, these functions define the behavior of the same critical parameter such as a force, stress, or deflection. Two such functions probabilistically .defining the load effect fQ(q) and the resistance f(r) for a force acting on a member are shown in Fig. 129. For purposes Of il ustration, it is assumed that the load effect fQ(q) has a larger standard deviation, i.e., larger dispersion of the load, than that
for the member resistance.
random resistance).
variables
(load
and
structural
regions.
can be compressed into a single normal PDF such as that shown in Fig. 13 l(a). In this diagram the probability of failure, p f, is given by the area under the tail of the curve to the left of the origin. A possible magnitude
In conventional (deterministic) design, set above the observed mean. This condition 129. On the other hand, in order to avoid wil typically provide a material with an than specified. For this reason, calculated would be below the mean. On this basis, is simply defined as Rn/Qn. In reality, both Q and R are uncertain answer to the safety problem. To il ustrate two main variables in Fig. 131, ,(r) is
of apf
by
all instances to the right of As can be seen from Fig. and crRo is standard deviation. into a more convenient form of two independent normal
may
be surmised
from
the origin. 131 (a), [3 cry_ o = Ix o, where [3 is a constant For applications, this relation can be put by noting that the variance of a linear function variables, cry_ o, is the sum of the variances
Fig.
128(b).
A member
would
survive
in
quantities
the shown
and there is no unique interaction between the along the horizontal axis
fRo(X) [
Failure Survival
flnJRJo)(X)
Failure
Survival
and
(q)
is plot ed
along
the vertical
axis.
For
the ensemble
of an infinite
number of possible the graph into two for the range of outcomes, respectively, member. However, and fal ing in the While enlightening, Fortunately, however,
outcomes, a line at 45 corresponding to R = Q divides regions. For R > Q, no failure can occur. For example, small and large outcomes Q, Q2, Q3, the resistance R, R2, R3 suffice to preserve the integrity of a for outcomes Q3 and R with a common point at D region where R < Q, a failure would take place. the above process is dif icult to apply in practice. it can be mathematically demonstrated that for
$ZRO
Htn (RIO)
(RIO) ''
(a) {b)
normal
normal
distribution
distribution.
of R and
In this
Q their
manner, the
dif erence,
information
i.e.,
R implied
Q, is also
in Fig. 130
Fig.
13t
(a) Normal
and
(b)
lognormal
probability
density
functions.
Stress,
one has
Axial
the
Loads,
27 Moreover,
fol owing
and Safety
since
expression
Concepts
variance
for the
Sec. tt2.
is a square
safety index
Probabilistic
Design
of its parts.
of standard
[3.
deviation.
variation
in design
[3 _ [.I,R Q _
where tance
thus,
o'R and r o are, respectively, the standard deviations R and the load effect O. A larger [3 results in fewer
a more conservative design.
of structures and machines. In ddition to the failure limit states emphasized before, the probabilistic approach is suitable for other situations. Important among these are the serviceability limit states. Among these, control of maximum deflections or limitations on undesirable vibrations can also be treated in probabilistic terms.
in the design
variables
can be explicitly
parameters,
resulting
included
in more
by using
consistent
the coefficients
reliability
of
An alternative appoach for establishing index [3 can be based on the more widely
than the normal
Fig.
rather
the
mathematical
of first
ratio index,
order,
R/Q,
convenience,
meanvalue
131
is appropriate.
By
(b).
it is preferable
carrying
EXAMPLE
t7
Consider two kinds of loading to be suspended by steel cases, a nominal permanent, or dead load, D,, is 5 kips. a nominal intermit ent, or live load, L,, is 1 kip, whereas
kips.
steel
approximations,
use
struction
Assume
(AISC)
for
the
of these
design
rods,
of buildings
American
Institute
ASTM
of Steel
Grade
Con
A36
apply.
[3, reads
(a)
tions,
and
where,
O.
and
as before,
g and for
x and
NONACTIVATED VERSION xc2 are the mean values for the respective funcwww.avs4you.com
requires the use of the fol owing
Determine the crosssectional allowable stress design (ASD) (b) Find the crosssectional areas from the basics of probabilistic
areas for the rods using the conventional approach, for which cr,o, = 22 ksi. 29 for the same rods using an approach deduced concepts. According to AISC/LRFD,  this
relation:
k
qbR,,
>
i=1
iQi
structure, and qb < 1 is the
Eq. 127
(127)
resistance
reduces to
respectively,
the
coefficients
of variation
for
It c'n be noted
that Eqs.
each other.
of In(R/Q)
A graphical:
in
where
R is the
case
nominal
two
strength
of the
interpretation
is shown
factor such that qbR,, is the design resistance > 1 account for possible overloads over
in this only fypes of loading
l3!(b). Analogous to the first approach, given by the area under the tail of the routine applications, a [3 on the order it must be recognized that the safety
of reliability
and
cannot
be considered
exact.
Nevertheless,
are
considered,
qbR,
> 1.2D,
uncertainties
and
Ang, Vol.
H. Tang, Probability Concepts in Engineering York: John Wiley and Sons, 1975). for a random variable R is defined as
Planning
where, according to the code for this case, qb is 0.90, 's are and the yield strength of the steel, cry, is 36 ksi. (c) For the four solutions found before, calculate the corresponding indices, [3, using Eq. 126. This equation is based on lognormal
for the variables associated with the load and resistance per
Solution
1.2 and
safety
AISC/LRFD.
1.6,
distribution
 , e
+ g,) are, respectively,
However. Wiley,
(1)
(a)
XR = In R//I
of In R. Similar expressions apply for o(q). Q, it can be shown that Z = In(Q/R) has the normal and W. H. Tang, Probabilio, Concepts #7 Eng#eering 2Decision, Risk, and Reliabilio, (New York:
+ g, and
= In(1
the mean
Since the total axial force P is caused + L,, and, on applying Eq. 116, the
by the required
dead
and
live
loads,
P = D,,
areas
are
1983).
(LRFD),
29 AISC, 3o AISC,
1st ed.
(Chicago:
of Steel of Steel
1986).
Construction, Construction,
Design
46
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
113.
Bolted
and
Riveted
Connections
A  D, ra,,ow+ Ln
A2
(b) Since R,,
5 22+ 1 = 0.273 in 2
= 0.909 in 2
Eq.
1.2D,,
for L, = 1 kip
= 15 kips
= 0.093.
indices,
Alternatively,
respectively, are
R2
= 1.05
x 0.909
x 36 = 34.4
kips;
Be = 0.11
a2 = 20 kips;
On substituting
into
Eq.
126,
the safety
 
5+15
22
for
Ln
= A%.,
again
from
116:
+ 1.6L,
and
 3.75  2.48
* = 1.05 x 0.926
x 36 = 8.88 kips;
and
forLn
= 1 kip
been statisvarious probthan live lead, the most to 1.00, deof member. If such as those additional into is needed. the mean
kips;
[
for
part
(b),
p
and, alternatively,
= 1.05
x 0.235 Hence,
x 36 = 35.0
Be = 0.11;
A
= 0.926
in 2 for
L,
= 15 kips.
(c)
coefficients 1.2 for D,, 1.6 for L, and 0.90 for qb have tically determined to approximate probabilistic solutions to lems. Such studies show that dead lead is more predictable and, for that reason, has a smaller multiplier, 1.2, for obtaining probable maximum lead. The coefficient qb varies from 0.60 pending on the statistically determined strength of the type in addition to dead and live loads, other loading conditions caused by wind, snow, or earthquakes should be considered, 'Qi terms appear in Eq. 127. In order to solve this part of the problem, additional information The nominal values of R, and Q,, should be transformed
0.1 I, whereas
for
both loads
the coefficient
use
probabilistic formulation. For 3 R, is multiplied by a factor equal to Q,,. The coefficient in %., and the crosssectional
BL and
of the
2 
By comparing the safety indices are far apart using the conventional very near one another. Considering duce ,/s and qb factors for code
a good
result?
of variation
Be into
*'113.
Bolted
and
Riveted
Connections
of variation
as 0.25, and Be
requires
fol owing
'> '>
employing
of this
problem32:
aQ = (aDD7
On kip m substitution, live lead, for Be2 the light = 0.189.
+ gEL7,)
1kip live
fiD,
+
= 0.093, and, for
(129)
In Section 18, some basic aspects in analyzing the behavior of bolted connections were given. Further details of such analyses are discussed here. The same procedures are applicable in the design of riveted connections. The usually assumed behavior of a bolted or riveted joint is summarized in Fig. 132. TM A connection design approach based on preventing slippage between the faying surfaces is discussed later in this
section.
lead,
Bo
the
15
The distributed
total
force between
Based on the information for the part = 1.05 x 0.273 x 36 = 10.3 kips;
National
June
for
3 B. R. Ellingwood
American
No. 577,
et al.,
1980.
Standard
Development.ofa
A58,
National
Probability
of Standards,
Based and
Load
this
on a joint is assumed to be equally or rivets) of equal size. In many cannot be justified by elastic analysis, however, ductile deand/or slip between the faying surfaces permits an equal reof the applied force before the ultimate capacity of a con(bolts
1986).
acting
concentrically connectors
Special
lication
H. Madsen,
34.
S. Krenk,
and N. Lind,
Methods
of Stractural
Safety
(New
York:
Civil
Probabilistic 1970).
Statistics
Decisions
for
34 From
G. Dreyer,
Festigkeitslehre
und
Elastiziti tslehre
(Leipzig:
J/necke,
48
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
tt3.
Bolted
and
Riveted
Connections
49
Shearing plane
Ii
(a)
Fig.
for
connection.
t32
a bolted
Assumed
or
action
a riveted
Bearin planes (b)
nection
tests?
is reached.
This
assumption
has
been
justified
on
the
basis
of
d
In contrast to the the connectors are to bend to maintain connected plates is connections of this are used for joining When connectors the net section in
Fig. 133 commonly joints. Bending neglected of plates in lap
bolt
holes
are closely
il ustration shown in Fig. 132, in simple lap joints, in single shear, and the plates near' the connector tend the axial force concentric. However, bending in the commonly neglected (see Fig. 133). Numerous bolted type are used in steel construction, and riveted ones aluminum alloy sheets in aircraft. are arranged as shown in Fig. 134(a), determining tension poses no dif iculty. However, if the rows for
assumed
stress
distribution.
from
theoretically. experiments
spaced
and
may be more likely to occur than a tear across the Methods for treating such cases are available? It to have a sufficient edge distance e to prevent a shear the cc planes shown in Fig. 134(c). il ustration of a failure in bearing is given in Fig. 135. Although stress distribution is very complex, as noted in Section it is approximated on the basis of an average bear#zg over the projected area of the connector's shank onto a plate,
R. E. Davis, G. Joints," Trans.
tear bb.
staggered,
as shown
in Fig.
134(b),
of a rivet. In the
terpreted
Therefore, previous
on the
basis
the
of this
design
inverse approach,
average
process the
stress
used frictional
acting
in design resistance
on the projected
is satisfactory. between
area
the
35 A conclusive
3a For details,
1989).
experimental
example,
for
verification
AISC,
see
Manual
and (1940):
of this assumption
H.
1193.
E.
Davis,
"Tension
may
be found
Tests
of
in
of Steel
Construction,
9th
ed.
friction force between the faying Fig. 136. With the use of highstrength order of 100 ksi (700 MPa), this is design. The required tightening about 70 percent of their tensile analysis, an allowable shear stress specified. These stresses are based sign of connections using highstrength
manner as that for ordinary bolts
surfaces at the connectors has been neglected. However, if the force developed by a connector is both sufficiently large and the capacity of a joint can be determined on the basis of the
surfaces. This
condition is il ustrated in with yield strength on the an acceptable method_ in structural steel of such bolts is usually specified to be strength. For the purposes of simplified based on the nominal area of a bolt is on experiments. This enables the debolts to be carried out in the same
bolts
or rivets.
The
bearingtype based
bolted
approach
and remains
by the
I
(e) (b) (c)
' . Tpressure on

Possible tear,
and
modes
(c)
(a) distance
net
xxxxx.xxxxxxxxxxxx,',Flength
Fig. t36
the plate
Initial tension
bolt
resistance
force
to the
P
(b)
5O
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Sec.
t14.
Welded
Joints
5t
Backu
(a) (b)
same. However, the applied forces are increased using Section 112 and Eq. 127), and stresses are multiplied resistance factors. For slipcritical investigation of bolted loads, neither the net section nor bearing are checked. beyond the scope of this text?
EXAMPLE
Determine
the required
lergths
of welds
of a 3 in by 2 in by
to 20 ksi. Use iin fil et welds, is 5.56 kips per linear inch.
of length L and L2 are the applied force P in
is to develop
*'114. Steel
welds. weld, weld. (a) (b)
widely used. Butt welds, such as shown in Fig. il ustrated in Fig. 138, are particularly common. welds is simply found by multiplying the crosssectional
137, The
plate
stresses are usually expressed as a certain percentage of the strength of the original solid plate of the parent material. This percentage factor varies greatly, depending on the workmanship. For ordinary work, a 20percent
reduction in the allowable stress for the weld compared to the solid plate
being
connected
by the allowable
stress
for welds.
equilibrium
The
allowable
sultant of the forces R and R2 developed by the welds to be equal and opposite to P. For the optimum performance of the angle, force P must act through the centroid of the crosssectional area (see Table 7 of the Appendix). For the pur
without
any tendency
to twist
the connection.
This requires
the re
poses of computation,
the welds
are assumed
in 2
dimensions.
Aangle
P = Acra.ow
= 2.00
= 2 x 20
O'al o w = 20 ksi
may be used. For this percent. On highgrade efficiency for the welded using such welds. Similar such work, the AISC the American Welding
the weld as in the base
loads.
factor, the efficiency of the work, some of the specifications joint. Most pressure vessels joints are used in some specifications, based on the Society (AWS), allow the
metal in the case of butt
is said to be 80 allow 100percent are manufactured structural frames. In recommendations of same tensile stress in
These welds are
joint
Ma=07 + M = 0 +
Check: R
+ R2
= 14.1
R = 14.1k R2 = 25.9 k
of the iin weld,
Fil et
welds
are
designed
on
a semiempirical
basis.
designated by the size of the of equal width co. The smallest For example, a standard iin equal to 0.5 sin 0 = 0.5 sin 45
(a)
weld,
regardless
area
metal.
of the direction
by the allowable shear stress stress is 0.3 times the elecFor example, E70 electrodes (i.e., tensile strength metal has an allowable shear stress of 0.3 x 70 force q per inch of the weld is then given as
shear
of the applied
138(b), which are usually made across a weld is called its throat. both legs in wide and a throat x 0.5 in. The strength of a fil et
is usually increased a craters at the beginning respect to the plane of To reduce the length Thus, in this example,
the resistance for this
the specified
value
small amount over the lengths computed to account for and end of the welds. The eccentricity of the force P with the welds is neglected. of the connection, end fil et welds are sometimes used. a weld along the line ad could be added. The centroid of
weld is midway between a and d. For this arrangement,
length
note
of welds
that
lengths
incides
force,
38 is based
on the
same
slots
resultant
and
notches
of R and
that
in the attached
R2 of the
the resultant
former
force
member
case.
accomplish
welds
occasionally
the
co
used.
q = 21 x 0.707co
where co is the width of the legs. For
= 14.85co
a iin fil et
[k/in]
weld, this reduces
(130)
to
d 1.06'
r(b)
3.71
(b)
kips
per
in; for
a iin
fil et
of Steel simplification
weld,
Construction,
5.56
of the
kips
real
per
in,
etc.
1986).
Fig.
t39
fil et
Fig. ;I38
weld.
An example
of a
52
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Problems
16 and
Problem
0 = 20 .
53
load P if load P2 = 15 kips? for crosssectional areas
Problems
Section
11. the
stress
shown.
using
t5
18(g).
Eqs.
Repeat
and
17.
(c) Show
16 for a in
the
results
square bar
as in Fig.
if P =
t7.
Eq. similar
for
l:5a
with the
are
5 kips
t42. A bar of variable cross is subjected to two concentrated shown. in the figure. (a) Find
threedimensional
12. rium
polar
Show for
coordihates
dif erential
are
of equilibproblem
in
t8. A glued lap splice rectangular member at Assuming that the shear trols the design, what the member? Assume
joint to be 10 MPa.
ifp
in 2. (b) On two separate diagrams, plot the axial and the axial stress along the length of the bar.
Pl P2
= 10 kips,
P2 = 8 kips,
section,
held
A = 2 in 2, and A_ = 1
force
P2
5" pipe
Pl
3" pipe
conto
glued
Fig.
P1t6
A
Fig. P112
A2
o
r
I Ocro
r O0
2 *re
c 20
t13. A bar of variable cross section, held on the left, is subjected to three forces, P = 4 kN, P2 = 2 kN, and P3 = 3 kN, as shown in the figure. On two separate
Determine the bearing stresses caused force at A, B, and C for the wooden in the figure. All member sizes shown See Table 10 in the Appendix for U.S.
of lumber.
6k
The
neglected
symbols
are
in this
defined
formulation.
in the
figure.
go 0
Body
forces
are
Fig.
PI8
Section
t7
diagrams, plot the axial force and the axial stress along the length of the bar. Let A = 200 mm 2, A2 = 100 mm 2, andA3 = 150mm 2.
P3
6" X
1
c
% +  ao
\dr(/7r+
/ / x
TOr
t9.
dO_
a member'
If an axial
stress
tensile
is a C 12 x 20.7
sectional in the
t10 and
art dr
areas Appendix.
0
Fig.
o
2
%
sectional subjected
find the no bending,
mensions
dimensions to axial
points
are
made
tensile
of a W 8 x 31 section,
section? For designation
members,
force
of 110
kips
what
is applied
and
wil
the
to
A 1 A2 A3
6" X 12"
cross
of these
Short
see
Tables
4 and
111.
steel
members
have
the
cross
Fig.
PIt3
shown compresslye
144.
Rework
P2.
Problem
thick hollow
1~13
by
circular
reversing
tube
the
of 40
direction
mm out
1 4'"
to a is the
Section
118. A 40
6'.
Fig.
" 4'
PM7
the
Section
side
constant
diameter
shear
is subjected
of 10 Pa in the Plot
on the
axial
outside
direction,
surface
as shown
t8
x 80 mm wooden plank is glued to two 20
t3. On the same graph, plot the normal stress froand the shear stress , as functions of the angle 0 defined in Fig. 18. Angle 0 should range from 0 to 360 on
the
functions.
in the
maximum
figure.
axial
If the
stress?
tube
is 400
the
mm
variation
long,
what
of the
axial
stress
along
the
tube.
of
in
abscissa.
Identify
the
maxima
and
minima
for
these
the equal.
angles
0 where
the
Fig.
DI10
140
400
t5. plot
18.
tions.
Using
{r0 and
Identify
axes,
of angle
minima
graph,
in Fig.
func
steel plates are fastened tofigure, by means of two 20into the holes. If the joint of 45 kN, determine (a) the
Fig.
PIt5
t6. A 10mm square bar is subjected to a tensile force P = 20 kN, as shown in Fig. 18(a). (a) Using statics, determine the normal and shear stress acting on sections aa and bb for 0 = 30 . (b) Verify the results
Fig.
Ptt
axial
compression member is made up of two pipes, as shown in the figure. If the alin compression is 15 ksi, (a) what is the
load P if the axial load P2 = 50 kips;
Fig.
l 0
mm
Pt19
54
average no holes critical normal occur; section;
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Problems
stress in the plates at a section (b) the average normal stress (c) the average shearing stress
t26. ure,
bolts;
the bolts
and
and
(d)
the
the
plates.
average.
beai'ing
stress
between
!
4k
For the planar frame loaded as shown in the figdetermine the axial stress in member BC. The cross s.ection of member BC is 400 mm 2. The dimensions are given in mm.
20 kN
plane
and
are joined
steel Appendix.)
by pins.
pipe
weighing Neglect
The
mast
the
28.55
is made
weight
lb/ft.
(See of the
from
120. A gear transmit ing a torque 2in shaft is keyed to it, as shown in square key is 2 in long. Determine
in the key.
/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /,
HingLC.15 kN
t29.
two
A signboard
wooden frames,
15 by
as
20 ft in area
shown in
is supported
the figure.
by
All
wooden
members
member
are
due
3 by
8 in.
(See
Table
wind
force
10 in the
load
Fig.
Pt23
Appendix
actuating
Calculate
in each
for actual
sign.
lumber
Assume
of
to a horizontal
sizes.)
truss
wind
Calculate
joints
the stress
pinned
acts at
of 20
B
Key
Fig. Pt20
A control
is shown
pedal
in the figure.
for
a spring
the shear
mechastress
Ib/ft
and
2 on the
that twosixths
all
the total
are
in pins
of 10,000
A and
psi
B due
in rod
to force
AB. Both
P when
pins are
it causes
in double
a stress
shear.
the
possibility Neglect
of
12t. A x 6 in steel plate is to be attached main body of a machine, as shown in Fig. applied'force P = 72 kips and the welds are good for 5.56 kips/in, see Eq. 130, how the welds be? Due to symmetry, each weld
the same force.
' p "diam.
t27.
Two
steel
wires
with
welldesigned
attachments
rod
are
'Section
122.
applied
diameter,
are in min.
t9
What
load
and
is the
shown
it acts
shear
in the
stress
figure?
in double
in bolt
The
shear.
A caused
bolt
All dimensions
by
is 6 mm
the
in
2.68 mm and that of wire BC is 2.52 mm. (a) Determine the stresses in the wires caused by the applied vertical force. (b) Are the wire sizes wellchosen?
71. di am.
Fig.
Pt24
T 700 N
cylindrical tank is to be supof a hanger arranged as shown in weight supported by the two hangthe shear stresses in the
' 400200
800
ers
is
15
k.
Determine
,t 600 < 800*'Fig. t28. Find the stress in the Pt27 mast of the derrick shown
structural shown
figure.
is designed Neglecting
to
resist
the
at points A and B due to the weight the weight of the hangers and asbetween the tank and the hangers
in the
figure.
All
members
are
in the
same
vertical
20
kN
20
kN
Fig. Pt22
t23. dozer
shown
20
kN
Calculate if the
in the
the
total
figure.
shear
forces
Note
stress
acting
that there
8 t
pin
shear.
on each
side
of the
bulldozer.
Each
pin
is in single
Fig.
Pt30
Fig.
Pt25
Fig.
Pt28
56
frame BD, bers weight,
Stress,
Axial
Loads,
and
Safety
Concepts
Problems
the bearing stress of the wood on the concrete.
7
of safety
FG, are
and 160,
determine the axial stresses DE; the respective areas for 400, and 130 mm 2.
(a) Find
(b) If the
allowable
pressure
on the
soil
is 100 kN/m
2,
60kN
t,.2 A
'131.
A planar
system
consists
members figure. flat the shear
of a rectangular
beam
is in in diameter.
determine in plan view the required dimensions of a square footing. Neglect the weight of the footing. t34. For the structure shown in the figure, calculate the size of the bolt and area of the bearing plates required if the allowable stresses are 18,000 psi in tension and 500 psi in bearing. Neglect the weight of the
beams.
A = 200 mm2;
MPa,
supported?
of the
tachments.)
and
the
The
factor
ultimate
strength
rod
BC
has A = 400
of the
rods
special
mm 2. (The
areas allowable
AB
is 800 ends
has at
.,
t.38. made diameter be the shear. A joint by means of the diameter stress in for
in such the
applications
140. tension
stress
in bars
AE
and
in pin
C.
Fig. Pt[37
is
140
One bolt ., /
Bearing plates
6"
(actual)
X 10"
stress in the rods. (In Section that this ratio for the allowable assumption for many materials.)
transmit ing a tensile force is to be of a pin, as shown in the figure. If the rods being connected is D, what should d of the pin? Assume that the allowable the pin is onehalf the maximum tensile
816, stresses it wil be shown is an excellent
14t.
A tower
in the figure.
If it is subjected
to a horizontal
are what member?
100 MPa in compression and is the required crosssecAll members are pinconkN
force
of 540
kN
and
540
Fig.
Pt34
't32.
By
shown
means
in the distributed
load of
of
figure
numerous
load.
vertical
is designed This load,
Determine
hangers,
to support tosether
the
the
with a conthe
sec
able
cable finuously
and haners,
can be approximated
2 kN/m.
as a uniformly
cross
What
the shown? section. size.) parallel
minimum distances a and b are required notches in the horizontal member of All members are nominally 8 by 8 in (See Table 10 in the Appendix for Assume the ultimate strength of wood to the grain to be 500 psi. Use a factor of 5. (This detail is not recommended.)
distributed
the
3.0 rn v
Fig. Pt41
tion required [or the material is 1000 MPa is 2. (Hfi: The cable
and develops only
cable if the yield strength o[ the and the required [actor of safety assumes the shape of a parabola
a horizontal [orce at Rs lowest
t39.
eters
are
Two
attached
highstrength
at A and
steel
C and
rods
support
of dif erent
a mass
diam
t42.
For
the
frame
shown
for
Problem
130,
find
the
at B, as shown
in the
figure.
What
mass
M can
be
and
required
and
BF.
The
crosssectional
allowable
stress
areas
for
in tension
members
is 120
AB,
MPa
AD,
poinL
larsest
The
[orce
larser
in the
resultant
cable.)
at a support
is equal
to the
that
in compression
is 75 MPa.
Fig.
rn
Pt35
1500
10 m
Fig. F132
"l
of
double to
be on a
A
3600
/.
Fig. Pt39
't43. shown
2400
dimensions and
can
safety designed
shear?
factor
for
must
diameter 6000 lb
of a pin in single
Section
111
wooden footing,
131. bell
force
allowable
shown
is 100
figure
a force
at A is resisted
MPa.
Fig.
Pt43
58
resist diameter
'144.
the figure.
Loads,
and Safety
the the
in
and
Concepts
Problems
59
each 8 in long;
All
at A.
joints
are
applied
for
frame
The
tension
AC
allowable
pinned. member
.the
DF
stress are
Determine AB to carry
continuous
is 20 ksi.
A planar
Members
has
and
dimensions
shown
All
rod
tachments
is 1250
MPa
is80%.
and
The
joints are pinned. Determine of a highstrength steel rod for that the ultimate strength for the that the efficiency of the end atsafety factor for
D
< L ct) P
Fig. Pt46
regarding
the ASD
and LRFD
de
consists
of two
4 x 3 x in angles,
the
bolts
spaced allowable
Section 113 150. Find the capacity of tension member Fink truss shown in the figure if it is made
3 by 2 by in angles
attached to a inthick
(see Table
gusset
the
20
rod
kN
is 2.
holes. The allowable strength bolts in 4n "' diameter stresses are 22 ksi in tension, 15 ksi in shear, and ksi in bearing on the angles as well as the gusset.
plate
7 in the Appendix)
by four
2m
2m
equal 0.5kg masses hre attached to a 10wire, as shown in the figure, and are roa vertical axis, as shown in Fig. 125, on plane at 4 Hz. Determine the axial
Fig.
P15t
'2m
stresses
results
on
in the
a diagram
three
segments
as a function
of the
of
wire
r. Consider
and
plot
the
the
D C
(a)
masses
to be concentrated
as points.
Fig.
Pt44
'%45.
To support
a load
P = 180 kN,
determine
the
lowance tensile
necessary diameter for rods shown in the figure. Neglect and assume that the joints
has stress to be made is 125 MPa. All
for
AB and AC for the tripod the weight of the structure are pinconnected. No althreads. dimensions The are allowable in meters.
't48.
NONACTIVATEDp;VERSION OO 1,02'. Z 2 angles www.avs4you.com "<'0.6 m0.6 mi< 0.6 m 1
P2 P
7//7' I I 3" x 2" Section
Fig.
A bar of constant
are { in thick by are { in. (a) What rivet? (b) What are plate in rows 11 and
figure,
multipleriveted is designed
10 in wide. The rivets in is the shear stress in the the tensile stresses in the 229.
lap for
11 1 75"
o 9 o I
P147
crosssectional area A is ro
ooooo
Detail at A
'
' (b)
I P4
Gusset
thick
3/8"
Fig.
2o,
Rds,l
one angular
r.
plane
weight of the a diagram
with of the
stress cr as a Fig.
1152
11'50
Section figure.
144
%5L
W 12 x 36 beam
Find
the capacity
shown
of a standard
in the
connection
The
connection
for a
t53.
using
Rework
 n fdlet
Example
welds.
Fig.
Pt45
r L
Fig. Pt.48
P is shown
*%46.
A pinconnected
in the
figure.
frame
Stress
for
cr in both
supporting
the
members
a force
AB
and
essary
Members
BC
is to be the
to achieve
AB and
same.
the
BC
Determine
weight
a constant
angle
section.
a nec
Section
112
minimum
have
of construction.
cross
t49. With
10 kips. conclu
Sec.
22.
Normal
Strain
6t
pter
of the applied force. With the same load and a longer gage length, a larger deformation is observed, than when the gage length is small. Therefore, it is more fundamental to refer to the observed deformation per unit of length of the gage, i.e., to the intensity of deformation.
load,
initial
During
an experiment,
the change
in gage
length
is noted
as a function
IfLo
is then
length 'AL
given
P
Fig. 2'1 Diagram of a tension specimen in a testing
machine.
(21)
dimensions
of in/in,
m/m,
the extensional strain. Since stress, it is usually called the but it is customary to refer
or txm/m (microstrain).
Sometimes
This
chapter
is subdivided
into
two
considered loaded
loaded members is defined relationships are il ustrated for stressstrain behavior deflections in axial y loaded
first.
members
parts.
In Part
A,
extensional
strain
The
of 0. I percent.
to note
for
in metal
socalled
incremental
forming,
natural
as dL/L,
where
change
L is the
or true
the
strains
strabz
may
be large.
strain
engineering
in length
=
instantaneous
L.
dL/L
o
Analytically,
=
length
increment
For
such
of the
In(1
de for
purposes, specimen,
e)
one
defines dL
and
is defined
the
is the
(22)
In L/Lo
definition essential y coincides with the conventional the length L is set equal to Lo, the strain definition
useful
strain given
22.
Normal
Strain
pressing
elsewhere
Eq. Natural
an instantaneous
in this
rate
in theories
of deformation.
of viscosity
Natural
and
strains
viscoplasticity
are not
discussed
for
ex
be selected
A solid deforms.
body For
subjected example,
distance
are
such
as A and B. Initial y,
apart. Thus,
used.. This
commonly
depending
two
initial
on the test,
distance
such
points
between
either
can
in as
shown
60
been
replaced
Since the strains generally encountered are very small, it is possible to employ a highly versatile means for measuring them, using expendable electric strain gages. These are made of very fine wire or foil that is glued to the member being investigated. As the forces are applied to the member, elongation or contraction of the wires or foil takes place concurrently with similar changes in the material. These changes in length alter the electrical resistance of the gage, which can be measured and calibrated
t Natural strains of Flow and Fracture and L. E. Malven,
glewood Clif s,
were
for measuring
these
in Fig.
deformations.
An example
of a small
clipon
exten
N J: PrenticeHall,
by P. Ludwik in 1909. See A. Nadai, Vol. 1, 2nd ed. (New York: McGrawHil , to the Mechanics of a Continuous Medium
1969).
Small
MTS
Systems
clipon (courtesy
Corporation).
of
Axial
Connecting wires
Strains
indicate
and
the
Deformations
strain taking
in Bars
place. Such gages, suitable for dif erent
Veryfinewire .'
to
conditions, are available in a range mm (0.15 to 6 in). A schematic diagram 23, and a photograph of a typical small
is
100
Tool steel
Lowalloy
2.3.
In
Bonding
cement
StressStrain
solid mechanics, the
Relationships
mechanical behavior of real materials under load
/
Wife
Y
strain top cover
paper
base
gage
is of primary
macroscopic served Researchers
served
tests,
provide
importance.
(overall)
not
basic
information
Experiments,
on this
behavior.
mainly
tension
In these
applied
or compression
loads is obrelationships. for the ob
t;elnt"
Lowcar
steel
experiments,
reasons
behavior.
It should be apparent from the purposes, it is more fundamental tension or compression than to report stress is a more significant parameter material of an applied force P depends area of the member. As a consequence, mechanical properties of matedhals, the relationship between stress and grams, for most practical purposes, size of the specimen and of its gage
tomary to use the ordinate scale for
previous discussion that for general to report the strain of a member in the elongation of its gage. Similarly, than force since the effect on a primarily on the crosssectional in the experimental study of the it is customary to plot diagrams of strain in a particular test. Such diaare assumed to be independent of the length. In these diagrams, it is cus
I
0.20
t
0.40
Strain,
(in/in)
Typical for
dif erent
stressstrain
steels.
Experimental y determined stressstrain ferent materials. Even for the same material temperature at which the test was conducted, a number of other variables. Conventional few representative materials are il ustrated shown to larger scale in Fig. 26, particularly
Handbook
1987).
diagrams they
widely for difdif er depending on the the speed of the test, and stressstrain diagrams for a in Figs. 25 and 26. These are for strain. Since for most
0.01
dif er
2 See
Society
for
on
Experimental
for
Experimental
references
Mechanics
Mechanics
(Englewood
(SEM),
3.
Clif s,
A.
S. Kobayashi
NJ:
PrenticeHall,
(ed.),
3 See,
example,
given
on page
Concret /e
20
Strai(i n, n/in)
Fig. 26 diagrams
materials.
Fig.
element
24
Typical
metalfoil
singlegage
Division,
electrical
resistance (courtesy
Meas. urements
strain
of MicroNorth
Measurements Raleigh,
USA).
Group, Carolina,
Inc.,
C.I./ 40
Typical for
dif erent
stressstrain
65
64
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
Sec.
24.
Hooke's
Law
65
engineering applications, deformations must be limited, the lower range of strains is particularly important. The large deformations of materials in the analysis of such operations as forging, forming, and drawing are not pursued. An il ustration of fractured tension specimens after static tension tests, i.e., where the loads were gradually applied, is shown in Fig. 27. Steel and aluminum alloy specimens exhibit ductile behavior, and a fracture occurs only after a considerable amount of deformation. This behavior is clearly exemplified in their respective stressstrain diagrams; see Fig. 26. These failures occur primarily due to slip in shear along the planes forming approximately 45 angles with the axis of the rod (see Fig. 18). A typical "cup and cone" fracture may be detected in the photographs of steel and aluminum alloy specimens. By contrast, the failure of a castiron specimen typically occurs very suddenly, exhibiting a square fracture across the cross section. Such cleavage or separation fractures are typical
of brit le materials.
oksi1
/
True stressstrain
diagram
Convptio0al
A/
Brila I
material x"
Ductile
dim
Approximately
0.0012
0.20
(a)
A
in/in
materials
(b)
0.020
types of stressstrain diagrams may be identified from static tests at constant temperature. The curve shown in Fig. 28(a) is characteristic of mild steel, whereas the curves shown in Fig. 28(b) cover a wide range of diverse materials. The upper curve is representative of some brit le tool steels or concrete in tension, the middle one of aluminum alloys or plastics, and: the lower curve of Fig. 28(b) is representative of rubber.
Several
dif er
Numerically,
drastically.
However,
the
extreme
values
of strain
point
of a specimen. Materials capable of withstanding large significant increase in stress are referred to as ductile
Stresses
applies
on a stressstrain
each
The
material
"steepness"
diagram
of these
represents
characteristic
curves
the complete
curve.
also
varies
are
usually
to brit le
computed
materials.
failure
The
(rupture)
terminal
greatly.
steel.
(b)
on the
basis
neering stresses. On the other hand, it is known that some transverse contraction or expansion of a material always takes place. For mild steel or aluminum, especial y near the breaking point, this effect, referred to as necking, is particularlypronounced; see Fig. 29. Brit le materials do
not
to as conventional
of the
or engi
of a
I I
versely a lit le in a tension test and expand in a compression test. Dividing the applied force, at a given point in the test, by the corresponding actual area of a specimen at the same instant gives the socalled trt e stress. A plot of true stress vs. strain is called a true stressstrain diagram; see Fig.
28(a).
exhibit
it at usual
temperatures,
although
they
too
contract
trans
I
I
Shape specimen
nearthe
of
breaking
point
2.4.
(a) A572 steel and (b) 6061T6 aluminum alloy. Brit le fracture for (c) cast iron. (Numbers refer to ASTM
Hooke's
Law
Fig.
27
Ductile
fractures
for
For a limited range from the origin, the experimental values of stress vs. strain lie essential y on a straight line. This holds true almost without reservations for the entire range for glass at room temperature. It is true 4 These are referred to as Cauchy stresses, named in honor of the great French mathematician (17891857). Definition of stress recognizing the change in crosssectional area during straining is associated with the names of Piola (1833), the
(a) (b) (c)
diameter
Original
of
specimen
designations
alloy).
that of Association
Aluminum
for
for
steel
aluminum
and
Italian
elasticJan,
and
Kirchhoff
(1852),
the renowned
German
physicist.
Fig. 29 Typical contraction of a specimen of mild steel in tension near the breaking
point.
66
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
Sec.
25.
Further
Remarks
on
StressStrain
Relationships
67
for mild
up to very
steel up to some
close
to the failure
point,
point
as A in Fig. 28(a).
for many
highgrade
It holds
alloy
nearly
steels.
true
On
materials
expressed
tical purposes, up to some such point as A, also tionship between stress and strain may be said terials. This sweeping idealization and generalization
tsoi hel, otanneal her ed hand,copper, the strai alug miht num, part of or tcast he curve iron. Nevert hardlhelyess, exists ifnor concret all prace,
is known
by the
come
crystals.
generally
as Hooke's
law/
is Symbolically,
tropic.With mogeneity
essential y
Because
assumed.
alike
of this random
in any direction.
orientation,
such as wood, in this text, complete point to point) and isotropy of materials
Relationships
7 Such
properties
materials
of materials
are called
iso
beis
ho
strength
v/
Yield
this
law
can
be
2.5.
Further
'on StressStrain
equation
(23)
which simply means that stress the constant of proportionality modulus, modulus of elasticity,
to the proportional limit defined in Section 24, several other points can be observed on the stressstrain diagrams. For inthe highest points (B in Fig. 28) correspond to the ldtimate of a material. Stress associated with the long plateau ab in Fig. called the yield strength of a material. As wil be brought out remarkable property of mild steel, in common with other ductile
is significant constant
an essential y
sionless, E has the units of stress in this relation. In the U.S. customary system of units, it is usually measured in pounds per square inch, and in the SI units, it is measured in newtons per square meter (or pascals). Graphically, E is interpreted as the slope of a straight line from the origin to the rather vague point A on a uniaxial stressstrain diagram. The stress corresponding to the lat er point is termed the proportional or elastic litnit of the material. Physically, the elastic modulus represents the stif ness of the material to an imposed load. The value of the elastic modalles is a definite property of a material. From experiments, it is known that e is always a very small qaantity; hence, E must be large. Its approximate the Appendix. values are
up to the proportional
large amount phenomenon
A study is so near
taken to be the same. However, it is much easier to locate the For materials that do not possess a welldefined yield strength, sometimes "invented" by the use of the socalled "offset method." is il ustrated in Fig. 210, where a line offset an arbitrmy amount
limit
occur
during
at a constant
yielding.
At the yield
stress.
present, those
that
The yielding
(stress) may be
This of 0.2
stress,
determining strength
240
Offset
method
of
former. one
is
For
a few E at room
for
stressstrain
material
diagram.
Point
C is then
taken
as the
yield
portion
strength
of the initial
of the
30
up to the proportional litnit of the material. This is highly significant as in most of the subsequent treatment, the derived formulas are based on this law. Clearly, then, such formulas are limited to the material's behavior in the lower range of stresses. Some materials, notably single crystals and wood, possess dif erent elastic moduli in dif erent directions. Such materials, having dif erent physical properties in dif erent directions, are called anisotropic. A consideration of such materials is excluded from this text. The vast majority of engineering materials consist of a large number of randomly oriented
with rods. In 1676, in Latin is Ut Tensio
His the
It fl ows
106 psi,
from
or 200
the foregoing
and
207
GPa.
discussion
that Hooke's
law applies
only
That a material is elastic usually implies that stress is directly tional to strain, as in Hooke's law. Such materials are linearly Hookean. A material responding in a nonlinear manner and unloaded, returning back along the loading path to its initial
state of deformation is also an elastic material. Such materials
at 0.2percent
offset.
elastic limit is exceeded, on unloading it usually responds in a linearly elastic manner, as shown in Fig. 211(c), deformation, or set, develops at no external load. As wil after the study of Section 211, the area enclosed by the
The dif erence between the two types in Figs. 21 l(a) and (b). If in stressing
' Actually,
Robert
Young's
Lectures modulus
modulus
on
Hooke,
an English
Natural of elasticity.
is so called
Philosophy,
in honor
scientist,.
published
of Thomas
worked
with
springs
and
which
not
to dissipated considered
For pressions
some
ductile
not
blocks
stressstrain reasonably
through energy
elastic
close
obtained found
of elastic a material
maits
Young,
contain
the English
a definition
scientist.
of
* Rolling
materials.
operations
produce
preferential
orientation
of crystal ine
grains
in
Dissipated
E
Sec.
26.
Other
Idealizations
of
Constitutive
Relations
69
(a)
(b)
Permanent
Elastic
elergy
I I
Gyp
iI
/ /
set
recovery
(c)
plastic
Fig.
21t
material.
Stressstrain
P
diagrams:
(a) linear
materials,
elastic
such as
material,
cast iron
(b) nonlinear
and concrete
elastic
are
material,
very
and
weak
(c) inelastic
in tension
or
(a)
I
(b) (c)
but
the
For sense
the force.
and
diagrams
dif er
considerably,
it wil Sketches interpreting be
material;
Fig.
2t3
Idealized
and
(c)
elasticlinearly
stressstrain
diagrams:
hardening
(a) rigidperfectly
material.
plastic
material;
(b)
elasticperfectly
plastic
It is well to note that in some of advantageous to refer to elastic bodies such as shown in Fig. 212 are frequently
a case,
a stress.can
range
and
shown
terminate
in Fig. 213(c)
anywhere
between
+%,,
and
the
2.6.
physical
Other
behavior
Idealizations
of mechanical
of
In an based
P
(a)
P
increasingly larger number of technical problems, stress analyses on the assumption of linearly elastic behavior are insufficient. For this reason, several additional stressstrain relations are now in general use. Such relations are frequently referred to as constitutive relations or laws. The three idealized stressstrain relations shown in Fig. 213 are encountered particularly often. The two shown in Figs. 213(a) and (b) wil be used in this text; the one in Fig. 213(c) is often more realistic, however, its use is considerably more complicated and generally wil be avoided because of the introductory nature of this book. The idealized e relationship shown in Fig. 213(a) is applicable to problems in which the elastic strains can be neglected in relation to the plastic ones. This occurs if plastic (inelastic) strains are dominant. Perfectly (ideally) plastic behavior means that a large amount of unbounded deformation can take place at a constant stress. The idealization shown in Fig. 213(b) is particularly useful if both the elastic and plastic strains have to be included. This situation frequently arises in analysis. Both of the previous idealizations are patterned after the behavior of lowcarbon steel (see Figs. 26 and 28), where at he yield stress %,, a substantial
systems.
%,. good
The
amounts experimental
this
provides
assumption
a reasonable
is in
ap
models over a wider range of strain. Beyond increase in strain, many materials resist additional referred to as strain hardening. In some refined analyses, the stressstrain 213 may not be sufficiently accurate. Fortunately,
accurate
the
elastic stress,
than
range, a phenomenon
the
previous
on
an
shown in Fig. the use of computers, much better modeling of constitutive relations for real material is possible. For completeness, one such wellknown algebraic formulation fol ows. In as much as implementation of such formulations requires a considerable amount of computer programming, this approach is not intended for general use in this text. An equation capable of representing a wide range of stressstrain curves with
idealization
has been
developed
by Ramberg
and
Osgood.
s This
equation
9 is
o
where eo, o, and n are characteristic
Cro
to the
Commit ee
(24)
con
stants
Parameters, used
arises
eo and
o correspond
National
n =
yield
point,
on Aeronautics,
which,
for
TN
all cases
other
(b)
plateau
stances,
in the
that
and
Fig.
2t2
nonlinear
Linear
spring
(Hookean)
it is assumed
stressstrain
that
the
diagram
mechanical
is generally
and
properties
observed.
of the
material
In both
are
in
8 W. Ramberg
in some
when
and
W. R. Osgood,
3/7 is chosen
Advisory
Description
formulation,
of StressStrain
a discontinuity
Curves
values
902, in the
9 The
coefficient
the
assumed
same
in tension
during
and
unloading,
in compression,
the material
%,,
behaves
= [ %,
elastically.
I. It is also
In such
investigations.
m.
In this
somewhat
arbitrarily;
dif erent
1943.
by Three
function
have
been
response.
68
7O
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Sec.
27.
Deformation
of
Axial y
Loaded
Bars
6061T6 aluminum
7t
n=2 2
60
75F
... .700F 500F
65 28 130
100
, 40
Fig. 244 RambergOsgood
stressstrain.
diagrams.
/%
than that of ideal plasticity, is found by the offset method (see Fig. 210). The exponent n determines the shape of the curve, Fig. 214. Note that Eq. 24 is writ en in dimensionless form, a convenient scheme in analysis. One of the important advantages of Eq. 24 is that it is a continuous mathematical
Et
trai (mm/,
lOO
50
30
10
4.8
18 54 23
X 10 a
10 s
function.
For
example,
an instantaneous
or tangent
.! !
1
I 4
X10
I 5
s
,
moduhts
defined
as
I 3
Strain
(%)
(25)
and
Fig.
strain
2t6
temperature
curves
Effect
for
of strain
on
6061T6
stress
rate
can
24,
equation,
be uniquely
determined.
simulations of cyclic stressstrain diagrams can be obtained. An is shown in Fig. 215. I In this diagram, a series of characteristic referred to as hysteretic loops since they represent the dissipation ergy (see Section 211), are clearly evident. Regardless of the idealization used for a stressstrain diagram,
developed
stress
by
it is advantageous as a function
aluminum
alloy.
to a constant
time; see
stress,
Fig.
the
217.
elongations
This phenom
or
to work of strain.
with With
deflections
continue
to increase
with
enon is referred to as creep. Creep is observed in reinforced concrete floors and in turbine discs, for example. Likewise, the prestress in bolts of mechanical assemblies operating at high temperatures, as well as prestress in steel tendons in reinforced concrete, tend to decrease gradually
with
time.
This
phenomenon
is referred
to as relaxation;
see
Fig.
218.
be recognized
example
to be aware of materials
Loaded Nonelastic
of such
that it is strongly
an effect
that
and
is il ustrated
dependent
in Fig.
For
on ambient
phenomena
216.
2 It is also
with
temperature.
it must
example, "Method
Changes
iml
An
27.
Deformation
of Axial y
Loaded
member
Bars
Axial
is a design deformations parameter, are
required
in the
analysis
of statically
indeterminate
bars.
The
strain,
deflection
also
o See
in IABSE
Defined
Reinforced Behavior
M.
posium
on Resistance
Repeated
(International
of Analysis
Normal
oration
Loads,
and Ultimate
Lisbon,
Association
on Hysteric
August,
Behavior
"Influence
E. P. Popov,
1983,
p. 119. and
of Reinforced
Biaxial p. 204.
and
1973.
Deformability
for Bridge
and
of Structures
Structural
Constant
stress,
o o
Constant
Engineering)
Acted
on by Well
V. V. Bert,ero,
Concrete
Joint."
Stress,
"Effects
Report
Properties
"Experimental
of Bond
No.
Deteri
UCB!
0 Time
Time
of Strain
Rate
States
on Mechanical
of
of 6061T6
Me
Fig.
constant
217
Creep
stress.
in bar
under
Fig.
curve.
218
Stressrelaxation
1966),
72
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Sec.
27.
Deformation
of
Axial y
Loaded
Bars
73
du
u(L)
u(O)
e. dx
P
JOB
(a)
:u!
(b)
where
P.
of points
u(L)
D and B, respectively.
axial translation is the change
= ur and
u(O)
= UB are the
of the in length
As can
absolute
be seen
or global
from
the figure,
displacements
u(0)
is
(27)
Any
bar
Fig.
2t9
An
axial y
loaded
For
appropriate
linearly
elastic
constitutive
materials,
relations
according
can
be used
to Hooke's
to define
law,
e..
e. =
.dE,
Eq.
Eq.
23,
27
where
and
. = P. dA.,
simplifying,
Eq.
113.
By
substituting
these
relations
Jr/to
characteristics of bars also provide the stif ness of systems in mechanical Consider the axial y loaded bar relation for axial bar deformation. held in equilibrium by the force P4.
is permit ed
in the
determined.
bar
between
to gradually
points
the
change.
B and
for
is
dx.
relation, Thus
necessary information for determining vibration analysis. shown in Fig. 219(a) for deriving a The applied forces Pi, P2, and P3 are The crosssectional area A of the bar
(28)
L, and elastic
theme
three
these
mecan
In be
1. Equilibrium
on a bar from an initial fixed location formation of the infinitesimal element. equation for axial y loaded bars. It is to be noted that the deformations
conditions
at a section,
internal
shown
resisting
later in
where,
due
to the applied
forces,
u is the absolute
displacement
is the
text
of a point
forces
in Chapter
de
this
problem.
chapter,
this
may
require is used
remain
of a statically
indeterminate change
after
2. Geo/net/7
in this are gen
a bar
due 219(b).
to axial
to the
ofdefor/nation
axis
forces
of a bar
by assuming
in deriving
that
sections
the
initial y
in length
perpen
of
see
erally
merical
veo'
mations.
(undeformed)
examples
small
length L, between points such as B and D in Fig. 219, rather than its deformed length. Rearranging Eq. 26 as du = e. dx, assuming the origin of x at B, and
integrating,
dimensions
throughout
(infinitesimal).
of members
derivation
this text.
This
Therefore
should
become
this
in calculations
apparent
the bitial
from
nu
dicular
perpendicular
straining,
defor
3. Material
normal
Fig.
deformations
stresses
properties
between
on this
to axial
(constitutive
theory
sections.
give
normal
strain
relations)
and
permit
of axial
axial
Solutions
based
correct
average
stresses
at a section,
at concentrated
74
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Sec.
27.
Deformation
of Axial y
Loaded
Bars
75
cross section irregular local stresses (and strains) arise. Only at distances about equal to the depth of the member from such disturbances are the stresses and strains in agreement with the developed theory. solutions based on the concepts of engineering mechanics of solids are best suited for relatively slender members. The use of this simplified procedure is rationalized in Section 210 as SaintVenant's principle. Several examples showing application of Eq. 28 fol ow.
EXAMPLE 2t
A.E
 AE

= A
Hence,
I pL]
It is seen from Eq. 29 that the deflection of the rod is directly proportional
(29)
Consider
bar
BC
of constant
crosssectional
area
A and
of length
L shown
in Fig.
220(a). concentrated
Solution
Determine
force
caused material
by the is E.
application
of a
A graphic interpretation of the solution stant axial bar strain fol ows by dividing the axial strain is constant, the displacements directly with the distance from the origin is possible at the left end.
the applied force and the length Since Eq. 29 frequently occurs
fol owing form:
is shown in Figs. 220(f)(h). The conthe constant axial force P by AE. Since of the points on the bar increase ofx at a constant rate. No displacement
to
The deformed bar is shown in Fig. 220(b). to think of such elastic systems as springs;
it is often 220(e).
convenient
proportional it is meaningful
A definition or [N/m] for the
diagram aa
axial
part 220(c).
everywhere
of the From
28,
loaded this
and
bar diagram,
is equal
that
A. = A,
a constant.
By
applying
(a)
(b)
'  C
C'
(f)
(g)
This stiess
equation k reading
is related
to the
familiar
k = p/A
[lb/in]
o
0
Axial
force
L
L
represents for
section,
a unit segment
deflection, of length
i.e., A Li and
cross
(c)
AE
I ki=AiE1]
Li
(212)
Axial
strain
{d)
between of k defines =
such
shown or [N/m]
in Fig.
220(e)
is evident.
(213)
1/k
(e) (hi
Displacement
A
PL
AE
The
force,
constant For
i.e.,
represents
P = 1.
resulting loaded
Zi
of a unit section,
(214)
the particular
Axial
displacement
Fig.
220
AiE
76
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
Sec.
2.7.
Deformation
of
Axial y
Loaded
Bars
77
The analysis,
systems,
concepts including
the
and
f become
flexibility problems.
more
are For
involved.
widely more
used complex
in structural structural
Soldion
By inspection,
EXAMPLE
22
ahvays be made before starting a problem. The variation of the bar is determined by taking three sections, aa, 21(a) and determining the necessary forces for equilibrium
grams
the relative displacement of point D from cross section shown in Fig. 221(a) caused forces P = 100 kN and P3 = 200 kN acting P4 = 50 kN acting to the right. The respective and CD are 1000, 2000, and 1000 mm 2. Let
O for the elastic by the application to the left, and areas for bar E = 200 GPa.
algebraically applicable
be writ en
in Figs. 221(b)(d).
that withh
in P,. along the length bb, and cc in Fig. 2in the freebody dia
Such
a check
must
2000
mm
+ .AcZ>EK __
O and D is
50 x 103 x 1500
PcoLco
(a)
O
(b)
A a100 kN' :
250 kN 150 kN 250 kN 200 kN
,o kN kN
Using
the
this
subscripts
relation,
x 103

identify
the relative
x 2000
+
the
segments.
displacement
150 x 103
between
x 1000
mm
100
(c)
(d)
stresses in the bar, the elongation of the solution is shown in Figs. in the bar segments by the corresponding obtained. These strains are constant
strain segment.
diagram These
small. and (g). By AE, the axial within each bar of the bar gives the to those displayed
is very 221(0
before.
(e)
+50
kN
o
Axial force
EXAMPLE
23
Determine
w lb/in;
Soldion
Axial strain
see Fig.
Lhe deflection
222.
The
bar OB caused
area
is A. Assume
by its own
that
weight
E is
given.
0.5
(f)
X 10 3
0.25
X 10 3
I mm
0.625
mm
1 mm
The freebody diagrams of the bar and its truncated segment are shown, respectively, in Figs. 222(a) and (b). These two steps are essential in the solution of such problems. The graph for the axial force P. = w(L  x) is in Fig. 222(c). By applying Eq. 28, the change in bar length A(x) at a generic point x,
(g)
Relative
axial
displacement
=
A plot of this
_o
A.,E
AE
1
in Fig. 222(d),
 x) dx =
with its maximum
as B.
Fig.
22t
function
is shown
78
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
Sec.
27.
Deformation
of Axial y
Loaded
Bars
79
wL
}wL
FwL4
2.23k
x
Fig. 2.22
The
0
(c)
0(d)
(a)
deflection of B is
(b)
2.83k 6"
(a)
"
B
(c)
Fig. 224
L
where
bar
I i
wL
2AE
WL
2AE
Solution
W = wL If a concentrated
OB at end B,
is the
total
force
the total
by
superposition
as
L I  _ I
I I
As found in Example 13, the axial forces in the bars of the bracket are CrA = 17.8 ksi and Crac = 12.9 ksi. The length of member AB is 6.71 in and that of BC is 8.49 in. Per Table 1A in the Appendix, for the specified material, E = 10.6 x 103 ksi. Therefore, according to Eq. 29, the individual member length changes
17.8 x 6.71
A =
PL
+ 2AE =
WL
[P
AE
(W/2)]L
10.6
10 3

11.3
10 3
in
(elongation)
In problems where the area of a rod is variable, be substituted into Eq. 28 to determine deflections. sufficiently accurate to analyze such problems rod by a finite number of elements, as shown
each one of these elements are added to obtain
a proper fitnction for it must In practice, it is sometimes by approximating the shape of a in Fig. 223. The deflections for
the total deflection. Because of
12.9
8.29
10.3 X 10 3 in
BB2, are 224(b).
CB2
(contraction)
These in relation
Fig.
223
the
rapid
variation
in the
cross
section
shown,
the
solution
would
be approximate.
elongated
and
with
the physical
bar
and in Fig.
respective that points B and B2 meet at common point B3. in Fig. 224(b). However, since in classical solid
(infinitesimal) it is customary deformations, to assume an approximation that short arcs of
requirements
must
of the problem.
around
their
Therefore,
small analyses,
bracket B caused
stif ness
in Example force
Assume that
13,
P =
the
the
large
circles
can
be approximated
by
normals
B4.
to the
members
along
which
the
alloy
have
areas, 224(a).
i.e.,
neglect
First
introduced
in 1877.
8O
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
Sec.
27.
Deformation
of
Axial y
Loaded
Bars
8t
required numerical nometry. Here the If A is the deflection and changes in bar
results lat er
obtained either is fol owed. of point BB2 and AAB and lAB
graphically
B to position = BB,
or
B4,
by
using
Fig.
trigo224(c),
A
nu
O C
' ' L 
COS
01
substituting one the
ratios Ac
..
for
and
obtains
cos cos
02 0
IBc lAB
10.3 11.3
X 10 3 X 10 3
0.912
(c)
However,
since
02
it fol ows that
180 
45 
26.6
0
108.4
lb)
Fig.
225
cos
02
cos
108.4
cos
0 +
sin
108.4
sin
0,
and
cos
cos 01
cos
108.4
Therefore,
**EXAMPLE
25
Two hingeended elastic bars of equal lengths and crosssectional areas attached to immovable supports are joined in the middle by a pin, as shown in Fig. 225(a). Initial y, points A, B, and C are on a straight line. Determine the vertical deflection A of point C as a function of applied force P. Consider small deflections only.
tan
Based on this result,
0 =
1.29
and
O =
52.2
I
forming an angle the of 11.2
= IAa/cos
with constant
P
0 =
the vertical.
18.4
10 3
in
The given structural system is incapable of supporting any vertical force in its initial configuration. Therefore, equilibrium of the system in a slightly deflected condition must be examined, Fig. 225(b), where initial bar lengths L become L*. For this position of the bars, one can write an equation of equilibrium for joint C' and express elongations of the bars via two dif erent paths. One such relation for elongation of each bar fol ows from Eq. 29 and the other from purely geometric considerations. On these bases,
P TL*
AE
from
= 2T sin
equilibrium,
0
Since
is given
Arm
by
= A cos
spring
11.2 = 18.0
x 10 3 in, the
vertical
stif ness
of the
bracket
lvert
This problem neglected; mon practice contains therefore, for geometric fghe solution many engineering
18.0
X 10 3
167
kips/in
which deformations, has been a com
and
L*
L*
L'cos0
Hence,
T =
AE(1
cos
0)
On substituting
this
expression
P =
for
2AE(1
T into

the
cos
first
equation,
0
....... 
0) sin
82
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
Final
shape
Further,
by expanding
cos
0 and
sin 0 into
Taylor's
series,
e = 2AE
On retaining only one term
+ ..
p AEO
)(
3
07.,+. .
)
deflections, angle
Poisson's
ratio.
4 It wil
be denoted
P
(a)
(216)
Final
shape
However,
A/L. Therefore,
since
the
analysis
is being
made
for
small
axial strains are caused by uniaxial or compression. The second, alternative the lateral and axial strains are always
of v fluctuates as 0.1 (some for dif erent materials
only, i.e., by simple form of Eq. 216 is true of opposite sign for uniover a relatively as 0.5 narrow occur.
P
This result, relationship
encountered
AE A3
lead
or
to linear
A = L
relationships
AE '
exhibits of the
between loads and
(215)
dis
axial
The
value as low
range.
values
Generally,
value
it is on the
wil
clearly most
concretes)
order
of 0.25
and
as high
to 0.35.
In extreme
(rubber)
cases,
be
The
during
lat er
placements. The more accurate solutions of this problem show that imate solution just obtained gives good results for A/L, on the order In this problem, the effect of geometry change on equilibrium was whereas in Example 24, it was neglected because the displacement
small.
son's ratio wil be used only when materials In conclusion, note that the Poisson effect
no additional stresses other than those
plastic
flow
is the
and
largest
signifies
possible.
constancy
It is normally
of volume.
attained
considered
behave exhibited
earlier
elastically. by materials
anless
15 In this
by materials
text,
Pois
(b}
the trans
causes
to axial
effect).
forces
28.
In addition
Poisson's
to the
Ratio
deformation of materials in the contraction where direction takes deformations of the place. applied
force,
of lateral nomenon
namely,
another
that
(transverse) is il ustrated
at right
remarkable
angles
property
expansion in Fig.
to the applied
or 226,
can be observed
uniaxial
the
force,
in all solid
a certain
materials,
amount
Consider a careful y conducted experiment where an aluminum bar of 50mm diameter is stressed in a testing machine, as shown in Fig. 227. At a certain instant the applied force P is 100 kN, while the measured elongation of the rod is 0.219 mm in a 300mm gage length, and the diameter's dimension is decreased by 0.01215 mm. Calculate the two physical constants v and E of the material.
Solution
Transverse or lateral strain:
exaggerated. For clarity, this physical body is subjected to an axial tension, hand, if it is compressed, the material
this in mind, directions of lateral deformations are easily determined, depending on the sense of the applied force. For a general theory, it is preferable to refer to these lateral deformations on the basis of deformations per unit of length of the transverse
dimension. Thus, the lateral deformations on a relative basis can be
0.01215
50
/. = 300
mm
0.000243
since the
mm/mm
diameter of the bar de
case,
by/X,.
the
lateral
strain
et is negative,
lateral bear
pressed
strains. a constant
in in/in
Moreover, relationship
or m/m.
These
it is known to the
relative
from longitudinal
unit
lateral
experiments
deformations
or axial
are termed
in 1828.
4 Named
after
S. D. Poisson,
1950).
the French
scientist
who
formulated
this
concept
like
McGrawHil ,
s A.
Nadai,
Theory
of Flow
and
Fracture
of Solids,
Vol.
1 (New
York:
= 50
mm
Fig.
227
83
Axial Strains
Axial strain:
and Deformations
A
in Bars
For
0.219 300
85
a decrease
e,,
Poisson's ratio:
= 
0.00073
mm/mm
in temperature,
thermal is shown
bT assumes
negative
EXAMPLE
v ..
27
e, e,,
(  0.000243) 0.00073
0.333
Determine
temperature
Eq.
70 GPa
the displacement
of 100F.
See
Fig.
Of point
229(a).
B in Example
24 caused
by an increase
in
Next,
since
E
the
PL
AA
area

of the
100
1960
rod
103
X
A = x
X
0.219
x 502
=70x
= 1960
103
mm 2, from
N/mm 2 =
29,
Soldion Determining to the solution the deflection of Example at point 24 for B due finding to an increase the deflection in temperature of the same point is similar caused
300
by stress. 2024T4
expansion 218,
for
(b)
In practice, when a study it is best to work with the the quantities determined
behavior. Also note that
quantities, such as E and v, is being made, stressstrain diagram to be assured that with the elastic range of the material
dif erence whether the initial or the final
AAB ABc=
Here change
= 12.9 12.9
x 10 6 x 10 6
X 100 X 100
X 6.71 X 8.49
= 8.656 = 10.95
B4,
x 10 3 in X 10 3 in
(c)
lengths
are
used
in computing
strains,
since
the
deformations
are
very
small.
29.
With perature change renheit,
Thermal
changes
Strain
and
Deformation
of temperature, solid bodies and contract on its decrease. The in temperature from To to T measured can be expressed as
caused
by
manner:
of bars
surface.
Fig.
228
resting
Thermal
final
on
lines
frictionless
expansions
for an
Dashed
cos
represent increase
shape in temperature.
Forming values
for
equal AAa
of these leads
equations, to the
substituting
fol owing
= 0.7905
numerical
result:
COS cos
02 0
AAB Ac
8.656 10.95
X 10 3 X 10 3
Fig.
229
(217)
8 2
o is an For
constant. thermal
experimental y moderately
narrow
determined ranges
coefficient in temperature,
for length
of
strains develop in every direction isotropic materials. For a body of temperature, the extensional deformation of T = T  To is
B 26.6o
(b) (a)
B
At = a(gT)L.)
(218)
86
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
Sec.
0 = 71.6 0; therefore,
P
2.10.
SaintVenant's
Principle
and
Stress
Concentrations
P
87
Here,
however,
02
45 +
26.6
cos and
Hence,
Based on this result, COS
02
02 0
= 02
cos cos
=
71.6 71.6
0.500
cos + sin
02 71.6
and
sin tan
02
71.6
sin 0.7905
0z

COS
0 =
= 26.6
tan
2.575
(b)
1.38703,,
Oma x = 1.027oav
{d)
A T  ABc/COS
forming
01 =
18.4 with
12.2
the
X 10 3
horizontal.
in
(a)
It is interesting
an
angle
of 45 
to note
that
0 =
Fig.
230
Stress
distribution
near
a concentrated
force
in a rectangular
elastic
plate.
the small
to the
displacement
Ar is )f comparable
force P in Example
order
24.
of magnitude
to that
found
due
applied
vertical
210.
SaintVenant's
Principle
and
Stress
Concentrations
of
and often can
The analysis of axial y loaded bars based on engineering mechanics solids is very accurate for bars of constant cross section when transmit ing uniformly distributed end forces. For such ideal conditions stresses strains are uniform everywhere. In reality, however, applied forces approximate concentrated forces, and the cross sections of members
is also shown on these diagrams. From these it can be noted that at a section a distance b/4 from an end, Fig. 230(b), the maximum normal stress greatly exceeds the average. For a purely elastic material the maximum stress theoretically becomes infinite right under the concentrated force, since a finite force acts on a zero area. In real situations, however,
using Figs.
of elasticity gives the results shown in average stress av as given by Eq. 113
change
abruptly.
This
causes
stress
deformation
imity of such forces and changes situations were studied analytically ticity. In such an approach, the infinit.esimal elements is formulated
a truly some
force
exhibit stress
is
and
strain
disturbances
in the
prox
and
mechanical
properties
in cross sections. using the mathematical behavior of two or and the conditions
of material
6 are
In
The It was
of the second
member observation
to note two basic aspects from this solution. First, the all cases, being based on conditions of equilibrium, is Second, the normal stresses at a distance equal to the
are essential y il ustrates uniform. the famed
satisfied
subject
to the prescribed merical procedure a discrete number analysis is carried method of analysis. two methods can gineering mechanics solutions by these bution at concentrated with those found
solids.
boundary conditions. More recently has been developed, where a body is of finite elements, such as squares or out with a computer. This is called the The end results of analyses by either be very effectively used to supplement of solids. An example showing the two advanced methods for the nature force fol ows. These solutions provide by applying the method of engineering
a powerful nusubdivided into cubes, and the finite element one of these solutions in enmore accurate of stress districomparison mechanics of
enunciated
Using the finite element method,8 the results of a solution for the same problem are shown in Fig. 231. The initial undeformed mesh into which the planar block is arbitrarily subdivided, and the greatly exaggerated deformed mesh caused by the applied force are shown in Fig. 231(a). By placing the mesh on rollers as shown, only the upper half of the block
27 S. Timoshenko, and J. N. Goodier, McGrawHil , 1970, p. 60. Fig. 230 8 For this subject see for example, Method, 3rd ed. (London: McGrawHil Numerical Methods in Finite Element Hall, 1976). R. H. Gallagher, Finite
N.J.: PrenticeHall, 1975).
terms it simply means that the manner of force application is important only in the vicinity of the region where the force This also holds true for the disturbances caused by changes
load or unconciously carrying this principle is nearly systems.
by
the
great
French
elastician
Sa#ztVenant's in 1855.
In
principle. common
al
forces problem
6 These
as use ineering
mechanics
of solids.
Treaty of Elasticity, 3rd. ed., New York: is adapted from this source. O. C. Zienkiewicz, The Finite Element Ltd., 1977). K. J. Bathe and E. L. Wilson, Analysis (Englewood Clif s, N.J.: PrenticeElement Fundamentals (Englewood Clif s,
88
Deformed mesh 100
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
Sec.
240.
SaintVenant's
Principle
and
Stress
Concentrations
89
2.8
30 25
2.6
2.4 K
2.2
2.0 1.8 1.6
1.4
2.7
o.v
1.2
. .f2.
2..
10
1.0
1.5
%v
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
rid
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Stresstension.
factors
for
flat
(a)
distributions
Fig.
23t
.(a) Undeformed
at b/4
and
b/2
and
below
deformed
top.
mesh
of an elastic
plate.
(c) Normal
stress
this
members. to onequarter
For
the
scheme,
normal
before, Hence
stress
calculated stress contours in Fig. 231(b) clearly show of large stresses in the vicinity of the concentrated solution based on mathematical elasticity, in the finite stresses at the applied force are very large, but finite, mesh size. As to be expected, the corners carry no distribution at b/4 and b/2 below the top, shown in reasonable agreement with the more accurate results 230(b) and (c). Better agreement can be achieved by This versatile method can be applied to bodies of any load distribution. Its use in accurate stress analysis an ever wider use. However, because of the simplicity discussed in this text, at least for preliminary design, pensable.
needed
to be analyzed
because
of symmetry
around
the
midsection.
The
'mx=Kg a =KPP1
A
(219)
K 'is an appropriate
stress per Eq. 113.
stressconcentration
factor,
and
P/A
is the
particularly signScant stressconcentration bars are shown in Fig. 232? The Ks that give the ratio of the maximum normal stress
as shown in Fig. 233. at the root of threads. of the cut. For ordinary
factors for flat axial y may be read from the to the average stress
stress to a large concendegree
threads,
"Factors
1935, vol. 57,
the
of Stress
stressconcenConcentration
The appear
such
since
force.
theoretically There
relation materials,
ratio of
to the depend
the
average only
stress on the
to the
as given geometrical
average stress
by
Eq. proportions
the
are
Photoelastically
0 This
figure
is adapted
Determined."
from
Trans.,
M. M.
ASME,
Frocht,
p. A67.
\
linearly of a member.
stressconcen
elastic The
of
(New
maximum
is called
the
,)
Oav K = max
gav
K =
tration
in technical
factor,
literature
and
designated
W.
1975).
19 as functions
C. Young,
in this text
Formulas
as K. Many
of
for
geometrical
Stress
such
factors
andStrain,
parameters
5th
are available
ed.
Fig.
(b) K.
9 R. J. Roark
York: McGrawHil ,
stressconcentration
243
Measing
of the
factor
(a)
9O
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
Sec.
24t.
Elastic
Strain
Energy
for
Uniaxial
Stress
tration factor is on the order of 2 to 3. The no dif iculties, provided proper graphs or past many such factors have been determined toelasticity (see Sec. 94). An example of lowcycle fatigue fracture bolt with a minimum specified strength of Fig. 234. Note that the fracture occurred
EXAMPLE 28
application tables
centration
in tension of a highstrength 120 ksi (830 MPa) is shown at the root of the threads.
stress across the net section occurs prior The previous argument is not quite than mild steel. Nevertheless, the tendency material is unusually brit le, like glass. to situations where the force is gradually It is not applicable for fiuctuating loads, For fatigue loadings, the working stress locally determines the fatigue behavior
is practically
eliminated,
and a nearly
permissible
at points
most
Find
Soldion
the
maximumstress
in member
AB
in the
forked
end
A in Example
13.
machine
stress
Geometrical
proportions:
radius of the hole

are of paramount importance, although some machine designers feel that the theoretical stress concentration factors are somewhat high. Apparently, some tendency is present to smooth out the stress peaks, even in
members
of high
parts
is set from
stress.
can be traced
an SN diagram
to progressive
to necking. as true for materials less ductile is in that direction unless the The argument presented applies applied or is static in character. as found in some machine parts. level that is actually reached of the member. The maximum
uniform
distribution
of
(Section
In machine
design,
then,
cracking
19). Failure
concentrations
that
stress
originates
of
3/16
Fig. 23
fatigue
A325 steel
fracture
Lowcycle
bolt.
of 7/8
tensile
in
net
width
1/2
0.375
From
Fig.
232?
K  2.15
for
r/d
= 0.375.
= 11.2 ksi. x 11.2 = 24.1 ksi. increase in stress occurs
at this
apparent junctures
From
the previous
subjected
to cyclic
discussion
loads.
machine of elements
and
accompanying
charts,
it should
the
be
at a hole
Fig.
2.35
Stress
in an
elasticideally
distribution
bar
force
with increasing P.
Average stress fi'om Example 13: Crav = P/A,et Maxhnum stressr Eq. 219: Crmax = Kcrav = 2.15 This answer indicates that actually a large local hole, a fact that may be highly significant.
22211. Elastic Strain Energy for NONACTIVATED VERSION the product of a force times the distance www.avs4you.com
In mechanics,
moves. areas
Uniaxial
in the direction
Stress
to do work,
by their The product
energy
is defined
deformations
as the capacity
In considering stressconcentration factors in design, it must be remembered that their theoretical or photoelastic determination is based on the use of Hooke's law. If members are gradually stressed beyond the proportional limit of a ductile material, these factors lose their significance. For example, consider a flat bar of mild steel, of the proportions shown in Fig. 235, that is subjected to a gradually increasing force P. The stress distribution wil be geometrically similar to that shown in Fig. 233 until O'ma x reaches the yield point of the material. This is il ustrated in the top diagram in Fig. 235: However, with a further increase in the applied force, f max remains the same, as a great deal of deformation can take place while the material yields. Therefore, the stress at A remains virtually frozen at the same value. Nevertheless, for equilibrium, stresses acting over the net area must be high enough to resist the increased P. This condition is shown in the middle diagram of Fig. 235. Finally, for ideally plastic material, stress becomes uniform across the entire net section. Hence, for ductile materials prior to rupture, the local stress con2 Actually, the whether it is empty stress concentration or fil ed with
a bolt
forces.
two
quantities
internal
is the internal
work
deformable and
bodies,
is stored
work
that
and
in an elastic
done
in a body
body
by externally
as the
respective of these
the force
applied
work
is
internal
236(a),
elastic
sub
energy puting
Consider
an infinitesimal
strain loaded
such
as shown
next.
for com
jected to a normal stress .. The force acting on the right of this element is dy dz, where dy dz is an infinitesimal
element. where
Because of this force, the element elongates an amount e. dx, e. is normal strain in the x direction. If the element is made of a linearly elastic material, stress is proportional to strain; Fig. 236(b). Therefore, if the element is initial y free of stress, the force that finally acts on the element increases linearly from zero until it attains its ful
value.
place
which
is  . dy
The
average
it acts
is the
work
acting average
strain
done
while done
element.
a perfectly
is taking through
elastic
body,
no energy
internal an infinitesimal
is dissipated
energy. element
and
the work
Thus, subjected
the
internal to uniaxial
on the element
elastic stress
strain is
is stored
en
depends or pin.
on
the
condition
of
the
hole,
22 This
section
can be postponed
until
study
of Chapter
12.
Axial
Strains
and Deformations
in Bars
0r
Sec. 2tt.
Elastic
Strain
Energy
for Uniaxial
Stress
(223)
U = f
ol
dV
on force and distance. For a particular material, substitution into Eq. 222 of the value of the stress at the proportional limit gives an index of the material's ability to store or absorb energy without permanent deformation. The quantity so found is called the modtthts of resilience and is used to dif erentiate materials for 3, whereas applications where energy of Douglas must be absorbed by members. For
sion
of the equation for the elastic strain although they mask the dependence
example,
lb/in
Fig. 246 (a) An element in
a steel
with
a proportional
grade
uniaxial
Hookean
tension
stressstrain
and
(b)
a
(a) (b)
diagram.
dU =
2 :,dydz
average
force work
x e:,dx
distance
where
dV
is the
volume
of
the
element.
= xexdxdydz
(220)
of 6450 psi and an E of 1,920,000 psi has a modulus (1,920,000) = 10.8 inlb/inL By reasoning analogous to that before, the area
a good
of resilience
of 2/2E
limit
of 30,000
fir,
= (30,000)2/2(30)106
having
psi and
a proportional
an E of 30 x
= 15 inlimit
of resilience
under
of (6,450)2/
diagram, Fig. 237, gives a measure of a material's ability to absorb up to fracture and is called its toughness. The larger the total area the stressstrain diagram, the tougher the material. In the inelastic only a small part of the energy absorbed by a material is recoverMost of the energy is dissipated in permanently deforming the maand is lost in heat. The energy that may be recovered when a spechas been stressed to some such point as A in Fig. 237(b) is
since
a complete
stress
OD,
by
all materials
the
triangle
essential y
ABC.
Line
behave
AB
of this
elastically
triangle
upon
is parallel
the
release
to
By
Thus,
recasting
Eq.
220,
one
obtains
the
strain
energy
stored
in an elastic
body
per
unit
volume
of the
material,
or its strainenergy
density
Uo.
Dissipated
Stronger
material
UoThis
area
d U
d
o'xex
Tougher
material
2
236(b).
as an area
axis
(221)
The corresponding
under the
com
clined
expression
enclosed
line
on the
by
may
the
stressstrain
be graphically
line
inclined
diagram;
interpreted
the
and
Fig.
in
vertical
is called
the
e:.
a concept to be used in Chapter 12. For linearly elastic areas are equal. Expressions analogous to Eq. 221 stresses %. and and to the corresponding normal
may
Since
be
in the
elastic
as
range,
Hooke's
dU Ee}
law
applies,
ty}
. = Ee.,
Eq.
221
Permanent set JT
(a)
_,le resilience
(b)
Hyperelastic
resilience
Uo
dV
2  2E
(222)
Fig.
247
Some
typical
properties
of materials.
94
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
Sec.
2t2.
Deflections
by
the
Energy
Method
95
EXAMPLE
29
Two same
2A
elastic amount
proportions delivered
by
the
(224)
tions,
bar
Soldion
compare
is A, and that
the
stresses
of the right
in the
bar
two
bars.
2A
The
crosssectional
as shown.
area
of the
left
is A and
The bar shown in Fig. 238(a) is of uniform normal stress ch is constant throughout. Using volume V of the bar, one can write the total
(a)
and
the
the the
is reached in a manner similar Therefore, the external work multiplied by the deflection in next section, this approach wil
EXAMPLE 2t0
applied.
In this
This means
treatment,
that,
it is assumed
as it is being
to We the be
that
that shown in Fig. 236(b) for stress. is equal to onehalf of the total force direction of the force action. In the generalized for dynamic loads.
applied,
the
external
force
on a member
is gradually
(b)
Fig.
238
fv0.I
where The stress Again, that the A is the crosssectional bar shown in Fig. or2 acts in the lower by using Eq. 223 total energy that area
' fv
0.7
.
of the bar, and L is its length. 238(b) is of variable cross section. Therefore, if the part of the bar, the stress in the upper part is EO' t 2 and integrating over the volume of the bar, it is found this bar wil absorb in terms of the stress or2 is
Find area
Soldion
crosssectional
If force P is gradually applied to the rod, external the deflection of the end of the rod. The expression
U of the rod was found in Example 29, and since
p2L 2AE
PL
AE

U
U2
and
Then,
from
We
U,
p A
AL) =
Hence, for the same energy load,
AL
the stress
or
in
0.2 = 1.2650.
the "reinforced" bar is 26.5 which is the same as Eq.
p2L
. 2AE
and
29.
percent over
design
bar.
The detrimental.
enlargement This
of the situation
area in the
members.
The
use of Eq.
Since
224
internal
can
strain
be extended
energy
to bar
is a positive
systems
consisting
scalar
quantity,
of several
the
212.
Deflections
by
the
Energy
Method
energies for the several members can be simply added arithmetically. This total strain energy U can then be equated to the external work W, caused by one force for finding the deflection in the direction of that force. To
il ustrate, for the bracket
U
The principle of conservation of energy may be very effectively used for finding deflections of elastic members due to applied forces. General methods for accomplishing this wil be discussed in Chapter 12. Here a more limited objective, determining the deflection caused by the application of a single axial force, is considered. For such a purpose, the internal strain energy U for a member is simply equated to the external work W,, due to the applied force, i.e.,
shown
in Fig.
+
224
for
Example 1
2
24,
1 P,BLAB
2 AABE
..
1 PcLBc
AacE
pA
where
deflection
the
subscripts
A of force
P.
refer
to members.
A solution
of this
equation
gives
96
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
Sec.
2t3.
Dynamic
and
Impact
Loads
97
This
method
any any
number direction.
in
of
problems at any
with
point
in
spring
evenly
elastic
*'23213.
Dynamic
and
Impact
Loads
delivers such ideal
pay,/k, spring.
W is As,
constant
=
system
W/k.
k, the static
Similarly,
may
be treated
the
deflection
as an equivalent
maximum
sprhg.
deflection
Using
the
=
deflections
dynamic in terms
A freely fal ing weight, what is called a dynamic forces may be analyzed izing assumptions:
or a moving body, that strikes a structure or impact load or force. Problems involving rather simply on the basis of the fol owing
Pdyn = As W
This relationship is shown the instant the spring the fal ing weight is transformed fore, an equation representing strain energy may be writ en At in Fig. deflects
as
Amax
(225)
of
1. Materials at the
deformation
behave
point of
of
elastically, impact
materials.
or
of energy takes place owing to local inelastic be neglected. to the magnitude or statically
of a system resisting an impact may of a system is directly proportional force whether a force is dynamically
239(b). its maximum amount, all energy into the strain energy of the spring. Therethe equality of external work to ,.'nternal
1
ap
W(h + Amax)
A graphical interpretation that a factor of onehalf since the spring takes
= Pdyn
Amax
(226)
Then, using the principle of conservation of energy, it may be further assumed that at the instant a moving body is stopped, its kinetic energy is completely transformed into the internal strain energy of the resisting system. At thi instant, the maximum deflection of a resisting system occurs and vibrations begin. However, since only maximum stresses and deflections are of primary interest, this subject wil not be pursued. As an example of a dynamic force applied to an elastic system, consider a fal ing weight striking a spring. This situation is il ustrated in Fig. 239(a), where a weight W fal s from a height h above the free length of a spring. This system represents a vety general case, since conceptually, 23 This is an optional section.
is shown in Fig. 239(c). Note of the strainenergy expression, Then, from Eq. 225,
1 (A max)
2

Ast
or
hence
(Amax)
2  2Ast
Ama x  2h Ast
= 0
Ama x  Ast
q '/(hst)
2 q 2h As,
or
and
Ast
Deflection
Amax = Ast 1 +
again using Eq. 225,
+ AstJ
(227)
Amax
External
work
of
Strain
energy
fal ing
weight
(a)
of spring
(b) (c)
Pdyn = W (1 +
system under an impact force.
+ j
Eq. occurring 228 giveg
(228)
in a spring struck the maximum
Fig.
239
Behavior
of an
elastic
the
from
maximum
a height
deflection h, and
98
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
Sec.
2t4.
General
Considerations
Long bolts
99
by the formulas derived earlier. dynamic force Pdyn is found, it may be used in comforce. The magnification effect of a static force when
To apply applied
these known
O'maxdyn
The large dif erence
 177
in the
1+
stresses
1 + 1.66 x
for the two solutions
6
= 243 MPa
suggests the need for
dynamically applied is termed the impact sion in parentheses appearing in Eqs. surprisingly large in most cases. For elastic system suddenly, i.e., h = 0, force gradually applied. If h is large
is approximately.
For
equal
to st.
factor and is given by the expres227 and 228. The impact factor is example, if a force is applied to an it is equivalent to twice the same compared to A st, the impact factor
where stopped
the external Therefore,
flexible systems for resisting dynamic taking into account the results obtained that for obtaining the smallest dynamic
1. select a material with a small elastic
loads.
A further study of this problem, and in Example 29, leads to the conclusion stresses for the same system, one should:
(a)
modulus;
Short bolts
Similar moving
body.
equations horizontal y
this body, purpose,
may with
using
be
be derived a velocity
it is necessary a consistent
a weight W by an elastic
work
2. 3.
make stress
the the
concentrations.
by the kinetic
a moving
fal ing
weight
in the
shown
preceding
that
derivation
of units.
by the
kinetic
energy
since
the
Several
cases
can
be cited
as il ustrations
of practical
situations
where
(b)
of gravity,
energy
it can
of a moving
body
is Wv2/2g,
where
g is the
acceleration
Pdyn = W
where direction.
EXAMPLE
l)2 st
A.t
is the In Eq.
2tt
static 229,
. and
Amax = Ast
W acting units.
/ gAst 112
in the
(229)
in operation,
are used. Wood is used in railroad ties per unit volume of the material is small.
development
of this equipment,
is uniformly
very
stressed
in tension.
In the early
stages
design
and
fail pneumatic
cylinder.
 _F __4 kg
15 1.5 m
m
mass shown
steel
Determine
the
maximum
freely and
200
stress
through another
GPa,
in the
and
steel
rod
shown
in Fig.
240
caused
one For
by a
as
244.
General
Considerations
E =
k =
mm
Solufion
round rod
The
Sohttion
4kg
mass
for
PL
applies
rod with
P
a static
washer:
force
P = ma
= 4 x 9.81
= 39.2
N.
The
rod
area
A = 'rr x 152/4
= 177 mm 2. Note
39.2 x 1500
that
the rod
39.2
length
is 1500
mm.
I
Rubber
6mm
washer
Ast AE
+ k
As pointed out in Section 19, for some structural systems, the equations for static equilibrium are insuff icient for determining reactions. In such cases, some of the reactions are superfluous or redundant for maintaining equilibrium. In some other situations, redundancy may also result if some of the internal forces cannot be determined using the equations of statics alone. Both cases of such statical indeterminacy can arise in axial y loaded systems. Two simple idealized examples are shown in Fig. 242. For the system shown in Fig. 242(a), reactions R and R2 cannot be
compression
f maxdynFig. 240
A
without washer:
17 ( 39.
1+
1 + 8.71 x
= 3.58
MPa
equations of statics alone. 242(b), whereas the reaction of forces between the two springs In both instances, the deformation tem components must be considered. There are various procedures for resolving
in Fig.
using
However, for the system can be readily found, the requires additional concharacteristics of the sysstructural
Solution
for
rod
in order
to reduce
a problem
to statical
determinacy
such
that
indeterminacy
the internal
tO0
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Sec.
245.
Force
Method
of
Analysis
forces three
fied:
can basic
readily concepts
before
procedures, and
must
1. Equilibrium
local and global
conditions
sense.
must boundaries
for
be
the
among
satisfied.
system
the
must
deformed
relations)
be assured
parts
for the
both
of a body
materials
in the
and
of the
2. Geonetric
at the
conpatibi[ity
relations
3.
Constitutive
(stressstrain
system
must
be complied
with.
Two
general
methods
of these reaction
This
for solving
is the force
methods such
simpler
problems
of analysis,
removing condition
wil be presented.
since
is obtained directly for the unknown reaction forces. compatibility of displacements of adjoining members aries is maintained throughout the loading process, placements are obtained from equilibrium equations.
merit method of analysis.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Fig. 243 Force (flexibility) method of elastic analysis a statically indeterminate axial y loaded bar. Deformations are greatly exaggerated.
for
external internal
statical
of (a)
(b)
215.
Force
Analysis
any one of these methods, the three basic requirements: with constitutive relations. is immaterial.
the
funequiThe
is temporarily removed, making the system statically an arbitrary choice is made to remove the upper the system of two bar segments to deform, as shown a simplified structural system is referred to as the from the point of view of statics, it can, by itself, (However, from the point of view of strength, the be necessary and, thus, in the actual field situation,
determinate. Here R, permit ing in Fig. 243(c). Such prbnao, systen, since, carry the applied load. redundant reaction may cannot be removed.)
reaction
here. Therefore, of bar, as at point the deflection
(230)
indeterminancy, indeterminancy.
As an example of the force method of analysis, consider the linearly elastic axial y loaded bar system shown in Fig. 243. The initial y undeformed bars are shown in Fig. 243(a) with zigzag lines as a reminder that they can be treated as springs. On applying force P at B, reactions R and R2 develop at the ends and the system deforms, as shown in Fig. 243(b). Since only one nontrivial equation of statics is available for determining the two reactions, this system is statically indeterminate to the first degree. Here the upward direction of the applied force P, as well as that assumed for R and R2, coincides with the positive direction of the x axis. For this reason, these quantities wil be treated as positive. With this sign convention, if an applied force acts downward, it would be taken as ative. A calculated reaction with a negative sign signifies that it acts in the opposite direction from the assumed. Adherence to this sign tion is desirable, although in axial y loaded bar problems, it is not
since the directions of deflections and reactions can be usually seen
bar segment is stressed occurs at A, at the top of the lower elastic bar is f2,
f2P
the B.
This result, dition at A. In the unloaded caused by the these bars are
shown in Fig. 243(c), violates the geometric boundary order to comply, the deflection a i caused by R acting bar ABC is found next; see Fig. 243(d). This deflection stretching of both bars. Therefore, if the flexibilities f and f2, Fig. 243(a), the deflection
A = (f + f2)R
conon is of
(231)
The
compatibility
of deformations
at A is then
achieved
by requiring
that
(232)
inspection. complex
sign convention
However, problems
discussed
becomes
for
method
computer in Chapter
necessary.
In applying
the force
to axial y
Ao+ A= 0
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Sec.
215.
R 2
Force
Method
of
Analysis
i03
By substituting
has
Eqs.
230
and
R
231
= P
into
f,_
Eq.
+ f2
232
and
solving
R1N
x3P
1.75P
f,
The
also
rection
negative
holds
from
true
the
sign
for
assumed.
of the
A .
result
As
to be expected,
indicates
that
R t acts
according
in the
to Eq.
opposite
231,
this
di
{P
F
R 2
I
P
1.75Pf
The algebraic
reactions becom6 known, the previously discussed procedures mining the internal forces and deflections apply. Inasmuch as member flexibilities are particularly useful solutions by the force method, this approach is also known bility tnethod of analysis.
complete sum
0.75P I
0  1,25P
Axial force
t2.50Pf
Displacement
{e)
as the flexi
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
text. This principle is based upon the premise that the resultant stress strain in a system due to several forces is the algebraic sum of their effects when separately applied. This assumption is true only if each effect linearly related to the force causing it. It is only approximately true whe the deflections 0r deformations due to one force cause an abnormal chan in the effect of another force. Fortunately, the magnitudes of deflections are relatively small in most engineering structures. In that regard, it important to note that the deformation shown in Figs. 243(b) to (d) greatly exaggerated. Moreover, since the deformations are very the undeformed, i.e., the initial, bat' lengths are ased in calculat#g
throaghout.
the principle
The algebraic
ofsuperposition,
be frequently
as before,
encountered
is an application
in this
of
doubling a displacement, say from A to A2, also doubles the load. This is not so for a nonlinear system. Therefore, for linear systems experiencing small deformations, the sequence or number of loads is immaterial. The procedure just described is very general for linear systems and any number of axial loads, bar cross sections, dif erent material properties, as well as thermal effects on the length of a bar system can be included in the analysis. However, the force method is not favored in practice because a systemic selection of the redundants for large problems is difficult.
Fig.
245
examples loaded
212
fol ow
elastic
bar
il ustrating systems.
applications
of the
force
method
to
ear systems
F
An
il ustration
is shown
of forcedeformation
in Fig. 244.
relationships
systems
for
linear
considered,
and
nonlin
here
An elastic coefficients
bar
at both f and 2f
in Fig. segments
245. are
The shown
known
Determine
2F
the
for the
reactions
bar.
and
plot
the
axial
force
and
the
axial
displacement
dia
grams
Solution
"Nonlineal
system
F 1
of linear
Remove the lower support to obtain the freebody and calculate A 0. Since the applied forces act convention adopted in Fig. 243(b), they carry caused by R2 on an unloaded system is calculated 32, the reaction R2 is determined. The remainder procedure as that described in Example 22.
diagram shown in Fig. 245(b) downward, because of the sign negative signs. The deflection next. Then, on solving Eq. 2of the solution fol ows the same
Ao = f,P,
i
= 2fP
 f(2P
+ P)
= 5fP
104
Axial
and
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Sec.
215.
Force
Method
of
Analysis
105
A,
A a tensile
= (2f
F A2
+ f + f)R2
= 0, In problems
Eq.
= 4fR2
= 1.25P
and
Since
A
A0 + A = 0,
= Rf
R
RL
AE
Since
R2 where
ot(T)AE
Note
and
the
forces
determined
sectional
The
flexibilities
together
at the top.
are supported
using
by a compressive
214.
with
the elastic
moduli
reaction
and
at the bottom
are given,
force
the cross
_bottom
The
are
axial
tensile
third
force
displacement
forces
diagram
is plot ed
the
the
satisfied
at both
remainder
bar.
a downward
in Fig.
245(d).
of the
deflection
In this manner,
the kinematic
bar
0.75P
of 1.25P
compr.essive
boundary
+ 1.75P
x 2f = 2.5Pf.
in the
that
EXAMPLE
214
of the three elastic bars caused by applied force and their elastic modulus shown P. The is E. in Fig. 247(a), crosssectional determine area A of
conditions
such
each
EXAMPLE
213
An
elastic
bar
is held
at both
ends,
as shown
in Fig.
246.
If the
bar
temperature
increases
Solution
by T, what
axial
force
develops
diagram of the assumed primary system with the support from the removed by cutting it at point B is shown in Fig. 247(b). Then, by using statics, the forces in the bars are determined, and the deflection of pcfint D is calculated using the procedure il ustrated in Example 24. Since bar BD carries no force, deflection 0 at point B is the same as it is at point D. Recognizing
symmetry,
First, the upper support is removed and A0 is determined using Eq. 218. The raising of the temperature causes no axial force in the bar. Thus, by using Eq. 213, A is calculated. By applying Eq. 232, the axial force in the bar, R, caused
by the rise in temperature is found.
Ao
Ro=O
F0
and
2F20
P et
cos
et = P
et(gT)L
Since
L4z
cos
et = L,
L4t
= L/cos
et
Fig.
F
247
F2
F F2 Fm Fm=0 F20
F21 L
{a)
(b)
D
Fig. 2.46
=0
rR 1
(e)
t06
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Sec.
216.
Introduction
to
the
Displacement
Method
t07
Hence,
per Eq.
29,
the stretch
of bar AD
in the primary
PL
system
is
// / / ,
(A,D)O
However, since Ao equals DD4 in Fig.
 2AE cos 2 a
247(c),
__
__
R R/?/A/ /
kaA
Ao cos
a = (AAO)O
and
Ao
PL
2AE
cos
3 c
where The
29
by the force F; see Figs. 247(d) and (e). However, the deflection increased by the stretch of the bar BD. The lat er quantity is calculated
again. On this basis,
FL FL
that applies
is downward. deflection
of point
of point using
D caused
B is Eq.
A  AE
By
2F2
applying
cos
a = P, on
Eq.
232,
simplification,
i.e.,
A0
+ A1 = 0, and
noting
from
statics
that
F +
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig. 248 Displacement (stif ness) method of analysis for a statically indeterminate axial y loaded bar.
P F = 2cos 3a + 1
216. Introduction to the
and
seen that the displacement AB and tension in the lower stif nesses for the bars, k2 A. These internal forces at points A, B, and C in the node points. The sense of bar is in compression and equilibrium equation for the
Another wellorganized procedure for problems is based on determining the and providing information for finding As an example of this displacement elastic axial y loaded bar system shown = AiEi/Li, Eq. 212, for the bar segments k and k2. An applied force P at point B forces and the displacement A at B are
A A 
k2 A 3 P
P
(235)
(236)
k
k2
The
equilibrium
equations
R = k
for
A
the
fleebodies
and R2
at i nodes
= k2 A
A and
C are
(237)
in the positive
minate
there is only one such quantity and therefore the problem is said to one degree of kinematic indeterminacy, or one degree of fi'eedom. Thi s:
plex cases with the bars, giving
next section.
placement
is the
The main
to the
A, the principal
class of problems
objective
first
direction
degree.
of the x axis.
This
problem
is statically
indeter
in this method
parameter
that
of analysis
of the problem.
in this
is to determine
In this em
More
the
Hence,
with
R
the
=
aid
of Eq.
236,
and R2 k
only
is discussed
section.
k P k + k2
k2 P + k2
(238)
negative
direction
signs
from
in Eq.
the
238
assumed.
indicate
that
the
reactions
act
in the
op
t08
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
Sec.
2t7.
Displacement
Method
with
Several
Degrees
of Freedom
t09
Since
in
often
called
this the
bar
stif nesses
are
employed,
this
procedure
is
EXAMPLE
215
An
k 1
elastic
stepped
in Fig.
stif nesses
249.
Using
k and k2,
the
displacement
as well as their
method areas
Soldion
find the reactions. The bar A and A2, and E are given.
P2[ [
k 2 (A 2 
According
respectively,
to Eql
are
212
the
stif nesses
k's
for
the
upper
and
lower
bar
segments
k = AE/a Therefore,
Fig, 249
and deflection
P]
k2 A at B due
= A2E/b
P3
per
Eq.
236,
the
to downward
force
P is
k3(A 3  A4)
k + k2
According previous to Eqs. expressions R 237, for Rt = kA A, k and k2, P aA2/bA
AE/a
+ A2E/b
,/
By substituting the
1 +
andR2

k2 A.
LJ
P.
(b) (c)
and
R2
1 +
P bA/aA2
P4
Fig. with
freedom.
250 four
Axial y degrees
loaded of
bar
(23[
(a)
i.e.,
*'242.17
' Displacement
In this section the displacement method is extended bars to include several degrees of freedom (d.o.f.). most widely used approach for solving both linear and However, the discussion wil be limited to linearly already noted in the previous section, solution of nonlinear this method is beyond the scope of this text. The displacement method is perfectly general and analysis of statically determinate as well as indeterminate this in mind, consider a bar system consisting of three stif ness defined by their respective spring constants
of Freedom
Method
with
Several.
for This nonlinear elastic
Degrees
axial y method
is
in a geometrically compatible manner, as shown both the applied forces and the node displacements positive sense coinciding with the positive direction
An application
one
d.o.f.
per
of forces
node.:'
at the nodes
causes
' '
of freedom,
to displace
in Fig. 250(b). Here are shown with the of the x axis. Possible
displacernents
deflEtion
at the
at the nodes
ends,
one
give
has
a statically
rise to several
indeterminate
special
cases.
problem.
With
no
If,
can
segments ki's,
for
however, only one node point is held and forces or displacements are applied at the other nodes, the problem is statically determinate. However, if a displacement is specified at a node, it is not possible to also specify an applied force and vice versa. With imposition of the applied forces and/or displacements, internal forces develop in the bar system. The magnitude and sense of these forces can be arrived at in the fol owing manner. With the adopted sign convention, the bar segment extension 25 between the ith and the (i + l)th
ofwhiare chcommon tothtewaodjobar inisegment ng Each nodri s. fortihsegment ebarthiente,trnal ensi folrce e(azA/ )k/ +det isermined.
marked inthefigurefrom1to4,ispermit etoddisplace verticalily 2 Thicsanbeclarifiebynot d inthge f ect onabarsegment ofnode displacements taken one at a time.
11o
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Sec.
217.
Displacement
Method
with
Several
Degrees
of Freedom
1'il
Freebody applied
each
is
The problem
node.
obtained:
node
diagrams forces
Thus,
is resolved
beginning
 A2)  A2)
by writing
with
nodes in Fig.
node
equilibrium
showing 250(c).
these
fol owing
internal
as well
as
1, the
equation
set of equations
= = : :
F. = 0 for
analysis
exarnp.
The
displacement
of large
complex
method
problems
is very
with
extensively
used
in practice
Two
simple
in the
P,  k(A P2 + k(A P3 P4
 k2(A2 + k2(A2
A3) A3)
 k3(A3 + k3(A3
 A4)  A4)
0 0 (240) 0 0
EXAMPLE
For the
cross
Solution
ends, using
It is to customary
recast
these
kl A2 + k2) A2
equations
k2
into
A3
form
= P = P2
kl A  k A +(k,
k2 A2
+ (k2 + k3) A3  k3 A4 = P3
 k3 A 3 + k3 A 4 = P4
(241)
Here only A2 and A3 have to be found has two degrees of kinematic freedom. each segment of the bar. Applying Eqs.
k
2k k
In most problems, the applied forces Pi's Pi's occurring at nodes of zero displacement these equations can be applied tO a broader
ifying displacements instead of applied forces. node must have a known (often zero) displacement develop. As noted earlier, at any one node,
applied force or a displacement, simultaneously for the unknown quantities. In typical applications of the displacement
tions tomary A/s or reactions to recast Eq.
k kl 0
0
NONACTIVATED VERSION but not both. These equations are solved www.avs4you.com In this problem, the force method would be simpler
In such cases, at least one where a reaction would one can specify either an
be anticipated, bottom one
distort
ment
are known, and the remaining are reactions. However, range of problems by spec
A2 A2 A2
By solving
then from
the first
deflects
the
second
and
means is supported
since
and
third
equations
in effect, the upper load is hung at the base. The middle segment
through a distance
one degree of static
R = R2 = P. This
of A2
simultaneously,
A2 = A3 = P/k,
from the top and of the bar does
= A3.
result,
which
could
the not
Fig.
251
method,
and
matrix
for form:
method
there
is only
indeterminacy.
it is cusEXAMPLE 217
a k
k k + k2 k2
0
k2 + k3
k3
k3
L4l
A3
L:l
(242)
(a) Consider the same and free at the bottom; reaction. For this case, 3P/k upwards.
Solution
loaded bar as in Example 216 supported only at the see Fig. 252. Determine the node displacements and R = 0. (b) Rework part (a) if the free end is displaced
top the
This equation shows how the system symmetric stif izess matrix is up from the member stif nesses. The pattern of this matrix repeats any number of node points. This formulation more clearly than the earlier case of single d.o.f. system shows why this approach is often referred as the stif lyess method. Excellent computer programs are available for solving these equations simultaneously?
26 E. L. Wilson, and the CAL/SAP CAL86, Development Computer
displacements, determinate
A2, problem
A3, has
and three
be deof freea k
dom.
Applying
Eqs.
241,
k
one
2k k
A2 A2 A2
has
k +2k k A3 A3 A3
= = = = R P P 0
ment
1986.
of Civil
Engineering,
University
System,
of California,
Assisted Report
k +k
A4 A4
Berkeley,
California,
=o
By
solving
the
last
three
equations
simultaneously,
A2
= 2P/k,
A3
= A4
Fig.
252
11:1
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Sec.
248.
Statically
Indeterminate
Nonlinear
Problems
113
3P/k, checked
whereas
must
and then from the first equation, R = 2P. These results by the procedures discussed in Part A of this chapter.
the first
revised
can be easily
established
magnitude A4 = 3P/k.
for part
system
kA3
kA4
= R2
appropriate constitutive laws, including ment of supports, can be included in formulating bar behavior is linearly elastic, with the aid equation becomes
RL AE
Any
maintained
these separated
in equilibrium
by the forces
convenient A's
at the cut.
last 29,
for
the of the
the four
applicable
equations
Since culating
able.
R2L2 A2E2
(245)
no restfictions deflections
with
are
in Eq.
placed 244,
on numerous
the
constitutive nonlinear
relations problems
for
are
caltract
218.
tive
Introduction
Problems
to Statically
Indeterminate
statically
Nonlinear
internal statical indeterminacy can be solved in a It must be emphasized, however, that, except for conof linearly elastic material, superposition cannot be used procedure. Several examples using the justdescfibed
discussed
of linearly In this
in the preceding
elastic
three
symmetric bars in Fig. 247 can be analyzed regardless of the mechanical properties in each part of a twopart system. On the other hand, the bar in Fig. 245(a), having two degrees of kinematic indeterminacy and three distinctly dif erently stressed segments, is not susceptible to this kind of
analysis.
approach,
indeterminate
sections
are very
axial y
loaded
effec
procedure,
EXAMPLE
as well
248
as some
other
variations,
fol ow.
at both ends at immovable has a crosssectional area of the bar is elastic with
by the
of discontinuity
the reactions
R and
In this extended approach, the forces remain the unknowns and related at the juncture of the two systems by a compatibility condition. In su6h problems, a global eqtdlibrit m equation can always be writ en for a system. For example, for the bar in Fig. 253, such an equation is
= 1200 m m2, a = 750 mm, b = 500 mm, and the material is linearly elasticperfectly plastic, as shown in Fig. 254(d), determine the displacement A of the step as a function of the applied force P. Let E = 200 GPa. (c) Assuming that at the instant of impending yield in the whole bar, the applied force P is removed,
determine the residual force in the bar and the residual deflection at the bar step.
of the section?
R2 caused
Use
Eqs.
application
243
and 245.
of an axial
(b) If A = 600 mm 2, A2
force
diagram
for
the
during
application
for
each
R+ R2+ P = 0)
Then, ends
bar
(243)
deflections
BC
to assure A and
at B are determined
cotnpatibility
and
C are held,
using
two
of bar AB
dif erent
of the two
paths.
bar segments,
Therefore
to be divided throughout
lower part
at B is A4B
and
is ABc;
it fol ows
the
action using
244
Fig.'253
material.
A bar
of nonlinear
R
R2
P
114
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Sec.
2t8.
Statically
Indeterminate
Nonlinear
Problems
115
R
. R
R = 1 + 750 x 1200/(500
Hence, the normal stresses are
P
x 600)
and
P
and
and
R2
P/1600
3P
cr = R/A
or2  R2/A2
At this
tionship
400
MPa
the magnitude
load,
the
at impending
P,
between
of yp = cryp/E
cr2 and
of the
= 2 x 10 3. Therefore,
= 640
bar just
yield
is found
reaches
by setting
yield,
cr2 = 400
from
the previous
the
strain
attains
MPa.
rela
gX
10 a
Pyp
and
= 1600
tryp
x 103 N = 640 kN = 1 mm
x// / 4
'/ /x
A 2 = A = ypb
quantities locate point
= 2 x 10 3 x 500
254(e).
(a)
(b)
(d)
Material
properties
P1
Oyp
720
On increasing P above 640 kN, the lower part of the bar continues to yield, carrying a compressive force R2 = CrypA2 = 480 kN. At the point of impending yield for the whole bar, the upper part just reaches yield. This occurs when R = CrypAl = 240 kN and the strain in the upper part just reaches gyp = CrypiE.
Therefore,
These
A in Fig.
640
A ,
:"'"" Contained
lastic range
plast floicw
64 mm
(f) Strain
upper
720
kN
X 103
www.avs4you.com
and
2 ' X 10 a
/x = eypa
P = 720
= 2 x 10 3 X 750
is the
= 1.5 Inm
or limit
These
is uncontained
quantities
the
and
locate
point
B in Fig.
kN
254(e).
ultimate
Beyond
load,
of
this
system.
load
point,
of the
In
the plastic
rod.
flow
no
plastic
Note
information
simplicity
on the
of calculating
deflection characteristics
the
limit
which,
the
however,
general,
provides
0.375
1.5
(e)
limit
path
bar
analysis
elasticplastic
is simpler
loaddeflection
than
'elastic
analysis,
relationship.
which
when 254(e),
kN.
in turn
the the
On
is simpler
than
tracing
reaches plastic.
the bar
in
(g)
Strain
lower
path
bar
in
the
Fig.
254
point
and
applied whole
removing
From
compatibility: A = A 2 or
gl a
R2b A2E
AlE
By solving
these
two
equations
P
simultaneously,
elastically (see Section 26). In the with an opposite sign from that of solution found for part (b) based on caused by the removal of the force P residual force Rr in the bar is equal parts less the reduction in these forces Hence, for the upper part of the bar,
elastic equations, such a force must the initial y applied force. Therefore, Eqs. 239, the upper and lower reare, respectively,  P/4 and  3P/4. to the initial force in either one of caused by the removal of the applied
R = 1 + aA2/bA
yielding the same result as found
of data (b) By direct substitution into
and  R2  1 + bA1/aA2
in Example
Eqs. 239,
P
(239)
Re
= R
P/4
= 240
720/4
= 60 kN
215.
Lik.ewise,
part

of the bar,
3P/4 = 480 3 x 720/4 = 60 kN
116
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Sec.
2.18.
Statically
Indeterminate
Nonlinear
Problems
117
Both
bar
results
The residual
discontinuity.
as they
should
be, as no applied
force
remains
using
at the
either
Solution
force, based on Eq. 29, it contracts aPt/(4AE) deflection is 1.5  1.125 = 0.375 mm, as shown
by the dashed
can be determined
line BD is parallel
*(d) The strain histories for the two parts of the bar are given in Figs. 254(f) and (g). As shown in part (b), the lower segment begins to yield first. At that instant, /x = 1 mm and the strain in the lower bar is A/b = 2 x 10 3, whereas in the
the figures.
problem.
mm. Therefore, the strains in both parts of the bar have increased by a factor of 1.5 and are so shown in the figures by their respective point.s B. No increase in the stress can occur in the lower bar during this time, as it is in a state of pure
bar begins
are identified
to yield
occurs
by points
at /x = 1.5
A in
of deformations. However, since the requirements deformations involve displacements, a connecting erty of materials must be added. Let subscripts a and s on P, e, and cr identify aluminum and steel, respectively. Then, noting that
This
is internally statically indeterminate since the manner the force P is distributed between the two materials total axial force at an arbitrary section can easily be For an internal statically indeterminate problem, the remain valid, but an additional condition is necessary
auxiliary
condition
comes
from
the requirements
of statics condition
involve based
of compatibility
forces on the
the
the
and propfor
by a force placement
elastic
From
plastic
deflection /x = 0.375 mm. Hence, the corresponding residual strains A/a and /x /b are, respectively, 0.50 x 10 3 and 0.75 x 10 3 m/m. The corresponding points are identified by points D in Figs. 254(f) and (g).
EXAMPLE 219
deformation.
load is completely
removed,
the residual
response
has
as being is supported
the disassuming
equilibrium: Pa + Ps = PorP2
From
compatibility: Aa = As or a ' Es
A 30in long atuninum rod is enclosed and (b). The two materials are bonded
the two materials can be idealized as shown, end deflection wil occur for P = 80 kips
sectional
areas of steel
within a steelalloy tube; see Figs. 255(a) NONACTIVATED VERSION together. If the stressstrain diagrams for www.avs4you.com As and of aluminum A are the same and equal to 0.5 in 2.
respectively, in Fig. 255(d), and for P2 = 125 kips? The what crossFrom material properties:
and
es
crdEs
o ksi
By
Steel
A s
20C
From
psi.
noting
the diagram
that
cr = P/A
the elastic
and
moduli
crs=
PdAs,
one
can
solve
the
three
equations.
Thus,
(b)
150
i
/
1.67 4 5 6.67
(d)
era
Hence,
=20k,
Ps = [AEd(AE)]P
andP = 60k.
= 3P,
and
P + 3Pa
= P = 80 k; therefore,
P
dx
Fig. 255
(a) (c)
100
10
By
applying
A
Eq.

29
to either
material,

the
tip deflection
=
for
0.120
80 kips
in
wil
be
Aluminum
PaL AaEa
which solution.
20 0.5
x 103 x 30 x 10 x 106
This
corresponds
of 0.120/30
tX10
since
elastic
response,
satisfies In fact,
= 4 x 10 3 in/in.
the strain
In this
from
force
can reach
P can
stress
reaches can
5 x 10 3 in/in
range,
both
for both
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Sec.
248.
Statically
Indeterminate
Nonlinear
Problems
119
the
although
Therefore
aluminum
the
strains
rod
can
may
be counted
continue
upon
to increase.
must
to resist
Therefore,
only
Pa
= Aao'yp
beyond
= 0.5
P = 100 kips,
X 50
Solution
25 kips.
The
crs=
in/in.
100/0.5
Therefore,
for
remainder
P2 = 125 kips,
of the
100 kips
applied
toad
stress
level,
x 10 3
be carried
must
be carried
e = 200/(30
by the
x 103) = 6.67
in
in aluminum,
steel
by the
tube:
steel
Hence,
tube.
x 10 3
P is sufficiently large to close the small gap, a force P wil steel rod and a force Pc, in the copper tube. Moreover, upon rod wil compress axial y A, which is as much as the axial
the copper tube plus the initial gap. Hence,
A = esL
Note rod flow.
x 30 = 0.200
from the
unique
10 3
that can
in/in;
strain
it is not
carry.
Thus,
corresponds
possible
the
of 50 ksi,
which
strain
steel same,
tube i.e.,
is all that
the
aluminum
since
no
From compatibility:
Ps
Pcu
25,000
lb
would terials
If the
minum bonded
axial
set (stretch)
rebound broken,
applied
deformations
of (6.67
force
P2 = 125 kips
Thus, tube would
incompatibility Instead,
in
 5) x 10 3 = 1.67
both materials. In
if one imagines the bond between return to its initial shape. But
were
removed,
both
materials
in the
ma
rod
By applying Eq. 29, A = PL/AE,
15.0025
As
Ac.
0.0025
substituting,
+ 15
and
0.0025
simplifying,
x 10 3 in/in
would
the
which
if the
aluminum
two maintain
occur
materials
rod
in the aluthe
remains
are same
slightly solution
compressed of this
kind
and the steel tube is slightly stretched. of problem is il ustrated in the next
EXAMPLE
220
for the
2 x 30 x 106Ps
 3 x 17 x 106Pc"
= 10,000 lb
= 0.0025
A steel
rod
with
a crosssectional
area is 15.0000
of 2 in 2 and
a length If an axial
of 15.0025
in is loosely P = 25 kips
Pcu
6900
lb
and
Ps crosssectional
18,100
lb areas gives
inserted
sectional
into
area
a copper
of 3 in 2 and
tube,
as shown
in Fig.
in long.
256.
The
copper
force
tube
has a cross
is
and
dividing
these
forces
by the
respective
what stresses wil develop in the two materials? Asof steel and copper are Es = 30 x 10 6 psi and Ecu
crcu
= 6900/3
stresses were
note
= 2300
too
Ls
psi
were small
and
ors =
the
considered
18,100/2
limit above
are
= 9050
of its solution
small,
psi
or if
material
would
it is suffi
not
that
since
ciently
0.0025"
accurate Solution
to use
= Lc,.
Alternative
Steel
rod
A s = 2 in 2
Lcu =
force.
materials.
The
remaining
to close the gap may the rod acts as a "spring" force P' causes equal
found first, using Eq. 29. In and resists a part of the applied deflections A and A, in the two
be
Fig. 256
Copper tube
= 3 in 2
F ..
AAsEs
Ls
0.0025
x 2 x 30
15.0025
106
F=
10,000 25 
lb 10
= =
10 kips 15 kips
P'
=P
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Sec.
2t8.
Statically
Indeterminate
Nonlinear
Problems
Then
From
resisted
by the copper
by the steel
tube,
rod,
in addition
to the force
F, and
tightened. Find the stress in the tube if the temperature of the assembly is raised from60 Fto 160F. LetE = 17 x 106 psi, Es = 30 x 106 psi, a = 9.1 x
10 6 p.er F, and a = 6.5 x 10 6 per F.
Solution
p;
From compatibility:
cu
+p'
cu
= P'
15
or
P;Ls AsEs
Ac,E
If the copper tube and the steel bolts were free to expand, the axial thermal elongations shown in Fig. 257(b) would take place. However, since the axial deformation of the tube must be the same as that of the bolts, the copper tube wil be pushed back and the bolts wil be pulled out so that the net deformations wil be the same. Moreover, as can be established by considering a free body of
P' = 20 17 Ps ,
tha t Pu =
presslye
are
From
th assembly
equal.
force
above
Hence,
P in the copper
some
arbitrary
section
such
as AA
force
in Fig.
257(a),
the com
statics:
If (cryp)s = 40 ksi and (cryp)c = 10 ksi, the limit lead for this assembly
Pull = (Cryp)sAs
both
parts
Pu
Ps
can be
From
compatibility:
+'(f yp)cuAcu
yield,
At the ultimate
initial lengths
lo&d,
of the
materials
is of no consequence.
EXAMPLE
221
= 110 kips
with
PsLs
the
aid
of Eqs.
218
PuLcu
A copper
caps made of Invar27; see Fig. 257(a). Four in steel arranged parallel to the axis of the tube and are lightly has an a 0 and for and watch springs.
a crosssectional
area of 3 in 2 is placed
or, since
9.1 x
L
10 6
in 2 is the cross
106
section
of one
bolt,
is a steel alloy which at ordinary temperatures is used in the best grades of surveyor's tapes
Elastic deformations
3 x = 6.5
17 X
10 6
100
Ps
4 x
0.442
30
10 a
Thermal
d
By solving the two equations simultaneously, P = 6750 lb. Therefore, in the copper tube is crc = 6750/3 = 2250 psi. The kinematic expression just used may also be set up on the fol owing statement: the dif erential expansion of the two materials
Final
the
stress
change
that
in temperature
place
is accommodated
materials.
by or is equal
to the elastic
position
take
in the
two
EXAMPLE
222
A steel
washers
bolt
Fig.
257
(a)
see Fig.
258(a).
of total
having
If the bolt
thickness,
a crosssectional
in this
L, each
assembly
having
area
A = 1 in 2 is used
the crosssectional
is tightened
to grip
initial y
area A2 = 9 in2;
so that its stress
two
steel
1:22
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Sec.
2t8.
Statically
Indeterminate
Nonlinear
Problems
123
By solving
ml
simultaneously,
P
1 + A2/A
1 +
= 0.1P
1500
lb.
= 9A 1
Section
aa
t ttft
h
h
tt
hh+x (c)
tit
Y
stress in the bolt after the application of the force P becomes 21,500 psi. This remarkable result indicates that most of the applied force is carried by decreasing
the initial compressive force on the assembled washers The solution is not valid if one of the materials ceases if the applied force is such that the initial procompression
is destroyed.
Therefore,
the increase
of the stress
in the bolt
is X/A
= 1500 psi,
and the
parts
prac
or
(a)
(b)
Fig.
258
tical applications. A hot rivet used in the assembly of plates, upon cooling, develops within it enormous tensile stresses. Thoroughly tightened bolts, as in a head of an automobile engine or in a flange of a pressure vessel, have high initial P = 15 kips is
tensile
occurs
Situations
approximating
the above
idealized
problem
is 20 ksi, what
applied
Solution
wil
assembly?
be the final
stress
in this bolt
after
a force
to the
crucial y
stresses;
in the
important
so do the steel
tensile
initial
that
on applying
stresses.
tendons
the working
in a prostressed
loads,
only
concrete
a small
beam.
increae
It is
force
in the washers.
the tensile force in the bolt,'and Y is the the washers due to P. As a result of these remain in contact, the bolt elongates the elastically. Hence, the final conditions are
From statics:
P is applied
is shown
From
to the initial conditions of the assembly tensile force in the bolt, and Ic is the initial
statics,
in Fig.
It = Io A freebody
is in Fig. 2NONACTIVATED VERSION compressive plastic range of material behavior and plot 258(c), where X designates the increase in www.avs4you.com
EXAMPLE 223
of the assembly
after
the
Extend
havior
the solution
the
of Example
214
decrease in the compressive force on forces, X and Y, if the adjacent parts same amount as the washers expand as fol ows:
crosssectional
area
A of each
yielding
bar
is the
a forcedisplacement
Assume
shown
in Fig.
ideal
259(a)
elasticplastic
diagram.
into
The
the
be
with
material
at crvp.
Ovp A
B
P +
or since Ic = I,
(I
Y)
(I,
+X)
A '
I +
2 cosa
F2
F,
F2
I + 2 cos 3 a
X+Y=P
x,
o
Elastic
range
From
compatibility:
c
Abolt
By applying Eq. 29,
Awasher
s
c'
P P
AlE
COS 20
O,p L
(b)
(c)
XL
YL
A2
(a)
A
 A2E
Fig.
259
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Sec.
219.
Dif erential
Equation
Approach
for
Deflections
't25
Solution
,.28219.
equilibrium equation for forces
F
Alternative
Deflections
Dif erential
Equation
Approach
for
The
is
atjoint
+ 2F2cosat
C, Fig.
259(c),
= P
recognizing
symmetry,
bars
The
AC'
compatibility
and
DC'
with
equation
that
of bar
at joint
BC'
C, Fig.
is
259(a),
at
relating
the elongations
in
by solving
In Section
a firstorder
elastic du/dx
this problem as a secondorder equation. materials fol ows from two observations. = = cr?E = P/AE, one has
dif erential
deflection
ex = du/dx,
determined
A 2 =
A
COS
p = AEx x
using Eq. 29 and the es
(246)
ever,
that the deformations are small. the bar material behaves elastically
plastically.
tablished
By noting
compatibility
that
F2[L/cos
the inclined
equation,
bars
FL cosat
AE
are L/(cos
ct) long,
a typical
with
SinceFx
at]
AE
or
F2
= Fcos
2at
a positive
element
relation element
= 0ordP
sense
For
to the previously
= 0, and
adopted
all forces
sign convention.
are shovn
for an inconsider
By substituting simplifying
leadsto
F = 1 + 2c0s 3at.
It is seen from this solution that
NONACTIVATED VERSION dx P and F2 1 + 2c0s P 3at www.avs4you.com This equation states that the rate of change
cos 2 at (234)
the maximum force occurs in the vertical bar.
into
equation 214:
at joint
C, and
n
with
(247)
At the impending
yield
Fl = crypA,
and,
P = crypA(1
By substituting
force
P is equal
AE
to the
negative
of the
applied
+ 2 cos 3 a) at
at A = CrypL/
assuming
constant,
By increasing force P above the first yield remains constant, and the equation of statics force F2 until the stress in the inclined bars
CryvA.
At the impending
the joint C equilibrium equation corresponds to the plastic litnit of finding this load is rather simple,
limit load of the is reached. collapse In Chapter mechanism.
yield
in the inclined
in the vertical bar, force F = crvpA at joint C is sufficient for determining reaches Cryp. This occurs when F2 =
xx
2a This
panying
= AE xx
is optional; can
or
after
AE dx 2 Section
Px
unit
p
the
(248)
accom
gives P = CrypA(1 q 2 cos ct). This load for the system. Note that the proas the system is statically determinate
13, such a limit load is associated with
bars,
bar already
section
examples.
be studied
27 before
lb per
length
At the impending yield in the inclined bars, per Eq. 29, A2 = (CrypiE)[L/cos or] and A = A2/cos ct = CrypL/(E cos 2 cO. This value of A locates the abscissa for point B in Fig. 259(c). Beyond this point, all bars continue to yield without bound
based on ideal plasticity.
P+dP
dx
element
bar.
Fig.
260
of
Infinitesimal
an
axial y
loaded
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in Bars
Problems
The constants of integration C and C2 can be found by noting that the deflection t is zero at both ends, i.e., u(0) = 0 and u(L) = 0. Hence, from the last equation,
AEu(0) = 0 and C2 = 0
tion.
and
is defined
boundary elastic
terminate
that
The
of kinematics
requirements
by Eq.
23.
through
of statics
statically
constitutes Equation
A solution
the
are satisfied
use
indeterminate
248
a solution is equally
of Eq.
of Eq.
248
26.
by making
problems.
subject
The
constitutive
use
of Eq.
to the prescribed
for
relation
247,
AEu(L)
Since u'(x) = du/dx,
= poL2/2
from
R2
+ CL
Eq.
= P(O)
= 0
and
C =  poL/2
However
246,
= AE u'(O) = poL/2
of
solution
px/AE
several alternatives are possible. solutions for each segment of a bar at the junctures? This is related to discussed in Section 27, and to the considered in Sections 216 and 217. function. s, discussed in Section 516,
direct use of Eq. 248 for bars where
should
be a continuous
function.
One of them consists of and enforcing continuity the statically determinate statically indeterminate For concentrated forces, can be used to advantage.
several axial loads are
When
the
function
is
The
Similarly,
negative
sign
R
shows
= P(L) that
that
this
= AE
force
u'(L) forces
is generated
= poL/2 are shared
by compressive
= poL/2 equally by the
stresses.
These
ports.
results
indicate
the applied
two
sup
statically
cross sections change becomes cumbersome. Therefore discussed before, including the scheme for dividing probdeterminate and indeterminate ones, are more useful
The example
function.
applications.
constants These
solution
found
be determined  O; hence,
in (a) remains
AE
from
applicable.
u'(O) the
However,
il ustrates
EXAMPLE
R3
224
the procedure
when
px is a con
and
C2 = poL2/2
(a) Consider
a bar
of uniform
cross
section
placements
Solution
same
u(x)
bar
be along
is supported
the bar?
only
held
between
two
rigid
supports
what
spun
AEu
PO (L 2_ 2
x 2)
dis
As
is to be
expected,
R3
=AEu'(L)
= poL
Po\
(a) Using
Eq.
248,
and
noting
Eq.
d eu
du
246,
on integrating
twice:
AE x2 = (Po)
AEu 
= po
+ Cix + C2
Problems
Section 24
and
12 mm
in diameter,
what
axial
stress
is caused
by
the
= 75
applied
GPa.
force?
Assume
elastic
behavior
and
let E
AE xx = pox + C = P
pox 2
2
(a)
(b)
Fig.
261
nuity
29 This
to be equal,
requires
the
discontinuity where
displacements
of the
be in equilibrium. at a discontinuity
forces
abutting
the
acting
(See, force
on an isolated
for
bar
segments
at a
2t. A standard steel specimen of in diameter is elongated 0.0087 in in an 8in gage length when it was subjected to a tensile force of 6250 lb. If the specimen was known to be in the elastic range, what is the elastic
modulus of the steel?
Section
27
23.
infinitesimal
must for an aluminum m/m. If the rod rod due to an is 400 mm long
A steel
transmit
rod
a tensile
10 m long
force
used
of 5 kN
in a control
without
mechanism rod?
stretching
strain is 10 3
stress Give
of
Strains E =
and 210
Deformations GPa.
in
Bars
Problems
the
design?
1800
rum
24. Revise the data in Example 22 to read as fol ows: P = 10 kips, P3 = 100 kips, and P4 = 30 kips, and the bar segments AB, BC, and CD are, respectively, 4, 2. and 3ft long. Then find (a) the force P2 necessary for equilibrium and (b) the total elongation of
rod AD. The crosssectional area of the rod from A to
60"
2400
100"
Bis
ment
1 in 2, from
diagram
B to C is 4 in 2, and
from
C to D is 2
Fig.
Pinned
P245
in 2. Let
2$.
able 26.
cular
E = 30 x 103 ksi.
along the bar.
(c) Plot
constant
22. L, Z2,
cross
the axial
for
and
section
joint
Find
cross Assume
member
the
section
axial
that
of
spring
in Example segments
variable
the
L3
vertical placements
Fig. P2'11
2'16.
the
of the
in Problem
tionless shown,
600,
500, length
and and
weighing 500 kg is placed in the position wil be the elongation of rod AB? Let 2. the shortening of steel tubular
The crosssectional area
bars, BD as shown
stress
A planar
are
mechanical
small, small).
the.horizontal
dis
system
consists
AB,
rod
Each
of two rigid
27.
lem
Find
26.
the
axial
spring
constant
for
the
bar
in Prob
28. consists
gether applied
long to
240. In a California oil field, a very pipe got stuck in hard clay (see figure). essary to determine at what depth this engineer on the job ordered the pipe
large upward tensile force. As a result
long
in the figure. When axial force P is system, a strain gage attached to the indicates an axial strain of 873 IJ.m/m. (a) the magnitude of applied force P. (b) If the behaves elastically, find the total elongation of Let Es, = 210 GPa, and E^ = 70 GPa.
to
shown the
pipe came up elastically 2 ft. At the same time, elongated 0.0014 in in an 8in gage length. where was the pipe stuck? Assume that
the
crosssectional
spreader
nec
C and
D.
of tensile
of the
tube
forces
is 100
at
mm 2. Let
(a) Determine the vertical deflection E, and G caused by the application lb. (Since vertical displacements zontal displacements are negligibly
the
deflected
shape
displacements.
for
the
system,
greatly
exagger
area
of the
pipe
was
constant
and
20"
20"
in Problem
C
/
surrounding of the
pipe
Fig.
derrick
P2'12
'213.
143 wire.
Determine
the
elongation
in rod
AB
aluminumalloy
 20" I
2]7. Jr
F P=300Ibr G
Fig. P246
in the
for
the
20mmdiamframe in Prob
Fig.
P28
Pipe Clay
2'15. hangers
ers
whose Fig. P210
constructed as shown in the
part AD as shown
coldworked
E =
of
modulus
(NiCu)
material
29. Two wires are connected in the figure. The wire on the wire psi.
how
= 0.10
aluminumalloy
as shown having A
21t. A wall
yields
bracket
is
(b)
bar
Where
would
remain
should
the
horizontal?
weight
be located
such
that
the
figure.
Steel ber rod
All
AB
joints
may
a crosssectional beam.
be
If
considered
area a 1000mm
pinconnected.
of 5 mm diameter 2. Memfric
BC
has is a rigid
hanger pair BF. Determine the deflection that would occur at D by applying a downward force of 10 kN at C. Check hanger stresses to assure that an elastic solution is applicable. Sketch deflected member AD, greatly exaggerating the vertical displacements (since
area
is 50 mm 2 for
at approximately
hanger
600
pair
MPa.
AE
The
and
crosssectional
in xampie
23,
what 0.250
the rod
sou]d in under
is a ] in umium
its length its ow
free
be weight?
of the
100 mm 2 for
deQecdoa
of the
end
rod in xamgJe 23 , instead of ooke's law, stressstraJ relatiosig is = g", were n is a her dependent on the progenies of the material?
2]9. A rod of two derent crosssectional areas
made
of soft
cogget
and
is subjected
to a tensile
load
t30
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
20 rnm
I1 i1
Problems
change in the length of the rod due to the application of force P. Assume that the support provided for the rod by the surrounding material varies linearly as shown. Express the answer in terms of P, A, a, and E, where E is the elastic modulus of the rod. 226. For the same frame as in Example 24, Fig. 224, find the horizontal and vertical deflections at
A = 1 in 2 /e'
A = in 2 '
25
mm
Fig.
P249
600
150 rn
mm
point
at B.
227.
B caused
Assume
Determine
by applying
linearly
horizontal
a horizontal
elastic behavior
and vertical
force
of the
elastic
of 3 kips
material.
dis
as shown in the figure. (a) Determine of the rod caused by the application kips. Assume that the axial stressstrain
is
5
75 rnrn
of load dimensions
point shown
twobar figure.
system Assume
havthat
= call6,000
where cr is in ksi. (b) Find upon removal of force P. ing, copper behaves as a an E equal to the tangent origin.' 220. A twobar system in the figure. The crosssectional
0.200 in 2 and for bar BC
+ (cr/165)
3
Fig. P22i ' '224. Find bar of constant in the figure, the
for
Fig. P223
each
bar,
AE
= 104 kips.
the residual bar elongation Assume that during unloa.dlinearly elastic material with to the virgin cre curve at the
weight volume
is E.
100"
has
the
is 0.150
diagram for the rods is bilinear would each wire elongate due tical force P = 4 kips?
shown AB
222.
is
plate
its
so that
both
bars
Bar
entire
of ver
1 in wide bars
same
to the
of the
A
454
a constant
Determine
have
a constant
width
the
of 2 in throughout
at the
LA/LB
thickness
of
B is to be
Each
bar is to be subjected
ratio
3 in wide
wil
load
the
same
amount.
Neglect
so that
the
bar.
228. linearly
For
the
tical
ksi.
displacements
A jib
elastic
of load
the
point
B. Let
E = 10 x 103
shown
X 103 ksi
'
Fig. P222
Fig.
'225. is bonded thickness An elastic rod having to the surrounding a, as shown in
P224
a crosssectional material, which the figure. Determine area has the A
a
figure.
229.
and tube BC, 320 mm 2. (a) Find the of the crane at point B. (b) Determine
caused
E = 200 GPa.
Rod
AB
crane
has
has
a crosssectional
application
dimensions
vertical the
area
flection
Let
by the
of force
of 300 mm 2
in the
cone supported at the large end on a rigid shown in the figure. Determine the deflection
piece
plate. caused
base
22'i.
figure increase
The
is cut in
small
from length
tapered
symmetric.
piece
shown
Determine by
its
in the
the own
of the
of
a 4mmthick of this
elastic coordinate
modulus
axes
Rod
2000
P229
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
Problems
Sections 24'1
the
t33
and 242
B caused using Eq.
Section
230. A steel
28
bar 2 in wide and 0.5 in thick is 25 in
long, as shown in the P, the bar width becomes Estimate the magnitude
elongation take E = of the
figure.
On
narrower of applied
Assume and v =
force applying
216.
241.
P237
G in
By
Problem
Eq.
vertical
224,
find
deflection
the
deflection
of point
of point
B caused
30
bar. 10 3 ksi
Fig.
Fig. P232
242.
Find
the
dency
contraction.
expansion
Fig.
P230
233. tical
a rise
concentration factors from Fig. 232. Where a potential fracture occur? A machine part of constant thickness for transcyclical axial loading should have the dimenshown in the figure. (a) Select the thickness
by the
243. by the
applied
Find applied the
load
in Problem
227
using
of point 229 using
Eq.
224.
B caused Eq. 224.
244. spreader
23t,
wide
A
and
10mmthick
2000 mm
figure.
lowalloysteel
long is subjected
plate
to a set
150 edges,
transin the
mm
of uni:
formly
as shown
distributed
in the
frictional
If the
forces
total
along
decrease
its two
verse plied
gation
= 200
150mm forces
of the
GPa
dimension at section aa due to the apis 15 x 10 3 mm, what is the total elonbar
and
elastic behavior and use a and E given in Table 1 the Appendix for 6061T6 aluminum alloy. 234. For the data given in Problem 229, find the tical and horizontal displacements of point B by a rise in temperature of 80 C only in the rod.
E
a = 11.7 x 106/C.
needed in the member for transmit ing an axial force of 12 kN in order to limit the maximum stress to 80 MPa. Approximate the stress concentration factors from Fig. 232. (b) Where might a potential fracture
occur?
four
of steel rods,
a steel AC,
forces.
Both
area
The
mm
of 20 mm 2, arid
crosssectional
2. Let E = 200 GPa.
both
area
bars
of the
A
AD
and
spreader
DB,
bar
40 mm 2.
is 100
in the
v = 0.25.
longitudinal
Assume
direction.
that the steel
Let
be
haves
as a linearly
elastic
material.
Section
150
_Px N/mm
16oo
Fig. P231
235.
hole of
A 6 by
25
]4oo
aluminumalloy
figure. (a) Determine
2'10
75 mm
diameter
plate
600
mm
long
has
a circulm
Find
mm
located
in its
center.
the
Fig.
P238
kN
the total of stress
crosssec
2
1
force
that direction
MPa.
can
be without
applied
to this
plate
exceeding
an
of
220
236. tensile
ened by
by which application
section, as shown
is
in
239. A long slot is cut out from a 1 by 6 in steel bar 10 ft long, as shown in the figure. (a) Find the maximum stress if axial force P =' 50 kips is applied to the bar. Assume that the upper curve in Fig. 232 is ap
Fig.
P244
figure.
Section 29
stress
Since
concentrations.
the
bar
is to be loaded
cyclically,
plicable. elongation
concentrations
(b)
For of the
and
the rod.
assume
Section
2`13
of dif erent
245.
bars
Compare
the dynamic
diameters
232.
uprights,
A rigid
as shown
bar
C.
rests
in the
Assume
on bar
the
and
the
steel
inP
!" radius
P
tional gation
for rod
24
in.
the
Assume
elonthat
shown
stresses
in the
in the three
figure
in their
steel
clination
ature of
of the
100
horizontal
after
coefficients
a raise
in temperof thermal
expansion for aluminum alloy and steel to be, respectively, 23.2 x 106/C and 11.7 x 106/C. To a greatly exaggerated scale, sketch the position of the bar after the raise in temperature. (b) What stresses would develop in the upright members if their tops
were prevented from expanding? Let the elastic mod
1
2
P236
0.020 in per inch at a stress of the load in part (c), what Let E = 30 x 106 psi.
2" wide slot (1"radii at ends)
115 mm
15 mm
Fig.
uli
GPa
for
and
aluminum
alloy
and
steel
the
be,
obtained
respectively,
75
those
given
200
in Table
GPa.
Compare
1 of the Appendix.
Hint:
stresses
The
with
237. mensions
cyclic
A machine shown
loading.
10 mm in the figure,
If the maximum
part
c,_.+
to
Fig.
I
(a)
10
turn
(b)
(c)
0mm1Tn
. 1F
ten
MPa,
determine
allowable
force
P.
Approximate
P239
Axial
response tance
Strains
through no
and
energy
Deformations
a dis
in Bars
Ab,, force the deflection at a. LetA at b due to the application = 2A2. (In Section 134, of a unit it is shown
Problems
of
to 1.5kg 1 m. Let
freely Assume
is
dissipated surfaces,
at supports.
through
nor at points
plastic
of the
stresses
impact occurring
that
tems.
this
reached
relationship
It is widely used
is true
in analysis.
in general
This
for
conclusion
elastic
syscan
downward force of 5 kN, as shown in the figure. Initial y, this force is equally distributed among the three wires. The stresses in the wires are well within the linearly'elastic range of material behavior. (a) Determine
Section
256. An axial force of the bar
2t6
elastic bar held at both ends P, as shown in the figure.
is constant. (a) Determine
be
by
inspection
for
statically
for the system shown in the figure, for stopping of 1 kg moving at a velocity of 3 rn/sec such that, impact, the spring deflection would not exceed
Neglect frictional effects.
246.
Determine
the
stif ness
required
in the. spring,
bars.)
249.
sume
Consider
that ends
the
A and
bar
given
D are
in Example
held and that
22
P2
and
=
as
A
the forces
in the wires
10mm
Determine strain,
kN
and
P3 = 200
and there
kN
act
(b)
in the
Plot
the diagrams.
directions
axial
force,
shown.
applied
(a)
in the
x 106/C.
middle
2, L = 2000mm,
wire
wire.
would
caused
(b) At what
E=
Properties
by a temperature
200 x 103N/mm
change
slack?
of the wires:
in temper
2,
interpret applied
assuming
the force.
that
of the diagram
it become
250.
forces, reactions
x 106/F.
If in Problem
is a drop would develop
249,
in addition
of
to the
251.
Fig. P246
crosssectional
the reactions,
elastic
axialdisplace
bar
and
Fig.
P256
shown
(b) plot
ment
Section 2t5
diagrams.
the
axialforce,
Let
E = 10 x 103 ksi.
axialstrain,
and
the
Fig. P253
257.
(a). (b),
combined
For
symmetrically
spring
constant
arranged
k = n
in series, k fol ows
springs
ki;
in parallel,
see
figure
247. An elastic bar of variable cross section, both ends, is loaded as shown in the figure. ibilities.of the bar segments are /2, , and mine the reactions, and plot the axialforce
held
The flex. Deterand axial
at
1/ki,
or,
alternatively,
and
= n
fi,
where
is sysspring.
. displacement
diagrams.
252.
pended
force wil
If a load
by
tem
flexibility,
i the
flexibility
of an ith
Fig.
P251
wires
taut.
additional
of 1 kip
wires
is applied
to a rigid
The
bar
sus
three
as shown
each
in the
figure,
if the of the
left wire slips out 3 mm from steel wires is 2000 mm long, area of 10 mm 2, and an elastic
be resisted
by
wire?
outside
wire
GPa.
is
in the
(b)
IP
P247
elastic bar of variable cross
wire.
Fig.
in the two alternative figures. A,b at a caused by the applicaat b, and show that it is equal
200
200
>
to
Alum.
wires
A = 0.3
L = 25'
Steel wire
in 2
A2
l./4
L/4
L/4
t I
A = 0.2
/. = 50'
in 2
P=3kN
1
P254
: k = 300
k2 = 200
N/mm
N/mm
clination
spaced a mass steel
255.
area
Rework
of bar
angles
BD
Example
as
a to 30 and
2A. The
214
taking
cross
by changing
the
sections
crosssectional
of bars
the
bar
inAD
P = 6.2 kN
k = 250
N/mm
/ /,.
// / ,
7
Fig.
P248
253. tached
equally support
wires developing
and DC
remain
equal
to A.
Fig.
P258
i36
the
total
Axial
Strains
and
Deformations
in
Bars
Problems
i37
relationships
deflection
given
distributed
in Problem
between
257.
the
(b) How
upper
is the
two
springs? 259.
method.
are
there?
(c)
Find
the
forces
acting
on
Rework
An elastic
Problem
bar
252
of variable
using
cross
the
section
displacement
and held
linearly
The
area
A rigid elastic
mm
of the
applied
wire
at B is 60 mm 2 and
the reactions
by a pin C, as shown
for
at A and in the f
the
one i
and Fig. P265
260.
C is 120
2. Determine
at A,
B,
at both ends is axial y loaded, as shown 'in the figure. The crosssectional area of the small part is A and of the larger, 2A. (a) Using the displacement method, find the reactionS. (b) Plot a qualitative axialdisplacement diagram. Hint: Use the relationship given in Problem 257 for determining the combined stif ness of the bar
segments to the left of P.
caused
by
force
P = 6 kN.
266. Rework Problem 265 Hint: The degree of kinematic reduced by using a relationship
1000
after
Section
2t8
based ultimate
500o5+500oFig.
'26t. A bar of constant
267. A material possesses a nonlinear stressstrain relationship given as cr = Ke n, where K and n are material constants. If a rod made of this material and of constant area A is initial y fixed at both ends and is
then loaded as shown in the figure, how much of ap
Cryp = 60 ksi and E = 30 x 106 psi, and for concrete, Crano, = 2000 psi, Cryp = 3600 psi and E = 2 x 106
psi. (It has been shown experimental y yields, the concrete "yield" strength that when steel is approximately 0.85crut, where Cru, is the ultimate compresslye strength of an unreinforced cylindrical specimen of the same material, age, and curing conditions. In order to
achieve ductile behavior of columns, the use of lateral
Assume For
that
steel,
P260
thickness and held at both
plied
Fig. P263
force
P is carried
by the left
support?
ends
the Hint:
bar.
reactions First
caused the
by stif ness
shown
the for
axial y the
in the figure.
applied tapered
Determine
force part
264.
Five
P. of the
area ner,
assembled figure.
in a symmetrical manAssume that the steel bematerial with E = 200 GPa. of joint A due to downward that, initial y, the rods are
Fig.
P267
268.
A rod
is fixed
at A and
loaded
with
an
axial
force
7
taut.
in the with
of
200
MPa.
Prior
to.loading,
a. gap
fixed for
of 2 mm
exists
C. (a) point value
mm
bePlot asfor
2 and
or spiral reinforcement is essential.) A rigid platform rests on two 10 7 psi) each 10.000 in long. A (E = 30 x 106 psi) and standing in long. (a) What wil be the if a force P of 100 kips is applied How much do the aluminum bars be the ultimate (plastic) strength
(E of is
tween the end of the rod and the loaddisplacement diagram suming P increases from zero
the rod. The cross section from
(ffyp)Al
= 40 ksi and
(Cryv)St
= 60 ksi?
P
that
in addition, each having
indeterof freeFig. P264
from
force?
B to C is 100
displacement
mm 2. (b) What
B upon release
wil
be the
of the
reap
sidual
plied
of point
l 2 mm
cross section and held
section for the A. (a) Compare
A = 2 in 2
Section
2t7
AI
St
!AI
L
A=4in
ends
is axial y
Determine
Fig. P262
degrees
of kinematic
loaded
at several
points,
larger
as
the::
I250mm250 mm
Fig. P268
A = 2 in 2
the reactions
and static
indeterminacies.
(b)
269.
The
cross
section
of a short
reinforced
concrete
diagram.
column
is as shown
in the
figure.
Four
1in
round
bars
Fig.
P270
t38
27t. A force P = 1 kN is applied
Axial
by three of equal wires, as shown size and the same
no slack between
2'/ / / / / /,
Strains
to a rigid
and
bar
Deformations
sus
in Bars
273. An aluminum tube is axial y compressed between the two heavy nuts of a steel bolt, as shown the figure. If it is known that the axial stress in the sleeve at 80 C is 20 MPa, at what temperature does this prestress become zero? For the aluminum tube:
wir,
pended wires
initial y, applied
are A = 80 mm 2, E =. 200
there load were distribute
// / / / / ,
GPa,
in the material.
and
L = 4 m. If,
how wil the
figure. For
All each
pter
A = 1000mm 2, E= 70 x 103MPa, andct = 23.2 x 10 6 per C. For the steel bolt: A = 500 mm 2, E 200 x 103 MPa, and ct = 11.7 x 10 6 per C.
Aluminum tube
200
mm
100
mm
100
mm
4000
mm
_
100 _ '
Fig. P273
Steelbolt
Section
assuming
bar is three
P
Fig. P2.71
272. An aluminum rod 7 in long, having two crosssectional areas, is inserted into a steel shown in the figure. If at 60 F no axial force the aluminum rod, what wil be the magnitude
274.
elastic
Rework
modulus
Example
E1 for the
223
middle
after
bars,
that
E2 = E3
the
=
31.
Introduction
smaller
3E.
than
that
for
the
outside
i.e.,
force
Ctst
when
the
temperature
106/F.
x 106/F;
Steel link:
rises
to 160 F? E^,
= 107
275.
Problem
that
area of each bar parallel to rod is 0.35 in 2
the
0.30
in 2
Section
*276. 277. *278.
tinuity
NONACTIVATED VERSION A of this chapter. In Part B, general mathematical www.avs4you.com and shear strains are given. Then, by employing
Plot the loaddeflection diagram for joint A in
264 caused by the applied force P,
yield
stress
for
the
material
cryp
= 250
MPa.
In addition to the normal strain discussed in the previous chapter in connection with axial y loaded bars, in general, a body may also be subjected to shear strains. For the purposes of deformation analysis, such strains must be related to the applied shear stress. This topic is discussed in Part
2t9
and
con
position, the generalized Hooke's and strains for a threedimensional walled pressure vessels and shells eralized Hooke's law is 'employed important elements of construction.
solution for thickwalled cylinders
the method law is synthesized, relating state of stress. Next, in Part of revolution are considered.
for the deformation
definitions
for normal
Aluminum
rod,
0.40
in 2
of a typical boundaryvalue problem ticity, and, at the same time, provides equat ions mechanics. established for thinwalled solid
is developed.
In the concluding
This
analysis
in the mathematical theory of elasbounds on the applicability of the pressure vessels using engineering
il ustrates
part,
Part D, a
a solution
Fig.
P272
SHEAR
CONSTITUTIVE
Relationships
An example
RELATIONSHIPS
for Shear
of such deformations
FOR
3.2.
cause
StressStrain
shear deformations.
In addition discussed
to the normal strains related to the axial strains in bars in Chapter 2, a body may be subjected to shear stresses that
is shown
in
t39
140
Hooke' Law, sPressure Vessel and sT,hiWal ck. lCyl ed inders '
planes in a body defines shear strain t (gamma). For infinitesimal elements these small angles are measured in radians. The / subscripts shown Fig. 31 associate a particular shear strain with a pair of coordinate Transformation of shear strain to any other mutually perpendicular of planes wil be discussed in Section 813. For the purposes of deformation analysis, it is essential to establish relationship between shear strain and shear stress based on experiments As wil become apparent in the next chapter, such experiments are mo conveniently performed on thinwalled circular tubes in torsion. The ments of such tubes are essential y in a state of pure shear stress. An il ustration of the conditions prevailing in a tube wall are shown in 32. The corresponding shear strains can be determined from the priate geometric measurements. Note that per Section 14, the shear stresses on mutually perpendicula planes are equal; see Fig. 32(a). Moreover, since in this discussion, stresses and strains are limited to a planar case, the subscripts for can be omit ed; see Fig. 32(b). By using experiments with thinwalled tubes, the generated shear stressstrain diagrams, except for their scale greatly resemble those usually found for tension specimens (See Figs. 2
Sec.
33.
Elastic
Strain
Energy
for
Shear
Stresses
t41
Fig.
31.
The
change
in the initial
right
angle
between
any
two
imaginary
I tJ
(a)
(b)
material.
Fig.
33
Shear
stressstrain
diagrams;
(a)
typical
and
(b)
idealized
for
a ductile
where ticity,
34.
material.
EXAMPLE
For
emphasis,
of proportionality of rigidity.
the relationship
Like
given
of elasa given
Fig.
34
and
Linear
or
strain.
Hookean
relation
stress
between
pure
shear
in Pig.
3t
31
Possible
of
shear
an element.
el asticperfectly spectively,
just stress
Two
,/di_agrams
yield
In numerous
as for and
the
strength
NONACTIVATED VERSION Fig. 33(b), ,yp and /yp designate, retechnical problems, the shear stresses do not exceed the of the material. For most materials www.avs4you.com in this range of stress,
plastic yield behavi or, shear stress
are shown in Fig.
and
33.
In the
idealized
diagram
of
the
shear
yield
strain.
has G = 0.64
Neglect'the
Solution
stif ness
N/mm
mountings shown
2. Determine
of the
outer
metal
the shear
plates
spring
to which
constant
pad
mechanical of Grade
the
ks for this
rubber
equipment 50 rubber
is bonded.
mounting.
a linear can
relationship be 'postulated.
between Therefore,
pure
shear mathe
GA
t
(a)
Further,
Therefore,
This
at the
'ks
solution
two
F = ,ab  G Aab t
F
A
small
Gab
t
local
0.64
20
8
40
,x
=
since
64 N/mm
no shear stresses act
Fig. 35
(b)
neglects
boundaries.
effects
at the
ends
33.
o
Fig.
shear.
Elastic
Strain
Energy
strain
for Shear
energy in a manner an element for
Stresses
an infinitesimal analogous to that in a state of shear, element in for one in as shown
(b)
An expression for the elastic pure shear may be established uniaxial stress. Thus, consider
Malaysian
32
Element
in pure
(a)
P. B. Lindley,
Rubber
Engineering
Producers'
Research
Design
with
Association,
Natural
Rubber
1978).
(Hertford,
England:
Hooke's
Law,
Pressure
Vessels,
and
Thick.
Walled
Oylinders
Sec.
3.4.
Mathematical
Definition
of Strain
43
GENERALIZED NOOKE'S
CONCEPTS
LAW
OF
STRAIN
AND
**334.
Since strains must relate extensional Some points
x
Mathematical
Definition
of Strain
(a)
generally vary from point to point, the definitions of strain to an infmitesimal element. With this in mind, consider an strain taking place in one direction, as shown in Fig. 37(a). like A and B move to A' and B', respectively. During strain
Fig.
36
An
element
for
deriving pure
energy
due
to
(b)
in Fig.
where it is assumed that the bottom plane of the element is fixed in position. 2 As this element is deformed, the force on the top plane reaches a final value of dx dz. The total displacement of this force for a small deformation of the element is ' dy; see Fig. 36(b). Therefore, since the external work done on the element is equal to the internal recoverable elastic strain energy,
36(a).
The
deformed
shape
of this
element
is shown
in Fig.
36(b),
is t q A u, since in addition to the whole element Ax, On this basis, the definition
ing,
point
A experiences
a displacement
u. The
displacement
of point
=
lim
A u
A x
du
dx
3 This
text.
and
the
fundamental concepts
next
section
definition of stretching
can
be omit ed
of extensional or extending,
D' C' 
without
strain, can
DC
loss
be
of continuity
more amenable expressed, using
in the
to the Fig.
(36a)
dUshear
where dV is the
= 'r dx dz
average force
4 A more general
(3 2)
ex =
axo
lim
DE
distance
volume
of
the
infinitesimal
element.
where DD'.
Also
By
recasting
Eq.
32,
the
strainenergy
density
for
shear
becomes
see
811
displacements deformations
and
12.
of points considered
C and here,
shear
By using
as
2
Eq. 33 may
(33)
be recast
A,
,A'
Ax
B
., B'
'
X, U
y,
+ Au
.+dy
U
Hooke's
law
for
shear
stresses,
= G',/,
(a)
(U)sher=
or
 sher2G
ol
(34)
+ dy
v
1
dy
Ushe = fv
Note
a state of
dV
'to Eqs. 220223
in Chapters
less general.
(35)
for elements
4, 10, and 12.
the similarity
uniaxial stress.
of Eqs.
equations
not make
3235
are
the
in
8x dx
X U
Applications
2 This assumption
of these
does
given
expression
x, u dimensional
(c)
Fig.
37
One
in
strained
initial
and
twoand final
elements
(b)
positions.
t44
mensional
entiate between the directions of the strains. For the same reason, it is also necessary to change the ordinary derivatives to partial ones. Therefore, if at a point of a body, u, v, and w are the three displacement components occurring, respectively, in the x, y, .and z directions of the coordinate axes, the basic definitions of normal strain become
Sec.
3.5.
Strain
Tensor
case in Fig.
is strained
37(b),
in orthogonal
subscripts
directions,
must
be attached
as shown
to e to dif er
for
a twodi
'Yxz = 'Y=
In Eqs. missible sequences
In
Ox + Oz
subscripts
distinction
39,
'Yyz
'Y
Oy + Oz
This
the
six straindis
(310)
is pertwo
Ou
Ov
examining
37,
subscript.
and
ax
Note
for these
Ox
analogously
Oy
to those of stress, can
(37)
that
double
strains.
subscripts,
Thus,
be used
placement
equations
depend
these equations cannot be independent. Three can be developed showing the interrelationships 'xy, 'yz, and =. The number of such equations twodimensional case. The derivation and the
only
on three
displacement
components
in
u,
(a)
ap
given
(38)
plication
in texts
of these
on the
equations,
theory
known
of elasticity.
as the equations
of compatibility,
are
**35.
Strain
Tensor
where one of the subscripts designates and the other, 'the direction of the elongations. In addition to normal strains, an strain as shown for example in the the sides of the deformed element Since v is the displacement in the direction, Ov/Ox is the slope of the tesimal element. Similarly, the vertical On this basis, the initial y right angle + Ou/Oy. Therefore, for small angle strain associated with the xy coordinates
direction
can
of the
Positive
line signs
element, apply
to
The normal and the shear strains defined in the preceding section together express the strain tensor, which is highly analogous to the stress tensor already discussed. It is necessary, however, to modify the relations for the shear strains in order to have a tensor, an entity which must obey
(b}
also
experience
a shear
certain
laws
of transformation.
5 Thus,
the physically
attractive
definition
xy plane in Fig. 37(c). This inclines in relation to the x and the y axes. y direction, as one moves in the x initial y horizontal side of the infiniside tilts through an angle Ou/Oy. CDE is reduced by the amount Ov/Ox changes, the definition of the is
may
of shear
The
38(b).
from horizontal
defor
the
'7y = '7yx Ox Oy
To arrive are equal
Ov +
(39)
,
mation is shown to consist of two 'y/2's. 38(a) and (b) can be obtained by rotating rigid body through an angle of 'y/2. The the correct one for defining the shearstrain a tensor. Since in this definition, the element the strain is said to be pure or #'rotational.
redefines the shear strains as
2
The deformed elements in Figs. the element in Fig. 38(c) as a scheme shown in Fig. 38(c) is component as an element of is not rotated as a rigid body, Following this approach, one
(c)
Fig.
38
Shear
deformations.
the
37(c).
shear
shear
(This
39:
strain
at this to the
deformation
see
applies
for
when
14.)
corresponds
the element
strains
is deformed,
positive
directions yz planes
as shown
of small Positive
(311)
in Fig.
similar
of the
appreciation

stresses;
Fig.
The
to Eq.
definitions
the
shear
xz and
are
5 Rigorous
transformation
of it wil
for
discussion
a twodimensional
develop,
of this question
however,
case
is beyond
after
is considered.
the
study
the scope
of Chapter
of this text.
8, where
A better
strain
t46
Hooke's
Law,
Pressure
Vessels,
and
ThickWalled
Cylinders
Sec.
36.
Generalized
Hooke's
Law
for
Isotropic
Materials
147
From
assembled
these
as
equations,
fol ows:
the
strain
tensor
in matrix
representation
can
be
have
the three
properties
nine
orthogonal
in the longitudinal,
independent
directions.
radial,
Such
constants,
material
materials,
and transverse
whereas,
referred two.
directions,
as it wil
to as orthotropic,
i.e.,
in
be shown
?yx
?yz
(312)
in the next section, isotropic materials have only tropic crystal ine materials the number of independent can be as large as 21.6 In this book consideration isotropic materials, although by properly selecting the developed procedures can be applied to orthotropic examples of these are wood and manmade materials,
sheets or fdamentreinforced plastics.
For ful y anisomaterial constants is basically limited to the directions of axes, problems. Notable such as corrugated
strain, such as shown or expansion of a is being stretched or
The strain tensor is symmetric. in the last expression is particularly in continuum mechanics (elasticity, the stress tensor, using indicial
tensor.
notation employed and has wide acceptance rheology, etc.). Just as for can write e u for the strain
According
to the basic
Analogously to the stress tensor, the strain tensor can be diagonalized, having only el, e2, and e3 as the surviving components. For a twodimensional problem, e3 = 0; and one has the case of plane strain. The
tensor for this situation is
shown
concept
of Hooke's
in Fig.
caused
of the lateral deformation ratio (see Section 28). by stresses applied along in Fig.
where
law,
a linear
relationship
Fig.
between extensional
3.9
Linear
uniaxial
strain.
relation
stress and
for
are
Consider
first
23,
(:;
defined in
yy
i)
and
14,
or
of strain
suggested
be
Ee,
stress
one
that
has
O'x, as shown
the element
shown
and
e' = rx/E,
e' is the
310(b).
in Fig.
along
310(a)
strain
this
is subjected
in the
case,
x direction.
from
o' = re4th
only
the
y and
Theory
z axes,
of Elas
or
e2
(313)
ed.,
6 A. P. Boresi
(New
(New
by
Eq.
in
313
wil
be
considered
in
ticity
York:
and O. M. Sidebottom,
Wiley,
McGrawHil ,
chanics
of a Continuous
York:
1985).
I. S. Sokolnikoff,
1956).
Advanced
E. Malvern,
Medium,
(Englewood
L.
Mathematical
Mechanics
NJ:
Introduction
of Materials,
PrenticeHall,
Clif s,
to the
1969).
Me
dif erences
wil
between
discussed
plane
the
strain
next
and
section
plane
after
stress,
the
introduction of the generalized Hooke's law. The reader should note that in discussing the concept of strain, the mechanical properties of the material were not involved. The equations are applicable whatever the mechanical behavior of the material. However, only small strains are defined by the presented equations. Also note
placements
that
strains
give
do
not
only
affect
the
the
relative
strains.
displacement
of points;
rigidbody
Initial shape
(a)
Final
shape
(c)
36.
Generalized
Hooke's
Law
for
Isotropic
Materials
In this article, six basic relationships between a general state of stress and strain are synthesized using the principle of superposition from previously established simpler stressstrain equations. This set of ec tions is referred to as the generalized Hooke's law. These equations applicable only to homogeneous isotropic materials, i.e., materials having the same properties in all directions. Hooke's law for anisotropic materials. For example, wood has decidedly
Final
[ '"'
shape
(b)
%
(d)
Finalshape
axes.
Fig.
340
Element
deformations normal
directions
stresses
of
coordinate
caused acting
by
in
t48
Hooke's
Law,
Pressure
Vessels,
and
ThickWalled
Cylinders
Sec.
36.
Generalized
Hooke's
Law
for
Isotropic
Materials
149
stressed,
strains
using Poisson's ratio, Eq. 216, and are expressions for strains e, e, and e apply as shown in Fig. 310(c), and again for
expressions
for the
as shown
for
normal
in Fig.
strains
310(d).
can
ex,
be
By superposing
ey, and
treated as
e = when strains
the
For
example,
the
nor(315)
e are
Since
Cartesian
axes
the
general problem into Eq. 31 are above, six equations elastic materials
only, the introduction needed. for the generalized for use with Cartesian
of the
Hooke's law
when
Similar
strains
useful
relations
vary
comments
apply along
generalized
Hooke's
some
coordinates
O'x
E
O'x O'x
O'z
not
O' z
shows that Crx and o'y may exist. If either one or both of these stresses are present, according to the third Eq. 314, a normal strain e wil develop. Conversely, in the plane strain problem, defined by Eq. 313, the normal strain e must be zero. Therefore, in this case, if either O'x and/or % are present, it can be concluded from the third Eq. 314 that cr should
be zero.
are
distinction
The
similarity
in
and
the
dif erence
between
the
two
kinds
of
problems
strains
can
shown
be further
Plane
matrix
clarified
Stress
form.
from
the
Plane
table,
Strain
where
the
stresses
and
(31<
0
0
/2
0
e,/20)
ey
0
0
0
'/2
0
ey
0 e
,r 0
c& 0
These taneously
as an exercise.
have stresses
an inverse, in terms
i.e., of strains.
they
can
This
be is left
EXAMPLE
32
If normal stresses are compressive, the signs of the corresponding change in the previous equations for the normal strains. The positive of the shear strains corresponding to the positive direction of stresses (Fig. 13) is shown in Figs. 31 and 32. In the next wil be shown that in Eq. 314, the three elastic constants, E, are not independent of each other, and that for isotropic materials, are only two constants. If a body experiences a change in temperature, the three normal equations should be modified by adding to each the expression Eq. 217. No changes in shear strains due to a change in temperature
A 50 mm cube of steel is subjected to a uniform pressure of 200 MPa acting on all faces. Determine the change in dimension between two parallel faces of the
cube. Let E = 200 GPa and v = 0.25.
it
Solution
Using
given
a compressive
in Eq.
314
and Eq.
315,
and noting
that
pressure
is
place
in all
in isotropic
directions.
materials
be clearly understood
since If the
determine
such
that
materials
Eq.
deformation
have
314 gives
the
strains,
same
i.e.,
mm/mm
200 X 10 3 x 50 = 0.025
200 x 10 i
mm (contraction)
It should
Ax
of
= xZx
= 5
x 10 4
mations
member,
per
in
unit
order
length.
to
strain
the
is constant
of
along
such
the
length
In this case
A = Ay = Az.
a member,
t50
B
Hooke's
Law,
Pressure
Vessels,
and
Thick.Walled
Cylinders
Sec.
38.
Dilatation
and
Bulk
Modulus
t5t
37.
E, G, and
v Relationships
first it 3~11(a), This can'
a trian then with
()
In order to demonstrate the relationship among E, G, and v, be shown that a state of pure shear, such as shown in Fig. be transformed into an equivalent system of normal stresses. shown in the fol owing manner. Bisect square element ABCD by diagonal AC and isolate element, as shown in Fig. 311(b). If this element is dz thick, area associated with sides AB or BC is dA, and that associated
diagonal
AC
is V dA.
acting toward
Since
the shear
stress
acting
on the areas
'V
other
dA
element between extensional
001 002 T
, the forces
normal
the components
forces acting
to AC.
parallel
on these diagonal
force
to diagonal
BD develop
by
a resultant
normal
components On the
stresses
of
dA act
00
Fig.
342
force
'(b) Force diagram
on area X, dA associated with diagonal AC. This gives rise 00X/ dA shown in the figure. Since the shear stress resultant
must be equal,
and
This
is equilibrated
the
deformation shear
Kinematics a relationship
and strains.
of
for
it fol ows
that
stresses
are
to a and
shown
establishing
t
311(c) By isolating proceeding 002 = '. This representa. Fig. 31 l(a). represented stresses, as
Eq.
cannot be treated as forces. an element with a side BD, as shown in Eq. 311(d), in the same manner as before, a conclusion is reached The results of the two analyses are displayed in Fig. tion of stress is completely equivalent to that shown Therefore, a pure shear stress at a point can be alternative by the normal stresses at 45 with the directions of the shown in Fig. 311(e), and numerically,
001 02 'r
v E = (1 + v)
relations for the strain along the
(318)
shear
(c)
Equating
the
two
alternative
v)
(319)
A B
(d)
This important stress transformation enables one to proceed in establi: ing the relationship among E, G and v. For this purpose, consider deformed element shown in Fig. 312, and determine the strain in DB on two dif erent bases. In one approach, determine strain from stresses; in the other, from the equivalent normal stresses. Considering only infinitesimal deformations, and let ing sin  and cos  1, it fol ows that displacement BB' due to shear is The projection of this displacement onto diagonal DB', which, to the of the approximation adopted, is equal to the stretch of DB, is
is the
basic
relation
between
E,
G,
and
v; it shows
that
these
quan
tities
are not independent'of one another. If any two of these are deterexperimental y, the third can be computed. Note that the shear G is always less than the elastic modulus E, since the Poisson a positive quantity. For most matedhals, v is in the neighborhood
4.
Therefore,
Hence,
since
the
length
of DB
Eq.
is Va,
its normal
strain
45 is
Dilatation
and
Bulk
Modulus
recalling
that
' = C,W,
31,
one
has
o 2
e45o = 
of
(315
(e)
Fig. 31t
pure shear equivalent
Transformation
stress normal into stresses.
However, the shear stresses causing the deformation shown in Fig. 12 are equivalent to the normal stresses represented in Fig. 31 l(e). fore, if the x axis is directed along diagonal DB, the first Eq. 314 applied by taking 00, = 00, cry = 002, and 00z = 0. In this manner alternative expression for the normal strain in diagonal DB is found.
extending some of the established concepts, one can derive an equafor volumetric changes in elastic matedhals subjected to stress. In the process of doing this, two new terms are introduced and defined. The sides dx, dy, and dz of an infinitestimal element after straining become (1 + e,) dx, (1 + %) dy, and (1 + ez) dz, respectively. After g the initial volume from the volume of the strained element, change in volume is determined. This is
Study of this section is optional.
52
Cylinders
(e + ey + ez) dx dy
and Spherical
Pressure Vessels
r I = Inside
where the products of strain e.ey + eyez + eze, + e,eyez, being are neglected. Therefore, in the infinitesimal (small) strain theory, change in volume per unit volume, often referred to as dilatation,
fined as
small e, is
(a)
oa p
pLridO_ r;dius
O2
e= ex+ ey+
The
terms
Based
shear
of stresses
on the generalized
and
strains
cause
no
change
material
Hooke's
in volume.
constants.
law,
For
2v
the dilatation
this
purpose,
c an be found
the first
Eqs.
314
must
be added
together.
This
(cr.
1 
yields
0 2e P
(f)
e = ex + ey + ez which
normal
+ cry + cr0
P
can
means
stresses.
that body
dilatation is subjected
is proportional
tensity
If an elastic
p, so that
to hydrostatic
NONACTIVATED i.e., no bending VERSION of the walls takes place. A sphere is an ideal a closed pressure vessel if the contents are of negligible weight; then from Eq. 321, www.avs4you.com ends, a matter to be commented on in more detail in the next
to the algebraic sum of
The walls of an ideal thinwalled pressure vessel act
for analysis
of thinwalled
cylindrical
pressure
vessels.
as a membrane,
pressure
of uniform
drical
vessel
is also
good
with
the
exception
of the junctures
e =
The
bulk
E
k represents
in volume
P
the ratio
and
or
is called the
= k modulus
3(1
2v
pressure
The analysi
to the
quantity
modulus.
decrease
of the hydrostatic
of compression,
compressive
isolated from this vessel by passing two planes perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder and one additional longitudinal plane through the same axis, shown in Fig. 313(b). The conditions of symmetry exclude the presence of any shear stresses in the planes of the sections, as shear stresses would cause an incompatible distortion of the tube. Therefore, the stresses
that can exist on the sections of the cylinder only be the normal
vessel
s of pressure
such
as a boiler,
vessels
as shown
wil begin
in Fig. 3~13(a).
by considering
A segment
is
the respective
inder
stresses,
cr! and
39.
In this
Cylindrical
vessels:
section,
and
Spherical
and spherical.
Hooke's
Pressure
toward
Vessels
of these
.types
sure
portance.
cation
very widely
of the
In analyzing
used in industry;
generalized
cylindrical
attention
is directed
such
vessels
hence,
law
for
this topic
is required.
Both
two
elastic
is of great
deformations,
types
of thinwalled
of vessels
Let the internal pressure in excess of the external pressure Pa (gage pressure), and let the internal radius of the cylinder the force on an infinitesimal area Lri dO (where dO is an infinitesimal of the cylinder caused by the internal pressure acting normal pLri dO; see Fig. 313(c). The component of this force acting izontal direction is (pLr dO) cos 0; hence, the total resisting
in equilibrium
areas
cr2, shown
against
on which
in Fig.
the
they
313(b).
internal
act, maintain
pressure.
These
the element
stresses,
multiplied
of the cyl
by
practical
an
im?
acting
on the
cylindrical
segment
is
2P
= 2
pLri
cos
dO
= 2prL
Hooke's
Law,
Pressure
Vessels,
and
Thick.Walled
Cylinders
symmetry, half of this total force is resisted at the top the cylinder and the other half is resisted at the bottom. stresses 02 acting in a direction parallel to the axis of the c do not enter into the above integration. Instead of obtaining the force 2P caused by the internal pressure integration, as above, a simpler equivalent procedure is available. an alternate point of view, the two forces P resist the force developed the internal pressure p, which acts perpendicular to the projected are A of the cylindrical segment onto the diametral plane; see Fig. 313( This area in Fig. 313(b) is 2riL; hence, 2P = Ap = 2riLp. This is resisted by the forces developed in the material in the longitudinal cut and since the outside radius of the cylinder is to, the area of both gitudinal cuts is 2A = 2L(ro  ri). Moreover, if the average acting on the longitudinal cut is 02, the force resisted by the walls of t cylinder is 2L(ro  ri)0. Equating the two forces, 2riLp = 2L(ro  ri)0. Since ro  ri is equal to t, the thickness of the cylinder wall, the expression simplifies' to
from
Etowever, development
this
(3 25)
(a)
Note that for thinwalled cylindrical pressure vessels, 0.2 0.#2. An analogous method of analysis can be used to derive an expression for thinwalled spherical pressure vessels. By passing a section through center of the sphere of Fig. 314(a), a hemisphere shown in Fig. 3is isolated. By using the same notation as before, an equation idento Eq. 325 can be derived. However, for a sphere, any section that asses through the center of the sphere yields the same result whatever the inclination of the element's side; see Fig. 314(c). Hence, the maximum membrane stresses for thinwalled spherical pressure vessels are
(b)
The normal
stress
given
by Eq.
ferential or the hoop stress. Equation 324 is valid only for thinw cylinders, as it gives the average stress in the hoop. However, as is in Example 36, the wall thickness can reach onetenth of the inte radius and the error in applying Eq. 324 wil stil be small. Since Eq. 24 is used primarily for thinwalled vessels, where ri to, the for the. radius is usually omit ed. Equation 324 can also be derived by passing two longitudinal as shown in Fig. 313(e). Because of the assumed membrane action. forces P in the hoop must be considered acting tangential y to the c The horizontal components of the forces P maintain the horizontal ponent of the internal pressure in a state of static equilibrium. The other normal stress 02 acting in a cylindrical pressure vessel
(326)
analyzed
showing
the
normal
stresses 0 and 02 viewed from 314(a), and 314(c). According .ociated with these normal Which these shear stresses act ward a section through the wall
the outside are indicated in Figs. 313(a), to Eq. 110, the maximum shear stresses stresses are half as large. The planes on may be identified on elements viewed to
Thinwalled pressure
vessel.
of a vessel.
Such
a section
is shown
in
*t
o
a simple
peri:
The force
veloped longitudinal
forces and
by the internal pressure is prr, and the force developed stress 02 in the walls is 02(rr  rr2). Equating
solving
these
by the
The stresses fol ow by direct application of Eqs. 324 and 325:
of
maximum
stresses
prrT
02 I
= 02(xPo
prT
 rrT)
prT
(ro
+ r)(ro
ri)
0'2 =
pr =
t
10 x 10 3
0.8 x 1
80MPa
Fig. 315 In yielded steel pressure vessels shear slip planes at 45 can be
observed on etched
specimens.
'55
Hooke's
Law,
Pressure
Vessels,
and
Thick.
Walled
Cylinders
Sec.
3.10.
Remarks
on
Thin.Walled
Pressure
Vessels
and
0'2 = 2t
pr
2 x 10 x 10 3 = 40 MPa
0.8 x 1
Hence,
decreases side. crBei it can be onegl setting cr t=o zero cry, %.on =theor2,outand = n0g insmal thel, first expressi n ectiend. Eq. Hence, 314, one
obtains the hoop strain el:
For an industshown rial lainborat unit iswilto operat emple oy ata pressure e dimensions Fig. ory 316. a pi Thelot vessel an internal vessel pressure of thof
.7 MPa. If for this unit 20 bolls are to be used on a 650 mm bolt circle diameter, what is the required bolt diameter at the root of the threads? Set the allowable
Bolts
EXA[VIF
650
mm

600
mm
el =  v
On pressurizing condition, the
strained and
the initial h6op
0'
0'2
 200 x 103
80
4 x 200 x 103
40
= 0.35 x 10 3 mm/mm
in tension
the stress
is 2.
assume
the
circumferences
+ A)
vertical force F acting on the cover is caused 0.7 MPa acting on the horizontal projected area
gasket, i.e.,
p of rubber
gl =
By
earlier,
2r(r
2xr
 2rr

r
value for el
(327
F = 0.7
x 106
x 'i1(600/2)
distributed
2 = 198
among
x 109 N
the 20 bolts,
Figure
3t6
recasting
this
expression
and
substituting
0.35
EXAMPLE 34
x 10 3
the
numerical
per
that
this
force
= 9.90
is equally
x 109 N. Using
the given
bolt
area
stressconcentration
the
force
A at the root
of the
109
125
x 106
= 158
mm 2
Consider
ness
of 10 mm.
a steel
spherical
(a) Determine
pressure
the
vessel
maximum
of radius
membrane
1000
mm
stresses
having
caused
a wall
Hence
by
internal caused
Solution
MPa. Let
lb) Calculate the change in diameter E = 200 GPa, and v = 0.25. Assume
in the that ri
min. tively
Note from Example 222 that initial small increase in total bolt stress
the required
bolt diameter
d = 2X/
in a rela
= 14.2
Remarks
maximum membrane normal stresses fol ow directly from
= 40 MPa
on to note stress
ThinWalled
The
Eq.
326.
0'1 = 0'2
expansion
The same
pr
2t
2 x 10 x 10 3
example
0.80
radius circle.
r due to this cause, A = er, where However, from the first expression
of the sphere
procedure
as in the previous
due to pressurization.
Hence,
can
if A is the increase
strain
be used
has
x
for finding
on the
in the
el=v
0'1
0'2
E200x
40
103
4x200x
40
half as large as that in a cylindrical one. The reason for this can be clarified by making reference to Figs. 317 and 318. In a cylindrical pressure vesthe longitudinal stresses, 0'2, parallel to the vessel's axis, do not contribute to maintaining the equilibrium of the internal pressure p acting on the curved surface; whereas in a spherical vessel, a system of equal stresses resists the applied internal pressure. These stresses, given by Eqs. 324326, are treated as biaxial, although the internal pressure p acting on the wall causes local compressive stresses on the inside equal
Study of this section is optional.
103
= 0.15
103mm/mm
Hooke's
Law,
Pressure
Vessels,
and
Thick.
Walled
Cylinders
Sec.
3.
Introduction
(heads)
pressure
of pressure
undesirable.
plates
vessels
must be very
in Fig.
see
are
Fig.
careful y
with
and
designed.
from
9 Flat ends
given
sheets used in
(a)
the
shear ends
o 1
dif erent
An vessel. element cylindrical of a
Fig. 3t8 thinwalled pressure An element spherical of
types
vessels
are show.n
joints.
vessels by means
114.
Some
320,
comments
preference
should
based
curved of welds
on welded
derived
to the
joints
thinpres
In conclusion, :ases
as in the
it must
be emphasized
that
the formulas
for
vessel.
of internal
pressure
vessels
case
pressure.
in the preceding
If a vessel
tank
to this pressure. As already pointed out in Example 33,. such stresses small in comparison with the membrane stresses 0. and 0'2, and are erally ignored for thinwalled pressure vessels. A more complete sion of this problem is given in Section 313 and Example 3~6. A more important problem arises at geometrical changes in the shape
vessel. These can cause a disturbance in the membrane action. An
of a vacuum
or a submarine,
is to be designed
section
instability
for
be used
on the
external
only
(buckling)
for
Fig. 320 Examples used in pressure Doublefil et lap (b) doublewelded with Vgrooves.
(b)
the
ulas
walls
can
may
be
occur,
meaningless.
and
stress
calculations
previous
of
of each
tration of this condition is given in Fig. 319 using the numerical found in Examples 33 and 34. If a cylindrical pressure vessel has hemispherical ends, as shown Fig. 319(a), and' if initial y the cylinder and the heads were
other,
under
pressufization
they
by the dashed lines. In general, the cylinder by dif erent amounts and would tend to create as shown at A. However, physical continuity tained by local bending and shear stresses juncture, as shown in Fig. 319(b). If instead
and the ends would a discontinuity in the wall} of the wall must be in the neighborhood of of relatively flexible
Analysis discussed
of thickwalled cylinders under internal and external pressure in this part. This problem is related to the thinwalled cylinpressure vessel problem treated earlier. In order to solve the posed problem, acharacteristic method of the mathematical theory of elasticity is employed. This consists of assuring equilibrium for each infinitesimal and, through the .use of geometric relations, allowing only their (possibl) deformations. The equilibrium conditions are reto those of deformation using the generalized Hooke's law. Then
0.35
mm
Detail A
(b)
R
= 1000
mm
tained
governing dif erential subject to the from that used in statical indeterminancy assumption in each chanics of solids, it
the
using
the methods
was
of the mathematical
established on the preceding bases is boundary conditions. This approach difmechanics of solids, where the internal resolved by means of a plausible kinematic case. Occasionally, in engineering menecessary to draw upon the solutions ob
theory
of elasticity.
This,
discontinuities
problems
Deformed
already resorted to in treating in axial y loaded bars. Solutions using the finiteelement approach,
Vessel Code gives theory is beyond the formulas for thinwalled
of cases.
at
are
in
shape
(a) (c) Deformation of the same
9 The
cylindrical
at a flat head
pressure
vessel
practical information on the scope of this text. In spite of cylinders developed here
Fig.
3t9
Exaggerated
deformations
of pressure
vessels
at discontinuities.
o The
suitable
remainder
of this
chapter
can
be omit ed
in a first
course.
t60
Hooke's
Law,
Pressure
Vessels,
and
ThickWalled
Cylinders
Sec.
3t2.
Solution
of the
General
Problem
'16'1
Mathematically,
solution
respects In both
similar cases,
is carried
it clearly
cylinders.
solution for
displays
the problem
to the methods of the mathematical one seeks solutions to boundaryvalue the characteristic
further
of thickwalled
including
by
method
and
cylinders
inelastic
used
plastic
behavior
in elasticity.
is rather
theory of problems
of thi,
a characteristic of reasoning.
the axial stresses cry, on the two faces of the element normal to the plane of the paper. stresses acting on an infinitesimal element having
elasticity solution pr6ceeds along
the
wailed
amined.
Both
of the
the
problem cylinders.
other
elasticplastic
of thickwailed
the
states
under
are
Equilibrium element chosen the desi must be in static is 1 x r dqb; equilibrium. To express err + dcrr this acts matheis 1 x
The
cylinders
pressure
earlier
of extrusion
provides
thinwailed
molds
bounds
and.
on the applicability
This
mechanicai
solution
equipment.
of the equations
is also useful
for
err acts
of forces stresses
that
on which
**342.
Solution
of
the
General
Problem
inder be pi and the outside, or external, pressure be po. Stresses in the wall, the cylinder caused by these pressures are sought. This problem can be conveniently solved by using cylindrical nates. Since the cylinder is long, every ring of unit thickness perpendicular to the plane of the paper is stressed alike. A typicai
itesimai element of unit thickness is defined by two and an angle dqb, as shown in Fig. 321(b). If the normal radial stress acting on the infinitesimal tance r from the center of the cylinder is err, this distance r + dr wil be crr q (do'r/dr) dr. Both normal radii, r and r +
element at a
a long cylinder with axial y restrained ends whose cross dimensions shown in Fig. 321(a). The inside radius of this is ri; the outside radius is ro. Let the internal presst/re in the c'
+ dr) dqb; and each area on which crt acts is 1 x dr. The weight of the itself is neglected. Since the angle included between the sides of the element is dqb, both tangential stresses are inclined dqb to the line
erpendicular
0,
to OA. Then,
summing
the forces
aiong
a radiai
line, Fr
Simplifying, and VERSION neglecting the infinitesimais of higher NONACTIVATED www.avs4you.com crt  crr  rFF = 0 or dZ + dcrr dcrr Crr
= 0
(328)
of defor
two faces of the element stresses in a thin cylinder, of symmetry, every element
be stressed
Lamfi
variable stress tangential are err. These stresses, are equal. Moreover, at the same radi
stresses act on
at
it can
the
aiike,
no
shear
is done of materiais
unknown stresses, fit and cry. Intermediate this equation in terms of one unknown
by introducing into the the geometry
so
problem.
is sometimes
This
problem
was
to as the
originally
solved
problem.
by Lamfi,
a French
engineer,
in
:tric
The
deformation . directions.
a cylindricai surface of radius r, Fig. 321(a), displacement or movement of the adjacent Hence, the strain er of an element in the radial
u+du
and
u + rr du dr )  u
dr
(b)
du
dr
(329)
Thickwalled
(a)
The
fol ows
cylindrical
by subtracting surface
62
Hooke's
Law, Pressure
the
Vessels,
lat er
Cylinders
cylinder of radius
u
r
of the General
stresses are
Problem
by
s. 329
2w'
336
by expressing
and 330;
then
them
the
radial
in terms
and
of the
tangential
displacement
u, as given
(337)
Note
unknown
that
variable
Eqs.
of Material
329
u.
and
330
give
strains
expressed
Properties
(1  v)(1  2v)
law relating strains to stresses here in the form 2 is given by
Vrr
Eq. 328 and simplifying, the desired
Hooke's be restated
by substituting
dif erential
these
equation
values
is obtained:
into
(331
k
of the Dif erential can be verified the radial
dr 2 +
Equation
r dr
r2
= 0
(338)
in the case of the thickwalled cylinder with axial y the problem is one of plane strain, i.e., e, = 0. The then leads to a relation for the axial stress as
O' x = V(O' r q O't)
solution on the
of Eq. cylinder,
338, is
which
(339)
Introducing taneously
gives
this
and
them of strains:
the
the boundaries
constants
u is not
A and
of the body.
A2
must
be determined
the
from
the
outer
conditions
boundary
Unfortunately,
2v) 2v)
for
the
+ v)(1
E
[(1
known
determination
at either
of the
inner
constants
or the
A and
A2,
the
of
Stresses

the cylinder's
acting
wall.
on the
However,
elements
the known
at the
respective
pressures
err(to) =
radii.
are equal
po
Hence,
to the radial
(340)
+ v)(1
O'r(l'i)
= pi
and
These
elastic
equations
material.
bring
of the Dif erential
the
plane
strain
Equation
condition
into
the
problem
)Ver,
equilibrium equation,
one
since
the
minus
Formation
Now
one variable
2 Since
two
into
u as given
the
by Eqs.
signs
expression
by Eq.
337
are
used
for
339
to indicate
O'r given
and
du/dr
compressive
by Eq.
stresses.
More
given
become
the
u. Thus,
sides,
eliminates
be
Eq.
328,
the
element
strains
can
be expressed
;r and
an
e, from
in terms
Eqs.
an
tween
an infinitesimal
of its
system.
it can
cylindrical
treated
as if it were
includes
an infinitesimal
element
(341)
in a
coordinate
t64
Hooke's
Law,
Pressure
Vessels,
and
Thick.
Walled
Cylinders
Sec.
3.13.
Special
Cases
Plane
'165
of
Trnax
Solving
these
equations
simultaneously
for
A
and
A2
yields
It is these stressstrain However, the resulting 38, and the radial and .walled cylinder that a dif erent constant radial displacement u.
A becomes
relations that must be dif erential equation tangential stresses are and are given by Eq. A must be used in The constant A2 remains
used in the solution process. remains the same as Eq. 3also identical to those in the 343. The only dif erence is Eq. 339 for determining the the same as in Eq. 342,
Po =0
Or = Pi
max
A to
1  vpri
r2 _ r2
po
2  por2o
(346)
Fig. 3.22
*m
These constants, radial displacement specified pressures. aries of the cylinder If Eq. 339 and equations cylinder
used in Eq. 339, of any point on the Thus, displacements can be computed. its derivative, together
when
permit the determination elastic cylinder subjected of the inner and outer with stresses the constants at any given point by
An
element
occurs.
in
*'313.
Ec s. 343
Special
pressure simplify only, to
Cases
i.e., pt 0 and = 0, Fig. 322. For this case,
which
342,
are
substituted
for
are
into
and These
Eqs.
tangential are
C2
337,
and
the results
are simplified,
of an elas
O'r
O'r ' Cl
r2
where
Note that
C2
(347,
and
maxum
(343
is mimum
so occurs
at r
= r. Similarly,
a tensile
stress,
atr=
over
the
whole
crosssectional
area
the
also inder.
cylinder.
constant
This
over
means
the entire
that
the
crosssectional
axial
stress
area
cry, as given
of the
by
thickwalled
Eq.
334
For brit le mater,s, However, for ductile adopt the criterion mated's capacity ise for thinwed
the second Eq. 347 genery governs the design. materies, such as md steel, it is more appropriate for the if itiation of yielding due to shear rather than for resisting normal stress. This issue does not cylinders. In such problems, the mimum radi
stress
shear nomal
Remarks
on
the
ThinDisc
Problem
stressstrain relations used for a thickwalled plane strain condition. If, on the other to be considered, the plane stress condition + c&,)/E) governs. (See the discussion this case, the stressstrain Eqs. 331 and
hand,
cylinder corres an annular thin (i.e., cry, = 0 and at the end of Section 332 reduce to
1
to Eq. 110, the relationship between the mimum stresses is simple and dkect, being *m = */2, or she yield can be used as a criterion. However, cylinders, the radial stress r may be of the same as *t. For such a case, the maximum shear stress
equal
to pt,
i5 neglible
in comparison
with
,.
Therefore,
ac
by supeosing
the effects
in Fig. 323. inner surface
from
both
of the lge
nom
stresses
their
3 in the
found
manner vues
in this manner
shown at the
should
be comped
with
stresses The
the mimum
reach mimum
shear
where
stress
stress
f yp
8r = _(O'r  l/O't)
and by solving
E
and
simultaneously,
, = (vcrr
+ err)
can yield
attain. stress
these
equations
Tmax =
(fit)max
has
 (fir)max
r2o  r/2
between
p,r2o
 O'yp
(348)
and
13 The
axial
this
stress
stress
cr z given
an intermediate
by Eq.
334
does
value
not
enter
the
or, and
problem,
err.
since
for
Fig.
transformations
maximum
3.23
Stress
shear
for
stresses.
obtaining
t66
'Hooke's
and
Law, Pressure
Vessels,
and ThickWalled
Cylinders
Sec. 3.t4.
Behavior
of Ideally
Plastic
ThickWalled
Cylinders
67
0'y(ro
2r2o
only,
i.e.,
pi = 0 and po O. For
43 simplify
r/2 (1 'r/ ) O'r  r2oP"2Since r/r 2 < 1, both stresses compressive stress is crt and are
occurs
(35
(at)av = 10pi
(ar)rnin
= 0
(at)av
({/t)rnin = 9.5Pi
= Pi
Equations 350 must not be used for very thinwalled ling of the walls may occur and strength formulas give
EXAMPLE 36
The
)max = 10.5pi
(at)max
Radial
= Pi
stresses
 'Pl
Tangential stresses
ylinders. misleading
(a)
G = 1.1q
or t=O.
lq
(b)
q =4qrt
i=3
Fig.
324
stress
can
is plot ed
in Fig.
this figure.
328(b).
The
A striking
average
variation
tangential
of the tangential
stress given by
given
see
stress distribution caused by the formula in Section 312 with the for thinwalled cylinders of Section 39 if
Fig. 324.
324,
be using
(a)
Using
Eq.
347b
for
or,,
1 = 5Pi
stress.
The
(O"t)r=r i = (O't)max
while,
324 is
(1.1ri 2r,)2']
hoop
radial
= 10.5pi
shrunk
computed by using Eq. 347a for in Fig. 324(b). no matter how thick a cylinder
err, and
the
results
inner
act
in tension.
instead of using a single cylinder, another cylinder one, which sets up initial compressive stresses in the stresses in the outer one. In operation, the compressive is released first, and only then does this cylinder begin range of operating pressures is obtained thereby.
is made
to resist
are
324(a).
Note
particularly
that
in using
Eq.
Behavior Cylinders
case
yield
of
Ideally
cylinder section,
Plastic
under Eq. cylinder
ThickWalled
internal 349 was pressure derived alone the was onset
shear.
(b) By using
stresses
are obtained
as before.
These
of a thickwalled in the previous at the inner surface 2uent increase the outer surface,
Problem 321.
and
for
progresses in the
cyl
]4 See
68
Cylinders
the
the cross section c also increases until, plastic at the ultimate maximum shear criterion
*max
As noted earlier, this implies fi, and fir. A reexamination in the elastic range, provided this applies only if the ratio certain value. 5 For v = hence, the solutions to be long as ro < 5.75r (with v = is more complicated when the scope of this book.

fit
fir
fiyp
2
value this to plastic is less to valid and
(351
betwei be ran be
only
Elastic Plastic
that fi, has an of Eqs. 334 and that 0 < v < of outer to inner 0.3, this ratio can obtained in this 0.3). The task of this condition is
intermediate 347 shows 0.5, but in the radius, ro/rt, be established section wil be finding the stress not satisfied
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig.
325
5.75
fir = fiyp
lB r + C
be expressed
(353)
cylinder
(zero
is be'
external
with
inner
pressure)
fir(b)
radius
can
a and
outer
radius
as
b, the boundary
con(354)
In b + C as
Plastic
The the but Static
Behavior
of ThickWalled
Cylinders
equations of static equilibrium are applicable, elastic or plastic state is considered. Hence, must be supplemented by a yield condition. equilibriu/n, Eq. 328:
dfir
dr
Hence,
the
integration
constant
is
C =
In b
tangential
stresses
are
then
obtained,
using
Eqs.
353
and
(355) (356)
Thus,
fir
r
fit
Yield
condition,
Eq.
351:
fit fir fiyp
by shows
Eqs.
in Fig. 3Since
collapse Eq.
355,
By
comes
combining
these
two
equations,
the
pult
Behavior
given cross any
= fir(a)
of ThickWalled
= fiyp In a/b
Cylinders
the yield i.e.,
(357)
dfdrir
The solution of this can
fiYr P = 0
be writ en
or
as
dfir = fiyr__ppdr
5 See niversary
251.
Partial y Mechanics
Tubes," H. Stam,
Biezeno 1953),
232
value of pt that is intermediate to by Eq. 349 and Eq. 357, respectively, section of the cylinder between the radius c is ful y plastic, whereas b is in the elastic domain, Fig. 326. yield condition is just satisfied, and the Can be computed using Eq. 349 with r =
and ultimate values pyp < pt < pult, the inner radius a and an interthat between c and the outer At the elasticplastic interface, corresponding radial stress X c and ro = b; hence,
68
tually,
elastic.
with
the entire
As the pressure
a limiting
radius
cross
section
increases,
c beyond
as before, be assumed
becomes
the radius
which
ful y
c also
the
the maximum as
plastic
increases
section
at the ultimate
shear
until,
criterion
load
'rmax
As
(351)
betwe
Elastic Plastic
noted
earlier,
this
implies
this
certain
applies
value?
only
For
if the ratio
(with
book.
v = 0.3,
of Eqs. 334 and 347 shows this to be tru. that 0 < v < 0.5, but in the plastic ran of outer to inner radius, ro/ri, is less than
this ratio can be established to be a cylinder (zero
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig.
325
fir
= fiyp can
In r + C
(353)
to be obtained in this section wil be valid only v = 0.3). The task of finding the stress when this condition is not satisfied and is be'
Cylinders
with external
radius
as
b, the
boundary
con(354)
= 0 = fiyp C is given
In b + C as
Plastic
Behavior
of ThickWalled
The equations of static equilibrium are appl/cable, the elastic or plastic state is considered. Hence,
but must be supplemented by a yield condition.
Static equilibriutn, Eq. 328:
+=0 dr
is
C =
fiyp
In b
obtained, using Eqs. 353 and
(355) (356)
tangential
stresses
are
then
Thus,
dfir
fir
r
fit
Yield
condition,
Eq.
351:
fit fir fiyp
given by Eqs. 355 and 356 are shown in Fig. 3325(b) shows the elastic stress distributions. Since represents the ultimate collapse of the thickwalled internal pressure, using Eq. 355, is given as
By
comes
combining
these
two
equations,
the
basic
dif erential
equation
Behavior
Pult
= fir(a)
= fiyp
In a/b
(357)
of ThickWalled
Cylinders
dfdrir
The solution of this can
fiYrP = 0
be writ en
or
as
dfir = fiYr__2 dr
any
of p that is intermediate to the yield and ultimate values 349 and Eq. 357, respectively, i.e., pyp < pi pult, the of the cylinder between the inner radius a and an interc is ful y plastic, whereas that between c and the outer
elastic domain, is just satisfied, using Eq. 349 Fig. 326.
Partial y Mechanics
Tubes," H. Stam
Biezeno
Ai
and
with
interface, stress
70
Hooke's
Law,
Pressure
Vessels,
and
Thick.
Walled
Cylinders
Problems
}blerns
x
Sections
37
and
38
,ction
32
the shear mounting shear spring constant to a square pad with in Example ks, but 10mmthick 31 changing
rub
35.
to
Using Using
moduli customary
the
alloy
values
calculate and
for
steel.
E and
Poisson's
G given
ratios
in Table
for 2024
1A
36.
bulk U.S. Section
alloy
'ion Consider
36 a 4in
biaxial tensile
39
square
stresses
steel
of
bar
20
subjected
ksi in the
to
x
37.
A stainlesssteel
cylindrical
shell
has
a 36in
inthat es
Fig.
326
crvp b2 b2 c2 2
condition to be used in
and 10 ksi in the y direction. to be in a state of plane stress, in the z direction and the elongations the x and y directions. (b) Assuming a state of plane strain, determine the and the elongations of the bar
: bar
Let E = 30 x 103 ksi and
v =
the plate to be
the and z y
what is the allowable working pressure? Assume appropriate hemispherical ends are provided. Also timate the bursting pressure. to a hydroelectric If the diameter
lowable quired? 39. A tank
and is 0.5 in. thick. If the tensile strength is 80 ksi and the factor of safety is 5,
38.
A "penstock,"
stress
with
radius
Eq.
353
c. Hence,
for
a ful y
plastic
err(C) = X =
and
By substituting region is obtained
segment
with
inner
radius
a and
out
A piece of to uniformly (see the figure). change in 'these forces? ness as in part
50 by 250 by 10 mm steel plate is subdistributed stresses along its edges (a) IfPx = 100 kN and Py = 200 kN, thickness occurs due to the application (b) To cause the same change in thick(a) by P, alone, what must be its mag
i.e.,
a pipe
for
conveying
water
age of gasoline
is to be 40 ft in diameter
bottom
and
and
16 ft high.
row assume
of
C =
this
as
Oyp 2 b 2 b 2 c 2
value of C into Eq.
Crvp In c
355, the radial stress in the
the efficiency of welds at 80%. Add in to the computed wall thickness corrosion. Neglect local stresses at vertical walls with the bottom. (Specific gasoline to be stored is 0.721.) (b) bottom of the tank does not restrain
of the tank occur at the walls, bottom? what increase E = 29 x
103
approximately to compensate
the juncture
gravity
in
for
diameter and
v =
In c
Gyp b 2  c 2
2 b 2
Fig. P33
(NH3)
vapor of the
3t0.
A cylindrical
at the
pressure vessel
maximum
of NH3 material
vessel
temperature
is used
for
storing
of
The with
50
ammonia
C.
thickness a tensile
The
stress
in the
plastic
zone
becomes
at 50 C is 20 atm. is limited to 20 mm
34.
75
A rectangular
has the
and
steel
foilowing
c = 100
block,
dimensions:
mm. The
such
faces
as shown
of this
in Fig.
b
block
O'2yp
mm,
b 2
ected
to uniformly
distributed
(tension)
in the x direction,
200 kN
(tension)
in the y
in diameter
strength of 400 assuming that all what can be the For the selected
that
MPa. (a) If the factor of safety is 5, welds wil be inspected with Xrays, maximum diameter of the vessel? (b) wall thickness, calculate the change
would occur with ammonia at 50 C.
pressure pi at which the plastic using Eq. 361, simply as'pi ro.b, provide the necessary
in the elastic zone.
and 240 kN (compression) in the z direction. the magnitude of a single system of forces in the y direction that would cause the same in the y direction as the initial forces. Let
0.25.
311. An air chamber for a pump, the sectional side view of which is shown in mm on the figure, consists of two pieces. Compute the number of 19mm bolts (net area 195 mm 2) required to attach the chamber to
the cylinder at plane AA. The allowable tensile stress
'72
Hooke's
Law,
Pressure
Vessels,
and
Thick.Walled
that
2.
Cylinders
Problems
'173
and 343
tangential a thickpressure
cylinder
stress determine
kN/m
to be completely
Let
the cylinder.
3t5. An the diameter
rigid,
(a) determire
a = 2 x 10s/C
the
t7.
and E = 7 x
as
onto
Sections
319. 320. stress walled
312
in the figure.
A A
thickness
tiate
is 10 mm.
the
For
the wire:
(In
inside
mm. what
= 23.4 vessel
A = 0.060
calculations,
and
mm 2, E =
the
of
tube
interface
Fig.
P34t
the assembly to If the composite additional hoop tube? Assume that expand, preventing stresses, i.e., cry,
Verify the solution of Eq. 338. Show that the ratio of the maximum to the average tangential stress cylinder subjected only to internal
for
is di
(1 + [32)/(1
32t. Show
+ [3), where
that no matter
[3 = roh'i.
how large the outside
Est = 200 x 103 MPa. Hint: The say , between the two materials tension in the outer tube and hoop
inner tube.
only tangential
has a 6in
to internal stress
ID (inside
presis not
di
An
and
alloysteel
a 18in
Ifthi
oft
If it is subjected
to an internal
in the
is 1.5
bolts
MPa.
is 40 MPa,
water tank made
and
the
of
and
staves
air
is
pressure
5 m in
3t2.
diameter and 4 m high. Specify mm stel hoops if the allowable is set at 90 MPa. Use uniform
meter of the tank's height.
the spacing of 30 by 6 tensile stress for steel hoop spacing within each
cylinder deformation
same would
pressure
radial cipal)
ofpi
and tangential shear
= 24,000
stress stress.(c)
psi (p,,
Determine
the
show
results
nal and
0.3.
on a plot.
internal
(b) Determine
diameters.
distributions
the
the
maximum
change
and
(prin
the
of the
E = 30
x 106 psi
in exter
and
v =
a
of
caused
by the
pull
323. 0.45
Fig. P347
ID pressure
and
3t3. A cylindrical pressure vessel of 120 in outside diameter, used for processing rubber, is 36 ft long. If the cylindrical portion of the vessel is made from 1in thick steel plate and the vessel operates at120psi 'internal pressure, determine the total elongation Of
he circumference and the increase in the diameter's
lightweight by employing
and
using
pi = 160 MPa (po = 0), (a) determine the radial and tangential stress distributions and show the results on a plot. (b) Determine the maximum (principal) shear
stress. ternal 324.
MPa.
as a
Fig.
P345
binder.
dimension
caused
by
the
operating
pressure.
29 x 106 psi and v = 0.25. 3t4. A thin ring is heated in oil 150 C above room temperature. In this condition, the ring just slips on a solid cylinder, as shown in the figure: Assuming the
of
in
and
0nly
aments
of a filamentwound cylinder is If the winding is needed to resist the helix angle a = 90 . If, howclosed, both hoop and longitudinal
Problem
Problem onehalf
with
with cylinder
p = 0 and
p = 160
= 80
and 325
is to
'ces develop,
and
the requi.red
of unit width
used
in all
calculations
involving
the
diameter.
a = 2). Verify
and
helix
this
angle
result.
of the fil(Hint:
length
of Problem
the
brass
cylinder
is heated
100
F above
a developed
perature, it exactly fits over is at room temperature. What cylinder when the composite
6
perature?
10.7
= 6.7
x 106/F.
x
For
brass:
For
steel:
EBr
as in the if F is a force
figure.
For
is cut
such
by each
an element, n is . on hoop
section.
the
Therefore,
same
by Design
'a plane through the integrating the tangential areas, show that the
for
axis
the
is
as
106/F.
in a filament and a section, Py = Fn sin y. An equation based the longitudinal and the the required result.)
the number of Force P. can be the known ratio stress leads to
327. diameter
a thickwalled an internal
cylinder
pressure
to provide: (a) a factor ing in the cylinder, and ultimate collapse. The
is 36 ksi.
50
mm
Filaments
328. A 16in OD steel cylinder with approximately a 10in bore (ID) is shrunk onto another steel cylinder of 10in OD with a 6in ID. Initial y, the internal diameter of the outer cylinder was 0.01 in smaller than the external diameter of the inner cylinder. The as
Developed
element
inder
sembly
in oil.
was
For
accomplished
both
cylinders,
the
by
pressure
heating
the
larger
cyl
Fig.
P3t4
Fig.
P346
Steel
tube
Fig.
P348
v = 0.3.
(a) Determine
Hooke's
between in the
decrease modates
Law,
Pressure
Vessels,
and
ThickWalled
Cylinders
the diameter
two
cylinders. of the
outer
329. Set up the dif erential equation for a thin rotating with an angular velocity of to rad/s. The weight of the material is % Hint: Consider an elem as in Fig. 321(b) and add an inertia term.
Section 330. outer For radius 314 a thickwalled b = 2a, cylinder (a) calculate of inner radius the internal a
inders.) (b) Determine the 'tangential and radial stresses caused by the pressure found in part (a). Show the results on a plot. (c) Determine the internal pressure to which the composite cylinder may be subjected without exceeding a tangential stress of 20,000 psi in the inner cylinder. (Hint: After assembly, the cylinders act as one unit. The initial compressive stress in the inner cylinder is released first.) (d) Superpose the tan_gential stresses found in part (b) with the tangential stresses resulting from the internal pressure found in part (c). Show the results on a plot.
at which the elasticplastic (b) determine the radial butions due to the internal and show them on a plot,
boundary is at r = 1.5 a tangential stress pressure found in part and (c) calculate the
and
collapse fectly
load. plastic,
][.
Introduction
Detailed axial y
methods of analysis for determining loaded bars were presented in the for members subjected to torques
first
about
stresses two
their
and chapters.
chapter. chapter
to the
of a single
disThe
causing
ory
the
members having circular. cross sections, of such elastic and inelastic problems dures of engineering mechanics of solids. having noncircular cross sections,
the
in Chapter
major
of this
chapter
of elasticity
dif erence
in
order
(or finite
to
make
elements)
the
reader
must
either solid or tubular. Solution can be obtained using the proceFor the solution of torsion probmethods of the mathematical theaware
be employed.
Further,
of
the
dif erences
This
topic
is briefly
in
such
from
that
for
circular
members.
to lend
emphasis
to
in the solutions discussed, this chapter is subdivided into parts. It should be noted, however, that in practice, members torque, such as shafts for motors, torque tubes for power etc., are predominantly circular or tubular in cross section. numerous applications fal within the scope of the formulas
in this chapter.
Application
gardless
engineering solid
of the
mechanics,
Method
in analyzing
of Sections
the basic method problems discussed
members
for
torque,
re
'Torsion one relevant equation member, such an equation minate systems, there ' this torque, an analysis pendicular to the axis
be isolated and the
Sec. 4.3. Basic of statics. Thus, if the x axis is directed along is M, = 0. Therefore, for statically can only be one reactive torque. After begins by separating a member of a section pe of a member. Then either side of a member
torque found. This internal torque must
Assumptions
for Circular
Members
T
It may be seen intuitively that for a member the maximum internal torque causes the maximum host severe condition on the material. Hence,
internal
ance
torques
the
lems, the formal calculation of a reaction may be bypassed by isolatin a bar segment with the unsupported end. Nevertheless, an equilibrium the whole system must always be assured. In statically problems, the reactions must always be found before one can the internal torques. Some guidance on calculating reactions in indeterminate problems is provided in Section 49 of this chapter. For simplicity, the members treated in this chapter wil be "weightless" or supported at frequent enough intervals to make of bending negligible. Axial forces that may also act simultaneously
the bars are excluded for the present.
are equal,
externally
but have
applied
opposite
torques,
sense.
i.e.,
In statically
the
external
determinate'
and
the
intern
ore
;critical
several sections may have to be examined internal torque. A section where the largest :d is the critical section. In Example 41, the
internal critical
Fig.
42
Alternative
representations
of torque.
dif icult
between may
to decide
points
B and
where
C. If the
the
material
torsion
is critically
member
varies computed
stressed.
in size,
Several
it is
eral Instead
Fig.
section. These situations are analogous to the case of an axial y rod, and means must be developed to determine stresses as a of the internal torque and the size of the member. In the next sections, the necessary formulas are derived. of curved arrows as in Fig. 41, doubleheaded vectors fol owing
have
to be investigated
and
stresses
to determine
righthand
42.
screw
rule
sign
convention
wil
also
be used
in this
text;
EXAMPLE
4t
Find
acted
Solution
the internal
upon by the
trque
three
at section
torques
KK
indicated.
Members
torque and the stresses it sets
The 30 N.m torque at C is balanced by the two torques of 20 and 10 N.m at and B, respectively. Therefore, the body as a whole is in equilibrium. Next, passing a section KK perpendicular to the axis of the rod an3 and B, a free body of a part of the shaft, shown in Fig. 41(b), is obtained. upon, from , Mx = O, or
up
in members
to make
with
in addition
two
assumptions,
circular
solid
homogeneity
to the
the
and
validity
tubular
of the
of which
material,
cross
sections,
wil
are
be justified
as fol ows:
it is nec
1. A plane
externally
the conclusion shaft between
applied
torque
internal Similar
= internal
or resisting considerations
torque
torque lead developed to the in
section
of material
perpendicular
to the axis
of a circular
subjected to D'O03C
to torque,
that
the
internal
torque
resisted
by the
shaft
between
B and
10 Nm
C is 30 N.m.
30 N.m
10 K 20 Nm
C B B
30 Nm
as DO03C
moves
axis reaching m,, at the periphery. in Fig. 43 and means that an imaginary
the torque
This
is applied.
plane
as
N.m
if an imaginary radius 03C is considered fixed in radii initial y at 02B and OD rotate to the respective 02B' and OLD'. These radii remain straight.
20
N.m
internal
A
torque
Fig.
41
(a)
(b)
VI.
negligible. Advanced
it is also distance
details, Theory
deformations
implied apart.
are very
small,
York:
Strength
stresses
Van
of Materials, Nostrand,
not considered
are
1956),
3rd.
ed., Chap
here
%,x
Variation member
of strain subjected
in to
Torsion
cular
Formula
Trnax
be emphasized
and tubular
members.
that
these
For
assumptions
this
class
of members,
hold
only
for
D'
assumptions
limit
work
so well
that
they
apply
beyond
the
limit
rmax
r=G7
Cord
Fig. 44 assumption Shear
stress
If attention
applies,
strain. For
deformation
is confined
and,
this
to the linearly
complete
elastic
stress
is found
these
material,
is proportional
between
assumptions.
Hooke's
'to
derived
Shear
variation
it fol ows
case
that
based
shear
Hooke's
law
agreement
on
determined
and
and
computed
formulas
quantities
of elasticity.
with
the
strain
Shear
variation
stress
dA
shear circular
leading
strain
distribution
to elastic
in
member.
their
mathematical
validity
can
theory
be rigorously
demonstrated
by the
methods
of
qmax fA p2 dA = T
c
(41)
of a crosssectional area, area. It wil be designated 2xp dp, where 2xp is the width dp. Hence,
44.
The
Torsion
Formula
case, on the basis of the previous to strain, and the lat er varies
to the section
stress
parallel
intensity.
the
center
the
normal to the axis of a rod. NONACTIVATED VERSION use of Hooke's law for shear, Eq. 31. This is the case of an axial y loaded rod, this stress is ] qTC4IT4d) www.avs4you.com
fol ows
taken
since the
However, fA p2 dA, the polar/noment of inertia is also a constant for a particular crosssectional ! J in this text. For a circular section, dA = umference of an annulus 2 with a radius p of
lie
J =
fAfo
92 dA =
2'I103 dp=
2r
[ i 'iTc4
2
If c or
aid 4
32
(42)
directly
(42)
The
O and
maximum
is designated
linear
shear
stress
qmax.
occurs
These
at points
points,
most
such
points
distance
C and D in Figs.
c from
center.
variation,
of a section
once
d is the
diameter
of
a solid
circular
shaft.
d is measured
in
at any
bitrary
distribution
The
'resisting
point
at a distance
at a section
torque
can be expressed
is established.
p from
O, the shear
For
in terms
stress
equilibrium
of stress
is (D/C)qmax.
this
internal
the
units J for
in 4. area,
sisting
torque
must
equal
the externally
applied
torque
T. Hence,
(43)
fP Tmax
,stress
,force
dm
area,
p = T
arm,
to'que
expresses
equation
dimensions
the
is the maximum
the
integral sums up all torques developed on the cut by the forces acting at a distance p from a m.ember's axis, O in Fig. the whole area A of the cross section, and where T is the
be expressed
annulus work
of a member.
area
wellknown shear
4 in newtonmeters,
contained instruments.
In applying
Nm,
name
this
formula,
or inchpounds,
concentric been
internal
shafts torque
c in/neters
by
torque
that and
2 An
is an
between
two
circles. immortalized
It was
developed
on
electric
by Coulomb,
a French
His
engineer,
has
in about the
1775
in connection J is used
its
use
At
any
can
given
be
section,
writ en as
q'max
and
c are
constant;
hence,
the
relation
a practical unit of quantity in electricity. 1 Nm is equal to 1 joule (J). However, the polar moment of inertia of a section.
in this
text,
symbol
only
SO
Torsion
or inches,
shear stress
r=G7
or pascals
(Pa)
in SI units,
or
r = G2'7
circular
Fig.
46 an
Elastic
member
behavior
in
torsion
of a
having
{a) lb)
material.
inner
core
of soft
for
a shear
stress,
, at any
If a circular bar is made from two dif erent materials bonded together,
is
Tp
shown
Equations 43 and 44 are applicable with equal rigor to since the same assumptions as used in the previous derivation apply. is necessary, however, to modify J. For a tube, as may be seen 45, the limits of integration for Eq. 42 extend from b to c. Hence,
a circular tube,
j = fAp2dA
or stated the outer otherwise: diameter
shear
in Fig. 46(a), the same strain assumption applies as for a solid For such a case, through Hooke's law, the shearstress distribecomes as in Fig. 46Co). If the shear modulus for the outer stif er G and that of the inner softer core is G2, the ratio of the respective stresses on a ring of radius OB is G/G2.
For
the
torsion
mechanics
problem
of solids
of circular
as used
shafts
above
the
may
three
be summarized
basic
concepts
in the
of
manner:
J for a circular tube equals +J for a solid and J for a solid shaft using the inner diameter.
1. Equilibrium
conditions
at a section. varies
are used
from the
for determining
axis of a shaft.
the internal
resisting
of the
For. very
tube,
thin
J reduces
tubes,
ifb is nearly
to a simple
equal
approximate
to c, and c  b = t, the
expression:
2. Geometry
strain
torques
of deformation
linearly stregses case
is extended
(kinematics)
and Hooke's
to nonlinear
is postulated
are used
such
of shear
that
stresses preceding
shear
shear
at
J 2xrR3at
where
tions. Tmin Truax
3. Material
strains
accurate in some
discussion.
13.
a section.
to shear elastic
This
properties
(constitutive
permit
relations)
calculation
to relate
Ray
(b
c)/2,
which
is sufficiently
a linear
using
law
is considered
material behavior
in the
in Section
4
These large
of circular
basic
concepts
shafts.
are used
However,
for
determining
similar
to the
both
case
stresses
for
axial y
and
anglesloaded
the
Fig.
an
stresses
strains
stresses in cross
are
described
of application to SaintVenant's
by the
developed
of concentrated principle
theory
45
elastic
Variation
circular
of
tube.
stress
in
a distance Typically
factors.
local
about
equal stresses
of a shaft by using
from stress
these con
Torsion
4=5.
Remarks
shear
on only indeed
the
Torsion
Formula
have been thou to the axis of resisting the 44
stresses as given by Eqs. 4~3 and in the plane of a cut perpendicular they are acting to form a couple
(a)
applied torques. However, to understand the problem further, an tesimal cylindrical element, 5 shown in Fig.47(b), is isolated. The shear stresses acting in the planes Phrpendicular to the axis of rod are known from Eq. 44. Their' directions coincide with the direct of the internal torque. (This should be clearly visualized by the read
On adjoining
opposite
cuts
the
directions.
taken
parallel
normal
However,
to
planes
of a disclike
axis
the
these
of
shear
element,
stresses
a rod
cannot
acting
stresses
these
exist
in the plane
alone, as
stresses
act
49 Fractured torsion
photograph
widely
shows
Fractured in torsion.
the
shown
in Section
14.
Numerically,
equal
shear
must
act
on
axial
requirements
planes
(such
Shear stresses acting intensity as do the shear of the rod. This variation
of static
as the
equilibrium
planes
aef
in the axial planes fol ow the stresses in the planes perpendicular of shear stresses on the mutually
for an element.
and
bcg
in Fig.
47(b))
same
pert
to ful al
variation to the
specimen
of A322
separated.
specimen
on fhe
right
not
normally specimens).
(Threaded
the bar
planes
removed
Truax
is shown
for the
in Fig.
purposes
47(c),
where
a portion
of the
shaft
has
of il ustration.
According an equivalent
shear each shear failure 48.
and
stresses (see Fig. 311). Numerically, these stresses other in the fol owing manner: , = ch = or2. strength of a material is less than its strength in takes place on a plane perpendicular to the axis This kind of failure occurs gradually and exhibits
planes
surfaces
in Fig.
Another
stresses
along
a helix
examples
of a brit le
forming
an angle
of 45 with is shown
fracture
the
for sandstone
stress
transformation
brought
into
previous
discussion,
of wood
since
on planes
in dif erent
For
example,
directions.
wood
exhibits
The
sheafing
drastically
strength
to anisotropic properties
of
(c)
5 Two
Existence on mutually
of shear
such
two
perpendicular
are
perpendicular circular
torque.
shaft
planes subjected
in a to
6 Note that maximum shear stresses, as shown actually act on planes perpendicular to the axis through the axis of the rod. The representation free surface of a shaft is fi'ee of all stresses.
Ductile material
an element
at dif erent
expressible
radii
to the
mathematically
are
axis
used
of the
to isolate
rod,
two
in cylindrical
this
planes
element.
the
to the grain is much less than on planes perpendicular although equal intensities of shear stress exist planes, wooden shafts of inadequate size axial planes. Such shafts are occasionally used
42
the
shaft
maximum
from A to
torsional
C is 10
shear
mm in
stress
diameter.
in shaft
AC
shown
in Fig.
41(a).
Assume
failureplane
T T
From
be 30 N.m.
Example
Hence,
41,
the maximum
T = 30 Nm,
1d 4
internal
and
c = d/2
torque
resisted
= 5 mm.
by this
From
shaft
Eq.
42,
is known
in
torsional
ductile
Brit le failure material surface
J = 32
twisting
'i X
32
10 4
982 mm 4
in the classroom
in
Ordinary
a piece
chalk behaves
of chalk
similarly.
to failure.
torsion.
Pirtz).
(Experiment
by D.
'83
Torsion
and from Eq. 43,
Tmax
This maximum shear
of Circular
Members
in Torsion
be seand of ma
Tc
J
at
30
103
982
 153
axis of the
MPa
rod acts in the
designing
5 mm
from
the
to the axis
the shear
equal.
stresses
on mutually
two
perpendicular
the
and
the
planes
for a cylindrical'
solution
longitudinal a Cartesian
can be
ele
It is instructive
to note
of this
'in
matrix
form
by
elements
in a stress
tensor
as
ing gives
0
tubes. Solid members are often used in power equipment, many fatigue experiments are done. the shear strength of ductile materials is only about half as as their tensile strength. The ASME (American Society of MeEngineers) code of recommended practice for transmission shaft
available information
on thinwalled as torsion
o
with the ful y
1 3
o
stress tensor
MPa
allertl fter
given by Eq.
and
considerations.
an allowable
value
in shear
stress
of 8000
is
the
This
is to be
contrasted
populated
ortions
EXAMPLE 43
torque
to be transmit ed
is selected, as
by a shaft
according
is determined
to
and.the
the
Consider a long tube of 20 mm outside d, twisted about its longitudinal axis shear stresses at the outside and the
Solution
diameter, do, and of 16 mm with a torque T of 40 N.m. inside of the tube; see Fig.
From
Eq. J ..
45,
(48)
trea
,r(d4o
32
,i .(C 4 _ b 4)
2
_ &4)
,17(204
32
_ 164)
9270
mm
and fiom
Tmax
Eq. 43,
Tc
40
103
10
9270
43.1
MPa
Tmin

Tp
J
40
x 103
9270
x 8
34.5
MPa
Fig.
442
In a thinwalled tube, all of the material works at approximately the same level. Therefore, thinwalled tubes are more efficient in transmit ing torque solid shafts. Such tubes are also useful for.creating an essential y uniform of pure shear stress needed for establishing ?,/relationships (Section 32). avoid local buckling, however, the wall thickness cannot be excessively
provide the required value of J/c. The reader should careful y note that large local stresses generally deat changes in cross sections and at splines and keyways, where the ue is actually transmit ed. These questions, of critical importance in design of rotating shafts, are briefly discussed in the next section. Members subjected to torque are very widely used as rotating shafts for transmit ing power. For future reference, a formula is derived for the conversion of horsepower, the conventional unit used in the industry, into torque acting through the shaft. By definition, 1 hp does the work of 745.7 One N.m/s is conveniently referred to as a watt (W) in the SI units.
Eq.
By using be determined.
of a member.
48 by varying
a solid
the ratio
of the outer
and Eq. 48, the required radius of tubular shafts can be chosen
J/c
= rc3/2,
de
radius
to the inner
radius,
of a shaft to satisfy
outside
c/b,
it wil
8 Recommendations
example,
McGrawHil ,
see J. E. Shigley,
1977)
1967).
other
or R. C. Juvinal,
Mechanical
may
Engineering
Stress,
be found
in machine
Strain,
Design,
and
Strength
McGrawHil ,
Torsion
Sec.
47.
Stress
Concentrations
plied
do 2rfT
measured in radians, through which the shaft rotates per unit of time. a shaft rotating with a frequency of f Hz, 9 the angle is 2rf rad/s. if a shaft were transmit ing a constant torque T measured in N.m, it
c =
7.72
mm
or
d =
2c
15.4
mm.
ractical
MPLE 45
purposes,
a 16mm
shaft
would
probably
be selected.
N.m
of work
per second.
x 745.7
r =
Equating
this
to the horsepower
hp
or
= 2rfT
119
f
159 x kW
[N.m/s]
[N.m]
x hp
1 applies
411,
to the lowspeed
shaft
and
2 to the highspeed
shaft.
From
or
T =
[N.m]
applied
applied
work
tained:
second, (revolutions
In the
or 550
U.S.
customary
1 hp does
63,000 xhp[in_lb]l
N
rotates above
J   T
16
630,000
63
in 3
 
or
d =
63)
= 321
in 3
Hence,
d = 6.85
in
and
d2 = 0.685
in
EXAMPLE
stress
44
is limited
machines
shaft
to 55
This
example
tubes.
Select
a solid
for
MPa.
a 10hp
motor
operating
at 30 Hz.
The
maximum
il ustrates
the reason
tendency
to use highspeed
shafts is by using
Solution
From
Eq.
49,
Stress
Concentrations
119
f
and from Eq. 48,
J ... C
x hp
119
30
10
39.7N.m
T Tma x
39.7 55
10 3
722
mm
J
C
,'ITC 3
2
or
c 3 ...
2 J'
2 x 722
43, 44, and 48 apply only to solid and tubular circular shafts material behaves elastically. Moreover, the crosssectional along the shaft should remain reasonably constant. If a gradual Variation in the diameter takes place, the previous equations give satissolutions. On the other hand, for stepped shafts where the diameters of the adjoining portions change abruptly, large perturbations of stresses take place. High local shear stresses occur at points away
the
mm 3
ratio the center of the shaft. Methods of determining these local concenof the
uations
= 460
of stress
9 1 hertz
(Hz)
= 1 cycle
per second
(cps).
true
are beyond
maximum
shear
the scope
stress
of this
factor
to the
text.
maximum
However,
stress
by forming
given
by
.q. 43,
a torsional
stressconcentration
can
be obtained.
An
anal
88
Torsion
3.4
of Circular
210,
elastic
Members
matedhal
(a)
'ss concentrations
to.be
analogous
somewhat
to those
high.
based
pointed
on the
behavior
out in Section
of linearly
the theoretical
3.0
2.6
Angle.ofTwist
this
of Circular
for
Members
circular
2.2
1.8
X,'2'=7
oftwist
section,
attention
solid
and
wil
tubular
be directed
to a method
elastic
shafts
for determining
subjected
the
to
(b)
1.4
Fig.
concentration
443
Torsional
factors
stressin
1.0
I
0 0.08
r
i
O. 16
d/2
0.24
circular
diameters.
shafts
of
two
geometry
axial y
ogous
method
loaded
of a member.
members
was
used
(Section
for
obtaining
Stressconcentration
210).
the
These
stressconcentration
factors
factors
for
depend
various
only
factors
to design it only to be strong enough: it also must not deform Then, magnitudes of angular rotations of shafts are needed the torsional vibration analysis of machinery. Finally, the angular twist members is needed in dealing with statically indeterminate torsional problems. According to assumption 1 stated in Section 43, planes perpendicular deformation
the axis of a circular
is important
loading.
to predict
The
interest
the twist
in this
of a shaft
problem
per se since
is at least
at times
threefold.
it is not
Fig. 445 Circular before and (b) applied.
First,
after
shaft
torque
(a)
is
tions
of stepped round shafts To obtain the actual stress shaft, a curve for a particular stress
to the given r/(d/2) the curve. Lastly,
are shown in Pig. 413. at a geometrical discontinuity D/d is selected in Pig. 413.
from ratio,
in its undistorted
of the
type
rod
form
shown
do not
in Fig.
in Fig.
warp.
415(a).
415(b).
The
elements
From
The
such
shaded
of a shaft
a'shaft,
element
undergo
a typical
is
shear
is obtained
from
the modified
of a Then,
In the element shown, a line on its surface such as CD is initial y parallel the axis of the shaft. After the torque is applied, it assumes a new )osition CD'. At the same time, by virtue of assumption 2, Section 43, radius OD remains straight and rotates through a small angle dqb to a new
alternative expressions for the arc DD':
ent of length
dx is shown
isolated
in Fig.
416
similar
to Fig.
43.
from
arc DD'
geometry,
= dqb c
arc DD'
where
the
= 'ymax
dx
or
the
shear
stress
is made.
Tc/J
is determined
for
the
smaller
shaft.
the
A study
need
shaft
for
of stressconcentration
a generous stress attaching
diameter
fil et
radius
factors
also
r at all sections
shown
in Pig.
where
413
both
angles
are small
and
/,
are measured
dx = dqb c
in radians.
Hence,
(413)
for a key, Fig. 414, is no longer a circular member. However, to the procedures suggested by the ASME, in ordinary design, tations for shafts with keyways may be made using Eq. 43 or 48 , the allowable shear stress must be reduced by 25%. This
compensates
area.
increases pulleys
and
makes /m=
for
the
stress
concentration
and
reduction
in cro,.
sion
the
angleoftwist
Hooke's law applicable. Therefore, according to Eq. 31, the angle is proportional to *mx, i.e., /ma,, = *mx/G. Moreover, by Eq. 43, = Tc/J. Hence, /mx = Tc/(JG). By substituting the lat er expresinto Eq. 413 and simplifying, the governing dif erential equation for
is obtained.
"tube" to linearly
Because
Fig. 414 keyway. Circular shaft with a
of some
figure
632.
inelastic
of Circular
or nonlinear
from a paper
and Variable
response
by L. S. Jacobsen,
Diameter,"
in real
matedhals,
Trans. ASME
Concentrations
(1925):
0 This
in Shafts
is adapted
gressively
ference
The foregoing
p from
in derivation
becomes
argument
smaller
the center
consists
can be carried
out in terms
of any % which
to BD
and using
an arc corresponding
The only
pro
Tp/J instead
of Tc/J for .
an arbitrary
dif
circular
'truax
torque.
element
due
of a
to
Torsion
Sec.
48.
Angle.of.
Twist
of Circular
Members
191
dqb
dx
T
JG
or
dqb
Tdx
JG
axial y
29,
Eq.
loaded
416
can
bars.
be recast
Here
or tor
to
kt as
This
tesimal oftwist
is
gives
distance
the
relative
angleoftwist
To
find
the
of two
total
angleoftwist
adjoining
apart, expression
sections
qb between
an
(417)
the
Schematic
of _a torsion
between
sections
of a shaft
of a linearly
elastic
This
constant
axial y
or
1. It depends
represents
loaded
bars,
shaft,
only
on the material
the torque
required
properties
to cause
torsion
members
a rotation
of 1 radian,
for a circular
i.e.,
as springs;
see Fig. 4
As
reciprocal
hollow
of k, defines
flexibility
ft. Hence,
where
the length
Equation
A. The internal
direction
qbB and
of a shaft.
of the
rotation torque
qb4 are,
respectively,
The direction
for
not polar
necessarily moment
T.
the global
torque
of the angle
and
be zero. of inertia
shaft
rotations
of twist
circular
at en&,
qb coincides
shafts,
ft = kt JG LinlbJ
identifying 17 and 418.
Gi/mi
L [rad
or
[rad]
LN.m j
of a unit torque,
(418)
i.e.,
fol ows from thb sured in radians. the deformation il ustrate applications
EXAMPLE 46
415
is valid
assumptions used in the Note the great similarity of axial y loaded rods. of these concepts.
both
solid
hollow
the rotation resulting from application by the torque T, one obtains Eq.
416. a number
The previous
(f t)i = mi/JiGi.
equations
are widely
used
Find
the
relative
rotation
of section
BB
with
respect
to section
AA
of the
sential
are required
elastic' through
Solution
in Fig. moment
417
when of inertia
T is being area J is
measured
case, T. = T and Jx = J; hence, from Eq. 415,
Lastly,
the
arhount'of
in the design
of members
For
n These considered
such
in mechanical
it should
or calculated
be noted
In this
for a specimen
from
that
the
can be determined
dimensions
since
in a torsion
applications,
for torsional
vibration
analyses
of
stif ness
note
of a specimen,
test,
both
parameter. purposes.
that
when
In axial y
modulus
J, rather
it is
from
Eq.
416
G ='TL/Jcb.
JG
A B
JG
JG
JG
47
Consider the stepped shaft shown in Fig. 419(a) rigidly attached to a wall at E, and determine the angleoftwist of the end A when the two torques at B and at are applied. Assume the shear modulus G to be 80 GPa, a typical value for
12 According
Fig.
radians.
In applying
Also
observe
Eq.
416,
the
note
great
particularly
similarity
of this
that
the angle
relation
qb must
to Eq.
29,
be expressed
A =
Errst
York:
Van to recognize
to S. P. Timoshenko,
Nostrand, and
study
1937),
Vibration
H.
Frahm, problem.
Problems
a German
in Engineering,
engineer,
2d ed.
was
Torsion
Sec.
25 mm
4.8.
'It
Angle.ofTwist
4
of Circular
Members
193
T o = 1000
N.m
'It
_
aa bb
segment at points
(a)
(c)
1250
'
I 200.
J 300
ram_
1.
500 mm
the
values
of T or J change
qb =
the last
1150
JxG =
so each
J
reverts
.Je
JcG
+
are constant
solution,
TczLcz JczG
150 X
JcDG
Eq.
+
416. Hence,
JDG
group
TINm] [
0
integral
of integrals,
T's and
TecLec
200
to a known
J's
between
the limits
con
15o I
Torque diagram
=
=0+
qq
TzLz Jz>G
103 X 300
1150
103
500
575
80
103
X 103
rad
A B
(d)
23.3
Angleoftwist
x 10 3 + 12.5
the anglesoftwist
x 10 3 = 23.3
for the four shaft
x 10 3 rad
segments
13.5
12.5
diagram
Fig.
Solution
4t9
10 3 rad. Summing these for the angleoftwist shown in Fig. 419(d). Since
must be zero
0 3 rad occurring No doubt local
starting
As can
from
be noted
the above,
at E, as required
direction
quantities beginning from A, in order to obtain the along the shaft, gives the broken line from A to E, no shaft twist can occur at the builtin end, this
by the boundary condition. Therefore,
9.8 x 10 3 rad,
1.0 x 10 3 rad,
and 12.5
to the
adopted
Except for the dif erence in parameters, to that of Example 22 for an axial y to assure equilibrium. Then internal left segment of a shaft, such as shown
of the
torque
vector
T coincides
This between
with
solution of this problem is loaded bar. First, the torque at E is torques at arbitrary sections, in Fig. 419(b), are examined. If the
the
in the disturbances
sign
convention,
the
angleoftwist
occur
at A is 23.3
at the applied con
centrated
the shaft.
torques
these
are
and
local
the change
effects
having
in the shaft
limited
size,
influence
as well
on the
as at the builtin
overall
behavior
end.
that
of the
positive
x axis,
it is taken
B
48
(a)
positive, is no
or vice
torque,
versa. whereas
leads
that
between internal
D and torques,
E is + 1150 identified
is is drawn
between + 150
shaft
Determine that
the the
torsional rubber
metal
rubber shaft
and
bushing the
in Fig. tube,
420. which
TA
The polar
O,
are
J
Teo
found
=
=
of
Tec
inertia
=
Eqs.
d 4 32
Tco
for the
=
42

150
two
N.m,
kinds
and
of cross
To
sections
1150
N.m
is attached
Solution
to a machine
in the
housing.
parts
The
of the
shear
assembly.
modulus
is G. Neglect
moments
this
problem
using
Jc 
and45
X
32
giving
254
38.3
103
mm
area
;ymmetry of the problem, on every imaginary cylindrical r, the applied torque T is resisted by constant shear of the imaginary surface is 2rrL. On this basis, the equilibrium
(b)
Fig.
420
Torsion
Sec.
49.
Statically
Indeterminate
Problems
195
T and r is
the
resisting
torque
developed
by
the
T =
(2xrL)?r
[area
stress
arm]
Such problems remain simple to analyze regardless of the number kinds of applied torques or variations in the shaft size or material. Torsion problems also occur with bzternal statical indeterminacy
Ec
and
such as
From
1, the thickness
this
shear
relation,
dr,
x = T/2rr2L.
can 420(a), be
from
Hence,
determined the for
fol owing
by using
Hooke's
law
tube
given
of radius
by
;hown
dsite
strain Fig.
an infinitesimal relation:
T
part of the member. Therefore, the particularly simple to apply to linearly roblems, the torque Ti for each ith part of the and 417. The total applied torque Tis then
shafts
built
up from
cases,
two
the angleoftwist
or more
tubes
displacement (stif ness) elastic problems. In such shafts is Ti = (kt)iqb, Eqs. the sum of its parts, i.e.,
(421)
qb is the same
or materials,
in
for each
L
J2
/  G  2rLGr
This shear infinitesimal this angle strain angle
is
2
through
tube limit
T= i(kt)iO)
For complex
dqb = /dr
r
.imilar
over the rubber bushings,
to that given
is limited
kinematic
externally
degrees
statically
to the
in Section
of freedom,
case
indeterminate
the
d.o.f.
of one
general
elastic
cases
displacement
problems
can
Here,
however,
method
with
be analyzed
tile
to
The
infinitesimal
total
rotation
rotations,
qb of the
i.e.,
shaft
is an integral,
From
which
421,
described in Section 216. Applying one can write the fol owing two
T + T2 + T = 0
this basic
approach equations:
(422)
Fig.
indeterminate
42t
Externally
bar
in torsion.
statically
For
geometric
compatibility:
k,  qb  1/d 2  1/D 2
rLG
qbAB
= qbBc
A and
(423)
fixed.
(41
According
and
to Eq.
416,
that
for linearly
ends
the twists
elastic
C are
behavior,
*49.
The allels with degree tions, problems redundant port. member
Statically
Indeterminate
Problems
shear
dif erent Solutions
bars.
TL J G
T2L2 J2G2
analysis of statically indeterminate members subjected to twist the procedures discussed earlier in Part B of Chapter 2 in c axial y loaded bars. In considering linearly elastic problems of external indeterminacy, i.e., cases where there are two the force (flexibility) method is particularly advantageous. are reduced to statical determinacy by removing one of reactions and calculating the rotation qbo at the released The required boundary conditions are then restored by at the released end through an angle qb such that
qbo+ qb = 0
moduli
are given
in the d.o.f.
as G and
G2 to provide
fol ow
the
bars
elastic
procedure
given
cross
and
in Example
218
than
for
circular,
axial y
such
loaded
as dis
The
previous
in Sections
procedures
414
having
problem
can
sections
be applied
other
to the analysis
method
of statically
416.
example
of an application
fol ows.
of the force
for a statically
in
Torsion
2 mm
Equation
Approach
for Torsion
Problems
TiLi
T, has the
TAX103
= (147
units of N.m.
x 10 6 + 17 x 106)TA
defining rotation in the
'38.3x103x80x103 450
direction
= 164 x 106TA
+575x103x80x800
of T, as positive,
rad
one
103 )
has
To
500mm I
Hence,
Eq.
420
and
23.3
(b}
x 10 3
and
+ 164
TB =
x 106TA
1150 142
= 0
= 1008N.m
TA
142N.m
The
isolated iSitive.
torque
diagram for the shaft is shown if the direction of the internal shaft segment coincides with that Note that most of the applied torque
47,
A to C is more flexible than from
As in Fig. 419(c) of T on the left part of x axis, it is taken as the end E. Since the
torque develqps
from
A.
a small
(d)
X 103
0142
Torque
diagram
rad
Calculating the anglesoftwist for the four segments of the shafts, as in Example the angleoftwist diagram along the shaft, Fig. 422(e), can be obtained. of this diagram is left as an exercise for the reader.) The angleofwist at A and E must be zero from the prescribed boundary conditions. As to expected, the shaft twists in the direction of the applied torques. Whereas this problem is indeterminate only to the first degree, it has three kinematic degrees of freedom. Two of these are associated with the applied torques and one with the change in the shaft size. Therefore, an application of displacement method would be more cumbersome, requiring three simulequations.
taneous
(e)
0
11,6
Fig. 422 EXAMPLE 49
11,1
Angleoftwist
11,0
diagram
Alternative
Torsion
Problems
Dif erential
can be recast
Equation
into a secondorder
Approach
dif erential
for
4
Assume
that
the
stepped
shaft
of Example
47,
while
loaded
in the
same
as shown in Fig. 422. Determine for the shaft. Apply the force
the
method.
end
Preliminary to this step, consider an element, shown in .Fig. subjected to the end torques Tand T + dTand to an applied distributed ue t, having the units of inlb/in or N.m/m. By using the righthand
This and the next two sections can be omit ed. inlb/in
T+ dT
const,
ant JG,
Eq.
414
There
are
two
unknown 10 3 rad.
reactions,
T, and
TE.
One
of them
can
be considered
qbo = 23.3
A is found
redundant, diagram
shown
and,
x
using
applying
Fi'om
Example
47,
J,c
= 38.3
416.
bar, as shown
x 103 mm 2 and
in Fig. 422(c),
JcE=
end rotation
575
x 103 mm 2.
qb at
< dx
Fig.
element
423
of
Infinitesimal
a circular bar
subjected
to torque.
Torsion
Sec.
441.
Energy
and
Impact
Loads
199
having
screw
rule
a positive
for
the
sense.
torques,
For
all these
equilibrium
quantities
of this
dT
are
infinitesimal
shown
in
element.
TA
TB
JG dx
d4
=
=
d24
= 0
=
tx = to
hence,
toL
2
t dx + dT = 0
On dif erentiating Eq. 414 with respect
or
to x,
dx
t
J G xx = T T(0)
T(L)
tox
2 + C
C = 0
I JGd24 dT tx1
dx 2 dx
JG4 =  6 + C2
4B = 4(L)
of a shaft,
toX 3
= 0 = 
that the
hence,  6toX 3
C2 = 6
toL 2
The
determined
constants
from
appearing
the
boundary
in the
conditions
solution
of this
at the
ends
dif erential
equation
JG4
those
that of the positive
toZ 2
the
conditions
the
rotation
for 4 should
4 or the
torque
in Section
be evident
T must
equation
from
be specified.
the problem,
The
rotation
wl/ereas
determinate functions,
426
means x axis.
(a).
torque
vector
acts
in the
direction
oppos.ite
Except
same
in the boundary
conditions,
x
the
solution
procedure
is
The applied
JG d24 dx 2
d4
JG4
application
of Eq.
when
=T=
+C
to x2
2L

to x3
6L
Cx C2 C
+ = =
C2 0 toL
6
**EXAMPLE
4t0
= 4(0)
circular
= =
0 0
hence, hence,
Consider
varying
A is free
Solution
its length
torque
and
an
elastic
and
that
the
&, as shown
end
reactions
B is builtin,
at ends
in Fig. 424.
(b)
bar
having
a constant
A and
Determine
JG
assume
B for
that
two
the rotation
cases:
ends
subjected
both
(a)
of the
Assume
of the bar al n
bar
to
that
JG4
toLx
6
toX 3
6L
T(O) = T(L)
toL
2
+
toL
6
toL
6
toL
3
the
constants solution
of integration is determined.
Energy
X to
and
Impact
Loads
and impact members,
be
ions
Fig.
424
deflection
concepts of elastic strain energy 212 and 213 for axial y loaded pure shear, transfer directly
of a member can
loads as well
by
discussed as those
equating
in Secin Section
to the
determined
torsion
problem'.
For
the
example,
internal
200
dA = 2rp dp c rma'
Truax
p
Torsion
Sec.
4t2.
Shaft
Couplings
20't
applied
shear
strain
(Example
EXAMPLE
force,
energy
210),
4tt
Eq.
as well
224.
U.h for
as for elementary
This
a member
concept
to the
can be applied
solutions
external
work
of dynamic
to static
W,. due
problemi
to th
12.
Shaft
Couplings
(a) Find the energy absorbed by an elastic circular shaft torque in terms of maximum shear stress and the volume 25. (b) Find the rotation of the end of an elastic circular
builtin
Fig. 45
end
when
a torque
T is applied
at the
free
end.
Solution
(a) The
from
distance 0 from the center of the cross section is 'rmxO/c. and integrating over the volume V of the rod L inches long,
the
shear
longitudinal
stress
in an elastic
axis.
Hence,
circular
the
shaft
shear
subjected
stress
acting
to a torque
Then, one
on
an element
varies
linearb
Eq.
where the available lengths of shafting are for maintenance or assembly reasons, it is desirable to make up a long shaft from several pieces. To join the :es of a shaft together, the socalled ranged shaft couplings of the type in Fig. 426 are used. When bolted together, such couplings are rigid, to dif erentiate them from another type called flexible that vides for misalignament of adjoining shafts. The lat er type is almost / used to join the shaft of a motor to the driven equipment. Here rigidtype couplings are considered. The reader is referred to ma:hinedesign texts and manufacturer's catalogues for the other type. For rigid couplings, it is customary to assume that shear strains in the bolts vary directly (linearly) as their distance from the axis of the shaft.
at tic
between
the
flanges
is neglected.
Therefore,
analogous
to the
using obtains
shear
problem
Ush =
=
=
9dV
= Jv 2c 2 2rpdpL
stresses in the bolts also from the center of a coupling. to be uniform and is governed
of circular
shafts,
if the bolts
vary The
linearly as their respective shear stress in any one bolt by the distance from its center
are
of the
same
mater.
ial,
its crosssectional
of the coupling.
area,
the
Then,
force
if the shear
in a bolt
is found.
stress
in a bolt
On
this
is multiplied
basis,
for
2G
vol
If there
were
uniform
shear
stress
throughout
the
member,
www.avs4you.com
a more efficient
bolts of equal size in two "bolt circles," the forces on the located by the respective radii a and b are as shown in Fig. 426(c). The moment of the forces developed by the bolt3 around the axis of a shaft gives the torque capacity of a coupling. The previous reasoning is the same as that used in deriving the torsion
formula for circular shafts, except that, instead of a continuous cross a discrete number of points is considered. This analysis is crude, since stress concentrations are undoubtedly present at the points of conof the bolts with the fl&nges of a coupling. The outlined method of analysis is valid only for the case of a coupling which the bolts act primarily in shear. However, in some couplings,
for their
absorbing small
a shaft.
energy G values
would provide
be obtained. an excellent
Rubber device
(b) If t. orque T is gradually applied to the shaft, the external work We = where (b is the angular rotation of the free end in radians. The expression for internal train energy Ush, which was found in part (a), may be writ en in a
convenient
=
form
by noting
that
rm, = Tc/J,
the volume
and
'rrC4/2.
Thus,
the bolts
act
initial
tension in friction.
are tightened
in the Under
so much
that
the coupling
acts
in a dif erent
entire
coupling analysis
fashion.
is
Ush = 'r2G x
Then, from We = Ush
Tqb
which is the same as Eq.
2
416.
and
qb
JG
(a) (b) (c)
TL
Fig.
426
Flanged
shaft
coupling.
202
Eight 30mm bolts
Torsion
Sec.
4t3.
Shear
Stresses
and
Deformations
in Circular
Shafts
203
not
valid,
or is valid
the stresses in the bolts be reduced. bolts are used, there is lit le danger of the coupling may be greater than
in shear. 14
only
as a measure
of the
ultimate
strength
hap
if
be if i
act
EXAMPLE
4t2
(b)
(e)
Estimate the torquecarrying capacity of a steel the shaft, shown in Fig. 427, as controlled by MPa in the eight bolts. The bolt circle is diameter
Solution
Area of one bolt:
Assumed
strain
(c)
(f)
A
Fig. 427
Allowable force for one bolt:
= (1/4)r(30)
2 = 706
mm
variation
Pano,
= A%no,
= 706
Since
rnow
eight
= 28.2
bolt
x
are available
103 x 120
at a distance
x 8 = 27.1
x 40
= 28.2
103N
the central
axis
= 27.1
103
(g)
Corresponding
stress distribution
(d)
Stressstrain
relations
members
Fig.
428
Stresses
due
to torque.
in circular
section
periments 443. Shear in the Stresses Inelastic and Deformations Range in Circular
(d).
case.
The
is shown
through
schematically
a shaft
is shown
corresponding
in the
in Fig.
same
figure.
428(a).
shear stress
strain is found
The torsion formula for circular sections previously derived is ba Hooke's law. Therefore, it applies 0nly up to the point where the portional limit of a matedhal in shear is reached in the outer annulus
shaft. Now the solution wil be extended to include inelastic
is shown
Some
The
possible
linear
strain
to the
in ex(c),
fight
me
made
the equilibrium requirements assumption of linear strain Only the dif erence in matedhal
on HighStrength
AISC
torque
T = fA ('r dA)p
integral must be evaluated over the crosssectional area of the
(427)
shaft.
I by
4 See
E.
J. Ruble,
"Symposium
Proc.
(1950).
Also
Bolts,"
see
Section
Part
and
Torsion
Elastic stress distribution
Stresses
and Deformations
in Circular
Shafts
205
Inelasticstressdistribution
Fig.
429
the
For
thinwalled
Although the shearstress distribution after the elastic limit is ex( is nonlinear and the elastic torsion formula, Eq. 43, does not apply, sometimes used to calculate a fictitious stress for the ultimate torque. computed stress is called the modulus of rupture; see the largest of the dashed lines on Figs. 428(0 and (g). It serves as a rough the ultimate strength of a material in torsion..For a thinwalled tube, stress distribution is very nearly the same regardless of the mec properties of the material; see Fig. 429. For this reason, with thinwalled tubes are widely used in establishing the shear strain ?/diagrams. If a shaft is strained into the inelastic range and the applied then removed, every "imaginary" annulus rebounds elastically.
r MPat
160 [ ,
7,/,'
2 d
(b)
MPa
7X
10 3
(a)
51 MPa
between stresses
of the material,
in the stresses
strain paths, which cause permanent develop. This process wil be il ustrated
of twist form:
dx
set i n
/
89.7
MPa
of the examples that fol ow. For determining the rate can be used in the fol owing
3 MPa
of a circular
shaft
or tube,
Eq.
89.7
MPa
(e) Residual
' 51 MPa
stresses
Here from
shear diagram
EXAMPLE
413
Elastoplastic
stress
'(d)
Elastic
rebound
Fig.
430
the
small
contribution
?max
to the

total
of the
first
integral.
MPa

Tc J
574
103
(r/32)
~
x 12 = 211 X 244
in Fig.
steel shaft of 24mm diameter is so severely twisted that only an elastic core remains on the inside, Fig. 430(a). If the material idealized, as shown in Fig. 430(b), what residual stresses and wil remain upon release of the applied torque? Let G = 80 GPa.
At
7'residual residual
430(e).
For
clarity,
results
the
are replot ed
from
to the 0 to 160
416. Same
hzelastic:
At 9 = 4 mm,
The rotation direction,
residual torque is clockwise; an exactly direction in the inner portion of the is best determined by calculating
from
the vertical
line.
In the entire
equal
shaft. the twist
residual
shaded
of the
portion
torque
: ' elastic
when
427 elastic two
stresses.
the
stress
is a conskant
applied
160 MPa
for
9 > 4 ram.
Ec
= 2 x t0 3. The'
between length responds
elastic
and initial
rebound
the
elastic torque
of the shaft
twists is reapplied
is given
gives
the in the
by
be used to determine the stresses, and Eq. 43 applies; stress distributions, corresponding
torque T. The release of torque see Fig. 430(d). The dif erence 1: to no external torque, gives the
dqb dx
Elastic:
% p,
2 X 10 3 4 x 10 3
0.50
rad/m
+
= (16
(160)2*rp
+ 558) x
2 dp
103 N.mm = 574 x 103 N.mm
574
103
103
 JG
(r/32)
x 244
X 80
103
0.22
rad/m
2O6
Torsion
Sec.
Residual:
4.t4.
Solid
Bars
of
any
Cross
Section
207
found in the preceding example, line i is the residual 0 for the same problem. It should be noted that in machine members,
matrials, ' minor the
importance.
AB
elastic
rebound,
here
and
point
ultimate
static
capacity
of the
properties is often
as the proportional'limit
Solution
Fig.
431(a).
The
shear
yieldpoint
in shear,
%.
stress,
Typ,
is to be taken
as being
the
If a very large torque is imposed on a member, large strains take except near the center. Corresponding to the large strains for the idealized considered, the yieldpoint shear stress wil be reached everywhere except the center. However, the resistance to the applied torque offered by the located near the center of the shaft is negligible as the corresponding p's Fig. 431(b). (See the contribution to torque T by the elastic action in 413.) Hence, it can be assumed with a sufficient degree of accuracy that a cons
44.
scope
Solid
of this
Bars
treatment
of Any
of solid
Cross
noncircular
Section
members in torsion is beyond
first
two bers.
assumptions Sections
book.
The
stated perpendicular
Mathematically,
the
problem
is complex.
for
s The
a
responding 431(c)
shear
stress
everywhere
on the
Tult =
Since ihe maximum
4 Typ TfC 4
3 c 2
f ('rypdA)p
this value, of torque is shown
=
3
4 TypJ
c
fo c 2'Irp2'ryp
torque
considered.
limit
The
torque.
torque
is applied. section
can
nature be surmised
of the from
in a recmem
2C3 do = Typ
shaft
shear stresses at of the long sides. 433 shows the shearstress distribution along three radial lines from the center. Note particularly the dif erence in this stress compared with that of a circular section. For the lat er, the is a maximum at the most remote point, but for the former, the is zero at the most remote point. This situation can be clarified by
problem developed
this
43, and Tuft is times of that at yield. A plot ful plasticity develops
elastic
torque
the remaining torque capacity after yield T vs. 0, the angle of twist per unit distance, in Figure 431(c). Point A corresponds to
T Asymptote
capacity
of a solid
is Typ = TypJ/c,
Venant
remained
6 An
experiment
is sometimes
type
with
referred
a solution
unsolved
of distortion.
a rubber
to as the
for
until such
eraser
St.
on which
a rectangular
problem.
B. de torsion
grating
is ruled
Tui t = Tvp
/ /
T.Typ Tpl /
ResidualO
do/dx
(a) (b)
(c)
Fig.
43t
(a)
(b)
208
Torsion
t is useful to recast for a rectangular the section, second
giving
209
Tk,  4)
Formulas
Fig. 433 Shear stress distribution in a rectangular shaft subjected to a torque.
[3bt3
for many solved other mathematically, types of
(431)
crossa re
areas
such
Fig.
shown
434
cannot
The
shear
exist.
stress
For
cases
considering
existed
at the
a comer
corner,
element,
it could
be resolved
as shown
in Fig.
into
two
434.
components
If a shear
stres
lem
similar must
tble
has been devised.9 It equation that must be identical to that stretched over a hole.
cross section on one side
at
happens that the solution of the solved in the elastic torsion probfor a thin membrane, such as a This hole must be geometrically
studied. Then
to the edges of the bar. However, as shears always occur in pairs on mutually perpendicular planes, these components would have to met by shears lying in the planes of the outside surfaces. The lat er uation is impossible as outside surfaces are free of all stresses.
must be zero. Similar the boundary. All shear act parallel to them. been The considerations stresses
the
pressure can
of
be
the
in the
used
Analytical
solutions
for
torsion
433)
are however,
of rectangular,
imum
be put
shear
into
stress
the
(see
fol owing
Fig.
form:
and
to other near
points
are
scope of interest.
elastic
members
1. The shear stress stretched membrane 2. The direction of a to the slope of the 3. Twice the volume
any point is proportional to the slope at the same point, Fig. 435(a). particular shear stress at a point is at right membrane at the same point, Fig. 435(a). enclosed by the membrane is proportional
angles
to the
torque
carried
by the
section.
the angleoftwist,
these
results
Torsional
s R. J. Roark and W. C. Young, Formulas McGrawHil , 1975). Finiteelement section are also available. See, for
Analysis
of Irregular
Shapes,"
for Stress and Strain, analyses for solid bars example, L. R. Herrmann, J. Eng. Mech. Div., ASCE
5th
*max  cT
where T as before and t is the thickness is the applied or width
recorded in the
and
[3 depend
4)  [3
long
9 This
in 1903.
analogy
was
introduced
by the
German
engineering
scientist
L. Prandtl
The
these
values
values
of parameters
are
c and
upon
For
the
thin
ratio
sections,
b/t.
A few
b is much
Table
b/t
greater
than
for
1.50
t, the values
Rectangular
2.00
of c and
Bars
3.00
[3 approach
.
Weightless
of Coefficients
1.00
x7
6.00 10.0 m
cap
0.208
0.231
0.246
'0.267
0.299
0.312
.
McGrawHil ,
7 S. Timoshenko
0.141
1970),
and
0.196
312.
J. N.
0.229
The
Goodier,
0.263
is adapted
Theory
0.299
from
of Elasticity,
0.312
source.
3rd ed. (New
0.333
Stretched membrane
,<['
lb)
Membrane
''d'x
region,
table
this
(a)
Torsion
of ThinWalled
Open
Sections
t ' a
,k t
Membran,_.x
t t
Section
Y
' slope
box
Maximum
ized
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Fig.
437
Members
of equal
crosssectional
areas
of the
same
thickness
carrying
the
same
torque.
(a)
(b)
(c)
)the
MPLE
analysis
4t5
indeterminate procedures
section
are
susceptible
49.
Fig.
436
Il ustration
of the
membrane
analogy
for
a rectangular
bar
in torsion.
The foregoing analogy is called the membrane its value in experimental applications, it is visualizing stresses and torque capacities of sider a narrow rectangular bar subjected to 36. A stretched membrane for this member such a membrane is lightly stretched by
through the membrane is a parabola, maximum slop6, hence maximum Fig. 436(c). No shear' stress develops hess t. The maximum shear stresses volume enclosed by the membrane the member can carry at a given Fig.
436(b). For this surface stress, occurs along the along a line bisecting the bat' along the short sides are small. is directly proportional to the maximum stress. For this reason, sections shown in Fig. 437 can carry approximately the same torque the same maximum shear stress (same maximum slope of the since the volume enclosed by the membranes would be the same in all cases. (For all these shapes, b = L and the t's are e However, use of a litfie imagination wil convince the reader that contour lines of a soap film wil "pile up" at points a of reentrant Hence, high local stresses wil occur at those points. Another analogy, the sandheap analogy, has been developed for
shear
analogy. In addition a very useful mental aid members. For example, torque T, as shown in is shown in Fig. 436(a). internal pressure, a
using
with
Jtion
the
membrane
analogy,
in 4 given
x 65 steel
determine
in the
AISC
beam;
Manual
see Fig.
an approximate
of Steel
438.
Compare
value
for
Construction.
the calcula{ed
the
torsion
comparing
the
bar,
equations
Eq.
430,
given
it can
for
4 for
be concluded
a circular
as implied
that
from
section,
Jquv
the
Eq.
= f3bt 3. Further,
437(e), by
both for
416,
with
that
three
I
0.605"
'
65
section
can
be
approximated,
in Fig.
table
separate
narrow
that
for
bars:
the
two
web
flanges
is 10.91/0.390
and a web.
= 28.0,
Since
is 12/0.605
cases,
. Hence,
0.390"
be
10.91"
Jequiv
value
problem
numerical
= (2 x 12 x 0.6053
in the .AISC
is identical.
+ 10.91
is larger (2.18
inside point
x 0.3903)
in4). The
corners. of view
= 1.99
discrepancy
using Eq.
in 4
can
421. The
given
work
Manual
to neglecting can
2.00" O.E!5"
Fig. 438
tic
torsion?
Dry
sand
is poured
onto
a raised
flat
surface
having
shape of the cross section of the member. The surface of the sand so formed assumes a constant slope. For example, a cone is formed a circular disc, or a pyramid on a square base. The constant slope of the sand corresponds to the limiting surface of the membrane the previous analogy. The volume of the sand heap, hence its weight, proportional to the ful y plastic torque carried by a section. The
items in connection with the sand surface have the same
Warpage
solution
section
of Thin.Walled
general
associated
Open
torsion problem
name of SaintVenant.
Sections
discussed
membrane
of the
is
elastic
with
in the
Solutions
prefor
the
thinwalled
This
In
this
open
rigorous
sections
approach
22 may
As pointed
result
(which
in significant
out in connection
discussion
includes
inaccuracies
with
important
analogy,)
in some
twist
as
as those
McGrawHil ,
in the
1950).
applications.
section presents
such
the
to
of
2o A. Nadai,
only
a qualitative
neither
of
are hollow.
of this
referred
topic.
simply
Sec,
4t6.
ThinWalled
Hollow
Members
2t3
oA
16.
Fig. 439 Crosssectional
ThinWalled
solid noncircular
Hollow
members,
Members
thinwalled tubes of any shape can be
warpage
torque.
due
to applied
(a) (b)
bar,
no
that length
shear
along smfacei
as for:
shown
simply oftwist
analyzed caused
in Fig.
shape
Fz,
by
for
440(b). on the
with to torque
F2,
of the to the
shear tube.
be in equilibrium
are
such from
stresses Thus,
and consider
the
under
in as
the
of curved
forces
to
bars. In this sense, an I section, shown in Fig. 439, bars, and, during twisting, the three middle surfaces of thes develop inplane deformations. of symmetry, this I section twists around its centroidal axis: case is also the center of twist. During twisting, as the
hear
stresses
acting
cut
planes
multiplied
by the
respective
areas.
flanges
about surface warp, members,
displace
laterally,
the
undeformed
point A, Fig. 439(a). Similar of the other flange. In this i.e., cease to be plane, during the sections perpendicular
43, assumption
crosssectional
warpage,
or its restraint,
particularly
sections, including rectangular hand, for thinwalled torsion automobiles, ships, bridges,
middle
surface
abcd
rotate
Hence, x2t2 dx = ? t dx, or t = 1'2t2. However, since the longitudinal sections were taken an arbitrary distance apart, it fol ows from the previous relations that the product of the shear stress and the wall thickness is the same, i.e., constant, on any such planes. This constant wil be denoted by q, which is measured in the units of force per unit distance
and
along
the
perimeter.
Therefore,
its units
are
either
N/m
or lb/in.
may
its
have
an important
Section 14, Eq. 12, tually perpendicular planes at a corner such as A in Fig. 'r4tl = w3t2, or, in general,
dicular mulated. to the axis The inner
In
it was established that shear stresses on muare equal at a corner of an element. Hence, 440(b), 'r2 = '3; similarly, z = 4. Therefore, q is constant in the plane of a section perpenthis basis, of the an wall analogy can be can thought be forof as
effect
23
on
member
strength,
on
stif ness.
being
tity
compatibility 439(b),
beam distance beams,
Such
is restrained in many engineering an end of a steel I beam to a rigid cannot warp. To maintain required
of water
the boundaries
steadily
of a hannel.
circulating
in this
Then
channel.
In this
arrangement,
a constant
quan
the
t1
M,'shown effectively
F3
from cutouts,
This effect is local in character becomes unimportant. Nevertheless, warpage:restraint effect is dominant.
and,
portant
subject. Israel
are Elastic
topic
See Translations,
shown
is beyond
Vlasov
his book,
in the
the
scope
of 1940
of this
Elastic
text?
Beams,
23 V.
Z.
in a series
24 Shears 25 For
not
that
occur
papers
made
Structures,
details,
see,
2nd
for example,
ed.
diagram.
in the flanges
(New
and
York:
efficiently
McGrawHil ,
Services,
carry and
1961).
2nd
basic
ed.
contributions
(Washington,
to
part
1981).
torque of
(a) (c)
J. T. Oden
E. A. Ripperget,
Fig.
440
Thinwall
tubular
member
of variable
thickness.
2t2
2t4
Torsion
quantity of water flowing through a plane across the channel Because of this analogy, the quantity q has been termed Next consider the cross section of the tube as shown The force per unit distance of the perimeter of this tube, previous argument, is constant and is the shear flow q. is const the shear in Fig. 440 by virtue of This shear
Sec.
In the elastic range, Eqs. For inelastic behavior, analysis of tubes
446.
Thin.Walled
Hollow
Members
shape of t is conscope of
434 and 435 are Eq. 435 applies of more than one
ential length. The product of this infinitesimal some convenient point such as O, Fig. 4~40(c), an element to the resistance of applied torque
this,
multiplied
by the length
ds of the perimeter
gives
a force
q ds per
book. 27 For linearly elastic materials, the angle of twist for a hollow tube can found by applying the principle of conservation of energy, Eq. 224. this derivation, it is convenient to introduce the angleoftwist per unit of the tube defined as 0 = dqb/dx. The elastic shear strain energy the tube should also be per unit length of the tube. Hence, Eq. 35
the elastic
= 1 x t ds. simplifying,
strain
By

energy
substituting
here
Eq.
T 2
reduces
435 and
to Ush
then
T 2
= J'vo (,2/2G)
Eq. 434
ds
dV,
this
where
relation
into
T = rq ds
where the line of the
be writ en
integration perimeter.
as
process Since
tube this
along equation
the
in the last
Usa ' 8Q2G' ds   8(2 5the constants are taken outside the integral. = TO/2,
(436)
length
becomes:
expression,
T= qfrds
Instead of carrying out the actual integration, a simple inter of the integral is available. It can be seen from Fig. 4~40(c) that r ds twice the value of the shaded area of an infinitesimal triangle of altit r and base ds. Hence, the complete integral is twice the whole bounded by the center line of the perimeter of the tube. Defining this
Equating
as We
this
relation
to the
the
governing
external
work
dif erential
per
unit
equation
of member
by a special
symbol
(),
one obtains
' ds
to express
a prismatic
(437)
the torsional
tube subjected
stif ness
to
for
T = 2()q
proximately an outside surfaces line of the wall's is slit, when Eqs. Since for any the definition of
the wall thickness
or
to thinwalled
q  2()
tubes. The area () is
portant members
F.XAMPLE
kt  qb ds/t
crosssectional for tubular fol ows
4t6 Example of 10 and 43 8 ram, using Eqs. respectively, 434 and and the 435. The applied tube torque has outside is 40 N.m. and
(438)
This
equation
26 applies
average of the two areas enclosed by the inside and of a tube, or, as noted, it is an area enclosed by the contour. Equation 434 is not applicable at all if the 430 should be used. tube, the shear flow q given by Eq. 434 is constant, shear flow, the shear stress at any point of a tube
is t is
only
very
tubular
im
inside
The
mean
York:
radius
McGrawHil ,
of the
tube
is 9 mm
1981).
and
the
wall
thickness
is 2 mm.
Hence,
engineer
26 Equation
who
developed
434
is sometimes
it.
called
Bredt's
formula
in honor
of the
27 j. T. Oden,
and
E. A. Ripperger,
Mechanics
of Elastic
Structures,
2nd
ed.
*Torsion
Problems
Fig.
t 20mmJ
12.7
mm
x
q _
t
2()t
2,r x 92 x 2
40 X 103
 39.3 MPa
Xmax
..
Tc
50.4
103
10
J T
32.1
= = 31.6 46.7
MPa
MPa MPa
103 103
4t
Note that by using Eqs. 434 and 435, only one it is just about the average of the two stresses thinner the walls, the more accurate the answer, It is interesting to note that a rectangular tube, thickness of 2 mm, for the same torque wil have
that of the circular tube. This is so because its
shear stress is obtained and t computed in Example 43. .or vice versa. shown in Fig. 441, with a nearly the same shear stress
enclosed area is about the
*2m
= ebt 5 = 0.267
T
x 30 x 102
*3m  2()t
Stress Tlmax Occurs along the
2 x 40 x 20 x 3
perimeter of the knob,
T2.ma x at the
midheight
of
(reentrant)
tube.
However,
corners
some
of a square
local
stress
tube.
concentrations
stresses
great
lets
EXAMPLE 4t7
concentrations
advantage
to determine
the solution
be considered be particularly
walls
the location
precise. important.
of the tube.
of stress
manner,
indeterminate
In mechanical Membrane
Due
to the approximations
analogy
concentrations.
such
applications, can
Generous
for
stress be used to
m?de,
fil
as needed
elastic problems,
vibration
would
for
An
300 N.m
aluminum
is applied,
extrusion
(a) determine
parts
stress
has
the
cross
the maximum
member, and
section
shown
shear
(b) find
stresses
in Fig.
442
that would
If torque
sufficiently
accurate
since
local
effects
such
as stress
concentrations
play
de,
or
in the
the
Solution
three
member.
dif erent
Neglect
of the
concentrations.
the
torsional
stif ness
The cross section consists essential y of three parts: a circular knob (), a tangular bar (), and a rectangular hollow box with variable wallthickness,
During application of torque T, each one of these elements rotates through
same
angle
qb, and
therefore
each
element
by the for (kt)[s constants
Probeores
42.
6in
diameter
core
of
3 in
radius
is bored
out
resists
a torque
(kt)iqb.
Hence,
;hown
solid in mm
on
cylindrical the
figure,
shaft of is acted
variable upon
by
size, the
as tor
from
a 9in
diameter
solid
circular
shaft.
What
per
centage
ation?
of the
torsional
strength
is lost
by
this
oper
to Eq. 421, the total torque resisted for the three parts. The expressions by Eqs. 417, 431, and 438. These
sum are
of these
quantitiei
ques
the
indicated.
shaft,
and
What
between
is the
55
what
maximum
two
pulleys
torsional
does
stress
it
N'm
880 Nm
(kt)3 = 4Q2 G_
4
4 x (40 x 20) 2
evaluating of the
6.98 x 104 G
in
Fig. P44
'
46
43. A solid circular shaft of 2in diameter is to be
2000
A 120ramdiameter solidsteel sht ansmits
where tion,
=
By adding
9.34 x
the
104G/L.
the member
are 300
the
box
torsional
three
integral extends
for
stif ness
in
40 mm.
44.
(kt)i/
The
applied
(kt)i.
this
basis,
is
distributed
among
the are
x (1.57
parts
104G/L)/(9.34
224 N.m using,
a ratio
for
by
a hollow
mbe
circular
is limited
tube.
to 3 in,
If the
what
outside
must be
dithe
Detemine be the
the requked
maximum sh
shear diameter
to operate
at 4 Hz at the same
a set
figure, on
mimum
sess?
of the
tube
for
the
same
linearly
elastic
ma
stress?
Determine
shafts.
of ges, drives a line at 630 m. Thiy hp e the right; 90 hp on the left.
Torsion
Problems
Section 48
200ram
be the length
that
= 27
pitch
410.
minum
What
wire
42 MPa?
must
so
ofa
be
5mm
twisted
diaineter
through
Through
diameter;
what
angle
if at A
pitch
it could
a torqu.e
complete
of
revolution
G
without
GPa.
exceeding
steel line
a shear
shaft s
15.
AB
is prevented
of 560 N.m
41t.
The
solid
50mmdiameter
in the
Find the
figure
maximum
is driven
torsional
by
a 30hp
stresses
motor
in
at 3 Hz.
sections
A circular
of twist
(b) Let
steel
from
is applied
shaft
rotating?
of the right
of the dimensions
G = 84 GPa.
shown
tor
Fig.
P447
Select The
a solid allowable
round shear
shaft stress
throughout.
BC, angle
CD,
and of twist
(b) E. Let
ues.
G = 84 GPa.
along
the
rotation of the free end if d] = 6 in, d2 = 2 in, L =
diam.
bore
the
a hollow exceeding
ratio
steel
of the
shaft a shear
solid
outside
Bearing 5hpoff
N
15hpoff
10hpoff
jected
Determine 418.
the A thinwalled
to torque
T = 27,000 of strain
torsional
apply,
inlb. in prismatic
Assume
that
and
flexibility
circular
the shafts
usual sub
(b)
elastic
frustum
has
the
inside
instead?
diameter.
(b)
What
shaft
could
be
used
dimensions sional
Fig. P4tt
shown
stif ness
torof
47. A 100hp motor is driving A at 26.3 rpm. Bevel gears cement mixers. If the power driven by gear B is 25 hp and are the required shaft diameters? stress in the shaft is 6000 psi. bearing is provided to avoid
a line shaft through gear at B and C drive rubberrequirement of the mixer that of C is 75 hp, what The allowable shear A sufficient number of bending.
for
is used as
Fig. P445
of
torque
the
this
material
member?
per
unit
angle
of twist.
The
torsional
shearing
flexibility
modulus
412.
A hollow
steel
rod
6 in long
spring. The ratio of inside to outside diameters is The required stif ness for this spring is of a de per 1 inlb of torque. (a) Determine the outside ameier of this rod. G = 12 x 106 psi. (b) What is torsional spring constant for this rod?
4t3. and
shaft shaft
d.
A []
d:z
A solid 1000 mm
of the would
is employed
an
exhaust
to calibrate
300
fan
at 20
the
apart,
Hz.
re1" diam.
1/2r"Wall
thickness
shaft
dynamometer
and
disks
consists
attached
of a 12mmdiameter
to the shaft
mm
solid
aluminumalloy long is to be
outer exceed
shaft replaced
50 mm by a
in
same neither
diameter twice
such the
of
that maximum
the tubular
the
as shown in the figure. tube at the input end; The relative displacement stroboscopic light the given
One
the
Section
48. A solid
20
Fig. P47
 10':
stress
What
nor
should
the
GAI
criteria
angle
be the
of twist
inner
of the
radius
aluminum
= 84 GPa.
shaft.
(b)
(a)
power
speed.
input
was in hp required
Let
is fastened through a other is near the output end. of these two disks as viewed found to be 6 0'. Compute
disk
diam.
G = 84 GPa.
to operate
the
fan
at
Fig.
P448
shaft?
of the
Let
two
= 28 GPa
governs?
and
Gst
Two shafts,
attached jn the
gear
at B
449. The loading on a control torque eron of an airplane may be idealized varying torque t = kx inlb/in, where (see the figure). Determine the angle
free end. Assume JG to be constant.
300
mm
chined
down
to a diameter
of 75
mm
along
a part
of
/ 3000mm
12 mm
the
eters,
shaft.
the
If,
fil et
at the
radius
transition
is 12 mm,
point
what
of the
maximum
two
diamshear
stress plied
be
is apstress of
if
6000 mm
Motor
Dynamometer
Fan
Fig,
P446
4.9.
the
a 6iri shear
Find
shaft
diameter
the
required
is limited
shaft
with
fil et
a 4in
radius
psi.
diameter
for
the juncture
the
Fig.
P449
segment
A solid
Fig. P444
tapered
end
steel
(see
shaft
the
is rigidly
is subjected
Find
fastened
the
to
angular
transmits
stress
and
maximum
at the
support
other
at one
end
and
figure).
to a torque
shaft
is idealized
end,
see the
fig
")20
Torsion
bution and
423.
'N.m/m
Problems
on a graph. (b) Determine flexibility of the shaft.
A tube of 50ram outside
221
the
torsional
and
diameter
it is equal
the application
2:8.)
of a unit
torque
at b, and show
J = 3J2.
at a. Let
at b due to the
(See
that
is attached at the ends to a solid shaft of 25mm figure. If both the tube and same linearly elastic material, torque T is carried by the
25 2
:tions
(a) Using the force method, for the circular stepped The applied torques are T and T3 = 200 lbin. Th 2.83 in and d2 = 2.38 in. (b)
for the shaft along
Fig.
P420
its length.
d2
shaft Plot
Fig.
P432
d
of torque
the angleoftwist
T ;. see
the
q>(x)
figure.
diagrams.
Plot
the
torque
T(x)
and
10 x
103 ksi.
*433. Section
reactions
ure
the
end.
The
'421.
A 2000mm
long
circular
along rigidity
shaft
attached
at one
end_and free at the other ing distributed torque figure. The torsional stant. Determine the caused by the applied
is subjected to a linearly varyits length, as shown in the JG of the shaft is conangle of twist at the free end torque.
T I
424.
the
of 200
500
Fig. P423
. "
423,
is subjected
in this condition
dl
along
gram Section
I T'
T2
, , T3
for
Using Eq. 426 and continuity conditions (see 219) or singularity functions, determine the caused by a uniformly distributed torque to onehalf of the shaft length, as shown in the figProblem 428. Sketch the angleoftwist dia
along
the 4'i'i
shaft
length.
Assume
rigid
Nm
that
plates,
and maintained
in Problem
the shaft
prior
wil
to
to
end
2000
welding
the shaft
process.
upon
Using
the displacement method, determine for the shaft shown in Fig. 421 for the data: T = 40 kin, L = 15 in, L2 = 10 in, in 4, J2 = ,r/2 in 4, and G = G2 = G = 12
103 ksi.
shaft along
Also
its
What
residual
torque
remain
is subjected to a uniformly distributed torque to per length along onehalf of its length, as shown in figure. (a) Using the force method, find the reac(b) Determine the angle of maximum twist and the angleoftwist diagram along the shaft length.
torsional rigidity JG of the shaft is constant.
434. A circular stepped shaft has the dimensions shown in the figure. (a) Using an energy method, determine the angle of twist at the loaded end. G is given. (b) Check the result using Eq. 416.
3 d
plot
the
angleoftwist
elastic
angle
diagram
for
length.
426. shown
Fig. P42t
Consider in the
determine
the
two
same alternative
the
stepped
figures. of twist
T
circular
Using the qb,b at a
N
to
Fig.
P434
method,
Section
Fig. P428
4'i2
Section
49
that cross
Assume
that
the
shaft
in
Problem
420
is at
435. A coupling is made with eight indiameter highstrength bolts located on a 10indiameter bolt circle. (a) Calculate the torque that can be transmit ed by this coupling if the allowable shear stress in the bolts is 10,500 psi. (b) Find the hp that can be transmit ed
when 436. sectional the shaft A flange area and couplings are rotating at 250 rpm. coupling has six bolts having a crossof 0.2 in 2 each in a 8indiameter bolt
tached
(a)
(a)
the the
force angle
method, of maximum
de
103 ksi.
a torque
(a) What
T = 200
stresses
kin?
would
Show
be caused
the shear
by applying
stress distri
and
shaft length.
plot
the
angleoftwist
diagram
along
the
circle,
4.t0
and
six
bolts
having
bolt
a cross
sectional
If the is the
area
allowtorque
of
Rework
Rework
Steel
Problem
Problem
420
421
using
using
Eq.
Eq.
426.
426.
capacity Section
of this 443
coupling?
(b)
Using 219)
Fig.
P422
Fig.
P426
at the
ends
continuity functions,
caused
by
conditions determine
the
application
(see the
437.
diameter
A specimen
and
450mm
of an SAE
length
failed
1060
steel
at a torque
bar
of 20mm
of 900
Torsion
Nm.
torsion?
Problems
of this
and
223
What
is the
modulus
shaft such
of rupture
of 20ram diameter that. a 16mmdiameter
steel
1000 core
in
elastic
into
the
600MPa
range.
x dia
9ram
for
A solid steel long is twisted
the
two
materials
are
440 the the residual
critical
il ustrated
in the figure:
torque pattern?
Determine
438. mm
the the
figure. yield
Find
is relea Draw
the
values.
i< 120mm 8
Fig. P445
sidual stress distribution that would the torque. Draw the residualstress critical values. Assume the idealized erties for the material given in Fig.
413.
sidual
angle
of twist
per
unit
length
of shaft.
Section
414
,torsional
Using
the sandheap
moment
of resistance
an.logy,
determine
for
a rectangular
442.
and
Compare
a circular
the
members for a square
section.
maximum
of equal section,
All members
shear
length a
stress
and
are
and
cross
an
the
is 100 mm
of a by 2a. (Hint: First, using the analogy, Eq. 429 for a solid circular shaft, where the of the heap is CXyp. Twice the volume included heap yields the required results.)
on 416 a member having the cross section shown
Fig.
P448
the
2O T
same
torque.
and Compare
tubes
The
the rectangular
circular
torsional
section
section
diameter
is 25 mm
MPa. there
449.
443.
thinwailed
the
of
strength
cross section
and a longitudinal
stif ne
of lira
centerline
Is Use
circular
For
A shaft
having
elastic (see
the
material figure).
with
and
without
Fig.
439. If the shaft in Problem
P438
438 is twisted at the free
end
through
critical
an angle
values.
qb = 0.25 the
rad
and
then
released,
'what shear
the
find
the residual
pattern with
figure, find the maximum shear stresses and anof twist per unit length due to an applied torque 1000 inlb. Neglect stress concentrations. Comment the advantage gained by the increase in the wall thickness over part of the cross section.
figure timate
components, and calculate the stresses in each part, neglecting stress (b) Find the angleoftwist per unit
length
103
GPa.
caused
by the
applied
'3 mm
torque.
Let
G = 25
440.
a solid
tube
rod
of nickelalloy
of mild
is shrunk
crosssectional
onto
in mm
by
on
100
mm
:ram
30
mm
dimensions
on
shaft
of the
figure.
if the
composite
the
shear
shaft
torque
stress
are
deYeloped
measured
shown
the
Determine
maximum
this
the
444. An agitator shaft acting as a torsional is made by welding four rectangular bars to a pipe, as shown in the figure. The pipe is of 4 in diameter and is in thick; each of the rectangular
0.20"
Fig.
A thinwalled cross
P447
section in the form of a sim
elastic
to this
shear is'limited
member?
stress, to 8
airfoil
is shown
in
the
figure.
Determine
the
torque
it would
carry
at a maximum
shear
stress
of 20
Fig.
P449
Alst loeyel
Mild steel o
120 MPa
445. A torsion member
Fig.
P444
has the cross section
Fig.
P440
in the
figure.
Estimate
the
torsion
constant
Jequiv.
Sec.
52.
Diagrammatic
Conventions
for
Supports
?chapter
ems wil be ful y analyzed for these quantities. Special procedures to developed in subsequent chapters are required for determining reacin.statically indeterminate problems for complete solutions. Extenion to members in threedimensional systems, where there are six posinternal force components, wil be introduced in later chapters and wil rely on the reader's knowledge of statics. In such at a section of a member there can be: an axial force, two two bending moment components, and a torque. probshear
as
;.2.
5=][. Introduction
Diagrammatic
for and
Conventions
for Supports
The
effect
of axial
forces
and torsion
applied beams.
laterally main
act materials,
are
an axle of a car is a beam. Many shafts as torsion members and as beams. is a dominant member of construction.
forces objective members necessary of this previously for eq chapter.
on straight
members
was
treated
desi
determination of the system of internal of any beam segment wil be the main For. the axial y or torsionally loaded
only one internal force was required at an arbitrary section to satisfy conditions of equilibrium. However, even for a beam with all forces the same plane, i.e., a planar beam problem, a system of three force components can develop at a section. These are the axial force,
shear, and the bending moment. Determining these quantities is
of this chapter.
it is essential to adopt diagrammatic conand loadings inasmuch as several kinds of of loads are possible. An adherence to such inventions avoids much confusion and minimizes the chances of making These conventions form the pictorial language of engineers. types of supports are recognized for planar structures. These are by the kind of resistance they offer to the forces. One type of physically realized by a roller or a link. It is capable of resisting in only one specific line of action. The link shown in Fig. 51(a) can resist a force only in the direction of line AB. The roller in Fig. 5can resist only a vertical force, whereas the rollers in Fig. 51(c) can only a force that acts perpendicular to the plane CD. This type of ort wil be usually represented in this text by rollers as shown in Figs. and (c), and it wil be understood that a roller support is capable a force in either direction 2 along the line of action of the To avoid this ambiguity, a schematic link wil be occasionally to indicate that the reactive force may act in either direction
(a)
Roller
IRA
Fig.
The
is divided into three parts. In Part A, methods for are reviewed; in Parts B and C, two dif erent the internal shear and bending moment and their along a beam are discussed. At the end of Part C, on singularity functions for solving such problems is
largely confined to consideration of single wil be shown in the horizontal position. problems of planar frames resisting axial moments is also given. Only statically
of statics two components type of support a support is realized such supports wil
and the next three
equations the
54).
A reaction
applied. For inclined reactions, the ratio is fixed (see Example 13). that may be used is a pin. In construction, by using a detail shown in Fig. 52(a). In this be represented diagrammatically, as shown in
sections are an informal review of statics.
of this
are
type.
corresponds
to a single
unknown
This
2 This
Attention wil be which, for convenience, discussion of related shears, and bending
y from the beam; in other words, the beam is not allowed to lift off from support at A in Fig. 51(b). In this figure, it may be helpful to show the roller top ' the beam in the case of a downward reaction in order to make it clear constrained against moving vertically at the support. This practice
wil be fol owed in the text.
imples
that
in the actual
design,
a link
must
be provided
if the reaction
(c)
Fig,
of supports. possible
reactions dashed
51
Link
lines
are lines.)
and
roller
types
of the
the
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
Sec.
53.
Diagrammatic
Conventions
for
Loading
227
L Beam
(a)
Rcx
P
RAx
P
b)
actual,
Fig.
52
and
Pinned
roller
Simple
54
or a link
Three supports:
basic
resists
directed
supports resists
force.
two
for
Fixed
(c)
a fixed
and
(a)
(b)
(b)
diagrammatic.
support
resists
two
force
components
and
a moment.
Concentrated
loading
on a beam,
(a) actual,
and
lb) idealized.
Fig. 5~2(b). A pinned support direction of the plane. Hence, may have two components, direction. Unlike the ratio
between determine the these reaction two components components,
is capable of resisting a force acting in general, the reaction at such a one in the horizontal and one in the applying to the roller or link support,
for two the pinned equations support of statics is not must
in
types
loads.
could
loads uniformly
easily
be an idealization
loads
these,
and
of the
two the
warehouse
kinds uniformly
are
just
be u.
Fig.
53
Fixed
support.
third type of support is able to resist a force in any and is also capable of resisting a moment or a couple. Physically, a support is obtained by building a beam into a wall, casting it into crete, or welding the end of a member to the main structure. A s
of a is it
The
three forces can exist at such a support, two components of force moment. Such a support is called afixed support, i.e., the builtin fixed or prevented from rotating. The is shown in Fig. 53. To dif erentiate fixed supports from the roller and pin supports, are not capable of resisting moment, the lat er two are termed supports. Figure 54 summarizes the foregoing distinctions between three types of supports and the kind of resistance offered by each In practice, engineers usually assume the supports to be of one of three types by "judgment," although in actual construction, supports beams do not always clearly fal into these classifications.
idealization are shown in Fig. 56. per unit length of the beam, unless In SI units, it may be given as newtons per
in the U.S. customary units, as pounds per inch (lb/in), as foot (lb/ft), or as kilopounds per foot (k/ft). Uniformly varying loads act on the vertical and inclined walls of a vessel Containing liquid. This is il ustrated in Fig. 57, where it is assumed that vertical beam is one meter wide and /(N/m 3) is the unit weight of liquid. For this type of loading, it should be careful y noted that the intensity of the load of qo N/m is applicable only to an infinilength of the beam. It is twice as large as the average intensity
by such a loading on a beam
(qoh/2)
'53.
Diagrammatic
Conventions
for Loading
to support to a beam 5~5(a). Such the beam forces. other hand, portion piled up along a variety of loads. through a post, a arrangements apply and are idealized for These are shown in many instances of the beam. In a the length of a
Horizontal bottoms of vessels containing liquid are loaded uniVarious aerodynamic loadings are of distributed type. it is conceivable to load a beam with a concentrated moment to the beam essential y at a point. One of the possible arrangefor applying a concentrated moment is shown in Fig. 58(a), and
N,
and
its resultant
acts
at a distance
h/3
above
the
vessel's
Uniformly varying
load
Structural members are called upon example, frequently a force is applied or a bolted detail, as shown in Fig. force over a very limited portion of purposes of beam analysis as concentrated grammatically in Fig. 5~5(b). On the forces are applied over a considerable house, for example, goods may be
Such
distributed
per
loads
are defined
by their
load
intensity
at any
point
i
Fig. 56
(a}
(b)
qo N/m
(max)
= 3,'h
wall.
'1
Fig.
57
a vertical
Hydrostatic
loading
force
unit
length.
Distributed
loading
on a beam,
(a) actual,
and
lb)
idealized.
on
228
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
1,1/
Sec.
54.
Classification
of
Beams
229
A method a concentrated
to a beam.
for
;Pulley
its diagrammatic
58(c).
(a)
1,1/
(b)
(b)
(c)
representation
to be used
in this
text
is shown
in
(c) (f)
A less artificial example of the application of a concentrated to a member, frequently occurring in the design of machine and elements, is il ustrated in Fig. 59. In order to maintain the applied P in equilibrium at joint C, a shear P and a moment Pd mt at the support, Fig. 59(c). These forces apply a concentrated
and an axial force, as shown in Fig. 59(b).
The
necessity
notations
supports and forces cannot be overemphasized. the kind of resistance offered by the dif erent types the manner of representation of the forces at such
wil be used to construct freebody diagrams
for
for
a complete
understanding
of the
foregoing
(d)
(g)
Fig.
540
Types
of beams.
*54.
Classification
of
Beams
of supports
or rollers, and (b).
Beams
are classified
the
used.
The
A
beams beam
Thus,
into
if the supports
Several
of
if the ends have fixed supports. Likewise, fol owing the of nomenclature, the beam shown in Fig. 510(d) is a beam end and simply supported at the other. Such beams are also ted beams, as one end is "restrained" from rotation. A beam
at one end
the
and
completely
projects the
free
at the other
a support, in Fig.
has a special
the
name,
a cantilever
to have an
beam.
Fig.
510(e).
and
are either
Figs. beam,
Fig.
(c)
B
Fig. 510(g), the beam is termed a continuous beam. For the distance between supports is called a span. In a there are several spans that may be of varying lengths. In addition to classifying beams on the basis of supports, descriptive pertaining to the loading are often used. Thus, the beam shown Fig. 510(a) is a simple beam with a concentrated load, whereas the in Fig. 510(b) is a simple beam with a uniformly distributed load. types of beams are similarly described. For most of the work in engineering solid mechanics, it is also meanto further classify beams into statically determinate and statically ate beams. If for a planar beam or a frame, the number of reaction components, including a bending moment, does not exceed three, such a structural system is externally statically determinate. unknowns can always be found from the equations of static equi
If intermediate
beam Thus,
beyond
supports
beam
are. provided
shown
for a physically
510(f)
continuous
member
{a)
{b)
librium.
The
next
section
wil
briefly
review
the methods
beams. is given
of statics
for
Fig. 59
moment
Loaded
to
the
vertical
horizontal
member.
member
applies
an axial
force
and
a concentrated
:omputing
reactions mg reactions
for
statically in indeterminate
determinate beams
A procedure in Chapter
for
10.
230
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
Sec.
5.5.
Calculation
of
Beam
Reactions
*55.
All
mination
Calculation
subsequent
of the reactions.
of Beam
work with
When
Reactions
all of the
160
200
N.m
beams
in this
forces
chapter
are
wil
applied
begin
in one
with
de
RA 1
three
equations
of static
equilibrium
are available
for
be taken rection,
1. For
straight
direction, the y axis in the upward normal to the plane of the paper. The
beams
in the horizontal
position,
already
the
analysis.
been
the x axis
vertical
discus,.
> I RB
(a)
Fig.
5tt
of these equations to several beam problems is il ustrated in the examples and is intended to serve as a i The deformation'of beams, being small, is neglected when the of statics are applied. For stable beams, the small amount that does take place changes the points of application of the forces
perceptibly.
EXAMPLE 5'1
If more
unknown reaction components becomes statically indeterminate. .Xlote that the concentrated moment the summation of moments. The been correctly assumed in Fig.
vertical reaction
if the calculations
exist
at the
support,
the
prob
at A
acts
are
downward.
made
Find
11(a).
Solution
the
Neglect
reactions
the
at the
weight
supports
of the beam.
for
a simple
beam
loaded
as shown
in Fi
Solution
The
leading
of the beam
is already
given
supports is examined next, and the unknown components of these reactior clearly indicated on the diagram. The beam, with the unknown reaction ponents and all the applied forces, is redrawn in Fig. 511(b) to emphasize important step in constructing a freebody diagram. In order to the applied forces and reactions, fol owing the suggestion made in Section
slashes are drawn across the reaction force vectors.
computing
a time.
reactions, 512.
prefer
to make
the
every
same
determined
in diagrammatic
form.
The
nature
of
total reaction is obtained by summing these reactions. This propermits a running check of the computations as they are performed. For t force, the sum of its reactions is equal to the force itself. For example, for 160N force, it is easy to see that the upward forces of 40 N and 120 N total N. On the other hand, the concentrated moment at C, being a couple, is
by a couple.
of
It causes
500 N at
an upward
the left reaction.
force
of 500
N at the
fight
reaction
and
At A,
The The reaction points
two
unknown
at B can of application
reaction
act
components
the equations
may
direction careful y
exist,
since noted.
since
the After
the
end
end
is on
is
a
gram
solution.
of the
beam
is made,
of statics
are
applied
to
Fx MA
= 0 = 0
200
+ 100
x 0.2
+ 160
x 0.3
RB
RB = +
RL x 0.4
670
00 x
R}
100 x
i 'R
0.4 m
M
= 0
R^y
x 0.4
+ 200
 100
x 0.2
 160
RAy =
x 0.1
410
t MA=0
500 N = 200 X 1/(0.4)
50 40 g0
N N N
i60
x (0.1)/(0.4)
Check:
Note
thus, only
F:,
that
two additional
= 0'
+
one of the three
reactioncomponents
410independent
can be
100
determined
 160 + 670
equations
from
R 410N
Fig. 5t2
R=670N
50 N = 100 X (0.2)/(0.4)
F. = 0 uses
of
232
Moment
PsX3X
_ 1
of Beam Reactions
q. = 10 kN/m
_,crlqT
RAx
R''f X3=2 m
5m
(a)
4k
Fig.
5t3
(b)
/3k5k
(b)
Rax
RAy
EXAMPLE
52
Find shown
Solution
the
reactions for the partial y loaded in Fig. 513(a). Neglect the weight
a uniformly
varying
Iution
Fig.
5t4
the supporting conditions indicates that there are components; hence, the beam is statically determinate. and the applied load are shown in Fig. 513Co). Note particularly that figuration of the member is not important for computing the reactions. shaped outline, bearing no iesemblance to the actual beam, is indicated
At
A,
there
are
two
unknown
re
components,
plane the
RA
and
R,..
At B, the
reaction
RB
acts
normal
to the
the
10rting
by
phasize
same
manner
this point.
as the
However,
original
beam.
this new
body
is supported
load
at points
A and
forces.
to
equal.
components
shown.
tuilibrium.
These
cal.
It is expedient to replace in this particular problem it is best to replace the inclined force with the steps reduce the problem to one where all forces This is of great convenience in applying the equations
concentrated
For
calculating
force
the reactions,
P. It acts
through
the distributed
the
centroid
of the
is replaced
distributed
by an
pertinent quantities are marked on the working body diagram is prepared, the solution fol ows
equilibrium.
MA=0G+
iM=0G
,F = 0
+
+
4x3R RAy
RAx
m. x12=O X 12  4 x 9 = 0
 3 1 = 0
R,=
RAy
lkt
= 3 k 1
= I g. I
R ,. = 4 k*
+ 15 x 2  RB x 5 = 0  RAy x 5 + 15 x 3 = 0
9+
R/ = 0 RB = 6 R/y = 9
156
R,
= X,/42
+ 32 = 5 k
R
= Vff7+
12 = /k
+34+1=0
EXAMPLE
53
Determine applied
the
force.
reactions
at A and
B for
the
beam
shown
in Fig.
514(a)
h#ges or p#medjoints are introduced is capable of transmit ing only horizontal and be transmit ed at a hingedjoht. Therefore, the a particularly convenient location for "separation" oses of computing the reactions. This process part of the beam so separated is treated independently.
axis around which moments may be taken
into beams and frames. vertical forces. No moment point where a hinge occurs of the structure into parts is il ustrated in Fig. 515. Each hinge provides
to determine reactions. The
234
Axial Force,
Shear,
and Bending
Moment
235
(
1  a
.
2
B
particularly that the imaginary section goes through and separates it too. Each of these beam segments must be in equilibrium: These conditions of equilibrium stence of a system of internal forces at the cut section
In general,
Structures the
at hinges reactions
to
by
(b)
introduction of a hinge or hinges
is not
(c)
into a continuous beam in many cases
and
at a section
are
of such
a member,
a vertical
force,
a horizontal
in
the
beam
system
results
statically
in a beam
determinate.
that
The
stable.
introduction
Note that
of a hinge
the reaction
into
a deterr
at the hit
horizontal
force
such
as P,
shown
in Fig.
516(b)
or
(c),
may
be
nec
;sary
at a section
one
beam
acts
in an opposite
dh'ection
on
the
other
beam.
5{.
The
the
Application
main
forces
of the
of this
exist at
called a thrust; if away, it is called axial tension. In referring to either these forces, the term axial force is used. The effect of an axial force a section of a member has already been discussed in Chapters 1 and was shown that it is imperative to apply this force through the centroid
uniformly
load)
equation
and
Fx = 0. If the horizontal
sense
of a beam
of this
to satisfy
force
fol ows
the
conditions
force
from
P acts
a particular
of equilibrium.
toward
the section,
solution
The
of
/P2(tta'ad )
M
objective
that
chapter
of
is to establish
a beam or
means
a frame.
for
To
dete
obtain
a section
(a)
forces,
the
method
of
sections,
the
basic
approach
of solid
wil
be applied. This procedure The analysis of any beam begins with thd preparation plied and the reactive forces. the equations of equilibrium
If the labeled system and is statically shown on
the
is referred to here as a direct or frame for determining the internal of a freebody diagram showing both The reactions can aiwa3 provided the system is staticall3
reactions manner, are
for and section either case,
the
(b)
P2
complete
no distinction The method
indeterminate, the freebody. In this force system is identified. In the has to be made between the of sections can then be applied
subsequent
applied at any
steps
reactive of a
(c)
P
previously used concept that if a whole body is in of it is likewise in equilibrium. consider a beam, such as shown in Fig. 516(a),
and distributed forces acting on it. The
W2
lR,v
B
the method of sections to a
also
presumed
to be known,
since
they
may
be computed
as in the
/RB
statically
determinate'beam.
236
Moment
of a member to avoid bending. Similarly,
Resultant of all forces
237
wil always
area.
the line
centroid
of action
of the beam's
of the axial
crosssectional
force
be directed
throu
of is
section along a beam may axial force in the previous manner. tomarily taken positive. The axial
516(b) 58. and Shear (c) is equal in Beams to the horizontal
Any
," to theleftofsection
+V
element
(including
reactions)
in Fi
Beam
(c)
In general, to maintain a segment of a beam, such as that shown in 516(b), in equilibrium, there must be an internal vertical force at cut to satisfy the equation Fy = 0. This internal force , angles to the axis of the beam, is called the shear, or shear force. shear is numerically equal to the algebraic sum of all the vertical ponents of the external forces acting on the isolated segment,
Arbitrary
section
+ V
opposite
This shown
is opposite
in direction.
to the
shear
direction
may in Fig.
in direction
Given
to the
the qualitative
downward
vertical
load
data shownin
to the
the
including
shown in the
of section maintain
the beam
At a section,
exerts
"two
a downward
segment
of the
observation must be made. The same and (c) at the section XX is opposite in For that part of the downward load W to the
section
righthand and is
left
of the
Fig. 516(b)
se
Fig.
5t7
Definition
of
sec
positive
shear.
i specifying
section
XX
section. Whether the ri the shear at a section is ' Shears at any other section
side
the
of Fig.
in
of a section,
Sections
direction
516(a)
of a shear
Fig.
13 and
is a negative
517(c).
14.)
V, it is essential
This
shear.
Note
is also
to associate
true
that
in addition
stresses.
with
it with
+v
discussion
shown
selected Historically,
sign
convention it appears
3 reverse f axes
generally
axes
force
on the beam,
must
provides Conversely,
as shown
be dif erentiated,
Bending
shear
Moment
and axial
in Beams
forces at a section of a beam satisfy only two
(a)
in Fig.
[ de
516{
from
in
uations
directions"
of shear
upon
which
of the
loaded
shear
concept rod,
beam
and
at section
of statics again
of
is considered.
XX
This
fol ows
be
satisfied
within
by
crosssectional
developing
area
a couple
of the
or an
cut to
internal
counteract
remoment
diagrams
similar another
necessary to dif erentiate between the two possible directions of The definition of positive shear is il ustrated in Fig. 517. A internal force V acting at a section on an isolated left segment of beam, as in Fig. 517(a), or an upward force V acting at the same on the right segment of the beam, as in Fig. 517(b), corresponds
itive lated shear. from Positive a beam
reversal along
if the
in the a beam.
distributed
direction Therefore,
load
W were
acting
upward.
Fret
governing
moment act
section
equation
of the internal resisting moment equals the external momoments tend to bend a beam in the plane of the loads and referred as bending moments. an internal bending moment maintaining a beam segment either the left or the righthand part of a beam freebody
N.
2nd
M
= 0. It fol ows
forces. to the
The external
internal
resisting
from
the
moment
same
to
equation
satisfy
that
the
(b)
by
shears two
and
in Fig. again
517(c) in Fig.
Crandall, tSolids,
and York:
T.
J. Lardner, McGrawHil ,
An
2nd Solids,
ed.
(New (Englewood
York:
Clif s,
Wiley,
NJ:
1971). E. PrenticeHall,
P. Popov,
1968).
Introduction J. L. Introduction
1978).
to the
Merriam,
MeStat
Fig. 548 Positive sense of shear and bending moment defined in (a) is used in this
text with coordinates shown
to Mechanics
in (b).
238
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and Bending
Moment
Moment
in Beams
23 {)
can be used, as shown in Figs. 516(b) and (c). The magnitude of bending moment is found by the summation of the moments caused all forces multiplied by their respective arms. The internal forces V P, as well as the applied couples, must be included in the sum. In
to exclude the moments caused by V and P, it is advantageous to
Yll 3m 9 kN
)' 10 kN/m
x
i3
15kkN/m
A 9 kN
the point
moment
of intersection
moments cross section.
are on the
summed. In Figs.
of these
two
internal
and
lies
forces
as the point
top fibers
arot
of
may
and
be physically Fig.
lower
interpreted
ones.
as a pull
on the
beam
a push
convention
516(a) were acting in the opposite in Figs. 516(b) and (c) would reverse. the adoption of a sign convention for
is associated with a definite
physical
 2 m
(a)

<
(c)
the beam. For example, in Figs. shown cause tension in the upper lower. This tends to increase the
and to contract the lower surface.
516(b) and (c), the internal part of the beam and com length of the top surface
A continuous occurrence
along the beam makes the beam deform water." Such bending moments are assigned a positive moment is defined as one that
top
such
part
circumstances,
and
tension
in the
the
beam
water."
forces
deflects
For
example,
down
as shown
a simple
in exaggerated
beam
by physical intuition. Demitions for positive and ne moments are shown in Figs. 519(b) and (c). Note that, ast V, in addition to the sense of M, it is also essential to
for a particular side of a section.
part
of a beam's
form
a shape
cross
that
supporting
a group
in Fig.
519(a),
of
(b)
Fig.
5.20
EXAMPLE
54
;ider aa
SOlution
earlier and
Example
bb; see Fig.
52
and 520(a).
determine
the
internal
system
of forces
at sec
+M
+M
freebody
Fibers in Fibers in +M
for
left
the
member,
aa
including
in Fig.
reactions,
520(b)
is shown
shows the
in Fig.
maximum
520(a).
ordinate
A freefor
to the
of section
tension
+M
+M
compression
isolated
part
of the
1
applied
load.
2
Using
this
information,
v, = 9 + x 2 x x 10 = 2.33kN
{b)
M, = 9 x 2 +
M
x 2 x x 10 x x 2 = 13.6kN.m
sense
forces
{a)
Fig. 520(d).
549 Definition of bending moment signs.
directly
It is evident
bb
freebody
is simpler
520(c),
for calculations,
and
to the
right,
Fig.
240
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and Bending
Vb =
Moment
+6kN
Sec. 5.t0.
Axial.
P=Sk
Force,
Shear,
and Bending.Moment
Diagrams
and
rigidly must
Mb = 6 x 1 = 6kN.m
The same
joined together be perpendicular
[
I
procedure
as well to the
consisting
In all such
of several
cases,
the
memb
secti6fi
{a) (g)
3k
2X84X3= 4 kft
2k,J'
J
3k
I I I
I
I
I
510.
By the shears, beam. a plot
AxialForce,
Diagrams
methods discussed and bending Moreover, with of their values
Shear,
before,
and
the
BendingMoment
magnitude be obtained sense of axial fo at many sections adopted for these separate diagrams.. On such and
.[2k
i
4 kft
i,
113k
4 kft
t' '2k
(h)
o
3 +2 k k I I I Axial force
of
3k 2k
(d) (i)
a base line representing the length of a beam. When these ordinate are plot ed and interconnected by lines, graphical representations of functions are obtained. These diagrams, corresponding to the kind quantities they depict, are called,. respectively, the axialforce the shear diagram, or the bendingmoment diagram. With the aid of diagrams, the magnitudes and locations of the various quantities becor immediately apparent. It is convenient to make these plots directly the freebody diagram of the beam, using the same horizontal scale the length of the beam. Draftsmanlike precision in making such is usually unnecessary, although the significant ordinates are
marked with their numerical value.
grams,
ordinates
may
be laid
off equal
to the
computed
qantities
2 k T.2, Jrt
I
2
2 kjO kft
(j)
+4 kft
Shear
2k
3k
Ii
+10
kft
+4
kft
J
5
Bending
moment
4 kl
(k)
axialforce diagrams are not as commonly the bendingmoment diagrams. This is so because investigated in practice are loaded by forces that axis of the beam. For such loadings of a beam, at any section. Shear and moment diagrams are exceedingly designer sees at a glance the kind of performance beam at every section. The procedure of sectioning and finding the system of forces at the section approach. It wil be used in the fol owing il ustrative of these examples, algebraic expressions for these wil be given. A systematic method for rapidly constructing grams wil be discussed in the next part of this
EXAMPLE 55
The
used the
Deflected
shape
Fig.
Solution
521
From them, is desired from a beam or a is the most examples. In functions along a and moment
shear chapter.
A freebody diagram of the beam is shown in Fig. 521(b). Reactions fol ow from inspection after the applied force is resolved into the two components. Then several sections through the beam are investigated, as shown in Figs. 521(c)(g). In every case, the same question is posed: What are the necessary internal forces to keep the segment of the beam in equilibrium? The corresponding quantifies are recorded on the respective freebody diagrams of the beam segment. The ordinates for these quantifies are indicated by heavy dots in Figs. 521(h)(j), with due attention paid to their signs.
Note furnish that the the same free bodies information, shown
and
in Figs. normally
521(d) both
and would
Note
as they that
Construct in Fig.
bendingmoment force P = 5 k.
diagrams
for
the
beam
a section just to the left of the applied force has one sign of shear, Fig. 521(e), whereas just to the right, Fig. 521(f), it has another. This indicates the importance of determining shears on either side of a concentrated force. For the condition shown, the beam does not resist a shear that is equal to the whole force. The
bending moment in both cases is the same.
:242
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
Sec.
540.
Axial.
Force,
Shear,
and
BendingMoment
Diagrams
243
In this particular case, after a few individual points have been J the three diagrams in Figs. 521(h)(j), the behavior of the respective across the whole length of the beam may be reasoned out. Thus, although segment of the beam shown in Fig. 521(c) is 2 ft long, it may vary in len anywhere from zero to first to the left of the applied force, and no change in shear and the axial force occurs. Hence, the ordinates in Figs. 521(h) and remain constant for this segment of the beam. On the other hand, the moment depends directly on the distance from the support; hence, it varies early, as shown in Fig. 521(j). Similar reasoning applies to the segment in Fig. 521(d), enabling one to complete the three diagrams on the ri side. The use of the freebody of Fig. 521(g) for completing the diagram to fight of center yields. the same result. The sign of a bending moment, per Figs. 519(b) and (c), defines the sense which a beam bends. Since, in this problem, throughout the beam length, moments are positive, the beam curves to "retain water." In order to this physical behavior some analysts find it advantageous to draw a short line directly on the moment diagram, as shown in Fig. 521(j), to ifidicate manner in which a beam or a beam segment curves.
Sometimes, in addition to or instead of the shear or moment dia
(a)
*
(d)
>1
Axial
force
Shear
(f)
p PLf
P I \PL  Px
PL
Moment
expressions of the
for
beam,
V= V=
necessary. apply:
For
the
origin
of x at the
left
Deflected
shape
Fig.
522
M=
+2x
kft
+2xcan respectively,
4(xbe easily
5)
+20
for0<x<
10 5
EXAMPLE
57
2xkft
for5<x<
10
forces
Construct
shown
shear
in Fig.
and
523(a).
bendingmoment
diagrams
for
the
beam
loaded
with
the
replacing an x.
the
Solution
Determine loaded
Solution
with
axialforce, an inclined
Fig.
diagrams 522(a).
for
the
{,+a
>l
First, the inclined force is replaced by the two components shown in Fig. and the reactions are determined. The three unknowns at the support fol ow the familiar equations of statics. This completes the freebody diagram shown Fig. 522(b). Completeness in indicating all of these forces is of the utmost
portance.
(a)
,
p,[
(d)
Shear
A segment of the beam is shown in Fig. 5~22(c); from that the axial force and the shear force remain the distance x. On the other hand, the bending moment is summation of moments around C gives PL  Px acting This represents a negative moment. The moment at the negative bending moment as it tends to pull on the upper
seen
three diagrams are plot ed in Figs. $22(d)(f).
this segment, it may same regardless a variable quantity. in the direction support is fibers of the beam.
(b)
(e)
Fig.
523
Moment
244
Moment
regardless bending of the
Diagrams
obtained
and
to isolate the lefthand segment, similar expressions may the righthand segment of the beam, with due attention The plot of the V and M functions is shown in Figs. 5
An
arbitrary
section
applicable
anywhere
force Only zone. diagrams
between
the
two
applied
forces
mu
shown in Fig. segment in this be resisted by pure bending. Shear and Figs. 523(d)
force at any
523(c). No shear part of the beam. the beam in this bendingmoment and (e).
section
to maintain equilibrium bending moment of + Pa of bending or flexure is condition as there are shown is no
MPLE
59
No
of the
axialforce
beam.
loading is necessary,
the beam
moment
in Example
M as a function
54,
shown
of x along
in Fig.
the
525(a),
horizontal
express
member.
the shear
V and
the
Solution
EXAMPLE
58
Unlike
diagrams
524.
for
a simple
beam
with
Therefore, the solution is determined V and M are continuous. A freebody load is shown in Fig. 525(b), and required expressions for 0 < x < 3 are
the preceding
example,
in two parts for each of which the funcdiagram for the beam segment under for the remainder, in Fig. 525(c). The
occurs at x = 3
The best way of solving this problem is to write algebraic expressions quantities sought. For this purpose, an arbitrary section taken at a distance the left support is used to isolate the segment shown in Fig. 524(b). applied load is continuously distributed along the beam, this section
and
for
Since is
V(x) = 9 +
x 10
= 9 + x kN
The
applies shear
section.
action on
The
the
internal
left less
bending
the moment
moment
caused
M resists
by
= 9x
+ x kN.m
the
load
to the
left
left
of th
For
3 < x < 5,
the
moment
caused
by
the
the
forces
to the
of the
section.
w o N/m
The
summation
of moments
is performed
around
an axis
at the
V(x) M(x)
= =
9 9x
15 = + 15(x
+6kN  2) = 6x
To obtain
body
the last
expression,
it would
have
been
This
diagram
problem
516.
similar
can also
to Fig.
be solved
520(d).
using
the singularity
functions
discussed
in
} woL
Section
'
oF>..
%L
Y3 m
I kN
10kN/m
6kN'
I
k.1 ..M(x)
V(x)
90 N
r,,
v=
(b)
Wo.
Moment

5m
<
(b)
2 J
(c)
 WoX
(d)
Fig.
5.25
Fig.
524
246
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
Sec.
5.10.
AxialForce,
Shear,
X 1
and
Bending.Moment
Diagrams
2,47
'
P(x)
D
&
Fig,
526
V,.
EXAMPLE 5t0
I V(x)
V.''
2Pa
('M(x,)
Pla x3)
Write
Solution
analytic
expressions
for V and
shown
in Fig.
526.
Unlike
degree
procedure
origin,
having
the preceding
careful y
is the
one
redundant
same
cases,
this is a statically
reaction.
There
is no horizontal
numerical
indeterminate
proble
cannot
reaction
m to the
and
be obtai
y2Pa
(b)
V(xa)pl'xa
at A.
(a)
cept
for
identifying
until
the reactions
are determined.
V(x)
as before,
the
although
unknown
reactions
On this
wox
basis,
at a distance
results
as VA,
VB,
MA,
Fig.
5:27
x away
from
V.
and
M(x)
= MA  Mn
+ +
10 and
VAx Vx
These forces are constant throughout the length of the vertical bar and become the reactions at B for the beam segment BC. It is important to note that the axial force in member AB acts as shear in BC. After the reactions at B for BC are known, the usual procedure gives the fol owing internal forces:
P(x2)
= 0, V(x2)
= P
and
M(X2)
= +2Pa
the force as before,
 PlX2
P at C, the progiving
for
Sometimes,
unknown
reactions
54
it wil be necessary
in Chapters
in the process
of solvin
For cedure
except
P(x3)
bending
directly
= P/V,
moment
V(x3) = P/V
x3 = X/a
at D is zero,
of the
and
for this
be.
M(x3)
structural
= + Pa  Px3/V
it can be verified
system
EXAMPLE
By substituting
Shear
into
Consider a structural system of three interconnected straight bars, as shown Fig. 527(a). At arbitrary sections, determine the internal forces P, V, and M the members caused by the application of a vertical force P at D.
Solution
and bendingmoment
outline
diagrams
frame.
as it should
that
the
can be plot ed
on the
EXAMPLE
542
analyzed by isolating For each case, a dif erent the members are shown At an arbitrary +P,
by calculating
Consider
a curved
beam
whose
centroidal
axis
is bent
into
a semicircle
of 0.2
beam
are
The
seen
segment
to
solution
be
AB.
begins
section = 0
the
reaction
through and
is then
shown
forces
on
as shown in Fig. 528(a). shown, find the axial force, ct = 45 . The centroidal axis
is being pulled by the 1000N the bending moment at section forces all lie in the same plane.
P(x)
V(x)
There
is no essential
dif erence
in the
method
of attack
in this
problem
compared
with
that
in a straightbeam
problem.
The
body
as a whole
is examined
for
con
248
Moment
derived. These
as well
of Equilibrium
construction
of reactions.
be used
the
for
calculation
the long,
P=I
Consider
a beam
element
Ax
isolated
by
two
adjoining
perpendicular to its axis, Fig. 529(b). Such an element is shown a freebody in Fig. 529(c). All the forces shown acting on this element have positive sense. The positive sense of the distributed external force
c = 45
(a)
is taken to coincide ar and the moment that on the right designated V +
Eig.
528
From
the condition
for equilibrium T +
with the direction may each change side of the element, A V and M + AM.
V+
AV
of vertical
(V+
forces,
AV)
one
= 0
obtains
ditions
of equilibrium.
From
the
conditions
of the
problem
here,
such
is
A is taken perpendicular to the axis of the beam. Before determining wanted at the cut, the applied force P is resolved into components perpendicular to the cut. These directions are taken respectively axes. This resolution replaces P by the components shown in Fig.
707
the case.
Next,
a segment
of the beam
is isolated;
see Fig.
528(b).
Fx = 0, the axial
in several of action
N in the
Therefore,
direction
force
the
ways. applied
shown.
axial
For force
force
example, P and
at the
bending
centroid
the
moment
N. From
at the
Fy = 0, the shear
cut can
the
Section
qAx
Ax
L,
For So, equilibrium, upon noting
one has
= q
arm around A also must of the distributed
since, simplification in the
(51)
C, a point
and the resisting bending moment is 707(0.2) shown. An alternative solution may be obtained
lying on the centroid, the axial force
P is avoided
point
of moments A the
be zero. force is
limit is not as Ax an ap
and
intersectl
Ax need negligibly
is more
It is suggested that the reader complete a. Several interesting observations may The moments at the ends wil vanish for shear vanishes and the axial force becomes
the maximum bending moment is associated
this problem in terms of a general be made from such a general solution. a = 0 and a = 180 . For a = 90 , equal to the applied force P. Likewise
with a = 90 .
(a) Beam sign
+'"
+M "+v
convention
+q(x)
5=]]
Dif erential
Element
Equations
of Equilibrium
for
a Beam
shear
(c)
be used.
Instead of the direct approach of cutting a beam and and moment at a section by statics, an efficient alternative
For this purpose, certain fundamental dif erential
determining procedure
Flg.
529
Beam
and
beam
elements
between
adjoining
sections.
250
Moment
+ AM)
AM
Ax
=V+
.
VAx
q Ax
2
dx
by Integration
of the Load
q = +q2
(M
 M
 (q Ax)(Ax/2)
basic
Equations
dif erential
51 and
equations:
as Ax > 0 yield
dV
= wodx
and
I dv I )
By substituting Eq. 54 into Eq. 53, another
=q
Slope = d__V=wo dx
(a)
xx = +ql
(b)
dV
dV
dx  +q2
(a) a uniformly load intensity, uniformly intensity.
Fig.
530
Shear
increasing
Slope
of shear
diagram:
dV
useful relation is
dx  q ""...Slope
Slope
diagrams
for
a load
dx
This
3 and grams.
ically
dif erential
54
determinate
are These
equation
beams
from
can
wil
be used
the
NONACTIVATED VERSION boundary conditions,www.avs4you.com whereas Eqs. by the summation process. For this purpose,
"jump,"
dx 2
cess
remains
in the value
valid
the beam.
of the shear
nevertheless,
occurs.
since
a concentrated
The
continuous
force
summation
may
be
of as being
basis
a distributed
above
force
extending
diagram
for
an infinitesimal
can be established
dis
for
determining
next.
reactions
and
of
tance
On the
along
of the
reasoning,
a shear
of shear
moment
512.
By transposing
Shear
Diagrams
and integrating
by Integration
Eq. 53 gives the
of the
shear
Load
V:
Then the vertical components of forces and reactions summed from the left end of the beam to preserve the sign convention for shear adopted in Fig. 517. The shear is simply equal to the sum of all vertical forces to the left of
shear diagram is constructed from the load diagram by the
first.
the reactions
must
always
summation process, two important observations can be made regarding its shape. First, the sense of the applied load determines the sign of the slope of the shear diagram. If the applied load acts upward, the slope of the shear diagram is positive, and vice versa. Second, this slope is equal to the corresponding applied load intensity. For example, consider a segBy assigning definite of integration limits to this constant integral, it is seen is equal to the that shear the shear at
When
the
section beam
by
hand
constant
the
left
an integral (i.e., a sum) of the vertical end of the beam to the section any two
vertical
Between
along
on the
sections.
plus
ment of a beam with a uniformly distributed downward shears at both ends, as shown in Fig. 530(a). Since intensity Wo is negative and uniformly distributed,
of the
def'mite
two
force
seciions
included
of a beam,
between
If a concentrated
no force
occurs
between
force
comes
into
sections,
the
summation,
no change
a discontinuity,
in shear
takes'
or
stant, the slope of the shear diagram exhibits Alternatively, the linearly varying load intensity segment with known shears at the ends, shown in Fig. 530(b), gives rise to a dif erently shaped shear diagram. Near the left end of this segment, the locally applied upward load q is smaller than the corresponding one
load Wo and known here the applied load i.e., q = Wo = conthe same characteristics. acting upward on a beam
q2 near
the fight
end.
Therefore,
the positive
slope
of the shear
diagram
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
Sec.
543.
Moment
Diagrams
by
Integration
of the
Shear
253
on
concave
the
Do not
left
upward.
is smaller
fail to note
than
that
it is on
a mere
the
systematic
right,
and
consecutive
the
shear
summa
dia
the vertical components of the forces is all that is necessary to the shear diagram. When the consecutive summation process is diagram must end up with the previously calculated shear the right end of a beam. No shear acts through the beam just last vertical force or reaction. The fact that the diagram closes in
manner check offers should
rapidly.
procedure problems.
an important check on the never be ignored. It permits with al. most complete assurance
dMIdx
= V
From the physical point plotely consistent. Whenever from one side of the beam
by looking this statement at the same on some
beam simple
of view, the shear sign conventionbeams are analyzed, a shear is opposite in sign to a diagram
from the
is not
should
M B
MB
dM =  V1dx
(a)
cases,
other such
dM.
Slope of moment diagram:
= V dx
force
trated
unimportant.
in the
force
middle.
at the end
For
and a simply
design
purposes,
513.
Transposing
Moment
Diagrams
and integrating Eq.
NONACTIVATED VERSION dM_ V /+Slope Fig. 541 Shear and moment diagrams for (a) a uniformly by Integration of the Shear www.avs4you.com 54 gives the bending moment
the sign of the shear is
dx
supported
beam
with
'"'Slope
increasing
load
intensity.
distributed
to their
load intensity,
end and
sign,
By proceeding
moment
moment
construction
the
where tions
C2 is a constant at x = 0. This
of shear
of the
V dx is
for
minate
by the hatched of these areas responds to an evaluation are on rollers, pinended, are zero. If the end is builtin
beams, the end
graphically summation
moment
areas of the shear diagrams in Fig. 531. between definite sections through a beam of the definite integral. If the ends of a or free, the starting and the terminal (fixed against rotation), in statically
is known from the reaction
earlier to go from loading to shear diagrams. The change in in a given segment of a beam is equal to the area of the coronding shear diagram. Qualitatively, the shape of a moment diagram be easily established from the slopes at some selected points along beam. These slopes have the same sign and magnitude as the corshears on the shear diagram, since according to Eq. 54, dM/ = V. Alternatively, the change of moment dM = V dx can be studied the beam. Examples are shown in Fig. 531. According to these
variable shears cause nonlinear variation of the moment.
from
areas
continuously
of the
shear
along
diagram
the beam
with
from
due
the lefthand
regard
constant
sulting
the
end initial
is on the of integration
left,
moment
with
the
Since
in a straight portion
dM/dx
shear
produces
maximum
or minimum
= V, according an invaluable
a uniform
change
to the
occurs
fundamental
in the
bending
moment,
along
re
theorem
shear
is zero.
5 Bending
moments
that
carry
compression
signs according
in the top
to the convention
of the beam
adopted
are
end
In a bendingmoment
of the beam,
diagram
check
obtained
on the
by summation,
work
is available
at the righthand
:254
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
Sec.
5.13.
Moment
Diagrams
by
Integration
of the
Shear
255
along
P' 2L
The
sum
cha)Ige
area.
: of +PL/4. the
the beam
of the positive
This
until
in the moment
diagram
second
areas
moment
the quarter
portion
of the
can be made
the
shear
remains
point,
shear
in this zone
decreases
constant
where
diagram
in the by
the moment
increases
half
as there
P
middle
reaches
at a constant
of the dr.
a magbeam.
is no corresponding
Since
(a)
in this zone
of the
force,
moment
has a constant,
diagram
are equal,
negative
at the right
slope.
dx in eve3'
end,
the
the positive
moment
Hence,
zero.
p
the work
MPLE
This
is obtained.
5t4
is as it should
This
be, since
moment
the right
diagram
end is on a roller.
is symmetrical.
Thus,
a check
I
{
I
PL
shown
V and
beam with a uniformly increasing load intensity 533(a). The total applied load is W. (a) Construct with the aid of the integration process. (b) Derive
Eq. 55.
from
(c)
Solution
Elastic
curve
Fig.
532
(d)
terminal conditions for or pinned, the computed end moment computed for the reaction. These
be satisfied.
moment must be satisfied. sum must equal zero. If the by summation equals the one are the boundary conditions
the
the
given
in Fig.
on the
533(b)
left
end
begins
than
and
on the
ends
as shown.
the
shear
Since
distribution, Therefore,
diagram
the rate
is
is balanced
upward.
by the
The
applied
W
point
load,
1
of zero
2W
i.e.,
shear
occurs
where
the reaction
L
on the left
 = x7x
the bending moment is maximum;
W L
hence,
therefore,
x  V
EXAMPLE
5t3
Construct in Fig.
Solution
shear
and
532(a)
by
the
moment integration
diagrams
for
the
symmetrically
loaded
35
+ 2v'
process.
The reactions are each equal to P. To obtain the shear diagram, Fig. 532(b), summation of forces is started from the left end. The left reaction acts up, so ordinate on the shear diagram at this force equal to P is plot ed up. Since are no other forces until the quarter point, no change in the magnitude of t shear ordinate is made until that point. Then a downward force P brings
ordinate back to the base line, and this zero ordinate remains until the next
(b)
W/3
ward force P is reached upward reaction closes diagram is antisymmetrical. The moment diagram, shear diagram. As the
where the shear changes the diagram and provides Fig. beam 532(c), is simply is obtained supported,
to P. At the right end, a check on the work. This by the summing moment up the area at the left
kx = (2W/L)x
2W/3
(c)
2WL
9v'
Fig.
533
256
Shear,
the rules
and Bending
given in Fig.
Moment
531, the
the
Diagrams
k
by Integration
of the Shear
257
the
shape
30k
50 40 k
Although
Applying
533(c).
the shear
necessary
and bending
to supplement
moment
it twice,
diagrams
results analytically
could
has
be sketched
1 k/ft
tively,
critical
it was
values.
15'
Xl'
(b)
Eq.
55
and
integrating d2M
one
dx 2  q=
C and
require
M(L)
+kx=
M
that
+'x
=
the
6
2W
t27.5k
(a)
37.5
o
150
dM
kx 2
kx 3
Cx
C2
x
30 k Axial force
37. k/5ft IF
k/f
Moment
However,
L be zero,
the
i.e.,
boundary
M(0) =
conditions
0 and
moments
since
at x = 0 and
= 0. Therefore,
(d)
(b)
+10 k 12'
B
16.36'
M(0)
and, similarly, since M(L) = 0,
C2
+12.5
kZ 3 +
6
CL
With
these
constants,
dM. dx
and M =
kx 2 2
kx 2
6
those found
or
C
kZ 2
Deflected
(e)
shape
kL 2 6
Wx 2 L 2
W 3
Shear
(c)
Fig.
534
kL 2x
6
earlier.
Wx
3L 2
Wx
3
sum
acts
of the
forces.
vertical
segment
reaction
components
is 65 kips
and
equals
the
sum
of the
These
results
agree
with
diagram
approach used in this in the
to situations in Section 516.
force
is shown
beam.
in Fig.
Fig.
534(b).
This
compresslye
force
The
attractive
features
dif erential the singularity
of the
equations functions
boundaryvalue
can be extended discussed
the beam
EXAMPLE
5t5
the shear diagram in the zone . This is in accord with Eq. 53, il ustrated Wo, the negative slope of this shear diagram
diagrams process. for loaded beam shown in Fig.
to zero at A. The total downward
an equal
increment
of the
of distance
along
rate.
the
CA is a curved line, which is concave in Fig. 530. Since dV/dx = q = is large on the left, and gradually
force from C to A is 15 kips, and
beam,
a smaller
change
in shear
this is the
action
at A is 30 kips
and
acts
to the right.
this).
and, and
before vertical
From
M, = 0, the
the reaction
proceeding components.
further, The
negative ordinate the upward reaction + 12.5 kips. This value right of the support
but this total
does
of the shear diagram, just to the left of 27.5 kips moves the ordinate of the of the shear applies to a section through A. The abrupt change in the shear at A
not represent the shear through the
beam.
at B is found
to be 37.5
kips
(check
Similarly,
:rated
the
value
force
of the
are applied
drops
the value
shear.
to the beam
At D,
of the shear
the
40kip
between
to 27.5
downward
A and
D; hence,
kips.
component
there
is no change
Similarly,
the value
concen
of
258
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
Sec.
5.t4.
Concentrated
Moment
on
Moment
Diagrams
259 At
the
shear
tributed decrease
To
is zero,
which
is raised to + 10 kips at B. Since between E and F, the load acts downward, according to Eq. 53, and shown in Fig. in shear takes place at a constant rate of 1 kip/foot. Thus,
serves as the final check.
counterclockwise
moment
on
the
right
must
be
Mo
MA.
point
to
construct
the
moment
diagram
shown
CA,
in Fig.
534(d)
area that is contributed is concave
by
the
to the
of the externally
applied
summation their
moment
method,
areas
and
it may
be determined
down is in accord with Eq. 54, dM/dx = V, Here V, defining the slope of the moment diagram is negative becomes larger to the fight. The moment at A is equal to the diagram in the segment CA. This area is enclosed by a curved
of the
shear
diagram
in Fig.
534(c)
must
be continuously
summation
appears in the moment diagram. process, due regard must be given effect is not apparent in the shear diagram. process may be applied up to the point
this point, a vertical in the diagram. The "jump" direction
moment,
a discontinuity,
or a "jump,"
the of
diagram.
This
by integration,
6 since
the shear
along
this
in the diagram depends and is best determined After the discontinuity process of the sheardiagram
of the beam.
upon the sense of the with the aid of a sketch in the moment diagram is areas may be con
often
from
and definition
of a
determined. to arrange
check
Due
must in tabular
the
segment in this
:EXAMPLE
546
customary
is obtained.
Fig.
ution
536(a).
bendingmoment
diagram
for
the
horizontal
beam
loaded
as shown
MA
MD
(15)2(10) + 12.5(15)
27.5(5)
= =
=
=
150.0 + 187.5
+  100.0
37.5
 137.5
+

MB
+ 10(5)
ME
50.0
50.0
kft
(moment (shear
(shear
(shear
around A) area A to D)
area
area
! taking
drawn
be P/6.
moments
At A, the
beam.
about
reaction
After
either
acts
end
down;
of the
at C, it acts
the summation
beam,
the
vertical
up.
From
reactions
Fx = 0, it is
shear diagram for the whole
the moment
are found
D to B)
B to E)
that
of
kft kft
next;
at A, a horizontal reaction equal to P acts to the see Fig. 536(b). It has a constant negative
this, by using
the
+(10)10
MF
50.0 0.0
kft
(shear (check)
area
E to F) 2Pa/3.
further
The
shown in Fig. 536(c) is constructed. is zero, since the support is pinned. is given by the area of the shear diagram
The
moment
diagram
in zone
of
AB
The
has
the
a constant
force
negative
to
end
slope.
For
and
analysis,
moment on
an element
the lefthand
is isolated
side
from
this
beam,
as shown
is known be
in Fig.
2Pa/3,
536(d).
element
5]4.
Effect Diagrams
of Concentrated
Moment
by
on
Moment
concentrated
moment
caused
by the
applied
P about
the
neutral
axis
In the derivation for moment diagrams areas, no external concentrated moment ment was included, yet such a moment the summation process derived applies of an external moment. At a section moment, a dif erent bending moment of a beam in equilibrium. For example, moment MA is acting on the element of clockwise moment on the left is Mo,
summation of acting on the infinitesimal may actually be applied. only up to the just beyond an externally is required to maintain the in Fig. 535 an external the beam at A. Then, if the for equilibrium of the element,
by various
.p
P
(c)
(a)
=?
FIG.'535
on
An external
element
concentrated
an
moment
of
a beam.
acting
6 In this
line
case,
through
the
shear
A.
For
curve
areas
is a seconddegree
enclosed
parabola
curves,
whose
_ 2Pa
see
Table
(b)
(d)
Fig.
536
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
Sec.
5t5.
Moment
Diagram
and
the
Elastic
Curve
of the beam
element diagram,
summation
is Pa; hence,
be +Pal3. just to the
of the shear
for equilibrium,
AtB, right
diagram
the moment
"jump" ordinate
is continued.
on the rigfit
is made Beyond
area
Note
side
in the point
B
must and to
and
an upward of B, the
area
of +Pa is +Pa/3.
The
beam
at this
of +48
moment
end.
N.m.
of 0.6
Hence,
The
x. 120
the
other
=
plot
point
of the
on
moment
the
around
diagram
beam
the
must
axis.
start
with
where
neutral
a concentrated
between
o. ccurs
is C. Here
the horizontal
72 N.m
component
of the applied
force
Just
induces
to the
equal
beam,
Pa/3.
thus the
This
that
value
boundary
closes
conditions
the
downward the
moment
are satisfied.
diagram
to the right is negative are
at the
that
right
the
end
lines
i0f
moment because
EXAMPLE
are everywhere
inclined
along
beam
a discontinuity
C, this
moment
areas
in the
must
are applied.
The
applies
necessai'y
be resisted
by an additional
calculations
= = = =
positive
are carried
out in tabular
area
process no external
moment.
form.
of the mo
This
Construct dimensions
Solution
shear are
ar/d shown
moment in mm.
diagrams Neglect
in Fig.
ust
to
left
x
x
120
700
(shear
A to C)
(external
(shear (check) area
moment
C to B)
at C)
ust
are ass
to right
of C
0.4
=
= =
 280
In
this
case,
unlike
all
cases
considered
so far,
definite
dimensions
for the depth of the in its crosssectional the top of the beam.
axis.
beam. The beam, for simplicity, is assumed area; consequently, the centroidal axis Note careful y that this beam is not supported
beam with Reactions the applied are computed force
to be lies 80 mm at the
resolved in the usual int
Note
a beam
that act
in solving this problem, the forces were on the beam. The investigation for shear determines what the beam is actually experiencing.
considered wherever they and moments at a section At times, this dif ers
the
procedure
of a member
of determining
is not important.
reactions,
that member, if a moment the basic
acts
where
the
actual
framing
or con
Moreover,
since'the
shear
and
diagram
diagram
is concerned
shown
is easily
constructed
is shown
in Fig.
In constructing be exercised.
As
earlier,
determined by considering a segment of a beam, computed by taking moments of external forces axis of the beam. Thus, by passing a section just the lefthand segment, it can be seen that a positive
537(c).
; used.
members,
the
shear
537(d),
particular
moments
may
care always
cem
and they are most around a point on the to the right of A and moment of 48 N.m
Moment
defined
Diagram
and
the
Elastic
Curve
7/'/ / / / / / / /
/ / / / / / / / /
20
in Section 59, .a positive moment causes a beam to deform upwards or to "retain water," and vice versa. Hence, the shape deflected axis of a beam can be definitely established from the sign moment diagram. The trace of this axis of a loaded elastic beam a deflected position is known as the elastic curve. It is customary to
the elastic curve on a sketch, where the actual small deflections
calculations
deflections
discussed
[013
and
of
1014. diagrams
a beam.
Some were
of the constructed
preceding
wil
examples be used
for to il ustrate
which
the
bendingphysical
48N.m o
0.6 kN 1
Fig. 537
0.8
kN
g. 532(c) shows that the bending length of the beam is positive. Accordingly, the Fig. 532(d) is concave up at every point. Correct or concavity of the elastic curve is important.
of the
(d)
beam
rest
on
supports.
(b)
a more
complex
moment
diagram,
Fig.
5~34(d),
zones
of positive
262
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
Sec.
5t6.
Singularity
Functions
263
+
and negative moment occur. Corresponding ment, a definite curvature of the elastic place; see Fig. 534(e). On the other positive moment occurs, the concavity
Where
that There
of the
two
joining
the
curves
free is no
curves
join,
as at H and
end FG curvature
since
of the in FG,
the beam
J, there
to the zones of negative curve that is concave down hand, for the zone HJ, of the elastic curve is
are lines that
to the elastic curve is zero in that
of the
sheardiagram
area
from
A to H equals
this
moment,
i.e.,
 150
12.5x
beam since
is physically
continuous.
are
tangent
= 0. Hence,
Also
 37.5/27.5
by beginning with a known positive moment of + 37.5 kipft at D, inflection point is known to occur when a portion of the negative area between D and J reduces this value to zero. Hence, distance
= 1.36 ft, or distance AJ = 15 + 1.36 = 16.36 ft, Fig. 534(e),
distance
AH
= 150/12.5
= 12 ft as before.
as any
, comer
infinitesimal of elastic
beam
in a continuous can act only
element
frame either
must
with rigid as shown
be in equilibrium,
joints. in Fig. Therefore, 538(a)
so must
also
(a)
beam.
element at a comer
If the suggestion made in Example segments by means of short curved lowed, as in Fig. 534(d), the elastic
curves
55, indicating the curvature lines on the moment diagram curve is simply an assembly
of l
parts
curves
are
shown
in these
figures.
fact
point of transition on the elastic curve into reverse the point of inflection or contraflexure. At this point, its sign, and the beam is not called upon to resist
often makes these points a deskable place for
drawn
to a proper
scale.
a field
g16.
Singularity
Functions
(b)
connect
of large termining
EXAMPLE
members, points
5t8
was pointed out earlier, analytical expressions for the shear V(x) and moment M(x) of a given beam may be needed in an analysis. If the q(x) is a continuous function between the supports, solution of dif erential equation d2m/dx 2 = q(x) is a convenient approach for V(x) and M(x) (see Example 514). Here this wil be extended
situations in which the loading function is discontinuous. For this
Fig.
5.38
Elastic
curves
at
comers
frames.
of planar
rigid
Find
see
Solution
the
Fig.
location
534(a)
of the
inflection
points
By definition, an inflection point corresponds to a point bending moment is zero. Hence, an inflection point can be an algebraic expression for the moment in a beam for the point. is anticipated, and solving this relation equated to
from end the beam C of the beam, is M = (15)(2)(x Fig. 534(e), the bending  5) + (27.5)(x 
15).
moment By
for simplifying
ft
i ons
Consider
of this of beams.
of operational calculus wil be used. The functions are polynomials with integral powers ofx. The treatis beyond the scope of this text. For the functions the method is perfectly general. Further applicawil be given in Chapter 10 for calculating deflecas in Fig. 539. Since the applied loads are
a beam
loaded
3int
M
(concentrated)
moment
= RlX
forces,
expression
four
apply.
distinct
These
regions
are
exist
when
to which
dif erent
d b
c
L
and
this
expression
equal
M
to zero,
= 12.5x
a solution
337.5
for x is obtained.
= 0 x = 27
M M M
7 This
P(x
be
omit ed.
d) d) d)
when
x <
x
x
+ Mo + Mo
when
<
<
+ P2(x
c)
when
Therefore,
the
inflection
support A.
point
occurring
in segment
AD
of the beam
is 27
Similarly, ment DB
12 ft from
, P2
M
where
Often
=
a more
(15)(2)(x
ft; hence,
convenient
 5) + 27.5(x
the
method
AJ
finding
15)
the
 40(x
ft.
inflection
 30)
points
= 0
x = 31.36
distance
for
= 16.36
utilizing the known relations between the shear and moment diagrams. the moment at A is  150 kipft, the point of zero moment occurs when
Thus the
Fig.
539
A loaded
beam.
Sec.
5.t6.
Singularity
Functions
265
function:
can be writ en
as one, providing
a)
one demes
becomes a reminder
this
expression
is dimensionally
by
definition
is zero
correct,
although
subscript
(x  a)  at x
else. Thus, it of this integration,
sin. guIarfunction.
over
In Eq.
ffoora<x< rO<x<a
becomes is unity.
510,
the
asterisk
the
of the
expression
bracket
yields
point
wheren>0(n
= 0,1,2
..
).
be
adopted:
force
itself.
Therefore,
a special
symbolic
rule
of integration
(a)
reaches a. For x beyond a, the expression For n = 0 andfor x > a, the function
The expression
enclosed
by the pointed
brackets
across
separate
bined
functions
for M(x) given for the beam of Fig. 539 can bel
that is appliable the whold
I P<x a)"dx=P(x a) 1
coefficient P in the previous functions is known as the strength t. For P equal to unity, the unit point load fimction is also called the Dirac delta or the unit impulse fimction. analogous reasoning, see Fig. 540(b), the loading function
moment at x = a is recentrated
(511)
M = R(x
m a
 O?  P(x  d) + Mb(X
of a are 0, d, b, and this function further,
 b) + P2(x
to
 C)!
(x
of 

Ma (total)
Here
trated moment, treating it similarly. Rules for integrating all tions must b also established. In this discussion, the heuristic rigorous) approach wil be fol owed. A concentrated (point) force may be considered as an
treating
functions. One is for the concentrated case of a distributed load. The other
c, respectively. it is convenient
q for
strong
distributed
e as a constant,
load
acting
(512)
is true
The
been
twice except
(b)
eO .Ja2
(513)
+P(x
Here
for
such as lb/in, and corresponds to the distributed load treatment. Therefore, as (x  a) > 0, by an analogy
a concentrated force at x = a,
it can be noted
that
q(x) in the of (x 
per
(514)
Eq.
q = P(x  a))
8 This approach was first his Electromagnetic Theory ational calculus. In 1919, W. brackets for beam problems.
transforms.
(c)
P and
Fig.
540
(b) considered
load,
notation
moment
Concentrated
(c)
and
for
P and
symbolic
as distributed
M
Ma:
(a) and
force
development
introduced by A. Clebsch in 1862. O. initiated and greatly extended the methods of H. Macaulay specifically suggested the use of s The reader interested in further and/or
is correct dimensionally one obtains the called the doublet at x = a and zero result is obtained. The relation of from Eqs. 511, functions in pointed
since q has the unit point moment function, or dipole. This function elsewhere. However, Equations 510, 512, these equations to the and 514. brackets for n > 0 is
units
is
after and given
given
consult
texts on mathematics
treating
at a.
(x  a)n dx = (x n +a)n+ 1
for n > 0
(515)
264
266
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
+y
Sec.
516.
Singularity
Functions
267
q = w o lb/in
+q
+w
o
(a)
qo
L/2
'
L/24
+ C2
(a)
(b)
Fig. M
(b)
542
dx 2  q = wo(x
=
dM dx
 O) + wo( x  LI2)
O) + wo(x  LI2) 1 + C1
V=
wo(x
ql=:qod[
oFig. 5.4'1 Typical integrations.
1 ' (x
 a) 1
m(x)
M(O)
= 
= C2
Wo(X
= 0
 0) 2 + Wo(X
2 + wo(L/2)
Ci =
 L/2)
2 + Cx
= 0
}'"
(c)
M(L)
x
woZ
2 + CiL
+as poL
(x
V(x) M(x)
the
solution
these
relations
are
more
easily
read
by
rewriting
in
(d)
conventional
This equal
EXAMPLE
integration to zero,
5t9
is shown conventional
in Fig.
541. integrals.
If the
distance
a is
+ woLx   Wo. wox V = +woL X 2 } when M + woL 2  woL woLx = woL} V = +aswoLcan be checked of maximum moment to complete. by conventional can be found.
reactions
Using
ing
Solution
symbolic
in Fig. 542(a).
functional
notation,
determine
V(x)
and
M(x)
caused
by the
EXAMPLE
520
To
and
solve
begins
this
problem,
together 0 and
must 542(b).
at x = 0. Therefore,
exist. To
problem,
Eq.
55 can
function,
For
M(L)
this
represent
another
function
This terminate
a term
be used.
simply
= 0. These
supported
correctly
+wo(x
the are used
the
however, distributed
q = wo
The
applied
beam,
applied
 L/2) must
or wo(x
load
 0) , which two
q(x)
acts
V(x)
functions
and
and
M(x)
treat
for
a beam
loaded
as shown
problem.
in Fig.
543.
Use
singularity
it as a boundaryvalue
to determine
the known
load.
be added.
reactions:
The
in making
form. From of integration
direct
use
the
boundary
conditions
are M(0)
the
of Eqs.
510
and
M(0)
512,
= 0 and
the
function
M(L)
= 0, with
q(x)
can
be writ en
L = 3a,
the
in
268
q ,
Problems
269
(a)
Fig.
543
a C
b
aeM/dx dM/dx
M(O)
and
2 = q = P(x = V = P(x
 2a) 2  2a) + C
=%
M = P(x
= C2 = 0
 a) + Pa(x
+ Pa + 3Ca
(c)
M(3a)
Hence,
2Pa
544
Il ustration
for
formulating
signularity
functions
for
reactions.
C,=
and
V(_x)
M(x)
In
= +aP(x= +P(x
for
0} 
 O)  P(x
y(x),
writ en
the
final
in conventional
expression
form.
Such
the
terms.
last
 2a};
 2a}
through
54.
term
are
used
no
only
value
as tracers
if the
during
in the figures.
by
the
the
Correctly
for
draw}z'
reaction the
planar
fkebody
components framing
dia
grams are essential parts of solutions. (Hint for Prob. 51: The effect on a structure of two cable forces acting over a frictionless pulley is the same as that of the same two forces applied at the center of the axle. Prove before using.)
integration process. It is suggested that the reader check the reactions out V(x) and M(x) for the three ranges of the are continuous, and compare these with a plot constructed by the summation procedure. A suggestion of the manner of representing 44(a), acting on a part of a beam is indicated functions are needed to define the given load In the previous discussion, it has been tacitly
at the ends of the beams. If such is not the
Cable
by conventional statics. beam within which these of the shear and moment a uniformly in Fig. completely. assumed
the unknown
3 k/f[
/ 12 k
load,
Fig
Fig, Fig. P54 P53
that
as
the
constants
_
case,
C2 must
be introduced
into
Eq.
55
as point
loads,
i.e.,
2 N/mm
C(x
This are
 a) 1
and
C2(x
 b) 
'x3 {
150 N'm
rl=1 rl
6k/f[
{<10'  < 10'
Fig.
C
P54
4k'1
is the condition shown necessary in a solution Singularity functions can lems for axial y loaded bars, the solutions are limited to the length of a member, the impractical.
in Fig. 544(c). No additional constants obtained in this manner. be used to advantage in statically indeterminate as well as for torsion members and prismatic members. If the cross procedure for using singularity functions
270
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
125
kN
Sections
55 through the figures,
forces caused
5.6
through
59
shown in the axial
M
as specified.
tides For
549. For the planar structures find the reactions and determine
V, and the bending loads at sections
should simplicity,
be shown assume
Magnitude
When together,
etc.
of a given
dimension
sections such as aa and one section is just to and the other is just to the
and
sense
of calculated
be
/Pin
2
/Rod
2"
'1800 mm 1200mm>
900 mm

mm
Fig. P516 P543
1500
mm
Fig.
P55
4 kN/m
20 kN
I
4'
25
kN
] 5 m
3m
Fig.
4m4 m
P56
4k
Hinge
Fig.
P5t7
T 9 k
8 N/mm
15kg/2
P
Fig.
P5.14
lk
2k
5
12k
2000
mm
g. P515
8 kN/m
Fig. P5t8
C
' mm
6 kN/m
1500
mm*'
P57

2000mm
Fig. P58
t 500
t
m
/.F
H s
2000mm I
Hin
Fig.
Fig.
P5d9
I lm
Ilm
3m
272
Section 510
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
Problems
27:
y
526
through
528.
For
the
beams
expressions origins
loaded
for
as
524. shown
moment
diagrams
in the figures, along the spans. the applied loads apply for regions
of x at A.
z
Fig. P530
Fig.
(a) (b)
P535
Fig.
P520
general by the
the bent
expressions application
bar. Plot
for V, of a force
the results.
M,
caused plane of
to the
F,
the
of the bar w lb per unit what system of internal at the fixed end?
Fig.
P52t
Establish
Fig. P527
general
V(0), 512, and Fig.
expressions
moment 528.
the
axial
force
bar
t p [P
3@L/3
Fig. P522
A
shear a Example
coun
Section 536.
mine
541 Using
V(x) and
the positive x axis. Establish general expressions for the axial force shear V(0), and moment M(0) for the ring with hinges of Prob. 511. Angle 0 is measured counfrom the positive x axis.
bar bent into a semicircle is built
the
M(x)
dif erential
for the
equation,
beam loaded
Eq.
as
55,
shown
deterin
Verify
w o N/m
/,
Fig. P528
and is subjected to a radial pressure of length (see figure). Write the general for P(0), V(0), and M(0), and plot the reon a polar diagram. Show positive directions asP, V, and M on a freebody diagram.
one per
end unit
537
through
539.
Using
Eq.
55
for
the
statically
529
Fig. P523
through
53t.
Write
explicit
the statically in the figures. the reactions of symmetry
p lb/in
determinate beams shown in the figures, find V(x) and M(x) and the reactions at the supports. Plot the shear and moment diagrams. (Hint: The constants of integration are found from the boundary conditions for V and M. This approach cannot be extended to statically
M(x) along the spans for beams loaded as shown origins ofx at A. Consider unknowns. Take advantage
29.
indeterminate higherorder
ter 10.)
which equation,
require
discussed
the
use of in Chap
on
the
in
 L . x
Fig. P524
w o Ib/ft
Bar radius = R
Fig.
P534
525. shown
moment
diagrams
for
the
beam
Fig 529
A bar
in the
shape
of a right
angle,
as shown
in
figure,
is fixed
at one
of its
ends.
(a)
Write
the
Fig.
P537
274
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
M1
4k
Problems
275
Fig.
. m_  2m 1
Fig. P553
Fig.
P538
k sin
2rx/L
a
Fig. P543
>  bJ
Fig. P549
2 k/ft
> 
Fig.
/8 k
8'
P554
5 k/ft
> 2'
Fig.
P539
Sections
512
and
543
Problems
oped
signed
540
for the
in these
for
520
solution
through
two
and
sections.
using
53t
the
and
can
methods
using
also
be
devel
as
NONACTIVATED k/ VERSION I/ 6 , k/ 6 kf f'" www.avs4you.com 3' ' 3' 8k 112k 18k
ig. P54
Fig. P550
Fig.
P555
through
beams
512
shown
566.
Plot
513.
in the
shear
figures
moment
the
diagrams
methods
to draw
of Sections
It is also
suggested
4@4'=
Fig. P545
16'
300 Ib/ft
criteria
for
50 k 2 k/ft
Distribreact . ion
Fig. P551
2.5 N/mm 2.5
200Ib/ft
N/mm
P546
!;m._m,<40ram r,20m!'
Fig. P541
Fig.
P547
Fig.
P552
Fig.
P557
276
2qo
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
200 Ib/ft
300 lb
Problems
The load distribution for may be idealized a small singleengine as shown in the
277
fig
In
this
diagram,
vector
A represents
the
weight
the
'engine;
B,
the
uniformly
distributed
cabin
57t through 573. For the structural systems shown in the figures, plot the axial force P, shear V, and moment M diagrams. Note that the axial force and shear contribute to the equilibrium of forces at a joint in bent
members (see Fig. 527).
Fig.
P558
Fig.
P563
C, the weight of the aft fuselage; and D, the from the tail control surfaces. The upward ;E are developed by the two longerons from the Using this data, constrLtct plausible, qualitative and moment diagrams for the fuselage.
.1.
qo qo
400 Ib/ft
Fig.
P57t
10
kN/m
diagram in the
for figure.
a beam How
supported is the
at
beam
Cables
Fig. P572
loaded?
Fig,
P565
Fig.
P560
160kN
3 wall
qo
Hinge
Fig.
P569
P566
The
diaams
redundant
moment
over
support
B for
the
567, Qgue.
and
momeQt
figure
be
Fig. P573
k N/m
20
kN/m
Water
level
1.5 k/ft
I,
Fig. P570
574. For member DF the axial force, shear, by the applied force.
in Prob. diagrams
144, caused
plot
3m3m
Fig. P562
! 8m8 m
Fig. P567
and For
the axial
278
Axial
Force,
Shear,
and
Bending
Moment
Problems
279
ment M diagrams due to the applied loads. grams are to be contimed only to the main members. Note that the beams in the last lems have finite depth.
Cable
3o"
Fig. Fig. P579 P583
"

Fig.
P585
9 lb/in

Fig.
P575
900
M o = 4 Pa
'
Cables
600
Fig.
P584
Fig.
P586
1200
900
Fig.
P576
80kN
A
' 35 kN
Fig.
P587
2m 'Hinge
Fig. P577
50 k
Fig.
P58t
Section
516
587. For the beams loaded as using singularity functions and Eq. and M(x). Check reactions by (b) Plot shear and moment
qo N/m
Fig.
P578
Fig.
P582
Sec.
62.
The
Basic
Kinematic
Assumption
_ chapter
e of this
result
after
chapter.
the
study
A better
of column
appreciation
buckling
of the instability
in Chapter
11.
phenomenon
The
Basic
Kinematic
Assumption
stresses
theory moment,
and
a plausible
61o Introduction
in the torsion
strains
deformation
problem
be related
problem
to a determinate
assumption
is again
reduce
through
employed.
to stresses
one;
second,
the
the internally
appropriate
This
requires,
that
the deformations
statically
first,
that
in
stressstrain
In the previous chapter, it was shown that a system of internal consisting of an axial force, a shear force, and a bending moment develop in planar frames and beams. The stresses caused b were already discussed in Chapter 1. The stresses due to bending considered in this chapter. For this treatment, it is convenient to the chapter into two parts. In Part A, only members having cross sections and subjected to bending in the plane of symmetry considered. Both elastic and inelastic stress distributions caused by ing are discussed. Stress distribution in curved bars is also included. Part B, the problem is generalized to include unsymmetric bending members with symmetric cross sections as well as bending of of arbitrary cross section. Consideration is also given to problems bending occurs in the presence of axial forces. For completeness, cussion on area moments of inertia for arbitrary cross
in Part C.
; and, finally, that the equilibrium requirements of external and forces be met. The key kinematic assumption for the deformation a beam as used in the simplified theory is discussed in this section. A of this assumption forms the basis for the theories of plates
section with avertical axis of symmetry; a typical see Fig. element
prismatic
line
simplicity, members wil generally be shown as beams in a zontal position. When a segment of a beam is in equilibrium under action of bending moments alone, such a condition is referred to as bending, orfiexure. A cantilever loaded with a concentrated the end, or a segment of a beam between the concentrated forces shown in Fig. 523, are examples of pure bending. Studies in subset chapters wil show that usually the bending stresses in slender beams dominant. Therefore, the formulas derived in this chapter for
For
to the as abcd. end moments Mz acting around in the plane of symmetry, and beam axis slightly tilt. Nevertheless, and b' c' remain straight. fundamental hypothesis 2 of the sections through a beam taken
beam
This
txis
through
of a beam.
the centroid
Next,
consider
of the
cross
section
wil
beam axis. In side view, such When such a beam is subjected the planes initial y the lines such
observation
of the
be referred
61(a).
beam
beam
A horizontal
having
between
to as the
the
z axis,
Fig.
61(b),
This
flexure normal
theory. It may be stated thus: plane to its axis remain plane after the
model with a ruled grating drawn
forms
this
beam
an element to equal
bends
is subjected
to bending.
are
directly
applicable
in numerous
design
situations.
virtue under do of their an applied not come load within
It is important to note that some or lack of lateral support may become may buckle laterally and collapse.
2 This hypothesis with an inaccuracy was first introduced by 16451705), a Swiss mathematician. At a later date a great Swiss Euler (17071783), who largely worked in Russia and tmportant use of this concept. This assumption is often referred noulliEuler hypothesis. In the correct final form, it dates back
French engineering educator M. Navier (17851836).
is only
can
be demonstrated
phenomenon
vertical rods passing through the rubber block can be vicinity of the applied moments, the deformation is more in accord with the St. Venant's principle (Section 210), this
that rapidly dissipates.
thin
by using
a rubber
28O
282
Pure
Bending
and
Bending
with
Axial
Forces
Sec.
63.
The
Elastic
Flexure
Formula
283
b , d
py
The
fiber
dfi can
the
length
gh located
on a radius
fiber
lengths
p  y can
gh
and
be found
ef identified
similarly.
here
(62)
dfi
= (pand
y) d0
pd0
of the
=
beam
yd0
axis

(a)
Beamaxis
t dividing
Bent axis
d t
the
deflection
by ds and
using
rotations
Eq.
61,
the last
term
becomes
are
very
K. Moreover,
small,
the
(b)
the simplified
e,,
deformation,
one
beam
Omax
Plane
of
dds
has
and
ds by dx. 4 Hence, by dividing Eq. 62 by ds and by du/dx, which according to Eq. 26 is the normal
theory,
it is possible
to replace
M z
I Y Imax
= C
a= EEl_
(63)
.nit lengt
(c)
(d)
Fig.
61
Assumed
behavior
of elastic
beam
As
demonstrated
in texts
on
the
true for elastic, rectangular members in pure bending; exist, a small error is introduced. 3 Practically, however, assumption is generally applicable with a high degree of the material behaves elastically or plastically, providing the depth of beam. is small in relation to its span. In this chapter, the stress anal' of all beams is based on this assumption.
In pure bending of a circle of radius by an infinitesimal
as ds = 0 dO. Hence,
This
train
for the flexure theory. However, in a bent beam varies along the beam
equation
establishes
the
expression
although depth
for
the
basic
kinematic
hy
in bending.
With
of in
theory
of elasticity,
this
The
Elastic
Flexure
into
Formula
using
can
be
Hooke's
recast
law,
a relation
th.e expression
for
the
longitudinal
strain
given
stress
by Eq.
or.,.'
of a prismatic beam, the p, (rho) as shown in Fig. angle d0, the fiber length
into
(64)
axis
is
this
Two
equation,
nontrivial
the
equations
variable
y can
of equilibrium
assume
both
are available
positive
and
to solve
negative
the beam
completes equations,
where bending
3 See
the
reciprocal of prismatic
discussion
K (kappa).
In
the
x direction
problem. One of these determines the origin for y: the second the solution for the flexure formula. Using the first one of these requiring that in pure bending, the sum of all forces at a section
must vanish, one has
4 A further
discussion
of the approximations
involved
may
be found
in Section
the
Pure
Bending
and
Bending
with
Axial
Forces
Sec.
63.
The
Elastic
Flexure
Formula
Omax
285
, F. = 0
(a)
/AOdA = 0
subscript be carded
equation
with
the
that the summation of the infinites the entire crosssectional area A of aid of Eq. 64 can be rewrit en as
a
X
=Et<y
I Ymax
z
I = c
/A E Ky dA = E K fA Y dA = 0
where
(b)
M
definition,
the
constants
this
integral
E and
.fy dA
are
= yA,
taken
where
outside
y is the
the
second
distance
integral. equals
the
fro m
(a)
(b)
(c)
origin to the centreid of an area A. Since here this and area A is not zero, distance y must be set .equal the z axis must pass through the centreid of a section'.
Neutral axis
63 and 64, this means strain e, and the normal
z axis zero.
so chosen, In bending
integral to According
Fig.
6.4
Segment
of a beam
in pure
flexure.
neutral determined
axis
both theory,
to this
In
Mz = E fA y2 dA
(68)
Based
on this
The
result,
linear
variation
61(d).
absolute
are
il ustrated
maximum representations
are generally
in Fig.
stress of the
62.
used.
representations
problem
is threedimensional,
although
in strain
is schematically
mechanics, the last integral, depending only on the geometrical propof a crosssectional area, is called the rectangular moment of inertia or second moment of the area A and wil be designated in this text by I. must be found with respect to the cross section's neutral (centroidal) Since I must always be determined with respect to a particular axis, is often meaningful to identify it with a subscript corresponding to such axis. For the case considered, this subscript is z, i.e.,
of;
that
The
for
locus
simplicity,
of
a neutral
twodimensi
axis
length
(d)
Fig.
moment.
62
Alternative
representations
of bending
of a beam
the
defines
the
neutral
of the elastic flexure formula, the must be brought in: the sum of the resisting moments must vanish, i.e., segment in Fig. 64(a), this yields
area
surface,
as noted
in Fig.
63.
Iz=/Ay2dA 1
yields the fol owing result: the curvature of an elastic beam subjected
(69)
(610)
this
notation,
Eq.
68
Neutral surface
Mo = OG +
A negative
pressive
Mz  fAErYstress
of the
moment
dA
because
moment
y=0
rhis
sign
stresses
in front
cry, develop
to this
integral
a counterclockwise
in the
is necessary
same
the
around
By
Errst
is the a specified
is
basic
obtained:
substituting
relation moment.
giving
Eq.
610
into
Eq.
64,
the
elastic
flexure
formula
5 for
axis.
sign,
The
contribute
tensile
stresses
below
the neutral
axis,
manner.
where
This
y's have
a ne
directly
Neutral axis
from
the
Eq.
64.
From
a slightly
dif erent
point
of view,
the at a section. are c by
Eq.
Fig.
63
clockwise external moment Mz is balanced moment developed by the internal stresses 67 into this form, and recognizing that E and
5 It took nearly two centuries to develop this seemingly simple expression. The attempts to solve the flexure problem were made by Galileo in the sevencentury. In the form in which it is used today, the problem was solved in early part of the nineteenth century. Generally, Navier is credited for this
. some maintain that credit should go to Coulomb, who
derived the torsion formula.
286
Pure
Bending
and
Bending
with
Axial
Forces
Sec.
63.
The
Elastic
Flexure
Formula
287
that
results
of
from
the
pure
stress
bending
tensor, one
of a beam.
has
Therefore,
in the
matrix
Crx = zy
The symmetric 65(b), derivation of this cross expression formula were for the was carried with out with the coordinate
(6:1
shown
in Fig.
the
65(a).
section
If the
derivation
(a)
done longitudinal
for
a member
having
shown read
in
wil
be pointed
O'=x MZl
The My sign reversal in relation to Eq. 611 is necessary causes tensile stresses for positive z's. Application of these equations to biaxial bending of the bending theory for beams with unsymmetric because a
ratio,
the compressed
stresses this
out
acting discussion,
in Chapter
along
zone
8, this
stress
sets
of a beam
expands
may
be transformed
due
laterally;
6 the tensile
axes. to Pois
or
Beam axis
sidered
(b)
Fig.
positive
6 5 Definitions
moments.
of
the value
as well as an cross sections is in Sections 611 and 614. In this part of the chapter, to beams having symmetric cross sections bent in the For such applications, it is customary to recast the to give the maximum normal stress Crmx directly and to desi
with the rigorous solution. Poisson's effect, as may be shown by methods of elasticity, deforms the neutral axis into a curve of large and the neutral surface becomes curved in two opposite directions; Fig. 66. In the previous treatment, the neutral surface was assumed be curved in one direction only. These interesting details are not sigin most practical problems. wedure Summary and Extensions
Neutral surface
of l y Im,, by c. It is also
611 as well as with subscripts develop a couple statically sense can be determined
becomes
common
practice
to dispense
with
same three basic concepts of engineering mechanics of solids that used in developing the theories for axial y loaded bars and circular s in torsion are used in the preceding derivation of flexure formulas. may be summarized as fol ows:
basis,
(61!
resisting bending moment at a section. 2. Geometry ofdeformition (kinematics) sections through a beam remain plane to the conclusion that normal strains early from the neutral axis.
1. Equilibrium
conditions
(statics)
are used
for determining
is used by assuming after deformation. along a beam section
the internal
that This plane leads vary lin
Fig.
beam.
6.6
Segment
of a bent
the
above practice, in dealing with the simplified notation of leaving out I wil be employed often in this text.
and its variations discussed before are
3. Properties Hooke's
Poisson
law effect
of
in
of
great importance in applications to structural plying these formulas, the internal bending newtonmeters IN.m] or inchpounds [inlb], [in], and I in m 4 or in 4. The use of consistent
and moment
In
In extending this approach to bending of beams (Section 68), as well as to inelastic bending the first two of the enumerated concepts remain the third, dealing with the mechanical properties As an example of a change necessary for
the
[lb/in
units
2] = psi,
of or: [N.m][m]/[m
be noted
as to be expected.
that
4]
= N/m2
by
= Pa,
Eqs. 611
or
or
[inlb][in]/[in
612 is the
4]
the beam
6 An
up of two
having
materials,
the cross
with
1 and 2, bonded
an ordinary
section
shown
together
in Fig.
at their
67(a).
of two and more maof beams (Section 6ful y applicable. Only of materials must be such cases consider
interface.
This
beam
The
is made
elastic
It should
crx as given
experiment
rubber
eraser
is recommended!
288
Pure
Bending
and
Bending
with
Axial
Forces
Sec.
64.
Computation
of
the
Moment
of
Inertia
289
Stress
o=E
Mz
o = E2 E
Yb  /A Ei dA
the integration This equation
axis.
(616)
Bending
(a)
strain
(b)
Bending
(c)
stresses
(d)
appropriate centroid
E?s, and
for
each locates
neutral
Fig.
67
Beam
moduli
the
of two elastic
for the two
materials
materials
in bending
are E1 and
where
E2,
E2 > E.
where thesubscripts
material. For the purposes of discussion assume that E2 When such a composite beam is bent, as for a beam of one the strains vary linearly, as shown in Fig. 6~7(b). However, the dinal stresses depend on the elastic moduli and are as shown in
7(c). At the interface between the two materials, whereas the strain
both materials is the same, the stresses magnitudes of E and E2. The remaining of locating the neutral axis or surface. having cross sections with symmetry
For material
to
beams must
of
be
several identified.
dif erent
Let Ei
materials, be such
ith material
read
in a composite
Crx
cross
section.
are dif erent, and depend on issue in such problems cons: This can be easily done for
vertical elastic axes. moduli
for
elastic modulus for
the same process is used for inelastic bending analysis of changing the stressstrain relations. The first two of the enubasic concepts remain applicable. developed theory for elastic beams of one material is in complete with the mathematically exact solution 7 based on the theory pure bending of an elastic rectangular bar. However, even this limited case, the boundary conditions at the ends require the stresses Crx to be distributed over the ends as given by Eq. 611. )r this case plane sections through a beam remain precisely plane after However, in usual applications, per SaintVenant's principle, it is generally assumed that the stresses, at a distance about equal to the
Essential y
by
depth
of a member
given
away
from
the applied
moment,
at points using stress is routinely
are essential y
of force concentration applied
uniform
application
fac
Then
Eq.
64 can
be g
of cross
section,
whether
a material
is elastic
or plastic.
to any
kind
= Eix
Ei
K y
measured
as shown.
Where
from
from
Fig.
the
67(a),
bottom
y = Yb  Yb.
of the section,
In this
and
yb locates
relation
Yb is
the
neutral
In conclusion it should be noted that, in all cases in pure bending, the stresses acting on the area above the neutral axis develop a force of one whereas those below the neutral axis develop a force acting in the direction. An example is shown in Fig. 6~7(d) where the tension T is equal to the compression C, and the T  C couple.is equal to the moment Mz. This method of reducing stresses to forces and a couple can
Fx at a section as before,
be used
to advantage
Computation
in some
problems..
Eq.
In applying
the crosssectional
of
flexure
area
the
the
the
Moment
rectangular
neutral axis
of
Inertia
moment
must be
the
formula,
about
of inertia
determined.
I of
Its
The the
that
from
Eq. 66 only by not placing Ei outside y = yu  yu into Eq. 615, and reco
area
of a member,
is defined
by the
and it must
integral
be emphasized
computed of the
of y2 dA
over
that
the
entire
crosssectional
formula,
}c /A Ei Yb dA + }cYb fA Ei dA = 0
Theory
is a review
section.
290
Pure Bending
and Bending
and
with Axial
Forces
of the Moment
of Inertia
(618)
in Sections 615 axis is perpendicular around such an reason, this axis for determining thoroughly discussed they are reviewed The first step
616 that for symmetric cross sections, the to the axis of symmetry. The moment of axis is either a maximum or a minimum, and for is one of the principal axes for an area. The centroids and moments of inertia of areas are in texts on statics. 9 However, for in what fol ows. in evaluating I for an area is to find its centroid
Iz = Izc+ Adz 2
is the parallelaxis 'inertia of an area the same area around theorem. around any a parallel
It can be stated as fol ows: the moment axis is equal to the moment of inertia axis passing through the area's centroid,
of
integration
of y2 dA is then
performed
with
respect
to the horizontal
the
the two
product
axes.
of the
Eq.
area has
same
618
been
area
must
subdivided
and
be
the
applied
and
square
to
the
of the
each
results
distance
part
summed
between
into which
to obtain
passing through the area's centroid. the actual integration over areas is shapes, such as rectangles, triangles, for some simple shapes may be found standard civil or mechanical engineering the Appendix). Most crosssectional combination of these simple shapes. several simple shapes, the parallelaxis transfer formula) is necessary; its Consider that the area A shown of a cross section of a beam in flexure.
is at a distance dz from the centroidal
In applications of the flexure fo necessary for only a few etc. Values of moments of in texts on statics as well as. in handbook (also see Table areas used may be divided To find I for an area theorem (sometimes called development fol ows. in Fig. 68 is a part of a complex The centroidal axis zc for this
z axis for the whole
In
calculations,
sssectional
Iz for
the
whole
section,
i.e.,
It (whole
process is completed,
section)
= (Izc
the z subscript
+ Ad 2)
may be dropped
(618a)
in treating
of symmetric cross sections. The fol owing examples il ustrate integration for two simple areas.
area.
its
Then,
zc axis is
by
definition,
the
moment
Itc = AY2
On
the
theorem
fabricated Appendix.
steel
the method of computing I directly Then an application of the parallelarea is given. Values for I for commercial y and pipes are given in Tables 3 to 8 of the
(61
EXAMPLE
6t
the
moment
of inertia
around
the
horizontal
axis
passing
through
the
centroid
for the
z axis
the
rectangular
area
shown
in Fig.
69.
other
is
hand,
the
moment
of inertia
It of the
same
area
Iz = A (y + dz)2dA
By
outside
The Here
of the
two
axes +hi2
h/2
of symmetry. bh 3
12
y
squaring
the
the
integrals,
quantities
in the
parentheses
and
placing
the
.Jhi2
y2b dy = b
C bh3h
expressions are used frequently,
ib3h)
as rectangular beams are common.
Fig. 69
the
integral
to Eq. through
Vol.
9 For
1, Statics,
example,
2nd
see J. L. Meriam
and
Wiley,
L. G. Kraige,
1986).
Engineering
292
Pure Bending
EXAMPLE 62
and Bending
of inertia
293
Fig.
y
Find
610.
the
moment
about
a diameter
Izc = 1 =
Ad 2 = 2400(30
I for a circle,
the definition
12
 72 x 104 mm 4
2 = 0.69 I = 72.69 X 104 mm 4 x 104 mm 4
Solution
 28.3)
To find
Then
Eq. 42,
first
note
that
D 2 = Z 2 + y2, as may
the symmetry around
be seen
both
from
axes,
the fi
and
using
of J, noting
the
hollow
interior:
bh 3
20
X
12
303
Fig.
6t0
J= f,p2.dA = f,(Y2+z2)
= + Iy=
dA= f,y2dA+
2 4
f,z2dA
composite
12
4.50
x
x
104
104
mm
mm
4
4
Ad 2 = 600(35
section:
 28.3)
2 =
Iz=
2.69
7.19
104
mm
= J_
In mechanical
20 wil interior be found must be
Iz = (72.69
Note particularly composite
area of an area
7.19)104
= 65.50
104
mm
term
4
element of is the moment term is due to the each
applications,
useful. subtracted For
circular
a tubular from the
EXAMPLE
Determine
63
the moment of inertia I around
shafts
often
act
as beams;
hence,
Eq.
' inertia
transfer
to the such
centroid problems
area.
Methodical
work
is the
prime
the
horizontal
axis
for
the
area
in mm
Solution
in Fig.
611
for
use
in the
flexure
formula.
largest
stress
at a section
of a beam
is given
by Eq.
613,
O'max
As
the
moment
of inertia
is for
use
in the
flexure
formula,
it must
be
around the axis through the centroid of the area. Hence, the centroid of the must be found first. This is most easily done by treating the entire outer and deducting the hollow interior from it. For convenience, the work is out in tabular form. Then the parallelaxis theorem is used to obtain I.
y [ram]
and in most practical be determined. Therefore, g O'max as simple as both I and c are constants is a constant. Moreover, dimensions of a
area. This
problems, it is this maximum stress that has it is desirable to make the process of depossible. This can be accomplished by noting for a given section of a beam. Hence, since this ratio is only a function of the crossbeam, it can be uniquely determined for any
ratio is called the elastic section modulus of a
wil
be designated
by
S. With
this
notation,
Eq.
613
becomes
Area
Entire Hollow
60
A [mm
40
2]
= = 2400 600
(from
bottom)
30 35
Ay
72
area interior
20
x x
60 30
21
000 000
A
1800mm
28.3
2
mm from
Ay
bottom
= 51000
stated otherwise
O'max
maximum bending stress =
bending
elastic section
(621)
moment
modulus
28.3
Ay
Fig. 611
51 000 800
Pure
Bending
and
Bending
with
Axial
Forces
Sec.
65.
300
Applications
of
the
Flexure
Formula
295
r=20
kN
0.75 kN/m
mm
20kN 0.75kN/m
rn
the
that
units
the
of stress,
distance c as
as before,
used here
become
is measured
psi
(or
from
N/m2).
the
It bears
neutral axis to
Pa
most remote fiber of the beam. This makes consequently M/S gives the maximum stress. resisting elastic bending have as large an S as of material. This is accomplished by locating possible far from the neutral axis. The use of the elastic section modulus in what to the use of the area termA in Eq. 113 the maximum flexural stress on a section whereas the stress computed from Eq. 113
section of a member.
I/c = S a minimum, The efficient sections possible for a as much of the Eq. 621 corresponds (or = P/A). However, is obtained from Eq. holds true across the
L
.I
(a) (b)
(c)
(d)
Fig.
6t2
Eq.
619:
It . .
Eq. 613:
bh 3
12
300
X
12
4003
16 x 108 mm
Equation
facilitate are tabulated its
621
is widely
used
moduli
in practice
for many
because
manufactured a few steel
of its
simplicity.
cross
sections are givenl Tables 3 to 8 in the Appendix. Equation 621 is particularly for the design of beams. Once the maximum bending moment for is determined and an allowable stress is decided upon, Eq. 621 may solved for the required section modulus. This information is sufficientq select a beam. However, a detailed consideration of beam design delayed until Chapter 9. This is necessary inasmuch as a shear which in turn causes stresses, usually also acts at a beam section.
interaction of the various kinds of stresses must be considered first
Values
for
Crmx
From the are ,riven, sense seen the
Mc
38.5
16 X 108
106
200
= +4.81
MPa
the top fibers of in tension. In the the negative sign
gain
The fol owing two examples il ustrate at specified sections, where, in addition also required for equilibrium. As shown of small or moderate shears does not stresses in slender beams. Both moment the same section simultaneously.
EXAMPLE 64
complete
insight
into
the
shown in Fig. 612(c), and the bottom ones to the tensile stress and
applies
to the
the
compressive
stress.
Both
of these
stresses
decrease
at a linear
rate
toward
calculations for bending to bending moments, shears in the next chapter, the significantly affect the and shear frequently
neutral axis, where the bending on infinitesimal elements at A and learn to make such a representation Chapters 8 and 9.
stress is zero. The normal stresses B are shown in Fig. 612(d). It is imof an element as it wil be frequently
Soldion
stress section
is desired, modulus
for I
c
involving section bh 2
6
modulus form
is
A 300 by 400 mm wooden cantilever beam weighing concentrated force of 20 kN at the end, as shown maximum bending stresses at a section 2 m from
Solution
s ..
(622)
[n this
problem,
S = 300
x 4002/6
M
= 8 x 106 mm 3, and
38.5
by Eq.
621,
A freebody diagram for a 2m segment of the beam is shown in Fig. keep this segment in equilibrium requires a shear of 20  (0.75 x 2) = 18.5 and a bending moment of(20 x 2)  (0.75 x 2 x 1) = 38.5 Both of these quantities are shown with their proper sense in.Fig. 612(c).
distance from the neutral axis to the extreme fibers c = 200 mm. Thi
S
results.
8 X 106
10 6
4.81 MPa
to both
the
tension
and
the
compression
fibers.
296
Pure
Bending
and
Bending
with
8k
Axial
Forces
8k
Sec.
66.
Stress
Concentrations
297
:P16"
Ay
E
+
17.0
1.70
in
from
line
ab
I=
8 X
(Io

Mc
I
4xl 3
x x
12
2 x
+ 4 x 1.2 2
3 x 0.82 = 14.43in 4
.8k
16
+
2.3 1.7
kin
mx O'max
These
obtained
= 20.4 =
the
ksi ksi
axis
properties
channel. Both
(compression) (tension)
and
area
(a)
Mc
I
16
14.43
15.1
neutral
stresses
would
vary
be
linearly
the
same
toward
same if the
vanish
of
these
there.
the bracket
The
were
rethe
have
crosssectional
led,
axis
as shown
are the
in Fig.
as
613(e).
those of
The
the
of this
section
sections
about
I? .v_ i?':1
(d) (e)
axis
of symmetry.
Section
AA
(b)
Fig.
EXAMPLE
previous
so
as
example
to
have
shows
a dif erent
that
members
maximum
resisting
stress
in tension
flexure
may
than
be
in
6t3
maximum machine
tensile bracket
and shown
compressive in Fig.
stresses
acting
613(a)
caused
by
This is significant for materials having dif erent strengths tension and compression. For example, cast iron is strong in compresand weak in tension. Thus, the proportions of a castiron member be so set as to have a low maximum tensile stress. The potential of. the material may thus be better utilized.
Stress Concentrations
force
and bending moment of proper magnitude and sense to of the member in equilibrium are shown in Fig. 613(c). Next the: of the beam must be located. This is done by locating the centroid shown in Fig. 613(b); see also Fig. 613(d). Then the moment neutral axis is computed. In both these calculations, the legs of the are assumed rectangular, neglecting fil ets. Then, keeping in mind of the resisting bending moment and applying Eq. 613, one obtains
values.
shear
beams
flexure theory developed of constant cross section, area of the beam varies 3attern discussed earlier holes, or an abrupt change high local stresses arise. earlier for axial and
in the preceding sections applies i.e., prismatic beams. If the gradually, no significant deviation takes place. However, if notches, in the crosssectional area of This situation is analogous to torsion members. Again, it is very
only to crosssecfrom the grooves, the beam the ones dif icult
to obtain
Ihe
analytical
expressions
regarding experiments. extensively the
for
the
actual
stress.
In the past,
came
most
from finite
of
acelesince
y [in]
Area
Number
1 2 3
A [in 2]
4.0 3.0 3.0
(from
0.5 2.5 2.5
ab)
Ay
2.0 7.5 7.5
actual stress distribution Numerical methods used for the same purpose.
employing
Fortunately,
of the
as in the
member
affect
other maximum
cases
the The
local
discussed, stress,
stress
pattern.
only
the
Moreover,
geometric
pro
generally
in3
to
is in the
to an advantage. maximum
stressconcentration
maximum as given
factors
by
A = 10.0
in 2
Ay
= 17.0
stress
stress Eq.
298
Pure Bending
and Bending
Strain Energy
in Pure Bending
2.2
. r/d
= 0.05
(ama x) nominal
Fig. 644 concentratioh
bending.
= 'T
Me
1.8
0.1
,'
' ....
1.0 2.0
0.2
0.75
3.0 4.0 5.0
1.4
Meaning
factor
of stressin
K=
1.0
h
for
factor
in general,
in bending.
This
area
has
reentrant
angles.
For
example,
high
localized
stresses
may
at the point
where
the range
and
the web
of an I beam
meet.
To
(O'max)actual
In this equation Figures 615 member, indicates
notches
representative
desirable
to reduce
may the
be obtained desirability
local
Mc/I is for the small width of a bar. and 616 are plots of stressconcentration from these of generous
K, depending
ductile
in machine
concentrations.
For
these, commercial y rolled or extruded shapes have a generous at all such points. In addition to stress concentrations caused by changes in the cross,nal area of a beam, another effect is significant. Forces often are over a limited area of a beam. Moreover, the reactions act only on a beam at the points of support. In the previous treatment, all uch forces were idealized as concentrated forces. In practice, the average
materials,
These
beam
pressure between the member delivering such a force and the are computed at the point of contact of such forces with the beam. bearing pressure, or stress, acts normal to the neutral surface of a and is at right angles to the bending stresses discussed in this chapstudy of all of the stresses effect of such forces on a local scale, and shows that the bearing they pres
where
the
forces
are
Stress
o These Concentration
stress
concentrations become
particularly
mportant. significant
sure
The
as normally
to the reader
computed
flexural stresses must remember the material behaves
these factors.
is a crude
approximation.
The
as shown
stresses
at right
if the
"Factors 57, (1935):
while
to reduce
behavior
2.0
:26=7.
Elastic
the
Strain
elastic stress
Energy
strain energy
in Pure
Bending
subelastic
My
I
1.8
1.6
K
1.4
0.27
0.5
17,
1.2
was energy for beams in stress varies linearly and, according to Eq. The volume of a dx is its length, and web
flanges.
pure
formulated. bending can from the neutral 611, in simplified typical infinitesimal dA is its crosssectional part of a beam. until study
For this case, the as shown in Fig. 6this stress cr = element is dx dA, area. By substituting
parts 12. of a beam
Fig. 6t7 deriving
bending.
dA
(a)
(b)
factors
flat
Fig.
6t5
bars
in pure
with
Stressconcentration
vhrious
1.0
bending
Eftlets.
for
1.0
2.0 h/r
..
3.0
1.0
n The
4.0 5.0
n This
called
is a thin can
vertical be postponed
horizontal
section
for
300
Pure
Bending
and
Bending
with
Axial
Forces
Sec.
68.
Beams
of Composite
Cross
Section
30'
these beam,
bending
into
integrating strain
energy
over
V of in
instructive
= 2CrmaxI/h,
U=
to write
dx'Thus,
M2L 2EI
since O'ma x  Mc/I, M
2E
this result
I = bh3/12,
in another
form:
J
2E
Rearranging constant
and
and
the
that
M the
at a section integration =
2EI
of a
is

2EI
dx
ea
y2 dA
stress, absorbing
varies
effective.
the This
along
of the material in this beam is only oneas it would be in a uniformly stressed bar, from variable stresses in a beam. If the
beam, the volume of the material
also
a prismatic
the
beams
last 624
is possible since, by deflation, I = f y2 volume integral for the elastic energy of to a single integral taken over the
from a dif erent point of a beam dx long, as is moments M, the two parallel. After the same two planes, which between these two
moment M is attained
a beam.
Alternatively, Eq. 624 can be derived by considering an elementary segment of Fig. 618. Before the application of bending perpendicular to the axis of the beam are of the bendingmoments, extensions of the planes, intersect at O, and the angle included
is dO.
alternative
Beams den
uses beams
of
Composite
of dif erent reinforced
Cross by
Section
materials metal occur straps, in practice. plastics
steel
Fig.
618
energy
Beam
derivation
segment
of
for
ually,
Moreover,
strain
in bending.
external work We done on a segment of a beam since for small deflections, dx O dO, where of the elastic curve, per Eq. 610 1/p = M/EL of conservation of energy, the internal strain
beam is
the average
since
'moment
the
ful
acting
value
is concrete
with
rein
are
of the
the
The elastic bending theory discussed before can be readily to include such beams of composite cross section. an elastic beam of several materials bonded together with a axis of symmetry as shown in Fig. 620(a). The elastic moduli Ei dif erent materials are given. As for a homogeneous material, the extensional strains ex are assumed to vary linearly as shown
is an optional section.
bars.
This
x
Find bending
Soldion
Section
the
elastic moment
cantilever
beam
due
Unit distance
Cross
section
Bending (b)
strain
Bending (c)
stresses
Fig.
'6'19
The El,
bending is constant.
moment By
of this of Eq.
beam, 624,
as well
as the
flexural
(a)
Fig.
620
Elastic
beam
of composite
cross
section
in bending.
302
Pure
Bending
and
Bending
with
Axial
Forces
Sec.
68.
Beams
of Composite
7.5
Cross
= 150/20
Section
303'
using
Eq. 616.
The stresses
shown
materials,
in Fig. 620(c)
the
fol ow
on the
from
Eq.
t
250
mm
Neutral
axis
Mz = K fA Eiy2 dA = K(EI)*
where the curvature K, being constant for the section, is taken
10mm
(a)
20X150=3000mm
Fig.
(b) 62t
mm
150
(c)
_1
the
the
integral,
middle
and
expression.
(E/)*
defines
Hence
symbolically
mz
the
value
of the
PLE
68
(E/)*
mm
'30
The strap
kN.m
wood?
and
by substituting
this
relation
into
Eqs.
63 and
614,
e,=(E/),y
where the last diately specialized In calculations
Mz
and
useful
sectional erence
to introduce
constant
the concept
This Using
of an equivalent
requires this
E M
ilution
as Ee. 621(b)
Then with
cross x 20
for this
section = 3000
trans
to Eq.
cross
611,
and
can
be
centtold
and
moment
of inertia
beam.
section
150
are,
respectively,
125
sections,
arbitrary notation
or transformed
selection the integral
sometimes
of
=

x 250
10
x 3000
x 255
= 183mm
x 103
12
in
150
x 2503
12
15, for
curvature
, can
be recast
as fol ows:
250x
582+
3000
= 478
x 10 6 mm
stress
Ely dA = Eref
where ni dA = (Ei/Ee) can be considered to dA. have
Yr dA = Erie
Therefore a beam the mechanical a cross section In transformed
y(ni dA) = 0
(O'w)mx
of composite properties
of
Mc
I
steel
0.03
478 X 10 6
0.03 x 109
109
183
11.5 MPa
77
cross the
maximum
stress
in
the
is
material,
vary
provided
linearly
from
After analysis
transforming is applicable.
areas
dA are multiplied
material, by
axis
in all materials.
whereas
by hi, the
stresses
the
(O')mx
klternative Solution
= no,
= 20
478
10 6
96.7
MPa
the
The
stresses
actual
in
ielect
E as Er.
621(c).
Then
nw
= Ew/E
= 1/20,
and
the
transformed
section
is as in
This
procedure
is il ustrated
on the
two
examples
that
fol ow.
304
Pure
Bending
and
Bending
7.5 x
with
250
Axial
x 135
Forces
+ 150 x 10 x 5
Sec.
68.
Beams
of Composite
Cross
Section
305
= 77
mm
x
the
bottom)
this sumes
the tension
hape
zone
of a beam
the
Iz
7.5
+ 7.5
10 x x 77 722
x 250
= 23.9
x 582
x
+
106mm
150
x
12
103
above
tension, There
neutral
the
only
so it is shown
axis;
holds
the reinforcing
below
it, no concrete
transformed between
steel
transformed of concrete
in place?
is shown.
concrete
area.
Hence,
(crs)mx = (Crw)mx
Note that if the
0.03
23.9 X 106 20 x
piece
of the
150 x
x 109
purposes,
to its centreid.
distances to the
is located
teel fibers.
by a single
been used, but
dimension
this
from
distance
the
neutral
and the
is a negligible
various
far,
the
idea
of the
neutral
axis
has
its location
is unknown.
ors
0.03
109
x 183
11.5 MPa
wooden section
However,
the the
transformed
section
equivalent
transformed section. It is further known that the fn:st (or statical) area on one side of a centroidal axis is equal to the first moment on the other side. Thus, let kd be the distance from the top of the
it is known
that
this
axis
coincides
with
the axis
through
the
centreid
alent
stif er
stresses
section
than
in the
unit
is steel,
the material
actual
wooden
stresses
a higher
in steel
stress
are
are obtained
section
obtained
directly.
directly.
Conversely,
The
stress
since,
in
'if the
to
centroidal
the
stresses
axis,
distance from
as shown
top
in Fig.
622(c),
where
k is an unknown
ratio,
5 and
transformed
is increased,
the
same
strain,
is required.
of the beam to the center of the steel. locates the neutral axis, about which as in the preceding example.
An algebraic I is computed
10(kd)
EXAMPLE
Determine
(kd12)
arm
=
transformed steel
30
area
(20
arm
kd)
69
the maximum stress in the concrete and the steel for a
concrete area
concrete
beam
with
the
section
shown
in Fig.
bending
(These
Solution
bars
ratio
momeni
are 1 in in diameter
steel
of 50,000
ftlb.
of
The
and
concrete
have
reinforcement
the
of E for
to that
a crosssectional
to be
consists
i.e.,
area
of two
15.
of 1 in 2'
#9
steel
30(kd) 120 = 0
15,
n =
kd
8.36
in
and
20
kd
11.64
in
Plane
line
beam.
ab.
sections
Strains
A transformed
vary
concrete
not
are
linearly
assumed
section
from
to
remain
in terms
the neutral
of
plane
axis,
the
in
as shown
is used
an
elastic
to
in Fig.
solve
622(b)
this
by
no
concrete
Mc
12 367 + 10(8.
I
Mc
I
10(8.36)
x
x
50,000
15
However,
cracks wil
is so weak
occur in the tension
in tension
zone of
that
there
beam.
is no
For
assurance
this reason,
that
6020
12
 + (86)
8.36
x 12 x 11.64
0 + 30(11.64) 2 = 6020 in 4
= 17,400 psi
= 833 psi
50,000
6020
is given
to concrete
for
resisting
tension.
On
Solution
Unit
distance
hA, = 30 in 2
(c)
I, a procedure evident from Fig. 6developed by the stresses acting in a side of the beam must be located kd/ below the top of the beam. Moreover, if b is the width of the beam, this resultant C = (cr)m,b(kd) (average stress times area). The resultant tensile force steel and is equal to Acr, where A is the crosssectional the steel. Then, ifjd is the distance between T and C, and since T = C, applied moment M is resisted by a couple equal to Tjd or Cjd.
The
(b)
(d)
Fig.
622
In this text,
This
Actually,
conforms
it is used
with
to resist
the
h is generally
used
usual
shear
to represent
notation
and
used
provide
the height
in books
fireproofing
or depth
on reinforced
for
the
of the beam.
concrete.
steel.
306
Pure
Bending
and
Bending
with
Axial
Forces
Sec.
69.
Curved
Bars
307
jd
= d 
kd/3
= 20
(8.36/3)
17.21
in
b Centroid
M = Cjd = b(kd)(c)mx(jd)
(O)m,,
M b(kd)(jd) = Tjd = Assjd
M
+y

2M
50,000
2 x
50,00.0
12
10
x 8.36
x 12
x =
17.21 17,400
The second concrete
= 833
psi
.\
\
os = A(jd)
Both convenient
lowable
the
said
2 x
same Since
to
17.21
answer. steel
have balanced
psi
method have
when
Straight
\
beam
(c)
\
is
(b)
methods
in practical
stresses,
naturally
the
give applications.
beam is
and allowable
reinforcement
designed
so that
the
respective
stresses
are
at their
level
simuttaneou
Note
ments
that
were
the
applied
beam
in the
shown
opposite
would
become
direction.
virtually
worthless
if the
bending
(a)
Fig.
623
Curved
bar
in pure
bending.
Curved
The flexure is confined this axis
Bars
is developed of symmetry the length as shown in this section. of the cross section, of the bar. Only the
area
b)/rqb,
its initial
is
and
the
length
normal
is rqb. The
stress
tr on
strain
an element
e of any
arbitrary
dA
of the
fiber
crosssectional
is (R
 r)
case
is treated,
fibers fibers
theory for curved bars to bars having an axis lying in one plane along
7 with
and
the
usual
proviso
same Consider
outer inner
in tension a curved
are are
compression. member
such
of
at a distance at a distance
modulus
is
(629a)
(629b)
For
future
use,
note
also
that
in Figs.
center
623(a)
and
(b).
the distance
from
curvatur60. O to the
trr R 
r
The
E dqb qb
location
axis
is L The
solution
8 of this
problem
is again
based
on the
assumption: Sections perpendicular to the axis of the beam remain after a bending moment M is applied. This is diagrammatically by the line ef in relation to an element of the beam abcd. The is defined by the central angle qb. Although the basic deformation assumption is the same as for strai beams, and, from Hooke's law, the normal stress tr = Ee, a dif iculty encountered. The initial length of a beam fiber such as gh depends the distance r from the center of curvature. Thus, although the. total formation of beam fibers (described by the small angle dqb) fol ows law, strains do not. The elongation of a generic fiber gh is (R  r) where R is the distance from O to the neutral surface (not yet 6 Study of this section 7 For plastic analysis
Bending 27/4 (December
Equation
629a
section
gives
of a curved
the
be equal
normal
beam.
stress
i.e.,
acting
on
of the
an element
of area
of
from
the
the condition
section
must
to zero,
of the forces
acting
neutral
perpendicular
axis
fol ows
F.=0
since bar,
obtained.
= 0
and section of a a solution
they
ticPlastic Mech.
solution ticity
is This
approximate
of Curved 1960):
is optional. of curved
oo
7
oo

aA
=0
(630)
solution
bars,
see,
for example,
and
Variable
H. D. Conway,
Thickness.
by who
was
developed
by E. Wintaler
mathematical
in 1858.
theory
The
of
308
Pure
Bending
and
Bending
with
Axial
Forces
Sec.
69.
Curved
Bars
309
where axis.
troidal
elastic
area
axis
the
of the so found
situation
beam, does
found
and
not
R locates coincide
to be true
the
with
for
the
cr
My
Ae(R
y)
(632)
that the location of the neutral axis is known, the equation for stress distribution is obtained by equating the external moment to internal resisting moment built up by the stresses given by Eq. The summation of moments is made around the z axis, which is to the plane of the figure at O in Fig. 623(a).
Now
These
fol ows
center
equations a hyperbolic
of
from
the
the
indicate pattern.
that
formula
of
bars
distribution of this
is shown
results
result
623(c).
bar one
particularly
that
curvature
in the curved
bar,
beam.
the neutral
This
axis
is pulled
the
toward
higher
Stresses
Mz=O
Again, remembering
course,
developed only
For
a consideration
below to elastic
see
The
where
an
developed to beams
axial
force
applies, in pure
is
also
at a section,
Section
612.
that
E, R,
qb, and
dqb are
constant
at a section,
Eq.
obtained:
629b,
and
performing
the
algebraic
steps
indicated,
the
fol owing
2083
:urved
tVIPLE
6'10
are N.m
to
stresses in three
? = 75
M=E dqbf, (R r r)2 dA  Rrr f, (R r r)2 dA Solution + r2 R err r f, g 2  Rr r Rr NONACTIVATED VERSION
mm.
the
i = 250
bar beam,
mm,
624(a),
to end curved
and
moments of to a radius
(c) beam
dA
_ err (R2fAdA_RfAdA_RfAdA
Rr r
since R is a constant, the the expression in parentheses integral is A, and the last
radius of the centroidal
M
first
+ fArdA) www.avs4you.com
S =
This
fol ows
directly
by
applying
Eqs.
621
and
622.
bh2/6 M
= 50 2083
x 502/6 103
=
+100
20.83
MPa
103
mm
crmx
This result
of curvature.
S
in Fig.
20.83
624(c).
x 103
axis.
O't"
is shown
? = oo since
a straight
bar
has
an infinite
.(?A
RA)
m
beam at a
and (c) the neutral axis must be located first. This integrating Eq. 630. For the rectangular section, as b dr, Fig. 624(b). The integration is carried out
the
mm
from
from
where
the center
the
normal
of curvature
stress
is
acting
on
a curved
ro,
X 50
inner
and
outer
radii,
respectively.
100
MPa
93.6
MPa
80.9
MPa
I M(R r)1
orrA(?R)
If positive
axis, and resembles
/IT
v
{v
128 MPa 7' = 75 mm
60ram
y is measured
toward
may for
the center
of curvature
from
that more
the
(a)
0
(b)
(c)
Fig.
624
Pure
Bending
and
Bending
A
with
Axial
Forces
bh h
Sec.
610.
Inelastic
Bending
of Beams
I In r Ir?
In (ro/ri)
2.3026
log
(ro/rt)
and log is a
mm.
crosssectional area may become very complex. Finally, calculations must be very accurate since dif erences between R and numerically quantities are used in the stress formula. last two dif iculties prompted the development of other methods solution. One such method consists of expanding certain terms of the into a series? another of building up a solution on the basis of
where h is the depth of the section, In is the natural logarithm, arithm with a base of 10 (common logarithm). (b) For this case, h = 50 mm, ? = 250 mm, rt = 225 mm, and solution is obtained by evaluating Eqs. 633 and 631. Subscript normal stress of the inside fibers; o of the outside fibers.
g
e
special
reverse."
transformed
moments
Curved
section.
beams
of
Yet
exist
various
another
the
cross
approach
sections,
consists
quantities
curvatures,
of working
are divided
and
re = 275
are analyzed
stress that would are then tabulated?
for
stress;
for Hence,
then
same conversely,
these
beam
i refers
to
a flexural : ratios
m
=
50
beam
= 250 249.164 249.164 mm = 0.836 mm
is wanted,
it is given
as
=
In (275/225)
? R
K McI
from a table or a graph and
is now
(634)
O'i
M(R riA(?
107 MPa
 ri)  R)
 re)  R)
MPa
2083
225)
ere the
axis
coefficient
as in the usual
K is obtained
flexure formula.
Mc/I
given
is
M(R roA(b
 93.6
2083
275)
for
An expression
future
The the
negative corresponding
sign
in the
Results
50
same of the
50
way. computation

of a curved
for
the
beam
distance
of circular
from
the
crosssectional
center
of curvature
area
to the
neu
quantities ? = 250
mm.
p+
V.2
 c2
(635)
Here
ri:
where
? is the
radius
distance
of
from
the
center
of curvature
area.
to the
centroid,
and
c is the
the
circular
crosssectional
In (100/50)
gR = 75
In 2
73.13
72.13mm
610.
2.87mm
Inelastic
Bending
of Beams
it is becoming beyond the in the post is limited increasingly important to deterelastic limit. In this section the inelastic rage of material behavior is to pure bending of beams around
e =
oi = ' =
2083 2083
103
x (72.13
 50) 100)
mine
The
Several important conclusions, generally true, may be reached this example. First, the usual flexure formula is reasonably good beams of considerable curvature. Only 7 percent error in the stress occurs in part (b) for ?/h = 5, an error tolerable for most cations. For greater ratios of ?/h, this error diminishes. As the of the beam increases, the stress on the concave side rapidly ' over the one given by the usual flexure formula. When ?/h = 1.5, percent error occurs. Second, the evaluation of the integral for R
axis
elastic
perpendicular
bending
to the axis
introducing
the
theory
ship
To
The
same
of symmetry
the
elastic
of the beam
cross
section.
il ustrate such
1955),
consider By assuming
3rd for ed., Stress
Nostrand,
York:
19 S. Timoshenko,
McGrawHil ,
Strength
and
1975).
20 R. J. Roark,
and
W. C. Young,
373.
of Materials, Formulas
Pure Bending
and Bending
Bending
of Beams
5
0 2 
Y4
Y5
01
Finding the location of the neutral axis such that T = C may require trialanderror process, although direct procedures have been devised some cross sections. TM After the neutral axis is correctly located, the : bending moment Mz at the same section is known to be C(a + or T(a + b), see Fig. 625(d). Alternatively, in the form of a general equation,
Mz =  cry dA
5 4 1 E2 3
(637)
cross
are the a priori
_ Unit
length(a) Beam section
The
problem
I'strain
1
O 4
horizontal
is greatly
For
simplified
if the beam
properties it is known
section
same that
is symmetric
(b)
Bending
(c)
Stressstrain
ciated
define
the centroid of the section, and Eq. behavior of such a beam in bending
A sequence of progressively sections is shown in Fig.
stresses in the outer
maximum
626(b).
increasing
fibers
These
beam,
strains maximum
be diqualiasFig.
M z
(/5
o3
resulting in progressively increasing bending stresses. As can be seen from Figs. 626(a) and (c), the maximum attainable 03. The instantaneous stress distribution in the beam associated 03, for this brit le material, is given by the curved line AB in Fig. in routine experiments the nominal stress in the extreme
by applying determined
of Flow
flexure bending
formula, moment.
Eq.
The
2 A. Nadai,
Theory
andFracture
of Solids,
vol.
! (New
York:
(d)
Bending
stresses
Fig.
625
Inelastic
bending
of beam.
sections
remain
plane
after
deformation,
the
longitudinal
normal
Fracture
vary linearly as in Fig. 625(b). For the several selected strains .. es in this diagram, the correponding stresses 0., 02 . . . 05 defined on the given stressstrain diagram in Fig. 625(c). A plot of stresses along a section establishes a possible stress distribution in beam along the curved line AB as il ustrated in Fig. 625(d). (Except vertical scale, this line precisely corresponds to the curved line in stressstrain diagram.) These stresses, acting on the corresponding of the cross section, develop a compressive force C above the axis, and a tensile force T below it. When T = C, a correct location the neutral axis is found. This condition is equivalent to the
that at a section
Propordonal
limit
(b)
E1 2 3 01 0 2 0 3
fA 0 dA = 0
where 0 is the normal bending stress acting on a section.
(a)
material.
Pure Bending
Plastic zone
and Bending
with Axial
Forces
Elastic core
Bending
of Beams
M2
crvp,
divided
whereas
the lower
half
is all under
and
a compression
a uniform
tension
fol ows
crvp.
from
That
sym
the
Numerically,
I
(a)
C = T = o.yp(bh/2)
i.e.,
stress
is
x area
the neutral axis. Hence,
(b)
of straining.
Neutralaxis
(c)
Each
one
of these
or ultimate
Fig.
627
Elasticplastic
'beam
at large
levels
found
is associated
actually
is called
attained.
with
the rupture
the
line
modulus
CD
in Fig.
of the material
626(c)
and
is larger
in bending.
than
This
Mp Muir = C
is the breadth of the beam, and
( + )
h is its
= o.yp 4
height.
bh2
Eqs. 636 and 637.
the
The
The elastic perfectly plastic idealization [Fig. 213(b)], for reasons simplicity, is very frequently used for beams of ductile materials in termining their behavior in bending, and as an important example elastic bending, consider a
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