Sie sind auf Seite 1von 395

F

ABBREVIATIONS

OF
AIAA

ORGANIZATIONS
AISC
API ASCE ASME ASTM AWS SEM

h I

force, frequency, modulus acceleration height,


moment

flexibility,

allowable stress computed stress (AISC of elasticity in shear of gravity depth of beam
of inertia of cross-sectional

(AISC notation)

notation)

area

American American
American

Institute Institute
Petroleum

of of

Aeronautics Steel
Institute

and Construction

Astronautics
K

k
L
M

American American American American Society

Society of Civil Engineers Society of Mechanical Engineers Society for Testing and Materials Welding Society for Experimental Mechanics

ABBREVIATIONS

O!:

UNITS
allow
av

O!:
allowable
average

MEASURE

AND

OTHER

TERMS

cr

critical

F.S.

factor ft foot, hp horsepower Hz hertz in inch, k kip(s) kg kilogram(s) kip kilopound ksi kips lb pound(s) m meter,
N newton neutral

of safety
feet

(cycles inches (1000 square (from


metre,
axis

per

second)

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


T

bending moment, mass moment m moment caused by virtual unit force N of revolutions per minute P force, concentrated load P pressure intensity, axial force due to unit or statical moment of area Afhj around Q first load intensity, shear flow q distributed R reaction, radius S elastic section-modulus (S = l/c) S S-shape (standard) steel beam s second(s) radius, radius of gyration
torque, temperature
t

polar stress spring length moment, plastic mass, number

moment concentration constant,

of inertia
factor,
constant

of circular effective

cross-sectional length

factor

area for columns

force

neutral

axis

per

lb) inch Latin


1000 mm

libra,

meaning (mil imeters)

weight)

w w
w

NA

thicknesss, width, tangential deviation strain energy internal force caused by virtual unit shear force (often vertical), volume deflection of beam, velocity total weight, work W-shape (wide flange) steel beam weight or load per unit of length plastic section modulus

load,

axial

or

radial

displacement

Pa psi
rad

pascal pounds
radian

per

square
per minute

inch

GREEK

LETTER

SYMBOLS

rpm
ult

revolutions
ultimate

yp
ROMAN LETTER SYMBOLS

yield

point,

yield

stress


Afghj

A
c

area,

area

bounded
area

of cross
width
from

by center

section
axis

line

of the

perimeter
area

of a thin

tube

b breadth,
distance

partial

area

of beam
neutral

cross-sectional
or from

center

of

twist

to

extreme

fiber

d diameter, E modulus

distance, of elasticity

depth in tension

or compression

e -/ A e 0 K k r p cr 'r qb to

(alpha) (gamma) (delta) (epsilon) (theta) (kappa) (lambda)


(nu)

coefficient of thermal expansion, shear strain, weight per unit total deformation or deflection,
normal strain

general volume change

angle of any designated function

slope
curvature

angle
ratio

for

elastic

curve,
buckling

angle
problems

of inclination

of line

on body

eigenvalue
Poisson's

in column
radius
stress

(rho) (sigma) (tau) (phi) (omega)

radius,

of

curvature

tensile
shear

or compressive
angle velocity of twist, general

stress

(i.e.,
angle

normal

stress)

total angular

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com

PRENTICE-HALL

IN CIVIL
Wil iam

ENGINEERING
J, Hall,

INTERNATIONAL
Editor

AND

ENGINEERING

SERIES

MECHANICS

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com

Popov, p.

E.

P. (Egor cm. --

Paul)

Engineering
engineering Bibliography:
Includes ISBN

mechanics

(Prentice-Hall

of solids
mechanics)

international

/ Egor

P. Popov.

series

in civil

and
index. 0-13-279258-3

engineering p.
of materials.
1990

I. Strength
TA405.P677
620. I' 12--dc20

I. Title.

I.

Series.
89-8860 CIP

Cover

Interior

Editorial/production

design:

design:

Bruce

Jules

supervision:
Kenselaar

Perlmutter;
Mary

Sophie
Noonan

Off-Broadway

Papanikolaou

Graphics

Abbreviations
Preface

and

Symbols:

See

Inside

Front

Cover
XV

Cover Il ustration:

Manufacturing

buyer:

Artist's

Conception

of stress transformation.

See figure 8-16

1990
A Division

by

Prentice-Hall,
of Simon

Inc.
& Shuster

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


Part A
1-2
1-3

1-1

Introduction

Method

of

Sections

3 4 7
11

Englewood

Clifs,

New

Jersey

07632 Part

Defif ition Stress

of

Stress

Tensor

*'1-5

Derential
B

Equations
ANALY$1$

of Equilibrium
P ALLY

$T$$

reproduced,

All rights

reserved. permission

without

in any

form

No part

in writing

or by any

of this book from

means,

may

be
1-6 1-7 Stresses
Loaded

'12

the publisher.

on
Bars

Inclined Nomal

Sections Stress

in ial y
12

Mimum
Shear Stresses

in iy

Loaded

Bars

16 19
22

Printed
10987654321

in the

United

States

of America

1-8

1-9
Part

Analysis
DTNISTIC DSiN

for
BASS

Normal
AND

and

Shear
POBABIHSTC

Stresses

ISBN
Prentice-Hall
Prentice-Hall

0-13-279258-3
International
Canada

Prentice-Hall

of Australia

Inc.,

Pty.

(UK)
Toronto

Limited,

Limited,
S.A.,

Sydney

London
34

Simon

Prentice-Hall Prentice-Hall Prentice-Hall

& Schuster

Hispanoamericana, of India Private of Japan, Inc.,

Asia

Pte.

Ltd.,

Limited, To3'o

Mexico New Delhi

*'1-12

38

*'1-13 *'1-14

Singapore

clc :oblcs

ons

47 5O
52

vi

Contents
Contents

vii

Part
2-1 Introduction
**3-4 **3-5
3-6

AND
Mathematical
Strain

HOOKE'$
Definition
Tensor

LAW
of Strain
143 145

Part
2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5

A
6O
Normal Hooke's Strain Law
**3-8

3-7

Generalized E, G and
Dilatation

Hooke's v R61ationshipss
and Bulk

Law
Modulus

for

Isotropic

Materials

146 150

Stress-strain

Relationships

60 62 64

Part
3-9 '3-10

THiN-WALLED
Remarks

PRESSURE
on

VSSELS
Pressure

2-6 2-7 2-8


2-9

Further
Deformation
Poisson's

Other

Idealizations
Strain

Remarks
Ratio

on Stress-strain
of Axial y
and

of Constitutive
Loaded
Deformation

Relationships
Bars

Relations

67 68
71 82

Cylindrical

and

Thin-walled

Spherical

Pressure

Vessels

Vessels

157

Thermal

Part
*'3-11

D
Introduction
159

2-10 '2-11 '2-12 *'2-13

Dynamic
B

Elastic Deflections

Saint-Venant's

Strain
and

Energy for by the Energy


Impact

Principle

and Stress
Uniaxial Method

Stress

Concentrations

84 86 91 94 96

*'3-12
*'3-13 *'3-14

Solution

of

the

General

Problem

160
165

Loads

Special Behavior
Problems

Cases of Ideally

Plastic

Thick-walled

Cylinders

167
171

Part
2-14 2-15 2-16 *'2-17 2-18

General

Considerations

Displacement
Freedom Problems

Force Method Introduction

of Analysis to the Displacement

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


99
99

Method

with

Several
Indeterminate

Method

100

Degrees
Nonlinear

of

106

4-1

Introduction

175

4-2

Application

of the

Method

of Sections

175

Introduction
Deflections

to Statically Dif erential

108 112

Part
4-3 4-4
4-5

'2-19

for

Alternative

Equation

Approach

Basic
The Remarks

Assumptions
Torsion on Formula the Torsion

for

Circular
Formula

Members

177 178 18

Problems

125

127

4-6 4-7
4-8 *4-9

Design
Stress

of Circular
Concentrations

Members
of Circular

in Torsion
Members Problems Equation

185 187 189 194

*'4-10

Oyfincer
3-1 Introduction

Angle-of-twist Statically Alternative


for Torsion

Indeterminate Dif erential


Problems

Approach
197 199 201

*'4-11 *'4-12

Energy Shaft
B
4-13

and Couplings

Impact

Loads

Part

A 0ONSTTUTIVE
3-2
3-3 Elastic

RELATIONSHIPS
Relationships
Energy for Shear

FOR
for Shear
Stresses
139 141

Part

TORSIION
Shear Stresses

OF
Inelastic

INELASTIC
and Deformations

011ROULAR
in Circular

BARS
Shafts

202
202

Stress-strain

Strain

in the

Range

vii

Contents

Contents

JX

Part
*'4-15
'4-14

C TORSION
Warping
Solid Bars

OF $OHD
of Thin-Walled
of any Cross

NONCIRCULAR
207

Section

with
Part

Pure
6-1

ial
A

Iending

Ii=orce$
O;
SECTIONS

and

Iending

280
280

Open

Sections

21!

Introduction

Part
'4-16

D TORSION
Thin-walled
Problems

O: THIN-WALLED
Hollow Members

TUBULAR
213 217

BENDING
CROSS The
The

BEAMS

WITH
Assumption
Formula

SY'dMETffiC
281 283

6-2 6-3

Basic
Elastic

Kinematic
Flexure

*6-4
6-5

Computation Applications
Stress Concentrations

of the Moment of the Flexure


Strain Composite
Bars

of Inertia Formula

289 293 297 299 301 306 311

5
5-1 Introduction
224

*6-6 *6-7

**6-8 **6-9 6-10

Elastic Beams
Curved

Energy

in Pure Bending Cross Section


of Beams

Inelastic
B

Bending

Part
'5-2

A
*5-3 *5-4
*5-5

CALCULATION
Classification

OF
of Beams

REACTIONS

Part
225 226
6-11

Diagrammatic Diagrammatic

Conventions Conventions

Calculation

of Beam

Part

SH=AR,
5-6 5-7 5-8 5-9 5-10

AND
Force
in Beams

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com B:NDING MOdENT


Reactions
228 6-12 230
'6-13

for Supports for Loading

WITH

AXIAL

LOADS

*'6-14

Bending Elastic Inelastic Bending


Cross

about both Principal Axes Bending with Axial Loads Bending with Axial Loads of Beams with Unsymmetric
MOMENTS OF
and Products

319

324 333

(Arbitrary)

234

Section

336

Axial

Application

of the
Moment

in Beams

Method
in Beams

of Sections

Part
'6-15 '6-16

AREA
Area

INERTIA
of Inertia

340
340 34l 343

Shear

Moments

Bending Diagrams

Principal
Problems

Axes

of Inertia

Axial-Force,

Shear,

and

Bending-Moment
240

Part
5-11

SHEAR
BY
Element

INTEGRATION

AND

BENDING
Equations

MOMENTS
248

Shear and
7-1

Stresses Ielated
Introduction

in
357

Dif erential
Shear Moment Effect

of Equilibrium

for a Beam
of the Load of the Shear on Moment
Curve
248

Part

A
7-2 7-3 7-4 '7-5

SHEAR
elimina
She Flow

STRESSES
Remks
Shear-stress Fomula

IN

57
357 361

5-12 5-13

5-14
5-15

Diagrams
*'5-16

Diagrams by Integration Diagrams by Integration of Concentrated Moment


Diagram
Functions

250
252 258 261 263

The

for

Betas

367

Moment
Problems

Singularity

and

the

Elastic

Waage
7-7

*7-6
7-8

269

Some She
Shear

Limitations Stresses
Center

of Plane

of the in Beam

Sections

She-stress Flanges

Due

to She

373

Formula

378 380 382

Contents

Contents

xi

386

7-9

Combined

Direct

and

Torsional

Shear

Stresses

*'7-10 *'7-11

Stresses Deflection
Problems

in Closely of Closely

Coiled Coiled

Helical Helical

Springs Springs

-9-1
391

Introduction

459

Part
9-2 9-3

ELASTII
State of

ST:SS
Stress for

ANALYSS
Some Basic Cases
46!

*'9-4

Comparative Experimental


Accuracy Methods

of Beam of Stress

Solutions Analysis

466

8-1

Introduction

Part
403

470

Part
8-2 8-3

A
The Problems 8-4 8-5 Basic Problem

4O3
403

Transformation

of

Stresses

in Two-dimensional
40?

Principal
Maximum
Problems

Stresses
Shear

in Two-dimensional
Stresses in Two-dimensional

Problems

409 410

9-5 9-6 9-7 9-8 9-9 9-10

Design Design Design Design Design Design


Problems

of Axial y Loaded Members of Torsion Members Criteria for Prismatic Beams of Prismatic Beams of Nonprismatic Beams of Complex Members

470 471

472
475

480 482 485

Mohr's
Problems
*8-7

Circle
of

of St3ess
Mohr's

Construction
Transformation

**8-8
8-9

Principal
Mohr's

Stresses
Circle for

for

a General

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


414 417

for

Two-dimensional
for

Circles

Stress

10-1

Introduction

498

a General

State

of Stress

424 426

State

of

Stress

Part

499
499 501

Part
8-10 8-11

B
Strains in Two Dimensions

43O
430

10-2
10-3

Moment-Curvature

Relation

*'10-4
10-5 10-6 10-7

*'8-12 '8-13 '8-14

Transformation Alternative
in Two Mohr's Dimensions Circle

of

Strain

Derivation
for

in Two for Strain

Dimensions Transformation
Strain

430

Two-dimensional

433 43.5

/'10-8
10-9

Part
8-15


8-16 '8-17
8-18 8-19 8-20

'10-10

44'

'10-11 '10-12

Governing Dif erential Equation Alternative Drivation of the Governing Alternative Forms of the Governing Boundary Conditions Direct-Integration Solutions Singularity Functions for Beams Deflection by Superposition Deflection in Unsymmetrical Bending Energy Method for Deflections and
Inelastic Deflection of Beams

Equation
Equation

504
505 505 507 523 525 529

Impact

531 535

Introductory Maximum

Remarks Shear-Stress

44!

Theory

Maximum Comparison
Energy Maximum Comparison
Problems

Distortion-Energy of Maximum-Shear
Theories for Plane Normal Stress of Yield and Stress Theory Fracture

Theory
and Distortion-

444

**Part
*'10-13

B
;THOD Introduction
Moment-Area

537
to the
Theorems

448 449

Moment-Area

Method

Criteria

450
453

*'10-14 *'10-15

Statically
Problems

Indeterminate

Beams

xii

Contents

Contents

Xll

574
11-1 Introduction
574

Part
'12-10

C
General

'11-2 11-3
Part
11-4
11-5

Examples Criteria
A

of Instability for Stability

'1-11
'12-12 '12-13 *'12-14

Strain

Energy

Remarks

661

and

Complementary
Systems

Strain-Energy

of Equilibrium FO
with with
Formulas

Theorems

661 665 670

Castigliano's Statically

BUCKLING
Euler Euler
Restraints

THEORY
Load Loads for Columns for Columns
the Euler

COLU/INS
Pinned Dif erent Ends End

583
83 585

Elastic

Energy'for

Theorems Indeterminate

Buckling

Loads

674 676

Problems

$TA'I OALL
'13-1

INDE'ERIINA'E
686

11-6 11-7 '11-8

Limitations

of

588

Generalized
Eccentric
Beam-Columns

Euler
Loads and

Buckling-Load
the Secant

Formulas
Formula

590 592

Introduction

'11-9 *'11-10

596

Alternative
Columns

Dif erential

Equations

for

Beam600

Part
'13-2 '13-3

ELASTIC
Two
Force

/IETHODS
Basic
Method

OF
for Elastic

ANALYSIS
Analysis

687
687 687 690 697

Methods

Part
'11-11 '11-12
'11-13

'13-4

General
Concentrically Eccentrically Lateral
Problems

Considerations
Stability

'13-5 605 608 '13-6 '13-7

'11-14

Loaded Columns Loaded Columns of Beams

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


Stif ness Coefficients Reciprocity
616 623

Flexibility Introduction Further

Coefficients Reciprocity to the Displacement Remarks on the Displacement


L/HT ANALYS$
and

Method

Method

700 703

Part

B PLASTIC

708
70
73

623

'13-8

Plastic

Limit

Analysis

of Beams
Frames

'13-9

Continuous

Beams

Problems

12-1

Introduction

634

APPENDICES:

TABLES

ANSWERS
INDEX

TO
Factors
See Inside

ODD-NU/IBERED
between
Back Cover

PROBLEMS
U.S. Customary and

Part
12-2 12-3

A
635

Conversion
SI Units:

Elastic

Strain

Energy

535

Displacements
B

by Conservation
WORK ETHODS

of Energy

537

Part
'12-4
12-5

VIIRTUAL

Virtual
Virtual

Work
Forces

Principle
for Deflections

638

642

12-6 12-7

Virtual
Virtual

Force

Forces

Equations
for

Indeterminate

for

Elastic
Equilibrium Systems

Problems

Systems

644

650
651

*'12-8 *'12-9

Virtual Virtual

Displacements Work for

Discrete

for

657

This book
Materials chanics

plement

(Prentice-Hall, Inc., of Solids (Prentice-Hall,

is an update

of two of the author's

disciplines.

the traditional
Among

rigorous treatment is selectively provided. A few more advanced topics have also VERSION been introduced. As a result, the book is larger than its predNON-ACTIVATED ecessors. This has an advantage in that the user of this text has a larger choice for study, according to needs. Moreover, experience shows that www.avs4you.com the serious student retains the text for use as a reference in professional
life.

structural analysis, modest exposure to the matrix methods, and il ustrations using the method of finite elements are discussed. Further, to conform with the more mathematical trend in teaching this subject, more

these,

topics

some treatment

with some exposure

2nd Ed., 1976) and Introduction Inc., 1968). It was felt important

earlier

texts,

Mechanics

of the probabilistic

to newly

emerging

to Meto sup-

of

basis for

This book or one-semester

up course
text

logical development problems marked applies to material tion are provided


an alternative
is careful y

material

on the subject

is larger than what course. Therefore,

can

for a basic

It is the belief of the author that the serious wealth of available material in the text, even should become more knowledgeable. Several

integrated

sequence

of the subject, numerous sections, examples, and with a ** can be omit ed, To a lesser extent, this also marked with a *. These guides to possibilities for delethroughout the text. In a few instances, suggestions for
by means

course

ht an intermediate
that

easily be covered in a one quarter it should prove useful for a fol ow-

is consecutive,

level.

As an aid in selecting
with no gaps

in the

in studying

of cross-referencing.

the subject

are also given.

The

text

tioned

lowable

in this regard. at Fig.


why
stress

glance

thin-walled
suggests

the limitations

1-26,

design

For example,
of axial y a design.

pressure

of such

showing

histograms

loaded

while

limitations

vessels;

are place

even

The

by the ASME

a superficial

same

for two

members

the student

student, because in an abbreviated il ustrations can

is true

materials,

in Chapter

is studying

of the course, be men-

examination

for the student

should

1, a mere studying

the alreveal

on the use of elementary

of Fig.

3-24

xvi

Preface

Preface

xvii

variation
structor.

can text

diately minate

depending

of the text.

of the subject and issues of possible Chapter 2 forms the cornerstone careful y. The introduced concepts

and brought

formulas for thin-walled pressure vessels. Modest exposure to some matrix solutions and il ustrations obtained using finite-element methods should arouse interest. Some exposure to the plastic-limit-state methods given in the last section of the last chapter warrants attention. In the hands of an instructor, these side issues can be discussed in a minimum of time

der Kiureghian

probabilistic

in wherever

desired.

Next,

be useful as writ en,

fol owing Section and indeterminate


in the sequence

on preference.

Further,

the sequence
For

in introducing however,

2-7, the distinction between systems becomes less important.


fol ows
would

example,

of study

controversy of the subject are repeatedly

some

remarks

by studying

for this chapter

are raised. and has to be studied used in the remainder Section 2-19

on the philosophy

Herrmann (UCD), and J. M. Ricles (UCSD) gave useful Chapter 2; E. L. Wilson (UCB) offered useful comments S. B. Dong (UCLA) encouraged more rigorous development of composite beams resulting in significant improvements;

methods

(UCB)

in Chapter

provided

valuable

1; M. D. Engelhardt

assistance

for the section

(UCD)
tions.

can be varied,

couraged Roeder

suggested

presentation (UW) careful y

useful refinements

of the matrix method in Chapter reviewed Chapter 13 and provided


the fol owing also greatly

for Chapter

8; J. L. Meek (UQ) en12; and C. W. useful suggescontributed to the de-

suggestions for on Chapter 4; for treatment Y. F. Dafalias

(UTA),

L. R.

on

the displacement the traditional


probably

require

method approach.

assistance

of analysis. The The suggested


from

statically deterThis approach

imme-

an in-

velopment of the text: M. S. Agbabian (USC), H. Astaneh (UCB), D.O. Brush (UCD), A. K. Chopra (UCB), F. Hauser (UCB), J. M. Kelly (UCB), P. Monteiro (UCB), F. Moffit (UCB), J. L. Sackman (UCB), R. Stephen (UCB), R. L. Taylor (UCB), and G. Voyiadjis (LSU). Dr. K. C. Tsai (NTU) provided valuable assistance in supervising the assembly of

In addition

to these,

right-hand sign convention for use with a. computer.


in consecutive
are made

with oughly

The

more controversial the adopted shear


entrenched

in U.S.

issue encountered sign convention


practice;

in addition

to its virtually

for aXes. If needed, it can easily be modified The engineering sign convention for shear used,

however,

in developing for beams. The

it is in conflict

this text deals one used is thorwith

problem
results

the

by J-H. Shen (UCB). Taylor, J. M. Ricles


many
rectly

solutions

for the first nine chapters,


2-31,

in using

integrations.

universal

it in hand

the alternative In the preparation universities contributed

with

lem. Whereas struction of the use, and there approaches are

The introduction

the basic algebra and comprehensive meaning of the concircles is the same, two alternative methods are in general are strong advocates for each method. Therefore, both developed; the choice of procedure is left to the reader,
one remaining as a reference. of this book, over 30 people to its development. Among

of Mohr's

NON-ACTIVATED on one VERSION of the earlier books, Drs. S. Nagarajan use in design, requires no sign changes Experience has shown that fewer mistakes In producing this book, Douglas Humphrey of Prentice-Hall spared no effort in preparing circles of stress www.avs4you.com and strain presented a probsuggested
contributed

The

author

for

figures

Among the proceeding, M. D. Engelhardt, also assisted with the preparation of finite
thanks
7-13,

the remainder
9-8.

was compiled
to each

sincerely

improvements.
to this

all and feels

7-14,

9-7

and

R. L. element
for

The author

a debt

also thanks

of gratitude

and Z. A. Lu,

his collaborators
who

indi-

calculations.

text

also.

an excellent Lastly, as in all previous books, the author again is deeply his wife, Irene, for unstinting support and continual help'with
uscript.
EaoR

and Sophie

Papanikolaou

publication. indebted to the manPoPov

P.

and

(ASU)?,

encouragement
t Letters

(UCB),

entire

UCSB),

M. E. Criswell

manuscript

J. J. Tuma and

J. L. Lubliner

and offered
made

(ASU),

(CSU),

(UCB),

numerous
useful

and

J. Dempsey

G. A. Wempner

(CU),

H. D. Eberhart

at more these, (GIT),

than a dozen W. Bickford reviewed the

Berkeley,

California

(UCB

and A. C. Scordelis
suggestions
the fol owing

valuable

suggestions;
Clarifying

for

(UCB)

provided
ASU,

F. Filippou
text;

the A.

much

tional versity UCSB,

Uni versity; InstituteCSU, of ColTechnol orado ogy; State LSU, UniversitLoui y; siana CU, StatCl emson University; NTU, GINaT, Georgia e University;
Taiwan University; UCB, University of California, Berkeley; UCD, Uniof California at Davis; UCLA, University of California at Los Angeles; University of California at Santa Barbara; USC, University of Southern

in parentheses

identify

universities:

Arizona

State

and UW, University

California;

UTA, Universi ty of Texas, Austin; UQ, University of Washington.

of Queensland;

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com

ter

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION properly proportioned to resist the actual or probable forces that may be imposed upon them. Thus, the walls of a pressure vessel must be of adwww.avs4you.com equate strength to withstand the internal pressure; the floors of a building
In all engineering machine must construction, be assigned definite the component physical sizes. parts

1-1.

Introduction

of a structure or a Such parts must be

must be sufficiently strong for their intended purpose; the shaft of a machine must be of adequate size to carry the required torque; a wing of an airplane must safely withs.tand the aerodynamic loads that may come upon it in takeoff, flight, and landing. Likewise, the parts of a composite structure must be rigid enough so as not to deflect or "sag" excessively when in operation under the imposed loads. A floor of a building may be strong enough but yet may deflect excessively, which in some instances may cause misalignment of manufacturing equipment, or in other cases result in the cracking of a plaster ceiling attached underneath. Also a member may be so thin or slender that, upon being subjected to compressive loading, it wil collapse through buckling, i.e., the initial configuration of a member may become unstable. The ability to determine the maximum load that a slender column can carry before buckling occurs or the safe
level of vacuum that can be maintained by a vessel is of great practical
importance.

In engineering practice, such requirements must be met with the minimum expenditure of a given material. Aside from cost, at times--as in the design of satel ites--the feasibility and success of the whole mission may depend on the weight of a package. The subject of mechanics of

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.'l-2.

Method

of

Sections

naterials,

work of Galileo in the early part of the seventeenth investigations into the behavior of solid bodies fol owed precedents and empirical rules. Galileo
to explain the behavior of some of the members

stif ness (deformation characteristics), and stability of the various loadcarrying members. Alternately, the subject may be called the nechanics of solid defornable bodies, or simply nechanics of solids. Mechanics of solids is a fairly old subject, generally dated from the

in the

past,

or the

involves

strength

analytical

ofnaterials,

methods

as it has

for

determining

been

traditionally

the

strength,

called

part of the subject, but this branch is left to other books. I Here the end

results of such investigations are of interest, and this book is concerned with the analytical or mathematical part of the subject in contradistinction to experimentation. For these reasons, it is seen that mechanics of solids is a blended science of experiment and Newtonian postulates of analytical mechanics. It is presumed that the reader has some familiarity in both of
these areas. In the development
dominant role.

century. Prior to his under loads, constructors was the first to attempt
under load on a rational

of this subject,

statics

plays a particularly

basis. beams
course,

He studied used in the


much progress

members construction
has

in tension of hulls
been made

and compression, of ships for the


since that time,

Italian
but

and

notably navy. Of
it must be

This text wil be limited to the simpler topics of the subject. In spite of the relative simplicity of the methods employed here, the resulting techniques are unusually useful as they apply to a vast number of technically

noted in passing that much is owed in the development of this subject to the French investigators, among whom a group of outstanding men such as Coulomb, Poisson, Navier, St. Venant, and Cauchy, who worked at the break of the nineteenth century, has left an indelible impression on
this

of mechanics of solids cuts broadly across all branches the engineering profession with remarkably many applications. Its ods are needed by designers of offshore structures; by civil engineers the design of bridges and buildings; by mining engineers and architectural

The

subject. subject

The subject matter The number of basic structural and machine of solids is relatively must develop an ability tities being computed.

important

problems.

of

of problems
complete

chinery

engineers, in the neers, concepts


materials

design
who and

each

of whom is interested of reactor components; rely upon the methods


pressure vessels;

by metal urgists,

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION stress are discussed in the last part of the www.avs4you.com
in

meth-

in structures; by mechanical of this subject


engineers,

who

by nuclear engineers and chemical engifor the design of maneed the fundamental the

There are three major parts in this chapter. The general concepts of stress are treated first. This is fol owed with a particular case of stress distribution in axial y loaded members. Strength design criteria based on
chapter.

masterly

to be solved

can be mastered best by solving formulas necessary for the members by the methods of small; however, throughout to visualize a problem and Complete, carefidly drawn
subject.

of this

wil pay large dividends

numerous problems. analysis and design of engineering mechanics this study, the reader the nature of the quandiagrammatic sketches

in a quicker

and more

of this
further;

subject

finally,

in order
by

electrical

to understand

how

who

to improve
need

methods

existing

of this

phases .of many portions of solids, contrasted chanics, has characteristic


proaches overlap.

subject

because

It is a definite

of electrical equipment. with the mathematical methods all its


discipline

of the

importance

of the

and

Engineering theory of own, although


one

mechanical

engineering
continuum

mechanics

me-

of the

the
alongside

most

two

funda-

ap-

1=2.

Method

of

Sections

mental
other trical

basic theory.

subjects

subjects

of an engineering
as fluid

mechanics,

curriculum?

thermodynamics,

standing
depends govern

as well

as elec-

such

The behavior fundamental


of the forces,

laws

but

of a member of Newtonian
also on

subjected
the

mechanical

mechanics

to forces

characteristics

that

of the

not the

only on the equilibrium


materials

One of the main problems of engineering mechanics of vestigation of the internal resistance of a body, that is, the set up within a body to balance the effect of the externally For this purpose, a uniform method of approach is employed. diagrammatic sketch of the member to be investigated
which

is observed of breaks,

of which the lat er the action

the member comes from of accurately

with particular deformations,

is fabricated. The necessary information regarding the laboratory, where materials are subjected known forces and the behavior of test specimens
etc.
regard to such Determination phenomena of such as the phenomena

spective points of application. All forces acting on a body,


Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley,

all of the external

forces

Such a sketch is called afi'ee-body diagram. including the reactive forces caused by the
1985).

acting

6n a body

are shown

solids is the innature of forces applied forces. A complete is prepared, on


at their re-

to

occurrence is a vital

 W. D. Callister, Materials Science and Engineering (New York: Wiley, 1985). J. F. Shackelford, Introduction to Materials Science for Eng#eers (New York: Macmil an, 1985). L. H. Van Vlack, Materials Science for Engineers, 5th ed.,

Stress, Axial Loads, and Safety Concepts


supports and the weight 2 of the body itself, are considered Moreover, since a stable body at rest is in equilibrium, on it satisfy the equations of static equilibrium. Thus, on a body such as shown in Fig. 1-1(a) satisfy the equilibrium and are all shown acting on it, the sketch
body diagram. Next, since a determination of the

Sec. t-3. Definition


external forces. the forces acting if the forces acting equations of static represents a freeforces caused
P1

of Stress

internal

by the external arbitrary section


two
P
(a)

p,,

Fig.

(c),

where

parts.

1-1(a)

into

an arbitrary
two

The

result

ones is one of the principal is passed through the body,


of such distinct

plane

parts.

ABCD

a process

This

separates

can

concerns completely
the

be seen wil

process

original

in Figs.

of this subject, an separating it into


solid
1-1(b) to as the

be referred

body

and

of
(a) (b)

method of sections. Then, if the body as part of it must also be in equilibrium. For some of the forces necessary to maintain section. These considerations lead to the sion: the externally applied forces to one be balanced by the #zternal forces developed
external forces are balanced by the internal

a whole is in equilibrium, any such parts of a body, however, equilibriummust act at the cut fol owing fundamental concluside of an arbitrmy cut must at the cut, or, briefly, the
forces. Later it wil be seen

Fig. t-2 Sectioned body: (a) free body with some internal forces, (b) enlarged view with components of Ap.

in nature In mechanics to deformation

and

they maintain the externally of solids it is particularly and

applied significant on these


these are

forces in equilibrium. to determine the intensities.

inthey

tensity

of these

forces

to forces

on the

depends

various

portions

of a section

In general,

as resistance

that the cutting planes wil be oriented in particular requirements. However, the method of sections first step in solving all problems where internal
$1

tigated.

(b)

In discussing

the

method

of sections,

moving librium. First,


posite

multiplied

bodies, although These problems the acceleration


by the mass
to the

m of the

not in static equilibrium, can be reduced to problems a of the part in question


body, giving

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


force vector Ap acting on an area AA

directions to fit special wil be relied upon as a forces are being investo note that some

vary

section.

from

It is advantageous

point

to point

and

to resolve

are inclined

with

intensities shown

respect

to the plane
perpendicular in Fig.

of the
and this In

parallel

to the

section

investigated.
section

As an example,
the body

the components

1-2(b).

of a
to the
The

it is significant

a force

are in dynamic equiof static equilibrium. is computed; then it is


F = ma. If the
to

force

x axis, and component along the y Since the

particular

diagram,

so computed

is applied
acceleration,

to the

the

body

dynamic

at its mass
instantaneously

problem

center
With

is reduced

in a direction

one

op-

stress--hold
is

the directions .of AP. and of the normal to AA'coincide. parallel to the section is further resolved into components and z axes. components of the intensity of force per unit area--i.e.,

the

through

is perpendicular

true

only

at a point,

the

mathematical

definition

3 of stress

of

of

statics. This is the so-called all bodies can be thought


P3
(c)

d'Alembertprinciple. of as being

this point in a state

of view, of static
From

body.

Fig.

t-t

Sectioning

of a

to maintain the on, the problem 1-3. In general,


and

equilibrium. Hence, for rium, a free-body diagram

any

body as a whole in equilibrium is the same as discussed of Stress forces acting


in Fig.

body, whether can be prepared

in static on vhich
can
before.

be shown.

or dynamic the necessary

equilibforces

r=' = aa-, limo AP. AA,

AA 'r.y = aa--,li0m APy

and

AA 'r= = a,4-o lim AP

then

Definition the internal

on infinitesimal

areas
These

of a cut

are

of

where, in all three cases, the first subscript of r (tau) indicates that the plane perpendicular to the x axis is considered, and the second designates the direction of the stress component. In the next section, all possible combinations of subscripts for stress wil be considered. The intensity of the force perpendicular to or normal to the section is called the nortnal stress at a point. It is customary to refer to normal
stresses that cause traction or tension on the surface of a section as tensile

varying

(c),

magnitudes
and

as is again

and

shown

directions,

as was

1-2(a).

shown

earlier

forces

in Figs.
are

vectorial

1-1(b)

2 Strictly speaking, due to acceleration,


body's

stances,

manner

associated

center

these

of mass.

body

with

the weight of the body etc., are "body forces,"


the

forces

can be considered

units

of volume

or, more generally, and act throughout


as external
of the body.

loads

However,

the inertial forces the body in a


acting through
in most

stresses. pressire by the


stress geneous

On the other hand, stresses. In this book, let er cr (sigma) instead


in this matter manner. appears However, to have

those that are pushing against it are cotnnormal stresses wil usually be designated of by a double subscript on -r. A single

the

in-

3 As AA - 0, some

question

from

a homogeneous worked well.

the atomic

point

(uniform)

of view

model

exists

for

in defining
nonhomo-

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

t-4.

Stress

Tensor

subscript then suffices to designate the direction of the axis. The other components of the intensity of force act parallel to the plane of the elementary area. These components are called shear' or shear#zg stresses. Shear stresses wil be always designated by The reader should form a clear mental picture of the stresses called normal and those called shearing. To repeat, normal stresses result from force components perpendicular to the plane of the cut, and shear stresses result from components tangential to the plane of the cut. It is seen from the definitions that since they represent the intensity of force on an area, stresses are measured in units of force divided by units of area. In the U.S. customary system, units for stress are pounds per square inch, abbreviated psi. In many cases, it wil be found convenient to use as a unit of force the coined word kip, meaning kilopound, or 1000 lb. The stress in kips per square inch is abbreviated kM. It should be noted

Some conversion factors from U.S. customary the inside of the back cover. It may be useful 1 in = 25 mm, 1 pound-force - 4.4 newtons, It should be emphasized that stresses multiplied on which they act give forces. At an imaginao, these forces, called stress resultants, keeps

to SI units are given on to note that approximately and 1 psi -- 7000 Pa. by the respective areas section, a vector sum of a body in equilibrium. In

engineering
are
stresses

generally

mechanics
are determined.

determined

of.solid,

first,

the stress
and

then,

resultants

using

established

at a selected

formulas,

section

1-4.

Stress

Tensor

plane

If, in addition through additional

an infinitesimal
the

to the

section

that

the

unit

pound

referred

to here

implies

a pound-force,

not

a pound-

mass. Such ambiguities are avoided in the modernized version of the metric system referred to as the International System of Units or SI units. 4 SI units are being increasingly adopted and wil be used in this text along with the U.S. customary system of units in order to facilitate a smooth

body, two pairs

an elementary of planes were

distance

implied

away

in the slice passed

and parallel

free

body be

would normal

to the first

of Fig.

isolated. to the first

were

I-2,

another

Then, pair,

passed

if an a cube

of infinitesimal is shown

transition. The base units in SI.are meter 5 (m) for length, kilogram (kg) for mass, and second (s) for time. The derived unit for area is a square neter (m2), and for acceleration, a tneter pet' second squared (m/s2). The
unit of force is defined as a unit mass subjected to a unit acceleration,

i.e., kilogram-meter pet' second squared (kg-m/s2), and is designated a newton (N). The unit of stress is the newton pet' square meter (N/m2), also designated a pascal (Pa). Multiple and submultiple prefixes representing steps of 1000 are recommended. For example, force can be shown in mil inewtons (1 mN = 0.001 N), newtons, or kilonewtons (1 kN = 1000 N), length in mil #neters (1 mm = 0.001 m), meters, or kiloneters (1 km = 1000 m), and stress in kilopascals (1 kPa = 103 Pa), megspascals (1 MPa = 106 Pa), or gigspascals (1 GPa = 109 Pa), etc. 6

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


they
cube

dimensions would be isolated from the body. Such a cube in Fig. 1-3(a). All stresses acting on this cube are identified on the diagram. As noted earlier, the first subscripts on the -r's associate the stress with a plane perpendicular to a given axis; the second subscripts designate the direction of the stress. On the near faces of the cube, i.e., on the faces away from the origin, the directions of stress are positive if

coincide

toward

the

with

origin,

the

positive

from

directions
the

action-reaction

of the

axes.

equilibrium

On the faces

concept,

of the

of the stress without widely

positive

If at a point

axes. (Note that for normal from -r to , a single subscript ambiguity.) The designations used in the mathematical

stresses

act

in the

direction

in question

a dif erent

stresses, by changing the symbol for on cr suffices to define this quantity for stresses shown in Fig. 1-3(a) are theories of elasticity and plasticity.

opposite

to the

positive

directions

set of axes

are

chosen,

the

corre-

The

stress

expressed

numerically

in units

of N/m

2 may

appear

to be

unusually small to This is because the and 1 square meter inch. Therefore, it in terms of a force

those familiar with the U.S. customary system of units. force of 1 newton is small in relation to a pound-force, is associated with a much larger area than 1 square is often more convenient in most applications to think of 1 newton acting on 1 square mil imeter. The units

for
(MPa).

such
4 From s Also

a quantity
the French, spelled metre.
usage can

are
Syst6me
be found

N/mm

2, or,
International

in preferred
d'Unit6s.

notation,

megapascals

Fig. t-3 of stress


infinitesimal

(a)

General acting on
element

state an
in the

initial General

coordinate state
an infinitesimal

system. of stress
element

acting
system

(b)

style,
86.

a A detailed
and

discussion

of SI units,

back cover.

SocieFor ty conveni for ence,Testing anda short Materialtsable as ASTM Standard for is Met ric Practonice the E-380of conversion factors included inside

in a comprehensive

including

guide

conversion

published

factors,

by the

rules

American

for SI
(a) (b)

(7/

on

defined
of
sense.

in a rotated
coordinate axes.

All

stresses

have

positive

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

t-4.

Stress

Tensor

sponding

stresses

are

as shown

in Fig.

1-3(b).

These

stresses

are

related,

but

are

not

generally
from

equal,
one

to those
set

shown

in Fig.

1-3(a).
to another which can

The

process
is termed be defined
'iry x
B

of changing stresses stress transformation.

by three thogonal) mathematical stresses, formation discussion

The state components on each of the three mutually perpendicular (oraxes in mathematical terminology is called a tensor. Precise processes apply for transforming tensors, including from one set of axes to another. A simple case of stress trans-

of coordinate axes of stress at a point

wil
examination

be encountered

in the
8.
symbols

next

section,
in Fig.

and
1-3(a)

a more
shows

complete

is given

are three
stresses: three
manner

An

normai
a column

stresses:
-ry., -ryz, P.,

in Chapter of the stress

-r.. = ., -ryy -= %, 'rzz =- z; and


-r.z. By contrast, and P. These can

six shearing

that

there

,.y, components:
as

-ry, Py,
vector:

, . ,

a force vector P has only be writ en in an orderly


Fig. (1-1a) t-4 Elements in pure shear.

Mc where area,

= 0

+
arm.

+ (.ry.)(dx in parentheses Simplifying,

dz)(dy) correspond

(Txy)(dy

dz)(dx) respectively

= 0 to stress,

Analogously,

the

stress

components

This tensor vector

is a matrix requiring is a first-rank

representation two indices tensor,

of the to identify and a scalar

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


(l-lb)

can

be assembled

as fol ows:

the expressions and moment

(1-2)

stress tensor. its elements is a zero-rank

It is a second-rank or components. tensor. Sometimes,

for brevity, is understood


Eq. (l-lb).

a stress tensor is writ en that i andj can assume

in indicial designations

notation as 'ri, where x, y, and z as noted

it in

'ri. This fol ows For this purpose, dy, and dz, and axis in Fig. 1-4.

Next,

it wil

be shown
directly sum Only let the the the

from

the dimensions moments stresses

that

the

equilibrium

requirements of the infinitesimal of forces about an entering the problem

stress

tensor

is symmetric,

for an element. element be dx, axis such as the z are shown in the

i.e.,

*i =

planes

Similarly, it can be shown that -r. = -r and scripts for the shear stresses are commutative, interchanged, and the stre. ss tensor is symmetric. The implication of Eq. 1-2 is very important. are commutative signifies that shear stresses

-ry = 'l'zy. Hence, i.e., their order


on

the submay be

of an infinitesimal

element

are numerically

The fact mutually

equal,

and

that subscripts perpendicular

 M = 0

is not satisfied by a single pair 1-4(b), the arrowheads of the opposite corners of an element In most subsequent situations
pairs of shear stresses wil

of shear stresses. On diagrams, as in Fig. shear stresses must meet at diametrically to satisfy equilibrium conditions. considered in this text, more than two
seldom act on an element simultaneously.

figure.
equivalent point

By

neglecting

the

infinitesimals
moment about representation

of higher
the

order,

7 this

process
about

is

to taking the C in its two-dimensional

z axis in Fig. 1-4(a) or, in Fig. 1-4(b). Thus, face forces

7 The possibility to another and first considering rigorously that

of an infinitesimal the possibility of the an element Ax A3' z these quantities are of

change in stress from one presence of body (inertial) and proceeding to the limit, .higher order and therefore

it can be shown negligible.

of the cube exist. By

Hence, of the wil be member This stress


be

the subscripts used before to identify the planes and the directions shear stresses become superfluous. In such cases, shear stresses designated by -r without any subscripts. However, one must rethat shear stresses always occur in two pairs. notation simplification can be used to advantage for the state of shown in Fig. 1-5. The two-dimensional stress shown in the figure
as

is referred
writ en

to as plane

stress.

In matrix

representation

such

a stress

can

t0

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

t.5.

Dif erential

Equations

of

Equilibrium

*'91-5.
An in.nitesimal dimensional

Dif erential is shown


case,

Equations in Fig.

of Equilibrium
For

thickness in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the paper. Note that the possibility of an increment in stresses from one face of the element to another is accounted for. For example, since the rate of change of x in the x direction is Ox/Ox and a step of dx is made, the increment is (0/
between The
volume

(dx)(dy)(1)

element of a body must be in equilibrium. the system of stresses acting on an infinitesimal

1-6. In this derivation,

the element

is of unit

the twoelement

Ox) dx.

the inertial
of the

The

directions. or body
material.

partial

derivative

notation

has

to be used
by

to dif erentiate
weight

forces,
With

such
these

as those
notations,

caused

the

or the

magnetic
{a)

effect,

are designated

X and

Y and

are

associated

with

the

unit

(b)

Fig.

t-5

Elements

in plane

stress.

F
(1-3)

= 0---> +,

Ox dx)(dy x 1)-(dyx (  + O'

1)
x 1) = 0
obtains together the

+ 'ry + Oy dy (dx x 1) - xy(dx x 1) +X(dxdy


Simplifying equilibrium
analogous

yield fore,

selected system of axes may not NON-ACTIVATED VERSION examined on other planes. Using such procedures,www.avs4you.com it wil be shovn later that a particular set of coordinates exists which diagonalize the stress It. should
the by

b noted

that

the initial y
of

and recalling equation for


for the

that , = -ry holds the x direction. This


reads
0o 0'ryx

true, one equation,

with

basic

an

most using
read

significant the procedures

information

about

stress

the transformation,

stress

at a point. Therethe stresses are

one

y direction,
--+

Ox

Oy

+x=o

(1-5)

tensor

to

O +__
Ox

Oy

+ Y=0
without loss of continuity in the

9 Sections

identified
Y

with'**

cal

be

omit ed

(1-4)

text.

Note the absence of shear stresses. For the three-dimensional case, the stresses are said to be triaxial, since three stresses are necessary to describe the state of stress completely. For plane stress 3 = 0 and the state of stress is biaxial. Such stresses occur, for example, in thin sheets stressed in two mutually perpendicular directions. For axial y loaded members, discussed in the next section, only one element of the stress tensor survives; such a state of stress is

l 7y-F-ydy

ary

dy

x + 

dx

referred
cussed:
of a stress

to as uniaxial.
how this
tensor.

In Chapter
term can be resolved

8, an inverse
to yield

problem
four

8 wil
or more

be diselements
Fig. t-6 Infinitesimal element

one

Chapter

8 Some

8.

readers

may

prefer

at this

time

to study

the

first

several

sections

in

with
x forces.

stresses

and

body

t2

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

t-6.

Stresses

on

Inclined

Sections

in Axial y

Loaded

Bars

t3

The
by
from

moment
having It can
a set of

equilibrium
-r. = -ry.. be shown that
three is

of the
for the

element
three-dimensional

requiring

 Mz
case,

= 0 is assured
equation

a typical

Oo

Ox

OTyx

Oy

z

OTz. r

+ X = 0
(a)

Note that in deriving the previous equations, mechanical properties of the material have not been used. This means that these equations are applicable whether a material is elastic, plastic, or viscoelastic. Also it is very important to note that there are not enough equations of equilibrium to solve for the unknown stresses. In the two-dimensional case, given by Eq. 1-5, there are three unknown stresses, ., %, and %,., and only two equations. For the three-dimensional case, there are six stresses, but only three equations. Thus, all problems in stress analysis are internally statically intractable or indetermbate. A simple example as to how a static equilibrium equation is supplemented by kinematic requirements and mechanical properties of a material for the solution of a problem is given in Section 3-14. In engineering mechanics of solids, such as that presented in this text, this indeterminacy is eliminated by introducing appropriate assumptions, which is equivalent to having additional equations. A numerical procedure that involves discretizing a body into a large number of small finite elements, instead of the infinitesimal ones as above, is now 6ften used in complex problems. Such finite element analyses rely on high-speed electronic computers for solving large systems of simultaneous equations. In the finite element method, just as in the mathematical approach, the equations of statics are supplemented by the kinematic relations and mechanical properties of a material. A few examples given later in this book show comparisons among the "exact" solutions of the mathematical theory of elasticity, and those found using the finite element technique and/or conventional solutions based on the methods
of engineering mechanics of solids.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


Fig. 1-7 Sectioning of a prismatic

(c)

bar

on arbitrary

planes.

bar, end.

is drawn

for To

equilibrium, distinguish.
across

the

an equal between
reaction

but

the

force

opposite applied
vector

force

force

P.

This

and

P must act the reaction,


form of

on
identification

the left a slash is

of reactions

wil

be used

frequently

in this

text.

Finding

the

reactions

usually the Errst In the problem

essential 'step in S9!ving. a problem. at hand, after the roactive force

P is determined,

free-

body diagrams for the bar segments, isolated by sections such as a-a or b-b, are prepared. In both cases, the force P required for equilibrium is shown at the sections. However, in order to obtain the conventional stresses, which are the most convenient ones in stress analysis, the force P is replaced by its components along the selected axes. A wavy line through the vectors P indicates their replacement by components. For

il ustrative 1-7Co)

purposes,
three

1-.

Stresses

on Inclined

Sections

in Axial y

Loaded

Bars

requiring more cumbersome. two components is considered

lit le is gained by considering force components. The

The traditional approach of engineering mechanics for determining the internal stresses on arbitrarily axial y loaded bars. The first steps in this procedure 1-7. Here, since. an axial force P is applied on the

of solids wil be used inclined sections in are il ustrated in Fig. right end of a prismatic

the other

is in the

Instead, the case shown of P in the plane of symmetry in detail. One of these components

plane

of the

section.

the case shown in Fig. analysis simply becomes in Fig. 1-7(c), having only of the bar cross section, is normal to the section;
on inclined to the bar 0 with the

As planes, sides,

an

example consider as shown

of a detailed two sections in Fig. l~8(a).

analysis of stresses in a bar 90 degrees apart perpendicular The section a-a is at an angie

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

P

Sec. t-6. Stresses


Centraid

on Inclined

Sections

in Axial y

Loaded

Bars

t5

bJ

Cross

section

ofarea A

The negative sign in Eq. 1-7 is used to conform to the sign convention for shear stresses introduced earlier. See, for example, Fig. 1-5. The need for a negative sign is evident by noting that the shear force P sin 0 acts
in the dii:ection

(a)

Y',
P

p cosy

x'
P
x

It is important to note that the basic procedure of engineering mechanics of solids used here gives the average or mean stress at a section. These stresses are determined from the axial forces necessary for equilibrium at a section. Therefore they hlways satisfy statics. However based on the additional requirements of kinematics (geometric deformations) and mechan'ical properties of a material, large local stresses are known to arise in the proximity of concentrated forces. This also occurs at abrupt changes in cross-sectional areas. The average stresses at a section are accurate at a distance about equal to the depth of the member from the concentrated forces or abrupt changes in cross-sectional area. The use of this simplified

opposite

to that of the y axis.

procedure wil be rationalized

Equations 1-6 and 1-7 show that the normal and shear stresses vary with the angle 0. The sense of these stresses is shown in Figs. 1-8(c) and

in Section 2-10 as Saint Venant's principle.

(e)

(d). The normal stress (To reaches its maximum

P cos 2 e
A

0
(c) (d)

termined from the fol owing equation: NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com where P is the applied force, and A is the
P sin e cos 0
A 1'0_90'

when the section is perpendicular to the axis of the rod. The shear stress then correspondingly would be zero. This leads to the conclusion that the maximu m normal stress (Truax in an axial y loaded bar can be simply de(Truax = O'r ' = -A

value for 0 = 0, i.e.,

(1-8)

-90

--P sin 2 e
A

(f)

(g)

Fig. t-8 Sectioning

of a prismatic
0 with

bar on mutually

perpendicular

planes.
the reaction,

and the shear in

Equations

1-6 and 1-7 also show that for 0 = +-90 , both the normal
stresses vanish. This is as it should be, since no stresses

cross-sectional

area of the bar.

vertical.

Fig. 1-8(b). Note that the normal


also forms an angle

An isolated

part of the bar to the left of this section


the x axis.

to the section

well as the equilibrating force P at the section of the bar section. As shown in Fig. 1-8(b),
resolved
A/cos

The applied

coinciding
force,

with the x axis

is shown

act along the top and bott6m free boundaries (surfaces) of the bar. To find the maximum shear stress acting in a bar, one must dif erentiate

Eq. 1-7 with respect to 0, and set the derivative


out this operation and simplifying

the shear

into .two components:

by the fol owing

0. Therefore,

component,

two

the normal
equations:
-(T o

P sin 0. The area of the inclined


stress (T0 and the shear
0 P = -- cos 0 A
P

the normal

force

all act through the equilibrating


component,

stress

cross

P cos 0, and
'to are given
(1-6)

the centroid force P is


section is

as

the results,

one obtains

equal to zero. On carrying


(1-9)

tan 0 = + 1

leading

acts is usually
of 0 into Eq.

-45 with

to the conclusion
1-7, one

the axis of the bar.

that 'truax OCCurS on planes


on substituting
'tmax -- 2A

immaterial,

Since

the sense

force area
P sin

P cos A/cos
0
0

finds

either one of the above values


(T-
2

in which

of either

a shear

+ 45 or
stress

2 0

(1-10)

and
tO --

A/cos

= -

sn 0 cos

(1-7)

Therefore,

the maximum

shear stress in an axial y

loaded

bar is only half

Stress, Axial

Loads,

and Safety
normal

Concepts
stress.
the

Sec. t-7. Maximum


The
normal that

Normal

Stress In Axial y

Loaded

Bars

17

procedure, b-b. On from the vertical is best measured as in the former case, this angle in Eq. 1-7. Hence, the subscript designating the stresses. From
P

as large as the maximum studied using Eq. 1-7. Following the same found on the section

variation

of-to

with

0 can

be
P P

and shear stresses can be noting the angle locating this plane clockwise, instead of counterclockwise should be treated as a negative quantity -(90 - 0)= 0 - 90 wil be used in Fig. 1-8(e), one obtains
sin 0

Bar

Axis

Centtold

(b)

(a)

cr0-9oo

A/sin
P cos

0
0

A sin - 0

(1-11)

and
Note axis 1-12 sense

'ro-9oo

A/sin 0

A sin 0 cos 0

P
(1-12)
(c)

f.qodA=P
a -dx(d)

dy

= PA
normal stress

dx
(e)

dz

(f)

that in this case, since the direction of the shear force and the y have the same sense, the expression in Eq. 1-12 is positive. Equation can be obtained from Eq. 1-7 by substituting the angle 0 - 90 . The of o_9o o and ,0_9o o is shown in Fig. 1-8(f). The combined results of the analysis for sections a-a and b-b are shown on an infinitesimal element in Fig. 1-8(g). Note that the normal stresses on the adjoining element faces are not equal, whereas the shear stresses are. The lat er finding is in complete agreement with the earlier general

Fig. t-9 Successive

steps

in determining

the largest

in an axial y

loaded

bar.

1-9(e).
commonly For maximum

However,
future
used.

a simplified
reference, stress
the

diagram

such
Eq. 1-8 for loaded bar
bar axis.

as shown
determining is restated

in Fig.

1-9(f)
the
the

is

coficlusion

reached

in Section
must

1-4, showing
equal.

perpendicular

planes

be

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


normal

the relevant in an axial y

directly in customary
equation

form

added

without

to indicate

any

subscript

direction

on

of

. Subscripts,
the

however,
This

are

frequently
gives

that

shear

stresses

on mutually

largest

normal

stress

at a section

taken

perpendicular

to the

axis

of a

member.

Thus,

1-7.

Maximum

Normal
situations the maximum section, these

Stress
with

in Axial y

Loaded

Bars
to
is a

In most practical directly determine in the previous


to the minimum bar

axial y loaded normal stress. stresses develop


the cross-sectional is a maximum,

bars, it is expedient As has been demonstrated on sections pe7endicular


area

where, as before, P is the

area
applied

--

or

i-
A is the cross-sectional

(1-13)

axis. For such sections, and the force component

resulting

of a bar in a maximum

area of the member.

In calculations,

axial

it is often

force,

and

convenient

to use N/mm

normal
in Fig. free-body bar, as centroid. brated of these resultant bar with the two stress

stress.
1-9.

The

procedure

for determining

this

stress

directly

is shown
case, a of the the bar's is equiliThe sum a stress of the sense on state of in Fig.

Similar to the steps discussed earlier for the general diagram is prepared either for the left or the fight part il ustrated in Fig. 1-9(b). All force vectors P pass through As shown in Fig. 1-9(c), the reaction on the left end at section a-a by a uniformly distributed normal stress . stresses multiplied by their respective areas generate that is statically equivalent to the force P. A thin slice equal uniformly distributed normal stresses of opposite parallel sections is shown in Fig. 1-9(d). This uniaxial may be represented on an infinitesimal cube, as shown

= MPa in the SI system of units and ksi in the U.S. customary system. It is instructive to note that the normal stress  given by Eq. 1-13, and schematically represented in Fig. 1-9(e), is a complete description of the state of stress in an axial y loaded bar. Therefore, only one diagonal term remains in the matrix representation of the stress tensor given by Eq. llb. This remaining term is associated with the direction of the bar axis. If dif erent axes are chosen for isolating an element, as in Fig. 1-8(g), the stress tensor would resemble Eq. 1-3. A detailed study of this topic wil be pursued in Chapter 8. Equation 1-13 strictly applies only to prismatic bars, i.e., to bars having a constant cross-sectional area. However, the equation is reasonably ac-

t8

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

t-8.

Shear

Stresses

t9

curate
an abrupt
turbation

for

slightly
change
in stress,

tapered
in the
see

members.
cross-sectional
Section 2-10.

o For

a discussion
area occurs,

of situations
causing severe

where
per. Tension

(a)
Section

= Pe

noted before, the stress resultant for a uniformly distributed stress acts through the centroid of a cross-sectional area and assures the equilibrium of an axial y loaded member. If the loading is more complex, such as that, for example, for the machine part shown in Fig. 1-10, the stress distribution is nonuniform. Here, at section a-a, in addition to the axial force P, a bending couple, or moment, M must also be developed. Such problems wil be treated in Chapter 6. Similar reasoning applies to axial y loaded compression members and Eq. 1-13 can be used. However, one must exercise additional care when compression members are investigated. These may be so slender that they may not behave in the fashion considered. For example, an ordinary fishing rod under a rather small axial compression force has a tendency to buckle sideways and could collapse. The consideration of such instability of compression members is deferred until Chapter 11. Equation 1-13 is applicable only for axial y loaded conpression tnenbers that are rather chunky, i.e., to short blocks. As wil be shown in Chapter 11, a block whose least dimension is approximately one-tenth of its length may usu-

As

Compression

(a)

(c)

(b)

tensile

Fig. t-t2 (a) Schematic


stress across

a plate

il ustration

during

of stress
a rolling

irregularity
operation,

and (c) residual

in material

due to lack of homogeneity,


stress in a rolled

plate.

(b) variation

of

erage, statistically speaking, and, hence, the computed


quantity.

computations average stress

based on Eq. 1-13 are correct, represents a highly significant

(b)

ally
with

be considered

a short

block.

Fig.

1-10

A member
at stress Section

a nonuniform distribution

a-a.

be 20 in long and stil be considered a short block. Sometimes compressive stresses arise where one body is supported another. If the resultant of the applied forces coincides with the centroid of the contact area between the two bodies, the intensity of force,

may

stress, between the two bodies It is customary to refer to this 1-11, where a short block bears
on the soil, il ustrates such

can normal on

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


by
or

For

example,

a 2 by 4 in wooden

piece

again

stress a concrete
used

be determined as a bearing pier and


similar

from Eq. 1-13. stress. Figure the lat er bears


arise

It is also important to note that the basic equations for determining stresses, such as given by Eq. 1-13, assume initial y stress-fi'ee material. However, in reality, as materials are being manufactured, they are often rolled, extruded, forged, welded, peened, and hammered. In castings, materials cool unevenly. These processes can set up high internal stresses called residual stresses. For example, hot steel plates during a rolling

a stress.

Numerous

situations

in

operation .are pulled between rollers, 12(b). This process causes the development

forces
plied bearing In havior

mechanical
force

These

problems
P by

bearing
Eq.

under

the

corresponding

stresses

washers

can be approximated
contact

for

distributing
giving

area

by dividing
a useful

concentrated

nominal

the ap-

tribute
the

stress. accepting is ideal&ed.

equally

to the
is implied

1-13, Each

resistance
by

it must be kept and every particle

of the

force.

in mind that of a body

A perfect
wood
Real

the material's is assumed

homogeneity

beto consuch

the outer surfaces than in the middle of a plate. These stresses are equivalent to an average normal stress flay that may be considered to generate a force that propels a plate through the rolls. On leaving the rolls, the plate shown in Fig. 1-12(c) is relieved of this force, and as per Eq. 1-13, the flay is subtracted from the stresses that existed during rolling. The

as shown schematically of larger normal

in Fig. 1stresses near

of

metals,

material

consist

of a great

many

such

grains,

an

assumption.

whereas

materials,

is fibrous.

In real

as

These without stresses


1-8.

stress

to the

residual any may


Shear

pattern

calculated

stresses externally be large


Stresses

of the residual

stresses

are self-equilibrating, .i.e., they applied forces. In real problems, and should be careful y investigated
for the initial y stress-free

normal

stresses

is shown

material.

are in equilibrium such residual and then added

in Fig.

1-12(c).

Fig.
occur

141

Bearing
between the

stresses
block and

materials, some particles than others. Ideal stress (e) actually do not exist stress distribution varies jagged affair somewhat,
the Goodier,

wil contribute more distributions such if the scale chosen in each particular as shown in Fig.
for
3rd

to the resistance as shown in Figs. is sufficiently small. cas.e and is a highly 1-12(a). However,
S. P. Timoshenko,
McGraw-Hil , 1970)

of a force 1-9(d) and The true irregular, on the avand


109.

Some engineering materials, in shear than in tension, and,


of maximum
where

pier pier

as well as between and soil.

For

accurate
Theory

solutions
of Elasticity,

tapered
ed. (New

bars,

see
York:

J. N.

slip

planes

the

for example, low-carbon steel, are weaker at large loads, slip develops along the planes shear stress. According to Eqs. 1-9 and 1-10, these glide or in a tensile specimen form 45 angles with the axis of a bar, maximum shear stress Xm = P/2A occurs. On the polished

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety
P/2

Concepts
__

Sec. t-8. Shear

Stresses

,v, shown

P/2

, for the problem


(d)

the area A of the section

in Fig. 1-13(c),
shown

a-a.

can be found
A similar

(a)

proach,
proach,
strength Section
then

surfaces

Examples of two These connections

employing
force, surfaces

are available

imaginary

for transferring

in Fig. 1-13(d).

procedure

using

Eq. 1-14 by dividing


is used
force P. The

clamping tacting)

it is assumed

bolted connections can be analyzed

sections,

the applied

However

in this case, two glued

for determining

P by
ap-

(b)

(e)

page occurs,
from

bolts are commonly 1-13. An alternative


the bolt to the

so that prevents

that a tightened

are shown in Figs. 1-14(a) and (e). in two dif erent ways. In one ap-

is applicable

to solid members.
a sufficiently

same

the friction developed a joint from slipping.


employed. widely used

bolt develops

such that the applied


connecting

force

a,b

a
(c)

Tav

a, b
(f)

Tar

and (f). To determine before is applicable. instead of the area


shear stress. The

bolt

'r in these bolts, a similar procedure as discussed One simply uses the cross-sectional area A of a bolt of the joint contact surface to compute the average
shown in Fig. 1-14(a) is said to be in single
requires as the

plate,

is transferred

This approach is discussed approach assumes enough


as il ustrated

between the laying For such designs,

(conhigh-

large

first

in Figs.

to a bolt and
1-14(b)

slip-

in

shear,

Fig. 1-t3

Loading

conditions

causing

shear

stresses

between

surface of a specimen, these lines can Laders lines.   This kind of matehal In many routine engineering applications, velop at critical locations. To determine dif icult. However, by assuming that distributed shear stress develops, a using this approach, the average shear the shear force V in the plane of the
A.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


observed and are called exhibits a ductile failure. large shear stresses may desuch stresses precisely is often in the plane of a section, a uniformly solution can readily be found. By stress *av is determined by dividing section by the corresponding area be readily behavior

interfaces

of glued

blocks.

whereas the one in Fig. 1-14(e) In bolted connections, another eration. In cases such as those

is in double shear. aspect of the problem in Figs. 1-14(a) and (e),

consid-

force

P is

The average nominal intensity of this pressure is obtained by dividing the force transmit ed by the projected area of the bolt onto the plate. This is referred to as the bearing stress. The beating stress in Fig. 1-14(a) is 0.b = P/td, where t is the thickness of the plate, and d is the diameter of the bolt. For the case in Fig. 1-14(e), the beating stresses for the middle plate and the outer plates are 0. = P/hd and 0'2 = P/2t2d, respectively. The same procedure is. also applicable for fiveted assemblies.
of a connection

applied,

a highly

irregular

pressure

develops

between

a bolt

and the plates.

Another

manner
occurs

with

of joining
fil et

welds

members
a-a

is shown

together
b-b,

in Fig.

is welding.
1-15.

The

An exampie
maximum

shear

stress

in the

planes

and

as shown

in Fig.

1-15(b).

area

or

i-

(1-14)
(a) (b) (c)
(d)

Some examples as to where Eq. 1-14 can be used to advantage shown in Figs. 1-13 to 1-15. In Fig. 1-13(a), a small block is shown to a larger one. By separating the upper block from the lower one imaginary section, the equilibrium diagram shown in Fig. 1-13(b)

are glued by an is obbasis


and

 
-----T!

P/2

tained.

perpendicular
 Also

The small
known

to the

applied

section

couple

a-a,

Pe, causing

is commonly
in honor,

snall

neglected.

normal

stresses
On

this

acting


(e)

'

t2

 

PI2
(f)

P/2
(h)

as Piobert

lines.
investigators.

Named

respectively,

of German

French

nineteenth-century

Fig. l-t4

Loading

conditions

causing

shear

and bearing

stress

in bolts.

22

Stress,

Axial
Weld

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

t-9.

Analysis

for

Normal

and

Shear

Stresses

23

Fig. t45 Loading causing critical planes of fil et

condition shear in two welds.

-----I]
(a)

Section

a/b 45
c-c

negligible in comparison fore, for the purposes deformned dbnensions

These bodies.

equations of statics are directly applicable The deformations tolerated in engineering

(b)

The capacity of such of weld. Additional


1-14.

welds discussion

is usually given on welded

in units connections

of force per is given

unit length in Section

If the equations of statics suffice for determining the external reactions as well as the internal stress resultants, a structural system is staticall), deterninate. An example is shown in Fig. 1-16(a). However, if for the same beam and loading conditions, additional supports are provided, as in Figs. 1-16(b) and (c), the number of independent equations of statics is insufficient to solve for the reactions. In Fig. 1-16(b), any one of the
vertical reactions can be removed and the structural system and tractable. Similarly, any two reactions can be dispensed beam in Fig. 1-16(c). Both of these beams are statically The reactions that can be removed leaving a stable system remains stable with for the indeterminate. statically de-

with the overall dimensions of structures. Thereof obtaining the forces in members, the initial unof nenbers are used in computations.

to deformable solid structures are usually

]-9.

Analysis

for

Normal

and

Shear

Stresses

termi.nate
within redundant minate

Once the axial force P or the shear force V, as well as the area A, are determined in a given problem, Eqs. 1-13 and 1-14 for normal and shear stresses can be readily applied. These equations giving, respectively, the maximum magnitudes of normal and shear stress are particularly important as they appraise the greatest imposition on the strength of a material. These greatest tresses occur at a section of n#dnt,n cross-sectional area and/or the greatest axial force. Such sections are called critical sections. The critical section for the particular arrangement being analyzed can usually be found by inspection. However, to determine the force P or V that acts through a member is usually a more dif icult task. In the majority of problems treated in this text, the lat er information is obtained from
statics.

the

provide an introduction to the methods NON-ACTIVATED VERSION ginning with the next chapter. Problems www.avs4you.com
Procedures for solving such problems
the equations of statics require

arise

Fig.

1-16(c),

internal internal to the first

are superfluous

in practice,

etc.

and

Multiple

system forces degree,

or redundant.

of forces. or reactions, as in Fig.

one

of the important

degrees

of statical
wil

Depending on the number of the the system is said to be indeter1-16(b), to the second degree, as in

Such

redundancies

can also

arise

of solution
with

objectives

indeterminacy

be introduced

for

of this

such

subject
gradually

frequently

problems.

is to
be-

For
the

the
fulfil ment

equilibrium
of the

of a body
fol owing

in space,
conditions:

termin. acy are considered in Chapters 10, 12, and 13. Equations 1-15 should already be familiar to the reader. However, sew eral examples where they are applied wil now be given, emphasizing solution techniques generally used in engineering mechanics of solids. These statically determinate examples wil serve as an informal review of some of the principles of statics and wil show applications of Eqs. 113 and 1-14.

multiple

degrees

of inde-

Ee. = 0 EF,, = 0 E/=o


The body that any
are

Additional
are given
(1-15)

examples
in Sections

for
1-13

determining
and 1-14.

shear

stresses

in bolts

and

welds

= o,j
lie in a single plane, such

first

y plane,

problem,

column of Eq. 1-15 in any (x, y, z) direction the summation of moments (x, y, z) direction must

states

trivial.

relations

i.e.,

all members

 F = 0,  M. = 0, and  M., = 0, while

and forces

that the sum of all forces acting on a must be zero. The second column notes of all forces around any axis parallel to also be zero for' equilibrium. In a planar

(a)

(b)

(c)

stil

as the xvalid,

deee.

Fig. M6 determinate,

[dentic

be (b) statically

with

identical indeterminate

loadin[ bavi[ to the first

dif erent de[tee,

suppo (c) statically

conditions: ideteinate

(a) statically to the second

Stress,

Axial
Weld

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

1-9.

Analysis

for

Normal

and

Shear

Stresses

These bodies.

Fig. 1-15 Loading causing critical planes of fil et

condition shear in two welds.

-'-'1
 c

a b
Section c-c

fore, for the purposes deformed dimensions

negligible

equations of statics are directly applicable The deformations tolerated in engineering

in comparison

(a)

(b)

The capacity of such of weld. Additional


1-14.

welds discussion

is usually given on welded

in units connections

of force per is given

unit length in Section

If the equations of statics suffice for determining the external reactions as well as the internal stress resultants, a structural system is staticall), determinate. An example is shown in Fig. 1-16(a). However, if for the same beam and loading conditions, additional supports are provided, as in Figs. 1-16(b) and (c), the number of independent equations of statics is insufficient to solve for the reactions. In Fig. 1-16(b), any one of the

of obtaining of members

with the overall

the forces in members, are used in computations.

dimensions

to deformable solid structures are usually

of structures.

the initial

There-

1-9.

Analysis

for

Normal

and

Shear

Stresses

Once the axial force P or the shear force V, as well as the area A, are determined in a given problem, Eqs. 1-13 and 1-14 for normal and shear stresses can be readily applied. These equations giving, respectively, the maximum magnitudes of normal. and shear stress are particularly important as they appraise the greatest imposition on the strength of a material. These greatest'stresses occur at a section of ninint,n cross-sectional area and/or the greatest axial force. Such sections are called critical sections. The critical section for the particular arrangement being analyzed can usually be found by inspection. However, to determine the force P or V

vertical reactions can be removed and the structural system remains stable and tractable. Similarly, any two reactions can be dispensed with for the beam in Fig. 1-16(c). Both of these beams are statically indeterminate. The reactions that can be removed leaving a stable system statically determi.nate are superfluous or redundant. Such redundancies can also arise within the internal system of forces. Depending on the number of the redundant internal forces or reactions, the system is said to be indeterminate to the first degree, as in Fig. 1-16(b), to the second degree, as in

that
statics.

acts For the

through
treated

a member
in this

is usually
text,

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION ginning with the next chapter. Problems www.avs4you.com Equ. ations 1-15 should already be familiar
Procedures for solving such problems

Fig. arise

1-16(c), etc. Multiple degrees of statical indeterminacy frequently in practice, and one of the important objectives of this subject is to provide an introduction to the methods of solution for such problems.
wil

a more
lat er

dif icult

task.

In the

majority

of problems

the

information

is obtained

from

the

fulfil ment

equilibrium

of the

fol owing

of a body

conditions:

in space,

the

equations

of statics

require

to the eral examples where they are applied wil now solution techniques generally used in engineering These statically determinate examples wil serve of some of the principles of statics and wil show
13 and 1-14.

termin.

acy

are

considered

in Chapters

10, 12, and

with

be introduced

multiple

reader. However, sevbe given, emphasizing mechanics of solids. as an informal review applications of Eqs. 1in bolts and welds

13.

degrees

gradually

of inde-

be-

IEe.,=0Eu.=01
Ee:=0 Euz=0

Additional
are
(1-15)

examples
in Sections

for
1-13

determining
and 1-14.

shear

stresses

given

7F

problem, y plane,
are

The body that any

first

column in any (x,

of Eq. 1-15 y, z) direction

states

the (x,

summation y, z) direction

trivial.

i.e., all members and forces lie in a single plane, such as the xrelations  F = 0,  M = 0, and  My = 0, while stil valid,

of moments must

the sum of all forces acting on a zero. The second column notes of all forces around any axis parallel to also be zero for' equilibrium. In a planar
must be

that

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. t-t6 determinate,


degree.

Identical

beam (b) statically

with

identical indeterminate

loading having to the first

dif erent degree,

support (c) statically

conditions: indeterminate

(a) statically to the second

Stress,
EXAMPLE

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

t-9.

Analysis

for

Normal

and

Shear

Stresses

F,

The beam BE in Fig. 1-17(a) is used for hoisting machinery. It is anchored by two bolts at B, and at C, it rests on a parapet wall. The essential details are given in the figure. Note that the bolts are threaded, as shown in Fig. 1-17(d), with d
= 16 mm at the root of the threads. If this hoist can be subjected to a force of

 MB = 0 +  Md = 0 +
Check: Fy

=0

= 0'+ that

10(2.5 + 1) - Rcy X 1 = 0 10 x 2.5 - RBy X 1 = 0


-25 + 3510 = 0
and check the work of determining resist these forces are determined
threads reduce

Rcy

= 35 kN

RBy

= 25 kN

10 kN, determine the weight of the


Solution

the stress in bolts beam is negligible

BD and the in comparison

bearing

with

stress at C. Assume the loads handled.

that

These steps complete areas of the material


is applied.

the forces. next,

The various and Eq. 1-13

To solve
is made

on

this

which

proble

all

m, the actual
known and

unknown

situation
of B and the first
unknown

forces

is idealized

are

indicated.

and

a free-body
This

is shown

diagram

minimum
in

Cross-sectional

The

cross-sectional

area

of a bolt;

area of one 20-mm


area

bolt:

of one 20-mm

it.

A = 'n'102 = 314 mm 2. This


bolt at the root mm 2
two
N/mm

is not the
is

of the threads

Fig. 1-17(b). respectively,


the second

the

The vertical reactions as R m. and Rcy, where


line of action

of the

C are unknown. subscript identifies


force. As the

They
long

are indicated, the location, and


bolts BD are not

Anet
Maximum normal tensile stress?

= 11' 82 = 201
in each of the
= BD: 39.8 N/mm 62

at C is assumed

effective proper
are

in resisting
and

and

marked for

the

horizontal
the

as Rc.. unknown

force,

The

applied forces.

only

an unknown
known

force

horizontal equations

P is shown

reaction

bolts
2 =

BD:
62 MPa

in its

location.
applied

After
solved

a free-body

diagram

is prepared,

the

of statics
Tensile stress

O'm
in the

RBy = '2.4
shank 25
2

25 x 103 2 x 201
of the x 103 = bolts

2.5

 E

200

mm

/
D

Building

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION  www.avs4you.com 200 X300 mm


finished timber

rl I

314

2 =

39.8

MPa

Contact

area

at

C:

2: Two 20-mm bolts


a-a

A = 200
Bearing stress at C:

x 200

= 40

x 10 gmm

P=10kN
(a)
x

View

(c)

O- b

Rcy
A

_.

35 X 103 = 0.875
40 x 103

N/mm

2 = 0.875

MPa

The
Eq. l-lb

calculated
as

stress

for

the

bolt

shank

can

be represented

in the

manner

of

+39.8
0

MPa

(b)

(d)

where the y axis is taken in the direction of the applied the complete result is implied but is seldom writ en
See also discussion on stress concentrations,

load. down
Section

In ordinary problems, in such detail.


2-10.

Fig.

t-t7

Stress, Axial Loads, and Safety


EXAMPLE t-2

Concepts
either part is sufficient
is loaded the state 25 kN/m at the of stress 3. top with a uniformly at a level 1 m above
solved

Sec. t-9. Analysis


Using
both

for Normal
For comparison,
Fig. 1-18(b),
= 9.4kN

and Shear Stresses


the problem
the weight

The concrete pier shown distributed load of 20 kN/m the base. Concrete weighs
Solution
included

in Fig. 1-18(a) 2. Investigate approximately

pier above

the upper

ways.

to solve the problem.


part of the pier as a free body,
+ 1) x 0.5
at the section:
Fa = P + W

is
of the

the section:

W = (0.5
problem,
in the calculations.

x 1 x 25/2

In this

the

weight
pier:

of the

structure

itself

is appreciable

and

must

be

From

 F). = 0, the force

Weight

of the

whole W ='

= 14.4kN

[(0.5

1.5)/2]

x 0.5

2 x

25

25

kN

Hence,

using

Eq.

1-13,

the normal

stress

at the level
1

a-a

is

Total

applied

force:
P = 20 x 0.5 x 0.5 = 5kN

cr = --A
This

Fa

14.4
0.5x

= 28.8

kN/m

From

 F. = 0, reaction

at the base:
R = W + P = 30kN

pier
diagrams as concentrated to determine the forces at the

Using

stress

below

the lower

is compresslye

the section:

part of the pier as a free body,


x 0.5

as F, acts

on the section.

Fig.

1-18(c),
= 15.6

the weight
kN

of the

These acting

forces through

are their

shown schematically respective centroids.

desired

level,

the

body

is cut

into

two

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


in the Then, stress

W2 = (1 + 1.5)

x 1 x 25/2

separate

parts.

A free-body

diagram

for

From

 Fy = 0, the force

at the section:
= R -

F

W2

14.4

kN

P=SkN

The remainder

has a vertical
EXAMPLE t-3

axis of symmetry,

of the problem

is the same

making

the application

as before.

The

of Eq. 1-13 possible.

pier

considered

here

2

, ,  . .__w.= 20kN/m2 0.,.


ISection

L
a-a( .5 m

A bracket
Pertinent
diameter.

P of 3 kips.

of negligible
dimensions

For interconnection

weight

shown

AB and BC and the bearing


Solution

are shown

and shear

in the figure.

purposes,

in Fig.
stresses

1-19(a)

the bar ends are clevised


Find the axial stresses

is loaded

with

a vertical

for pin C. All pins are 0.375

in members

(forked).

force
in in

1.5
Fig. 1-t8

Sidvieew
(c)

First, an idealized free-body diagram consisting of the two bars pinned at the ends is prepared, see Fig. 1-19(b). As there are no intermediate forces acting on the bars and the applied force acts through the joint at B, the forces in the bars are directed along the lines AB and BC, and the bars AB and BC are loaded axial y.

2 Strictly speaking, the solution obtained is not exact, as the sides of the pier are sloping. If the included angle between these sides is large, this solution is altogether inadequate. For further details, see S. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier,
Themy of Elasticity, 3rd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hil , 1970) 139.

28

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

t-9.

Analysis

for

Normal

and

Shear

Stresses

29

P=3k

'  025 plate* 

m/:A__ 2

An FA 1z78


(c)
0.25"

3k

The magnitudes of the forces are unknown and are labeled FA and diagram.3 These forces can be determined graphically by completing of forces FA, Fc, and P. These forces may also be found analytically simultaneous equations  F:. = 0 and  F.,. = 0, writ en in terms of the FA and Fc, a known force P, and two known angles ct and fl. Both
cedures

to proceed components

are possible.

into F,t and FAy, as in Fig. 1-19(c). Conversely, if any one of the components of a directed force is known, the force itself can be determined. This fol ows from similarity of dimensions and force triangles. In Fig. 1~19(c), the triangles Akin and BAD are similar triangles (both are shaded in the diagram). Hence, if F, is known,
FA = (AB/DB)FA.

Any force

in a dif erent way. Instead of treating forces FA and Fc directly, their are used; and instead of  F = 0,  M = 0 becomes the main tool.
can 15e resolved into components. For example, FA can be resolved

However,

in this book,

it wil usually

be found

advantageous

F in the a triangle from two unknowns these pro-

Fc
(a)

{b}

Similarly, Fay = (AD/DB)FAx. Note further that AB/DB or AD/DB are ratios; hence, relative dimensions of members can be used. Such relative dimensions are shown by a lit le triangle on member AB and again on BC. In the problem at hand,

FA = (X//2)FA.

and

FAy

= FA.d2

0.20"

/
B

o.8,5,

0.20"

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com 0.25"

0.20"

Fc

After thinking

Adopting the procedure 1-19(d), is prepared. Two


the forces in terms

are determined of a free body

of resolving components

by statics, of an individual

forces, a revised free-body diagram, Fig. of force are necessary at the pin joints.
Eq. 1-13 member: is applied several times,

Mc=00+

+ FA.(3

+ 6) -- 3(6)

Fay

= 0

FA = 2(X//2)

= Fa.d2

FA. = 2/2

= +2.23

= =

+2 +1

k k

k
k k

MA

=00

+ 3(6)

+ Fc(9)

= 0,

Fc>,

Fc. = Fc.

= -2 = -2

Fc
(d)

= X/(-2)

= -2.83

(e)

(f)

Check:
Tensile stress

Fig.

1-t9

 F;, = 0 EFy=O
in main bar AB:

FA.

+ Fc

= 2 -

2 = 0

FAy

-- Fcy

- P = 1 - (-2)

- 3 = 0

FA
A 0.25

2.23
x 0.50

17.8

ksi

3 In frameworks

it is convenient

to assume

all

unknown

forces

are

tensile.

negative

answer

in the

solution

then

indicates

that

the

bar

is in compression.

3O

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

MO.

Member

Strength

as

a Design

Criterion

3t

Tensile

stress

in clevis

of bar FA

AB,

Fig.

1-19(e): 2.23

(ffAB)clev|s
Compressive stress

Anet
in main
(YBC --

=
bar
Fc
A

2 x 0.20
BC:
2.83
0.875

x (0.875

0.375)

1 1.2

ksi

DESIGN

DETERMINISTIC

BASES

AND

PROBABILISTIC

0.25

12.9

ksi

1-10. Member Strength The purpose for calculating


not be investigated; at the pin is more

critical.

In the compression see Fig. 1-19(f)


Bearing

member, the net section for- the transfer of forces.


between
--

pin

C and
--

the

clevis:
2.83

at the clevis The bearing

need stress

orb

Abearing
pin C and
Fc

--

Fc

0.375
the main

x 0.20
plate:
2.83

x 2

18.8

ksi

is [o compare them with the experimental y determined material strengths in order to assure desired performance. Physical testing of materials in a laboratory provides information regarding a material's resistance to stress. In a laboratory, specimens of known material, manufacturing process, and heat treatment are careful y prepared to desired dimensions. Then these specimens are subjected to successively increasing known forces. In the most widely used test, a round rod is subjected to tension
and the specimen to cause rupture used for this

as a Design Criterion stresses in members of a structural

system

Bearing

between

the

orb -- A
Double shear in pin C:
-r -

0.375

X 0.25 - 30.2 ksi

by the original cross-sectional area of the specimen, the uhitnate (stress) of a material is obtained. Figure 1-21 shows a testing
purpose. Figure 1-22 shows a tension-test

is loaded until it finally ruptures. The force necessary is called the ultbnate load. By dividing this ultimate load specimen.

strength machine

Fc

2'rr(0.375/2)

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


2.83

The

12.9

ksi

ever, either

For

a complete analysis of this bracket, other pins should be investigated. it can be seen by inspection that the other pins in this case are the same amount as computed or less.

Howstressed

F

Fc
Fig.

[

t Fcy

[--------a
1-20

its free-body forces are


ponents.

tively, the force F, can be resolved at A, and since F4y = (y/X)FA, the applicatio n of  Mc = 0 yields FAx. In frames, where the applied forces do not act through a joint, proceed as before as far as possible. Then isolate an individual member, and using
diagram,
acting on the

by the applied same procedure that these forces

The advantages in members should in a problem such

of the method used in the last example for finding forces now be apparent. It can also be applied with success as the one shown in Fig. 1-20. The force F, transmit ed curved member AB acts through points A and B, since the forces at A and B must be collinear..By resolving this force at A', the
can be fol owed. Wavy lines through F, and Fc indicate

are

replaced

by

the

two

components

shown.

Alterna-

complete structure,

the

determination resolve

them

of forces. into convenient

If inclined

com-

Fig.

machine Systems

t-2t

Universal

(Courtesy Corporation).

testing

of MTS

Fig. test

before

t-22 A typical tension specimen of mild steel


and after fracture.

Stress, Axial Loads, and Safety Concepts


300

Sec. t.t0. Member


deform

Strength
a phenomenon
some

as a Design Criterion
called
of the examples the rate of load ap-

250 200

Experience
wooden where

plastica!ly

150
100 50 0

plication

or reinforced concrete creep may be a problem.

with

turbines,

under

a sustained

tightened

load,

Fig.

18-8

t-23

stainless

Fa[igue

steel

strength
at

various

of

stronger at very rapidly applied loads. Likewise, the effect of temperature usually has a very important effect on the endurance limit. Some of these issues are discussed further in Sections 2-3 and 2-5. At the design level, most of these problems can be controlled by reducing design stresses.

has a major

effect,

as some

beams indicates In some instances,

bolts

in mechanical

equipment,

creep.

materials

become

considerably

beam

temperatures

test).

(reciprocating

103

104-

10 s
Cycles

10 s

107

The aforementioned facts, coupled with the impossibility of determining stresses accurately in complicated structures and machines, necessitate a substantial reduction of stress compared to the ultimate strength of a material in a static test. For example, ordinary steel wil withstand an
ultimate stress in tension of 60 ksi and more. However, it deforms rather suddenly and severely at the stress level of about 36 ksi, and it is customary in the United States to use an allowable stress of around 22 ksi for structural work. This allowable stress is even further reduced to about 12 ksi for parts that are subjected to alternating loads because of the fatigue
characteristics of the material. Fatigue properties of materials are of t t-

gives

tensile test and shearing

For applications of times, the test. In such Figure specimens

ultimate

is used tests

strengths

most widely. However, compression, are also employed. 4 Tables 1A and


where a force cannot the "ultimate results stresses.

and

other

times

the force
1-23

materials cases,

of cycles
can

required
be seen

shows at dif erent

is applied
the

as the material
the

comes on and off the withstand the ultimate strength" depends

physical

properties

for

bending, torsion, B of the Appendix


a few
a number of a static number of kind number

to break
Fig.

of tests 5 on Experimental

works

specimen

As

application of a fluctuating and the corresponding curves


from

1-23, the

load. Such are termed


at smaller curve S-N

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


at a particular stress under
can

a number points

at a particular

structure stress on the

materials.

of the indicate

same the

stress

level.

of

parts

tnost

the

Section cluded

can be traced

inportance

in nechanical

tests are called S-N (stress-number)


stresses, the for

"fatigue

material

tests," diagrams.
For

As pointed

2-10.) Low-cycle fatigue from design considerations

to disregard

of this important
(104 cycles in seismically

equipnent.

Many

out in Section
stresses.

1-7, in some

situations,

or less) also resistant

consideration.

failures

in machine
cannot structures.

(See

be ex-

also

it is also

appropriate

to consider

residual

with-

stand

materials,

an ever-increasing
notably

steels,

number

of cycles

of load
low

stresses

application.

becomes

essen-

some

of reversals of stress can take place limiting stress at which this occurs material. This limit, being dependent

tial y

horizontal.

This

means

that

at a low

before is called on stress,

stress,

the material the endurance is measured

an infinitely

fractures. The linit of the in ksi or MPa.

large

number

The decision process in choosing an appropriate allowable stress is further complicated since there is great uncertainty in the nagnitudes of the applied loads. During the life of a machine or a structure, occasional overloads are almost a ce.rtainty, but their magnitudes can only be estimated at best.

Some care must be exercised in interpreting S-N diagrams, particularly with regard to the range of the applied stress. In some tests, complete reversal (tension to compression) of stress is made; in others, the applied
load is varied in a dif erent manner, such as tension to no load and

These proaches. unique


allowable

dif icult problems In the traditional magnitudes are


stresses. In

this

are now resolved using two alternative apapproach, in the spirit of classical mechanics, assigned to the applied forces as well as to the
manner, these two' principal parameters are

back

precisely known, istic approach


adhered ware

the permissible terials deform

to tension. The Stress-dependent

major

or allowable an unpermissible

part of fatigue deformations

stress

testing done on specimens may also play a key role


for

amount for Testing

a given material, prior to fracture.

since Some

is bending. in selecting

some mamaterials

classification ods. ASTM

of ASTM

4 ASTM

Standards

(American

tigue,

t- J. L. Zambrow,
of Aircraft

of materials, ASTM material designation

now consisting
at Very

Society

Alloys

and M. G. Fontana,
Low

standard specifications, and such as A36 steel is frequently

of 66 volumes,
Temperatures,"

and Materials)

divided

issues

into

"Mechanical

Trans.

Properties,

detailed Used

16 sections,

an Amzual

ASM

41 (1949):

Including

test methin this book.

giving

Book

and main ability tural

498.

Fa-

aircraft, ings tural

to in this text. However, as the complexity systems increases, less reliance can be placed a limited number of experiments. Instead, after parameters in a given stress-analysis problem, is assessed, leading to the probabilistic method safety. This approach has found favor in the offshore structures, and is emerging in structural and bridges. A brief discussion of the probabilistic design is given in Section 1-12. The traditional
is discussed next.

i.e., determinate, is commonly used

in the design process. in current practice and

of engineering hardon past experience

This wil

deterninbe largely

identification of the their statistical variof estimating strucdesign of advanced design of buildapproach to strucdeterministic ap-

proach

Stress, Axial Loads,


1-11.
In the

and Safety
Design
design

Concepts
of Members:
a stress

Sec. 14t. Deterministic


Axial y
resultant

Design

of Members

Deterministic
Bars

Loaded
is determined

recast
of members,

and is known

to read

as the margin

ofsafeO'.
ultimate stress

In the past, this ratio was usually


-1

deterministic

loaded minimum
stress

at the highest
bars,
O'a,o,v

it means cross section.


must be

stressed

determining Then,
chosen.

section

using
for

the

largest the selected

conventional

internal

mechanics.
material,

axial

force P at a an allowable

For

axial y

maximum

stress

caused

by

the

design

load

and federal authorities, dif erent materials, called the allowhble allowable ultimate a significant

Professional

engineering

prescribe or recommend depending on the application. fiber 7 stresses.

groups,

large

companies,

16 allowable Often such into a member

as well

as city,

stresses stresses

state,

for are

Since

according
and forces

ultimate stresses may or "loads," respectively, ratio may be formed:


ultimate
allowable

to Eq.

1-13,

stress

be converted that

times

area

is equal

the

allowable can resist.

to a force,

and Also

the

the' text as they occur, can provide reasonable estimates loads for complex systems and should be used in the F.S. as well as of margin of safety. For example, instead of designing members at working loads using alternative approach consisting of selecting member mate or limit load is becoming widely adopted. In such
load chosen to the other ever,
largely

The

newer

analytical

methods,

some

of which

wil

load
load

for
for

a member
a member

is usually obtained by multiplying the working loads by a suitably load factors. For bars in simple tension or compression, this leads same results. Significantly dif erent results may be obtained in many cases where inelastic behavior is more complex. In this text, howthe customary allowable stress design (ASD) approach wil be
application simple and
fol owed.

of the ultimate basic definition of for static loadings, allowable stress, an sizes for their ulticases, the ultimate

be pointed

out

in

This
of

always
stresses

is the basic
be greater
as

definition
than

unity.

of the factor
Traditionally

maximum

useful

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


this factor is recast in terms

of safety,

F.S.

This

ratio

must

both
area

The

of the ASD direct. From


is

approach Eq. 1-13,

for axial y it fol ows

that

loaded

members the required

net

is

A of

a member

material

strength

(stress)

allowable

stress

-O'al ow

(1-16)

and

type

is widely

subsequent stresses

of member aircraft

used

reading, is satisfactory

and

not

whereas for

loading

only

for

conditions.
this

axial y

loaded

defined

In the

as

industry,

some the term


ultimate

definition cases, it can

As

wil

members,

of F.S. in terms of elastic be misleading in others.

become

but

apparent

also

for any
from

factor
load

of safety

is replaced

by another,

design

load

where P is the applied axial force, and trno,, is the allowable stress. tion 1-16 is generally applicable to tension members and short sion blocks. For slender compression members, the question of bility arises and the methods discussed in Chapter 11 must be The simplicity of Eq. 1-16 is unrelated to its importance. A large of problems requiring its use occurs in practice. The fol owing il ustrate some application of Eq. 1-16 as well as provide additional
in statics.

Equacomprestheir staused.

number problems review

6 For example, see the American Institute Building Construction Code of any large city, ments issued by the Army-Navy Civil Commit ee
etc.

of Steel Construction Manual, ANC-5 Strength of Ah'craft Eleon Aircraft Design Criteria,

periments derivations is a convenient

7 The

adjective
were that

made fol ow, device

fiber

on wood, the concept for visualizing

in this sense

which

is fibrous of a continuous its action.

is used

for two

in character. filament

masons.

Also, in several or fiber in a member

Many

original

ex-

EXAMPLE

t-4

Reduce

the

size

chrome-vanadium ksi. Use a factor

of bar AB in Example steel. The ultimate of safety of 2.5.

1-3 by
strength

using
of this

a better
steel

material
is approximately

such

as
120

$6

Stress,
Solution

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts
650

Sec.
kN

1-1t.

Deterministic

Design

of

Members

$7

below

orano, +2.23 in bar. of the With

120/2.5 = 48 ksi. From Example 1-3, the force in the bar AB: FA = kips. Required area: Anet = 2.23/48 = 0.0464 in 2. Adopt: 0.20-in by 0.25This provides an area of (0.20)(0.25) = 0.050 in 2, which is slightly in excess required area. Many other proportions of the bar are possible. the cross-sectional area selected, the actual or working stress is somewhat
the allowable
in

stress:

O'actual

i 2.23/(0.050)

= 44.6

ksi.

The

actual

factor

of

safety is 120/(44.6) In a complete


decreased

dimensions.

= 2.69, and the redesign, clevis and

actual margin of safety is 1.69. pins should also be reviewed and,

0.75

if possible,

(c)

EXAMPLE
P of

'i-5
650

Select

members
kN.

Set

FC

the

and

allowable

CB in the truss
tensile

stress

of Fig.

at

1-24(a)
140

MPa.

to carry

an inclined

force

390

kN

650

kN

Solution

r/520
in all members

kN

Fc

If all members

veloped

to be found.

truss by the method of joints. However, if only a few members are to be designed or checked, the method of sections il ustrated here is quicker. It is generally understood that a planar truss, such as shown in the figure, is stable in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the paper. Practically, this is accomplished by introducing braces at right angles to the plane of the truss. In this example, the design of compression members is avoided, as this wil be
treated in the determine chapter the forces on columns. in the To members to be designed, the reactions for the

on the basis

of the truss In practice,

of matrix

were to be designed, forces this is now done by employing

structural

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


analysis 8 or by directly analyzing the
Rox

computer

would programs

have

de-

,r

2.5 m

520kN f325 kN
(d)

Fc

(b)

whole'

interior framing. points of application see Fig. 1-24(b). of the structure


Figs. 1-24(c)

structure

are computed
Only

are

reaction indicated

first.

and

After the reactions are used to determine


diagram

force components definitely located at their on a free-body diagram of the whole structure; are determined, free-body diagrams of a part the forces in the members considered; see
1-24(b):

This

is done

by completely

disregarding

the
Using the free-body diagram in Fig. 1-24(c):

Fig.

t-24

MA
Ac

= OG
= Fc/crnow

Frc
= 86.7 x

X 0.75
103/140

+ 325
= 620

x 1 - 520
mm 2
(use

X 0.75
F-c =

= 0
+ 86.7 kN

Using

the

and (d). free-body

in Fig.

F. ME Mz=0 Check:


(London:

= 0 = 0

Rm

520

= 0

Rzx

520

kN

12.5

50-mm

bar)

+ +

RDy
RE
325

X 3 X
-

390
520
+ 65

x 0.5
x
=

--

520
390 X

x
2.5

1.5 RDy
=

3 +
390

1.5
0

= 0 =
0 RE =

325
65kN

kN

Using

the free-body

diagram

in Fig.

1-24(d):

 Fy = 0
for example,
McGraw-Hil ,

 Fy = 0
ed. Ac = Fc/crnow

--(FcB)y
= 391

q- 325 = 0 (FcB)y Fc = (FcB)y/3


x 103/140 = 2790

8 See,

O. C. Zienkiewicz,
1977).

The

Fitrite

Element

Method,

3rd

mm 2
(use

= + 325 kN = q- 391 kN
two bars 30 x 50 mm)

38

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

142.

Probabilistic

Basis

for

Structural

Design

39

EXAMPLE

-6

AC
-0.5

'on
for
m

Consider

a frictionless
the

the

idealized

plane

system

at 10 Hz.

shown

9 If a light
is the the rod

in Fig.

1-25,

rod

where

CD
size

is attached

a 5-kg

mass

at C, and

is to be spun

the
the

allowable weight

stress is 200 MPa, of the rod and assume


threads.

what that

required is enlarged

of the rod? Neglect at the ends to compensate

Solution

.
0 10
Maximum

r I11

JM25. ean MPa 4


538 Tests s = 4'62

Mean

238

MPa

51

Tests

20

S = 26.2 V= 0.11

v=o.8

'vI

O'R

The
Fig. t-25

rod

angular the

velocity acceleration,

to is 20r

rad/s. force

The

acceleration

a of the

mass

toward

the
mass

center
m by

of rotation
figure,
direction

is to2R,
the

where
d'Alembert's
acceleration.

R is the
F acting
Therefore,

distance
on the rod

CD.
this

By
is obtained.

multiplying
As shown

the
in the op-

in the
posite F =

according
to that = mto2R

to the
of the

principle,

force

acts

ma

= 5 x (20r)
Anet an area
by
9870

2 x 0.500
-200

= 9870
mm 2

kg.m/s

2 = 9870

49.3

l, o[ , , , ,_o,rm,
20  Compression 30 40 X [MPa]
Strength

I/I I I I't

fR{r)

t
10

f(r)

100
Compression

200

300
Yield Strength

[MPa]

An
The
ered,

8-mm
is

round
additional

rod
pull

having

A = 50.3
the mass

mm 2 would
of the rod,

be satisfactory.
which was not consid-

I
(a)

.

I
(b)

at C caused

fir -- 40 R

fIR

fIR + 40 R

fIR -- 40 R

fIR

S1R + 40 a

where m is the mass of the rod per unit length, and (m mass at a variable distance r from the vertical rod AB. The by the rod and the mass of 5-kg at the end is F + F.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION F = J-/ (/n dr)to2r www.avs4you.com


Fig. t-26 diagram (a) Histogram of compression of maximum yield strength
dr) is its total pull infinitesimal at C caused

compression of ASTM

strength grades

Western A7 and A36

for

Hemlock steels.**

(wood)*;

(b) frequency

structural systems

assemblies. are based

Important on the same

risk premises.

analyses

of complete

engineering

Experimental As an example the behavior of set, experimental wooden blocks steel stub columns correspond to

Evidence of the probabilistic specimens for two results of several are plot ed in Fig. in Fig. 1-26(b). a narrow range of approach based on statistics, consider sets of similar experiments. For one compression tests for identical short 1-26(a)? Similar results are shown for 22 The bar widths in these histograms compression stress for which a given

*'21-12.

Probabilistic

Basis

for Structural

Design

In the conventional (deterministic) design of members, the possibility failure is reduced to acceptably small levels by factors of safety based on judgment derived from past successful and unsuccessful performances. By contrast, in the probabilistic approach, variability in material properties, fabrication-size tolerances, as well as uncertainties in loading and even design approximations, can be appraised on a statistical basis. As far as possible, the proposed criteria are calibrated against well-established cases, as disregard of past successful applications is out of the question. The probabilistic approach has the/tdvantage of consistency in

number

In these diagrams, the inner scales apply to direct The meaning of the outer scales wil be discussed
Metals

of specimens

were

either

crushed

(wood)

or have

experimental later. Concrete,


14.3,

yielded

23 (steel).
results.

2 j. M.

Copyright,

(New

Il ston,

the factors
2o The

of safety,
remainder

not
of this

only
chapter

for

individual
can be omit ed.

members,

but

also

for

complex

2 T. V. Galambos, and M. K. Ravindra, Tentative Criteria for Steel Buildings, Research Report No. ington University, September 1973. dition

Building

York:

J. M.
Research
Van

Nostrand

Dinwoodie,

Establishment,

Reinhold,

and

A. A. Smith,
U.K.
1979),

Fig.

p. 439,

Timber,

Crown

and

Load and 18, Structural For further

Resistance Division, discussion,

Design Wash-

23 Since

9 Hz (abbreviation

for hertz),

or cycles

per second,

is the SI unit

for frequency.

Section

can in many
2-3.

yielding

applications

is accompanied

be considered

by a large

failure.

amount

of deformation,

this

con-

see

4O

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

1-t2.
fz(z)

Probabilistic

Basis

for

Structural

Design

4t

In statistical

terminology,

the

test

results

are

termed

"population"

sam-

ples.
are

other
defined

generally

In the analysis is sa/nple


as

computed.

of such

variance,

One

data,

S 2. For

of these

several

n samples

is sa/nple/nean

quantities

of major these

(tests),

(average),

importance

quantities

X;

are

an-

= I1 i=X; x, l

(1-17)

Area

Fz (zO

and
Dividing S by X, one obtains

S2 = I 1 i=1 (Xi
the coefficient
V =

)2
of vartaaon,-

(1-18)
z

where Xi is an ith sample. TM A square root of the variance,

density

Fig.

t-27
Z.

function

Normal

(PDF)

probability

i.e.,

S, is called

the

standard

,5 V, i.e.,

deviation.

of

The
(1-19)

constant
diagram

1/X/
encloses

in Eq.

1-20
a unit

is selected
area, i.e.,

so that

the

normalized

fre-

S/X

quency

X, S (or S2), and The expected sanple (scatter) of the data,


Theoretical Basis

V play dominant roles value is X, the mean; and V is its 'dimensionless

In Fig.
cases are

1-26,
also

in addition
shown.

to the
These

histograms,
bell-shaped

fimctions
continuous the most form, the

(PDFs)

are based

on normal

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


theoretical
curves

in the theory S is a measure measure.

of probability. of dispersion

+fz(z) dz = 1
which means that the occurrence ofz within its entire range is a certainty.

(1-23)
is the standard is shown in R relating them a__pplications, the X, and rz = S.
by

curves

for

the

two

of probability

density

or Gaussian

26 distribution.

These

In the previous equations [ z is the mean and Crz deviation. A typical PDF of Z with normal distribution Fig. 1-27. Il ustrations of normal PDFs of resistances to experimental results are shown in Fig. 1-26. In theoretical model is usually selected by setting [z =
For the theoretical gz and is equal

PDFs for approximating the dispersion widely used model in applied probability PDF of Z, i.e., z(Z), is given as

of observed theory. In

data analytical

are

Some
fz(z)

interesting

model, the to the previously properties

coefficient

defined of z(Z)

of variation experimental

wil

are

il ustrated
fz(z)

be designated V. in Fig. 1-28.

Thus,

fz(z):

V'2r1

exp[ - 1 (z-z' crz / 2] ]


p.z)-fz(z)

(1-20)
(1-21) (1-22)

where and
24 In order to remove

pz = f_+ Zz(Z) dz tr}


bias

J_+ (z
in X, instead

"
'used

dz
by n, one uses n -

Area

0.00135

of dividing

1. For

large
text.

values 25 In this

of n, the dif erence section, the notation in honor who first of the introduced great

in results dif ers

is small. from that

in the on

remainder considera-

of the Gauss
(a) (b)

26. So named (1777-1855),


tions.

German mathematician this function based

Karl Friedrich theoretical

Fig. 1-28
mean.

Examples

of probabilities

of outcomes

at dif erent

amounts

of standard

deviation

from

the

42

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

%t2.

Probabilistic

Basis

for

Structural
Load

Design

43

from
an

Fig.
outcome

1-28(a),
between

it can
one

be seen
standard

that
in Fig.
this
are

the
deviation

probability
on either

of the
side

occurrence
of the mean

of
deareas
the from

is 68.27%.
viations
enclosed

Whereas,
on
under

as shown
side
the curve

1-28(b),
value
three

between
becomes
standard

two
95.45%.
deviations

standard
The

either

of the
tails

mean,
that

fo(q)
Load

mean are only 0.135% later, the small number eral standard deviations in appraising structural
Practical F ortnulations

of the total of outcomes away from safety.

outcomes. As wil become likely to take place under the mean is of the utmost

apparent z(Z) sevimportance

Resistance

fR (r)

0 n

city)
q orr
or resistance

x/

Qs Unsafe
R>Q Safe

Q>R

.- fR(r)

For a probabilistic structure, one.must such as discussed

appraisal of the structural have a statistically determined before, and a corresponding

safety

of a member resistance PDF load effect PDF.

or fRO'), Again

a
Fig.
functions

Load

R

R2
and

R3
unsafe

Resistance

1-29

Probability
for the two

density
main

Fig.
definition

-30

Probabilistic
of se

statistical studies show that since the loads are susceptible to variations, their effect on a member or a structure can be expressed in probabilistic form. Such load effects, resembling fRO'), wil be designated as fo(q). For a given member or a structure, these functions define the behavior of the same critical parameter such as a force, stress, or deflection. Two such functions probabilistically .defining the load effect fQ(q) and the resistance f(r) for a force acting on a member are shown in Fig. 1-29. For purposes Of il ustration, it is assumed that the load effect fQ(q) has a larger standard deviation, i.e., larger dispersion of the load, than that
for the member resistance.

random resistance).

variables

(load

and

structural

regions.

can be compressed into a single normal PDF such as that shown in Fig. 1-3 l(a). In this diagram the probability of failure, p f, is given by the area under the tail of the curve to the left of the origin. A possible magnitude

In conventional (deterministic) design, set above the observed mean. This condition 1-29. On the other hand, in order to avoid wil typically provide a material with an than specified. For this reason, calculated would be below the mean. On this basis, is simply defined as Rn/Qn. In reality, both Q and R are uncertain answer to the safety problem. To il ustrate two main variables in Fig. 1-31, ,(r) is

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


load magnitudes is represented possible rejections, average strength nominal member the conventional the usually Q,, in Fig. a supplier slightly greater resistance Rn factor of safety are

of apf

by

all instances to the right of As can be seen from Fig. and crR-o is standard deviation. into a more convenient form of two independent normal

may

be surmised

from

the origin. 1-31 (a), [3 cry_ o = Ix- o, where [3 is a constant For applications, this relation can be put by noting that the variance of a linear function variables, cry_ o, is the sum of the variances

Fig.

1-28(b).

A member

would

survive

in

quantities
the shown

and there is no unique interaction between the along the horizontal axis

fR-o(X) [
Failure Survival

flnJRJo)(X)
Failure
Survival

and

(q)

is plot ed

along

the vertical

axis.

For

the ensemble

of an infinite

number of possible the graph into two for the range of outcomes, respectively, member. However, and fal ing in the While enlightening, Fortunately, however,

outcomes, a line at 45 corresponding to R = Q divides regions. For R > Q, no failure can occur. For example, small and large outcomes Q, Q2, Q3, the resistance R, R2, R3 suffice to preserve the integrity of a for outcomes Q3 and R with a common point at D region where R < Q, a failure would take place. the above process is dif icult to apply in practice. it can be mathematically demonstrated that for

$ZR-O

Htn (RIO)

(RIO) ''
(a) {b)

normal
normal

distribution
distribution.

of R and
In this

Q their
manner, the

dif erence,
information

i.e.,

R implied

Q, is also
in Fig. 1-30

Fig.

1-3t

(a) Normal

and

(b)

lognormal

probability

density

functions.

Stress,
one has

Axial
the

Loads,
27 Moreover,
fol owing

and Safety
since
expression

Concepts
variance
for the

Sec. t-t2.
is a square
safety index

Probabilistic

Basis for Structural

Design

of its parts.

of standard
[3.

deviation.

variation

in design

[3 _ [.I,R-- Q _
where tance
thus,

[.L R -for the resisfailures, and

o'R and r o are, respectively, the standard deviations R and the load effect O. A larger [3 results in fewer
a more conservative design.

of structures and machines. In ddition to the failure limit states emphasized before, the probabilistic approach is suitable for other situations. Important among these are the serviceability limit states. Among these, control of maximum deflections or limitations on undesirable vibrations can also be treated in probabilistic terms.

in the design

variables

can be explicitly
parameters,

resulting

included

in more

by using

consistent

the coefficients

reliability

of

safety defined the distributions

An alternative appoach for establishing index [3 can be based on the more widely
than the normal
Fig.

rather

as the ratio R/Q. This approach of R and Q are skewed and

the

mathematical
of first
ratio index,

order,

R/Q,

convenience,
mean-value
1-31

is appropriate.
By

(b).

it is preferable
carrying

is particularly the lognormal In this formulation,


out this

the formulation used concept

for the safety of the factor of

EXAMPLE

t-7

to work with the logarithm


the expression
approach and making

useful when distribution 2s for reasons of:;

Consider two kinds of loading to be suspended by steel cases, a nominal permanent, or dead load, D,, is 5 kips. a nominal intermit ent, or live load, L,, is 1 kip, whereas

kips.
steel

approximations,

for the safety'

use

struction

Assume

(AISC)

that for the design


provisions

for

the

of these

design

rods,

of buildings

American

tension rods. In both In one case, however, in the other, L;, is 15


using

Institute

ASTM

of Steel
Grade

Con-

A36

apply.

[3, reads

(a)

tions,
and

where,
O.

and

as before,

. [3V'/,a----3--. 7e V,a--e--- (1-26)


go_) are, a solution

g and for

x and

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION xc2 are the mean values for the respective funcwww.avs4you.com
requires the use of the fol owing

Determine the cross-sectional allowable stress design (ASD) (b) Find the cross-sectional areas from the basics of probabilistic

areas for the rods using the conventional approach, for which cr,o, = 22 ksi. 29 for the same rods using an approach deduced concepts. According to AISC/LRFD, - this
relation:
k

qbR,,

> 
i=1

iQi
structure, and qb < 1 is the
Eq. 1-27

(1-27)
resistance
reduces to

respectively,

the

coefficients

of variation

for

It c'n be noted

that Eqs.

1-24 and 1-26 resemble


based on the use
the

each other.
of In(R/Q)

A graphical:
in

where

R is the
case

nominal
two

strength

of the

interpretation

is shown

factor such that qbR,, is the design resistance  > 1 account for possible overloads over
in this only fypes of loading

l-3!(b). Analogous to the first approach, given by the area under the tail of the routine applications, a [3 on the order it must be recognized that the safety

of reliability

and

cannot

be considered

probability curve to the left of 3 is considered index, [3, is only

exact.

Nevertheless,

of failure Ps of the origin. appropriate. a relative measure

are

considered,

of the member; the nominal load


1.6L,

the load factors effect Q. Since


(1-28)

qbR,

> 1.2D,

uncertainties

and

27 A. H-S. Design, 28 Lognormal

Ang, Vol.

and W. 1 (New distribution

H. Tang, Probability Concepts in Engineering York: John Wiley and Sons, 1975). for a random variable R is defined as

Planning

where, according to the code for this case, qb is 0.90, 's are and the yield strength of the steel, cry, is 36 ksi. (c) For the four solutions found before, calculate the corresponding indices, [3, using Eq. 1-26. This equation is based on lognormal
for the variables associated with the load and resistance per
Solution

1.2 and
safety
AISC/LRFD.

1.6,

distribution

fe(r) = X/9-- er exp


where
standard deviation lognormal R and See A. H-S. Ang and Design. Vol.

-  , e
+ g,) are, respectively,
However. Wiley,

(1-)

(a)

XR = In R//I

of In R. Similar expressions apply for o(q). Q, it can be shown that Z = In(Q/R) has the normal and W. H. Tang, Probabilio, Concepts #7 Eng#eering 2--Decision, Risk, and Reliabilio, (New York:

+ g, and 

= In(1

the mean

Since the total axial force P is caused + L,, and, on applying Eq. 1-16, the

by the required

dead

and

live

loads,

P = D,,

areas

are

1983).

(LRFD),

29 AISC, 3o AISC,

1st ed.

Manual Matt eal

(Chicago:

of Steel of Steel

1986).

Construction, Construction,

9th ed. (Chicago, 1989). Load and Resistance Factor

Design

46

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

1-13.

Bolted

and

Riveted

Connections

A - D, ra,,ow+ Ln
A2
(b) Since R,,

5 22+ 1 = 0.273 in 2
= 0.909 in 2
Eq.
1.2D,,

for L, = 1 kip
= 15 kips

= 0.093.
indices,

Alternatively,
respectively, are

R2

= 1.05

x 0.909

x 36 = 34.4

kips;

Be = 0.11-

a2 = 20 kips;

and Be_, = 0.189.

On substituting

into

Eq.

1-26,

the safety

- --

5+15
22

for

Ln

= A%.,

again

from

1-16:
+ 1.6L,
and

ln(10.3/6) [31 = X,/0.112 + 0.0932 ln(34.4/20) [32 = %/0.112 + 0.1892


Similarly, 2

- 3.75 - 2.48
* = 1.05 x 0.926
x 36 = 8.88 kips;

and

A = 1.2 x0.90 5 + x 1.366 x 1 = 0.235in 2


Similarly,
The

forLn

= 1 kip
been statisvarious probthan live lead, the most to 1.00, deof member. If such as those additional into is needed. the mean

kips;

[

6 kips; Bo = 0.093;


= 20 kips;

for

part

(b),

p

and BQ2 = 0.189.

and, alternatively,

= 1.05

x 0.235 Hence,

x 36 = 35.0

Be = 0.11;

A

= 0.926

in 2 for

L,

= 15 kips.

(c)

coefficients 1.2 for D,, 1.6 for L, and 0.90 for qb have tically determined to approximate probabilistic solutions to lems. Such studies show that dead lead is more predictable and, for that reason, has a smaller multiplier, 1.2, for obtaining probable maximum lead. The coefficient qb varies from 0.60 pending on the statistically determined strength of the type in addition to dead and live loads, other loading conditions caused by wind, snow, or earthquakes should be considered, 'Qi terms appear in Eq. 1-27. In order to solve this part of the problem, additional information The nominal values of R, and Q,, should be transformed

ln(8.88/6) [3 = %/0.112 + 0.0932 = 2.72


and

%/0.112ln(35/20)+ 0.1892 - 2.56


for the two solutions, it can be seen that they approach. On the other hand, the [3"s are that many approximations are made to deuse, it is encouraging that a solution based on

0.1 I, whereas
for
both loads

values R and on statistical R, and c is for  due to


D,, is 0.10.

c) for the information, set arbitrarily the variation


To combine
the

the coefficient
use

probabilistic formulation. For 3 R, is multiplied by a factor equal to Q,,. The coefficient in %., and the cross-sectional
BL and
of the
2 --

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


the probabilistic approach lead to such

By comparing the safety indices are far apart using the conventional very near one another. Considering duce ,/s and qb factors for code

a good

result?

of variation

Be into

BL for ,, is taken


a coefficient
relation
1/'> --

this reason, based of 1.05 to obtain of variation, B, area is taken as


B o for
the notation

*'1-13.

Bolted

and

Riveted

Connections

of variation

as 0.25, and Be

requires

fol owing
'> --'>

employing

of this

problem32:

aQ = (aDD7
On kip m substitution, live lead, for Be2 the light = 0.189.

+ gEL7,)
1-kip live

-fiD,

+
= 0.093, and, for

(1-29)

In Section 1-8, some basic aspects in analyzing the behavior of bolted connections were given. Further details of such analyses are discussed here. The same procedures are applicable in the design of riveted connections. The usually assumed behavior of a bolted or riveted joint is summarized in Fig. 1-32. TM A connection design approach based on preventing slippage between the faying surfaces is discussed later in this
section.

lead,

Bo

the

15-

The distributed

total

force between

Based on the information for the part = 1.05 x 0.273 x 36 = 10.3 kips;
National
June

(a) and recalling that %., B = 0.11; pa = 6 kips;


Bureau

is 36 ksi, and Ba! Criterion


Pub-

for

3 B. R. Ellingwood
American
No. 577,

et al.,
1980.

Standard

Development.ofa
A58,

National

Probability

of Standards,

Based and

Load

cases, formations distribution


McGraw-Hil ,
1938)

this

on a joint is assumed to be equally or rivets) of equal size. In many cannot be justified by elastic analysis, however, ductile deand/or slip between the faying surfaces permits an equal reof the applied force before the ultimate capacity of a con(bolts
1986).

acting

concentrically connectors

Special

lication

 H. Madsen,
34.

S. Krenk,

and N. Lind,

Methods

of Stractural

Safety

(New

York:

Civil

32 j. R. Benjamin, Engineers (New

and C. A. Cornell, York: McGraw-Hil ,

Probabilistic 1970).

Statistics

Decisions

for

34 From

G. Dreyer,

Festigkeitslehre

und

Elastiziti tslehre

(Leipzig:

J/necke,

48

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

t-t3.

Bolted

and

Riveted

Connections

49

Shearing plane

Ii
(a)

Fig.
for
connection.-

t-32
a bolted

Assumed
or

action
a riveted
Bearin planes (b)

nection
tests?

is reached.

This

assumption

has

been

justified

on

the

basis

of
d

In contrast to the the connectors are to bend to maintain connected plates is connections of this are used for joining When connectors the net section in
Fig. 1-33 commonly joints. Bending neglected of plates in lap

bolt

holes

are closely

il ustration shown in Fig. 1-32, in simple lap joints, in single shear, and the plates near' the connector tend the axial force concentric. However, bending in the commonly neglected (see Fig. 1-33). Numerous bolted type are used in steel construction, and riveted ones aluminum alloy sheets in aircraft. are arranged as shown in Fig. 1-34(a), determining tension poses no dif iculty. However, if the rows for

Fig. t-35 (a),(b) Il ustration of a bearing failure, and


(c)
(c)

assumed

stress

distribution.

on area td. the allowable

It is dif icult bearing

to justify this procedure stress is determined

from

theoretically. experiments

However, and is in-

spaced

and

zig-zag section necessary across An actual practice, acting

may be more likely to occur than a tear across the Methods for treating such cases are available? It to have a sufficient edge distance e to prevent a shear the c-c planes shown in Fig. 1-34(c). il ustration of a failure in bearing is given in Fig. 1-35. Although stress distribution is very complex, as noted in Section it is approximated on the basis of an average bear#zg over the projected area of the connector's shank onto a plate,
R. E. Davis, G. Joints," Trans.

tear b-b.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


normal is also failure

staggered,

as shown

in Fig.

1-34(b),

of a rivet. In the

terpreted

Therefore, previous

on the

basis

the

of this

design

inverse approach,

average

process the

stress

used frictional

acting

in design resistance

on the projected

is satisfactory. between

area
the

the 1-8, in stress i.e.,

faying clamping reliable,

the paper by Large Riveted


(Chicago,

35 A conclusive
3a For details,
1989).

experimental
example,

for

B. Woodruff, ASCE 105

verification
AISC,

see

Manual

and (1940):

of this assumption
H.
1193.

E.

Davis,

"Tension

may

be found
Tests

of

in

of Steel

Construction,

9th

ed.

friction force between the faying Fig. 1-36. With the use of high-strength order of 100 ksi (700 MPa), this is design. The required tightening about 70 percent of their tensile analysis, an allowable shear stress specified. These stresses are based sign of connections using high-strength
manner as that for ordinary bolts

surfaces at the connectors has been neglected. However, if the force developed by a connector is both sufficiently large and the capacity of a joint can be determined on the basis of the
surfaces. This

condition is il ustrated in with yield strength on the an acceptable method_ in structural steel of such bolts is usually specified to be strength. For the purposes of simplified based on the nominal area of a bolt is on experiments. This enables the debolts to be carried out in the same

bolts

or rivets.

procedure the AISC/LRFD

The

for analyzing probabilistically

bearing-type based

bolted

approach

and remains

riveted joints essential y

by the

I
(e) (b) (c)

Washer Bolt grip

' . T-pressure on

--

Fig. 1-34 (b) zig-zag

Possible tear,

and

modes

(c)

of failure tear out

in bolted joints due to insufficient

(connections): edge (end)

(a) distance

net

section, along lines

_/Bol /t Washer


(a)

xxxxx.xxxxxxxxxxxx,',F---length
Fig. t-36

the plate

Initial tension
bolt

resistance
force

to the
P

(b)

5O

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Sec.

t-14.

Welded

Joints

5t

Back-u
(a) (b)

same. However, the applied forces are increased using Section 1-12 and Eq. 1-27), and stresses are multiplied resistance factors. For slip-critical investigation of bolted loads, neither the net section nor bearing are checked. beyond the scope of this text?

load factors (see by appropriate joints at working These details are

EXAMPLE

 in steel angle to a steel plate, as shown in Fig. 1-39. The connection


the ful strength whose allowable
Solution

Determine

the required

lergths

of welds

for the connection

of a 3 in by 2 in by

in the angle uniformly stressed strength per AWS specification


of welds are possible. strength must be such

to 20 ksi. Use i-in fil et welds, is 5.56 kips per linear inch.
of length L and L2 are the applied force P in

is to develop

*'1-14. Steel
welds. weld, weld. (a) (b)

Welded and aluminum

Joints alloy connections by means of welding are very

Many arrangements to be used, their

Fig. t-37 Complete penetration butt Single V-groove double V-groove

widely used. Butt welds, such as shown in Fig. il ustrated in Fig. 1-38, are particularly common. welds is simply found by multiplying the cross-sectional

1-37, The

plate

stresses are usually expressed as a certain percentage of the strength of the original solid plate of the parent material. This percentage factor varies greatly, depending on the workmanship. For ordinary work, a 20-percent
reduction in the allowable stress for the weld compared to the solid plate

being

connected

by the allowable

stress

for welds.

and fil et welds, strength of butt area of the thinner

equilibrium

The

allowable

sultant of the forces R and R2 developed by the welds to be equal and opposite to P. For the optimum performance of the angle, force P must act through the centroid of the cross-sectional area (see Table 7 of the Appendix). For the pur-

without

any tendency

to twist

If two welds as to maintain

the connection.

This requires

the re-

poses of computation,

the welds

are assumed
in 2

to have only linear


= 40k

dimensions.

Aangle

P = Acra.ow

= 2.00

= 2 x 20

O'al o w = 20 ksi

may be used. For this percent. On high-grade efficiency for the welded using such welds. Similar such work, the AISC the American Welding
the weld as in the base
loads.

factor, the efficiency of the work, some of the specifications joint. Most pressure vessels joints are used in some specifications, based on the Society (AWS), allow the
metal in the case of butt

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


L = 14.1/5.56
Hence, by using
welds subjected to static

is said to be 80 allow 100-percent are manufactured structural frames. In recommendations of same tensile stress in
These welds are

joint

Ma=07 +  M = 0 +
Check: R

+ R2

= 14.1

Rl x 3-40 x 1.06=0 R2 x 3 - 40 x (3 - 1.06) = 0


+ 25.9 = 40k = P

R = 14.1k R2 = 25.9 k
of the i-in weld,

Fil et

welds

are

designed

on

a semiempirical

basis.

designated by the size of the of equal width co. The smallest For example, a standard i-in equal to 0.5 sin 0 = 0.5 sin 45
(a)

cross-sectional for the weld

weld,

regardless

area
metal.

of the direction

legs, Fig. dimension weld has = 0.707

at the throat multiplied The AWS allowable

trode tensile strength. of 70 ksi) used as weld = 21 ksi'. The allowable

by the allowable shear stress stress is 0.3 times the elecFor example, E70 electrodes (i.e., tensile strength metal has an allowable shear stress of 0.3 x 70 force q per inch of the weld is then given as
shear

of the applied

1-38(b), which are usually made across a weld is called its throat. both legs in wide and a throat x 0.5 in. The strength of a fil et

is usually increased a craters at the beginning respect to the plane of To reduce the length Thus, in this example,
the resistance for this

= 2.54 in and L2 = 25.9/5.56

the specified

value

for the strength

small amount over the lengths computed to account for and end of the welds. The eccentricity of the force P with the welds is neglected. of the connection, end fil et welds are sometimes used. a weld along the line ad could be added. The centroid of
weld is midway between a and d. For this arrangement,

= 4.66 in. The actual

length

note

of welds

that

lengths
incides

L and L2 are so reluced purpose,


with the

force,

38 is based

on the

same

slots

resultant

and

notches

of R and

that

in the attached

R2 of the

the resultant

former

force

member

case.

for all three are also


To

accomplish

welds

occasionally

the

co-

used.

q = 21 x 0.707co
where co is the width of the legs. For

= 14.85co
a i-in fil et

[k/in]
weld, this reduces

(1-30)
to

d 1.06'

r(b)

3.71
(b)

kips

per

in; for

a i-in

fil et
of Steel simplification

weld,
Construction,

5.56
of the

kips
real

per

in,

etc.
1986).

Fig.

t-39

fil et

Fig. ;I-38

weld.

An example

of a

37 AISC/LRFD Manual 38 This is a considerable

1st ed. (Chicago, problem.

52

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Problems
1-6 and
Problem
0 = 20 .

53
load P if load P2 = 15 kips? for cross-sectional areas

Problems
Section
1-1. the
stress
shown.

using
t-5
1-8(g).

Eqs.
Repeat
and

1-7.

(c) Show
1-6 for a -in

the

results
square bar

as in Fig.
if P =

t-7.
Eq. similar
for

Verify equilibrium aid of a sketch,


increments

l:5a

for the x direction to Fig. l-3(a), where


stresses

with the
are

5 kips

t42. A bar of variable cross is subjected to two concentrated shown. in the figure. (a) Find

three-dimensional

1-2. rium

polar

Show for

coordihates

that the a two-dimensional

dif erential

are

equations plane stress

of equilibproblem

in

t-8. A glued lap splice rectangular member at Assuming that the shear trols the design, what the member? Assume
joint to be 10 MPa.

is to be made in a 10 x 20 mm a = 20 , as shown in the figure.

ifp

in 2. (b) On two separate diagrams, plot the axial and the axial stress along the length of the bar.
Pl P2

= 10 kips,

P2 = 8 kips,

forces, the maximum

section,

held

A = 2 in 2, and A_ = 1
force

on the left, P and P2, as axial stress

(b) what is the allowable See Table 8 in the Appendix


of U.S. standard pipes.

P2
5" pipe

Pl
3" pipe

strength axial force


the shear

of the glued joint P can be applied


strength of the

conto
glued

Fig.

P1-t6

A
Fig. P1-12

A2

0[o,J.'._._r 2r' ;W I 0Tr0 +-- O'r -I'

-o
r

I Ocro
r O0

2 *re
c  20

t-13. A bar of variable cross section, held on the left, is subjected to three forces, P = 4 kN, P2 = --2 kN, and P3 = 3 kN, as shown in the figure. On two separate

t-t7. plied shown inal.


sizes

Determine the bearing stresses caused force at A, B, and C for the wooden in the figure. All member sizes shown See Table 10 in the Appendix for U.S.
of lumber.
6k

by the apstructure are nomstandard

The
neglected

symbols

are
in this

defined
formulation.

in the

figure.
go 0

Body

forces

are

Fig.

PI-8

Section

t-7

diagrams, plot the axial force and the axial stress along the length of the bar. Let A = 200 mm 2, A2 = 100 mm 2, andA3 = 150mm 2.
P3

6" X

1
c

% + -- ao

\dr(/7r+-
/ /   x

TOr

t-9.

dO_

a member'

If an axial
stress

tensile

is a C 12 x 20.7
sectional in the
t-10 and

art dr

areas Appendix.

0
Fig.

o
-2

%

sectional subjected
find the no bending,
mensions

dimensions to axial
points
are

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


be? What wil the stress be if the member

made

tensile

of a W 8 x 31 section,
section? For designation
members,

force

of 110

kips

what

is applied
and

wil

the

to
A 1 A2 A3

6" X 12"

cross-

of these
Short

see

Tables

4 and

1-11.

steel

members

have

the

cross-

Fig.

PI-t3

shown compresslye

in the figures. If they are forces of 100 kN each,


for these normal forces stresses.

144.

Rework
P2.

Problem
thick hollow

1~13

by
circular

reversing
tube

the
of 40

direction
mm out-

--1 4'"
to a is the
Section
1-18. A 40

6'-------.
Fig.

-"--- 4'
PM7

of application and determine


in mm.

the

to cause All di-

of the force 1-15. A 2-mm

Section

side
constant

diameter
shear

is subjected
of 10 Pa in the Plot

on the
axial

outside
direction,

surface
as shown

t-8
x 80 mm wooden plank is glued to two 20

t-3. On the same graph, plot the normal stress froand the shear stress , as functions of the angle 0 defined in Fig. 1-8. Angle 0 should range from 0 to 360 on
the
functions.

in the
maximum

figure.
axial

If the
stress?

tube

is 400
the

mm
variation

long,

what
of the

axial

stress

along

the

tube.

x 80 mm planks, as shown in Fig. 1-13(d). the two glued surfaces is 40 x 80 mm and


force P = 20 kN, the joints? t-19. Two 10-mm what is the average shear

If each the applied


stress

of
in

abscissa.

Identify

the

maxima

and

minima

for

these

1-4. In Fig. magnitudes

l-8(a), determine of {r, and ,o are

the equal.

angles

0 where

the

Fig.

DI-10
140
400

t-5. plot
1-8.
tions.

Using
{r0 and
Identify

polar coordinate 'o as functions


the maxima and

axes,
of angle
minima

on the same 0 defined


for these

graph,
in Fig.
func-

thick gether, as shown in the mm bolts that fit tightly


transmits a tensile force

steel plates are fastened tofigure, by means of two 20into the holes. If the joint of 45 kN, determine (a) the

Fig.

PI-t5

t-6. A 10-mm square bar is subjected to a tensile force P = -20 kN, as shown in Fig. 1-8(a). (a) Using statics, determine the normal and shear stress acting on sections a-a and b-b for 0 = 30 . (b) Verify the results

Fig.

Pt-t

1-t6. A short standard steel lowable stress


allowable

axial

compression member is made up of two pipes, as shown in the figure. If the alin compression is 15 ksi, (a) what is the
load P if the axial load P2 = 50 kips;
Fig.

l 0

mm

Pt-19

54
average no holes critical normal occur; section;

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Problems

stress in the plates at a section (b) the average normal stress (c) the average shearing stress

where at the in the

t-26. ure,

bolts;
the bolts

and
and

(d)
the

the
plates.

average.

beai'ing

stress

between
!
4k

For the planar frame loaded as shown in the figdetermine the axial stress in member BC. The cross s.ection of member BC is 400 mm 2. The dimensions are given in mm.
20 kN

an 8-in standard Table 8 in the


members.

plane

and

are joined

steel Appendix.)

by pins.
pipe

weighing Neglect

The

mast
the

28.55

is made
weight

lb/ft.

(See of the

from

1-20. A gear transmit ing a torque 2-in shaft is keyed to it, as shown -in square key is 2 in long. Determine
in the key.

of 4000 in-lb to a in the figure. The the shear stress


1-24.
nism

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /,

HingLC.15 kN

t-29.
two

A signboard
wooden frames,

15 by
as

20 ft in area
shown in

is supported
the figure.

by
All

wooden

members
member

are
due

3 by

8 in.

(See

Table
wind
force

10 in the
load

Fig.

Pt-23

Appendix
actuating
Calculate

in each

for actual
sign.

lumber
Assume
of

to a horizontal

sizes.)
truss
wind

Calculate
joints

the stress
pinned
acts at

of 20
B

Key
Fig. Pt-20

A control
is shown

pedal
in the figure.

for

a spring
the shear

mechastress

Ib/ft
and

2 on the
that two-sixths

all
the total

are

in pins
of 10,000

A and
psi

B due
in rod

to force
AB. Both

P when
pins are

it causes
in double

a stress
shear.

.-3000- --3000  < 4000


Fig. Pt-26

and one-sixth at C. Neglect of the compression members.


the structure.

the

possibility Neglect

of buckling the weight

of

1-2t. A x 6 in steel plate is to be attached main body of a machine, as shown in Fig. applied'force P = 72 kips and the welds are good for 5.56 kips/in, see Eq. 1-30, how the welds be? Due to symmetry, each weld
the same force.

1-15. to long line

to the If the be used should resists

' p -"diam.

t-27.

Two

steel

wires

with

well-designed

attachments

rod

and a joint N, as shown

are

'Section
1-22.
applied
diameter,
are in min.

t-9
What
load
and

is the
shown
it acts

shear
in the

stress
figure?
in double

in bolt
The
shear.

A caused
bolt
All dimensions

by
is 6 mm

the
in

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION ' Cable www.avs4you.com


Pin B

2.68 mm and that of wire BC is 2.52 mm. (a) Determine the stresses in the wires caused by the applied vertical force. (b) Are the wire sizes well-chosen?

subjected in the figure.

to an external The diameter

force of 700 of wire AB is

71. di am.

Fig.

Pt-24
T 700 N

1-25. A 6-ft-diameter ported at each end the figure. The total

cylindrical tank is to be supof a hanger arranged as shown in weight supported by the two hangthe shear stresses in the

Fig. '1-30. A braced the lateral forces


10kN

DI-29 frame in the

-' 400200

800

ers

is

15

k.

Determine

,t 600 -< 800----*'Fig. t-28. Find the stress in the Pt-27 mast of the derrick shown

structural shown

figure.

is designed Neglecting

to

resist

the

1-in-diameter of the tank. sume that


is frictionless.

pins Neglect contact

at points A and B due to the weight the weight of the hangers and asbetween the tank and the hangers

in the

figure.

All

members

are

in the

same

vertical

20

kN

20

kN

Fig. Pt-22
t-23. dozer
shown

20

kN

Calculate if the
in the

the
total
figure.

shear
forces
Note

stress
acting
that there

in pin A of the bullon the blade are as


is a l-in-diameter

8 t

pin
shear.

on each

side

of the

bulldozer.

Each

pin

is in single

Fig.

Pt-30

Fig.

Pt-25

Fig.

Pt-28

56
frame BD, bers weight,

Stress,

Axial

Loads,

and

Safety

Concepts

Problems
the bearing stress of the wood on the concrete.

7
of safety

FG, are

and 160,

determine the axial stresses DE; the respective areas for 400, and 130 mm 2.

in members these mem-

(a) Find

(b) If the

allowable

pressure

on the

soil

is 100 kN/m

2,

60kN

t,.2 A

'1-31.

A planar

system

consists
members figure. flat the shear

of a rectangular

beam

AC suported by steel at C, as shown in the of two r by I in parallel


double shear,

AE and BE and a pin Member AE is made up bars, and pin C, acting in


Determine the axial

is  in in diameter.

determine in plan view the required dimensions of a square footing. Neglect the weight of the footing. t-34. For the structure shown in the figure, calculate the size of the bolt and area of the bearing plates required if the allowable stresses are 18,000 psi in tension and 500 psi in bearing. Neglect the weight of the
beams.

A = 200 mm2;

MPa,

supported?
of the
tachments.)

and

the

The

factor

ultimate

strength

rod

BC

has A = 400

is to be 2. Rod require The


is shown

of the

rods
special

mm 2. (The
areas allowable

AB

is 800 ends
has at-

-.,
t.38. made diameter be the shear. A joint by means of the diameter stress in for

wires Find members


MPa.

in such the

applications

1-40. tension

required cross-sectional in Example 1-5.


used for a highline

for all stress

stress

in bars

AE

and

in pin

C.

Fig. Pt[37

is

140

One bolt ., /

Bearing plates

6"

(actual)

X 10"

stress in the rods. (In Section that this ratio for the allowable assumption for many materials.)

transmit ing a tensile force is to be of a pin, as shown in the figure. If the rods being connected is D, what should d of the pin? Assume that the allowable the pin is one-half the maximum tensile
8-16, stresses it wil be shown is an excellent

1-4t.

A tower

in the figure.

If it is subjected

the allowable stresses 140 MPa in tension, tional area of each


nected.

to a horizontal
are what member?

100 MPa in compression and is the required cross-secAll members are pin-conkN

force

of 540

kN

and

540

Fig.

Pt-34

' 3'  - 3' 


Fig. Pt-31

't-32.

By
shown

means
in the distributed
load of

of
figure

numerous
load.

vertical
is designed This load,
Determine

hangers,
to support tosether
the

the
with a conthe
sec-

able

cable finuously

and haners,

can be approximated
2 kN/m.

as a uniformly
cross

t-35. beyond truss cross actual shear of safety

What
the shown? section. size.) parallel

minimum distances a and b are required notches in the horizontal member of All members are nominally 8 by 8 in (See Table 10 in the Appendix for Assume the ultimate strength of wood to the grain to be 500 psi. Use a factor of 5. (This detail is not recommended.)

distributed

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


in the in
Fig. Pt.38

the

3.0 rn v
Fig. Pt-41

tion required [or the material is 1000 MPa is 2. (Hfi: The cable
and develops only

cable if the yield strength o[ the and the required [actor of safety assumes the shape of a parabola
a horizontal [orce  at Rs lowest

t-39.

eters

are

Two

attached

high-strength

at A and

steel

C and

rods

support

of dif erent

a mass

diam-

t-42.

For

the

frame

shown

for

Problem

1-30,

find

the

at B, as shown

in the

figure.

What

mass

M can

be

and

required
and

BF.

The

cross-sectional

allowable

stress

areas

for

in tension

members

is 120

AB,

MPa

AD,

poinL
larsest

The
[orce

larser
in the

resultant
cable.)

at a support

is equal

to the

that

in compression

is 75 MPa.

Fig.
rn

Pt-35
1500

10 m
Fig. F1-32

"l

1-36. shear 100,000

A steel bar until failure; lb. If the

of

1 in diameter the ultimate allowable stress

is loaded in load is found is to be based

double to

be on a

A
3600

/.
Fig. Pt-39

't-43. shown
2400

A planar in the figure.

truss system Member AE

has the is continuous

dimensions and

can

safety designed
shear?

factor
for

of 3, what an allowable required

must

be the load of diameter in the


by

diameter 6000 lb

of a pin in single

Section

1-11

1-33. A 150 mm square of 50 kN to a concrete

wooden footing,

post delivers a force as shown in Fig. 1-11.

1-31. bell
force
allowable

What is the crank mechanism


of 60 kN
shear stress

shown
is 100

figure
a force

of pin B for the if an applied


P at C? The

at A is resisted
MPa.

Fig.

Pt-43

58
resist diameter
'1-44.
the figure.

' Stress, Axial


bending. required
force

Loads,

and Safety
the the
in
and

Concepts

Problems

59
each 8 in long;

All
at A.

joints

are

applied

for
frame

The

tension
AC

allowable

pinned. member
.the
DF

stress are

Determine AB to carry
continuous

is 20 ksi.

A planar
Members

has
and

dimensions

shown

can resist bending. the diameter required member CD. Assume

All

rod
tachments

is 1250

MPa
is-80%.

and
The

joints are pinned. Determine of a high-strength steel rod for that the ultimate strength for the that the efficiency of the end atsafety factor for
D

< L ct) P
Fig. Pt-46

sions can be drawn


sign approaches?

regarding

the ASD

and LRFD

de-

consists

of two

4 x 3 x  in angles,

 in high-strength -in holes. Use


lem 1-50.

the

bolts

spaced allowable

3 in apart are used in stresses given in Prob-

Section 1-13 1-50. Find the capacity of tension member Fink truss shown in the figure if it is made

3 by 2 by  in angles
attached to a -in-thick

(see Table
gusset

the
20

rod
kN

is 2.

holes. The allowable strength bolts in 4n "' diameter stresses are 22 ksi in tension, 15 ksi in shear, and ksi in bearing on the angles as well as the gusset.

plate

7 in the Appendix)
by four

AB of the from two


-in high87
W12X36

2m

2m

t-47. Three mm-diameter tated around a frictionless

equal 0.5-kg masses hre attached to a 10wire, as shown in the figure, and are roa vertical axis, as shown in Fig. 1-25, on plane at 4 Hz. Determine the axial

Fig.

P1-5t

'2m

stresses
results

on

in the

a diagram

three

segments

as a function

of the

of

wire

r. Consider

and

plot

the

the

D C
(a)

masses

to be concentrated

as points.

t-52. A structural is shown in the

Fig.

Pt-44

'%45.

To support

a load

P = 180 kN,

determine

the

lowance tensile

necessary diameter for rods shown in the figure. Neglect and assume that the joints
has stress to be made is 125 MPa. All

for

AB and AC for the tripod the weight of the structure are pin-connected. No althreads. dimensions The are allowable in meters.
't-48.

NON-ACTIVATEDp;VERSION OO 1,02'. Z 2 angles www.avs4you.com "<-'0.6 m--0.6 m-i< 0.6 m-- 1
P2 P
 7//-7' I I 3" x 2" Section
Fig.
A bar of constant

The plates {-in holes


middle upper

are { in thick by are { in. (a) What rivet? (b) What are plate in rows 1-1 and

figure,

multiple-riveted is designed

10 in wide. The rivets in is the shear stress in the the tensile stresses in the 2-29.

lap for

joint, such as a 42-kip load.

1-1 1 75"

o 9 o I

P1-47
cross-sectional area A is ro-

ooooo
Detail at A

'

' (b)

I P4

Gusset

thick

3/8"
Fig.

2o,

Rds,l

tated around a constant


material along
function of

one angular
r.

of its ends velocity


the the

in a horizontal o. The unit


variation result on

plane
weight of the a diagram

with of the
stress cr as a Fig.

11-52

is "1. Determine the bar and plot

11'50

Section figure.

144

%5L

W 12 x 36 beam

Find

the capacity

shown

of a standard
in the

connection
The

connection

for a

t-53.
using

Rework
- n fdlet

Example
welds.

1-8 for an 8 x 6 x  in angle

Fig.

Pt-45

r L
Fig. Pt.48

P is shown

*%46.

A pin-connected
in the

figure.

frame
Stress

for

cr in both

supporting
the

members

a force

AB

and
essary
Members

BC

is to be the
to achieve
AB and

same.
the
BC

Determine
weight
a constant

angle
section.

a nec-

Section

1-12

minimum
have

of construction.
cross

t-49. With

Rework the help

Example 1-7 for D. = L. = of this additional solution, what

10 kips. conclu-

Sec.

2-2.

Normal

Strain

6t

pter

of the applied force. With the same load and a longer gage length, a larger deformation is observed, than when the gage length is small. Therefore, it is more fundamental to refer to the observed deformation per unit of length of the gage, i.e., to the intensity of deformation.
load,
initial

During

an experiment,

the change

in gage

length

is noted

as a function

IfLo

is the initial gage the gage elongation


gage length

is then

length 'AL

given

and L is the observed length = L - Lo. The elongation


as

under a given e per unit of

P
Fig. 2-'1 Diagram of a tension specimen in a testing
machine.

(2-1)

This expression ciated with the a dimensionless


2-1. Introduction

dimensions

of in/in,

defines normal quantity,

m/m,

the extensional strain. Since stress, it is usually called the but it is customary to refer
or txm/m (microstrain).

Sometimes

this strain is assonor/nal strain.' It is to it as having the


it is given

This

chapter

is subdivided

into

two

for axial y stress-strain idealizations calculating

cases are in axial y

considered loaded

loaded members is defined relationships are il ustrated for stress-strain behavior deflections in axial y loaded
first.
members

Statically indeterminate are discussed in Part

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


and some typical for selected materials. fol ow. These provide members. Statically
situations
B.

parts.

In Part

A,

extensional

strain

experimental Analytical the basis determinate


encountered

as a percentage. neering applications


of magnitude
It is of interest

The

quantity  generally of the type considered


that in some . The

is very small. In most engiin this text, it is of the order


applications, as, for this strain example,

of 0. I percent.
to note

for

in metal
so-called
incremental

forming,
natural

as dL/L,

where

change

L is the

or true

the

strains

strabz

may

be large.
strain

engineering

in length
 =

instantaneous
L.
dL/L
o

Analytically,
=

length

increment

For

such

of the
In(1

de for

purposes, specimen,
e)

one

defines dL

and

is defined

the

is the
(2-2)

In L/Lo

For small e. If under


by

strains, this the integral,


2-1

definition essential y coincides with the conventional the length L is set equal to Lo, the strain definition
useful

strain given

2-2.

Normal

Strain

pressing
elsewhere

Eq. Natural

an instantaneous
in this

is obtained. strains are


text?

rate

in theories

of deformation.

 of viscosity

Natural

and

strains

viscoplasticity

are not

discussed

for

ex-

be selected

ing force between

A solid deforms.

body For

1-, 2-, 4-, or 8-in

P as shown any two points, an arbitrary


lengths

subjected example,

to a change of temperature while a specimen is being in Fig. 2-1, a change in length

distance
are

such

as A and B. Initial y,
apart. Thus,
used.. This

or to an external load subjected to an increasof the specimen occurs

commonly

depending

two

initial

on the test,
distance

such

points

between

either

can
in as

shown
60

the two points is called the length of this distance


in Fig. 2-1, have
someter is shown

been

a gage length. is measured.


largely
2-2.

replaced

In an experiment, Mechanical dial


by electronic

the change gages, such


extensometers

Since the strains generally encountered are very small, it is possible to employ a highly versatile means for measuring them, using expendable electric strain gages. These are made of very fine wire or foil that is glued to the member being investigated. As the forces are applied to the member, elongation or contraction of the wires or foil takes place concurrently with similar changes in the material. These changes in length alter the electrical resistance of the gage, which can be measured and calibrated
t Natural strains of Flow and Fracture and L. E. Malven,
glewood Clif s,

were

for measuring

these

in Fig.

deformations.

An example

of a small

clip-on

exten-

N J: Prentice-Hall,

introduced of Solids, Introduction

by P. Ludwik in 1909. See A. Nadai, Vol. 1, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hil , to the Mechanics of a Continuous Medium
1969).

Theory 1950), (En-

Fig. 2-2 extensometer

Small

MTS

Systems

clip-on (courtesy

Corporation).

of

Axial
Connecting wires

Strains
indicate

and
the

Deformations
strain taking

in Bars
place. Such gages, suitable for dif erent

Veryfinewire .'

to

environmental from 4 to 150 shown in Fig. in Fig. 2-4. 2

conditions, are available in a range mm (0.15 to 6 in). A schematic diagram 2-3, and a photograph of a typical small

of lengths, varying of a wire gage foil gage is shown

is
100

Tool steel
Low-alloy

2.3.
In
Bonding
cement

Stress-Strain
solid mechanics, the

Relationships
mechanical behavior of real materials under load

/
Wife

-Y
strain top cover

paper
base
gage

is of primary
macroscopic served Researchers
served

tests,

provide

importance.
(overall)

Fig. 2-3 (protective


shown).

not

response in order to determine in material science

basic

information

Experiments,

of specimens to the empirical force-deformation 3 attempt to provide

on this

behavior.

mainly

tension

In these
applied

or compression
loads is obrelationships. for the ob-

t;elnt"
Lowcar
steel

experiments,

reasons

behavior.

It should be apparent from the purposes, it is more fundamental tension or compression than to report stress is a more significant parameter material of an applied force P depends area of the member. As a consequence, mechanical properties of matedhals, the relationship between stress and grams, for most practical purposes, size of the specimen and of its gage
tomary to use the ordinate scale for

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


stress and the abscissa for strain.

previous discussion that for general to report the strain of a member in the elongation of its gage. Similarly, than force since the effect on a primarily on the cross-sectional in the experimental study of the it is customary to plot diagrams of strain in a particular test. Such diaare assumed to be independent of the length. In these diagrams, it is cus-

I
0.20

t
0.40

Strain,

 (in/in)

Fig. 2-5 diagrams

Typical for

dif erent

stress-strain

steels.

Experimental y determined stress-strain ferent materials. Even for the same material temperature at which the test was conducted, a number of other variables. Conventional few representative materials are il ustrated shown to larger scale in Fig. 2-6, particularly
Handbook
1987).

diagrams they

widely for difdif er depending on the the speed of the test, and stress-strain diagrams for a in Figs. 2-5 and 2-6. These are for strain. Since for most
0.01

dif er

20 ,Cast iron(C.I./R)ubber  /Wood


0 0.01

2 See

Society
for

on

Experimental

for

Experimental
references

Mechanics

Mechanics

(Englewood

(SEM),
3.

Clif s,

A.

S. Kobayashi
NJ:

Prentice-Hall,

(ed.),

3 See,

example,

given

on page

Concret /e
-20

Strai(i n, n/in)
Fig. 2-6 diagrams
materials.

Fig.

element

2-4

Typical

metal-foil

singlegage
Division,

electrical-

resistance (courtesy
Meas. urements

strain
of MicroNorth

Measurements Raleigh,
USA).

Group, Carolina,

Inc.,

C.I./ --40

Typical for

dif erent

stress-strain

65

64

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars

Sec.

2-4.

Hooke's

Law

65

engineering applications, deformations must be limited, the lower range of strains is particularly important. The large deformations of materials in the analysis of such operations as forging, forming, and drawing are not pursued. An il ustration of fractured tension specimens after static tension tests, i.e., where the loads were gradually applied, is shown in Fig. 2-7. Steel and aluminum alloy specimens exhibit ductile behavior, and a fracture occurs only after a considerable amount of deformation. This behavior is clearly exemplified in their respective stress-strain diagrams; see Fig. 26. These failures occur primarily due to slip in shear along the planes forming approximately 45 angles with the axis of the rod (see Fig. 1-8). A typical "cup and cone" fracture may be detected in the photographs of steel and aluminum alloy specimens. By contrast, the failure of a castiron specimen typically occurs very suddenly, exhibiting a square fracture across the cross section. Such cleavage or separation fractures are typical
of brit le materials.

oksi1
/

True stress-strain

diagram

Convptio0al

A/


Brila I

material x"

Ductile

 dim

Approximately

0.0012
0.20
(a)

A
 in/in

materials
(b)

0.020

types of stress-strain diagrams may be identified from static tests at constant temperature. The curve shown in Fig. 2-8(a) is characteristic of mild steel, whereas the curves shown in Fig. 2-8(b) cover a wide range of diverse materials. The upper curve is representative of some brit le tool steels or concrete in tension, the middle one of aluminum alloys or plastics, and: the lower curve of Fig. 2-8(b) is representative of rubber.

Several

dif er

Numerically,

drastically.

However,

the

extreme

values

of strain

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION specimen4; such stresses are often referred www.avs4you.com


that these materials can withstand
converse

point

of a specimen. Materials capable of withstanding large significant increase in stress are referred to as ductile
Stresses
applies

on a stress-strain

each

The

material

"steepness"

diagram

has its own

of these

represents

characteristic

curves

the complete

curve.

also

varies

are

usually

to brit le

computed

materials.

strains without a /naterials. The


original area

failure

The

(rupture)

terminal

greatly.

Fig. 2-8 diagrams. Typical

Stress-strain (a) Mild materials.

steel.

(b)

on the

basis

neering stresses. On the other hand, it is known that some transverse contraction or expansion of a material always takes place. For mild steel or aluminum, especial y near the breaking point, this effect, referred to as necking, is particularly-pronounced; see Fig. 2-9. Brit le materials do
not

to as conventional

of the

or engi-

of a
I I

versely a lit le in a tension test and expand in a compression test. Dividing the applied force, at a given point in the test, by the corresponding actual area of a specimen at the same instant gives the so-called trt e stress. A plot of true stress vs. strain is called a true stress-strain diagram; see Fig.
2-8(a).

exhibit

it at usual

temperatures,

although

they

too

contract

trans-

I
I

Shape specimen
nearthe

of

breaking

point

2.4.
(a) A572 steel and (b) 6061T6 aluminum alloy. Brit le fracture for (c) cast iron. (Numbers refer to ASTM

Hooke's

Law

Fig.

2-7

Ductile

fractures

for

For a limited range from the origin, the experimental values of stress vs. strain lie essential y on a straight line. This holds true almost without reservations for the entire range for glass at room temperature. It is true 4 These are referred to as Cauchy stresses, named in honor of the great French mathematician (1789-1857). Definition of stress recognizing the change in crosssectional area during straining is associated with the names of Piola (1833), the
(a) (b) (c)

diameter

Original

of

specimen

designations
alloy).

that of Association

Aluminum

for
for

steel
aluminum

and

Italian

elasticJan,

and

Kirchhoff

(1852),

the renowned

German

physicist.

Fig. 2-9 Typical contraction of a specimen of mild steel in tension near the breaking
point.

66

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars

Sec.

2-5.

Further

Remarks

on

Stress-Strain

Relationships

67

for mild

up to very

steel up to some
close

to the failure

point,

point

as A in Fig. 2-8(a).
for many

high-grade

It holds

alloy

nearly

steels.

true

On

materials
expressed

tical purposes, up to some such point as A, also tionship between stress and strain may be said terials. This sweeping idealization and generalization

tsoi hel, otanneal her ed hand,copper, the strai alug miht num, part of or tcast he curve iron. Nevert hardlhelyess, exists ifnor concret all prace,
is known
by the

come

crystals.
generally

as Hooke's

law/

is Symbolically,

in Fig. 2-8(b), the relato be l#ear for all maapplicable to all

tropic.-With mogeneity

essential y

Because
assumed.

some exceptions, (sameness from


Remarks

alike

of this random

in any direction.

orientation,

such as wood, in this text, complete point to point) and isotropy of materials
Relationships

7 Such

properties

materials

of materials

are called

iso-

beis

ho-

strength
v/

Yield

this

law

can

be

2.5.

Further

'on Stress-Strain

equation

(2-3)

which simply means that stress the constant of proportionality modulus, modulus of elasticity,

is directly is E. This or Young's

proportional to strain, where constant E is called the elastic modulus. 6 As e is dimen-

In addition interesting stance, strength 2-8(a) is later, this materials,

to the proportional limit defined in Section 2-4, several other points can be observed on the stress-strain diagrams. For inthe highest points (B in Fig. 2-8) correspond to the ldtimate of a material. Stress associated with the long plateau ab in Fig. called the yield strength of a material. As wil be brought out remarkable property of mild steel, in common with other ductile
is significant constant

-- - 0.2% offset


Fio.

an essential y

sionless, E has the units of stress in this relation. In the U.S. customary system of units, it is usually measured in pounds per square inch, and in the SI units, it is measured in newtons per square meter (or pascals). Graphically, E is interpreted as the slope of a straight line from the origin to the rather vague point A on a uniaxial stress-strain diagram. The stress corresponding to the lat er point is termed the proportional or elastic litnit of the material. Physically, the elastic modulus represents the stif ness of the material to an imposed load. The value of the elastic modalles is a definite property of a material. From experiments, it is known that e is always a very small qaantity; hence, E must be large. Its approximate the Appendix. values are

up to the proportional
large amount phenomenon
A study is so near

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com percent of strain is drawn parallel to the straight-line


materials temperature in Tables 1A is between and B of 29 and

taken to be the same. However, it is much easier to locate the For materials that do not possess a well-defined yield strength, sometimes "invented" by the use of the so-called "offset method." is il ustrated in Fig. 2-10, where a line offset an arbitrmy amount

of stress-strain the proportional

of deformation takes place is absent in most materials.

limit

in stress analysis. For the stress, strains 15 to 20 times

occur

during

at a constant

yielding.

At the yield
stress.

present, those

that

note that at take pl.ace

The yielding
(stress) may be
This of 0.2

stress,

determining strength

240

the yield of a material.

Offset

method

of

diagrams shows limit that, for

that the yield most purposes,

strength the two

former. one

is

For

tabulated all steels,

a few E at room

for

stress-strain
material

diagram.

Point

C is then

taken

as the

yield

portion

strength

of the initial

of the

30

up to the proportional litnit of the material. This is highly significant as in most of the subsequent treatment, the derived formulas are based on this law. Clearly, then, such formulas are limited to the material's behavior in the lower range of stresses. Some materials, notably single crystals and wood, possess dif erent elastic moduli in dif erent directions. Such materials, having dif erent physical properties in dif erent directions, are called anisotropic. A consideration of such materials is excluded from this text. The vast majority of engineering materials consist of a large number of randomly oriented
with rods. In 1676, in Latin is Ut Tensio
His the

It fl ows

106 psi,

from

or 200

the foregoing

and

207

GPa.

discussion

that Hooke's

law applies

only

That a material is elastic usually implies that stress is directly tional to strain, as in Hooke's law. Such materials are linearly Hookean. A material responding in a nonlinear manner and unloaded, returning back along the loading path to its initial
state of deformation is also an elastic material. Such materials

at 0.2-percent

offset.

proporelastic or yet, when stress-free


are called

elastic limit is exceeded, on unloading it usually responds in a linearly elastic manner, as shown in Fig. 2-11(c), deformation, or set, develops at no external load. As wil after the study of Section 2-11, the area enclosed by the

nonlinearly elastic. terials is highlighted

The dif erence between the two types in Figs. 2-1 l(a) and (b). If in stressing

' Actually,

Robert

 Young's

Lectures modulus

modulus
on

he announced sic Vis (the

Hooke,

an English

Natural of elasticity.

is so called

Philosophy,

in honor

an anagram force varies

scientist,.

published

of Thomas

"c e i i i n o s s s t t u v," as the stretch).


in 1807,

worked

with

springs

and

which

not

to dissipated considered
For pressions
some

ductile

not
blocks

energy released to dissipate any


materials, are

stress-strain reasonably

through energy

heat. Ideal under monotonic


diagrams to those

elastic

close

obtained found

for short in tension.

materials are or cyclic loading.


comBrit le

approximately and a permanent become apparent loop corresponds

of elastic a material

maits

Young,

contain

the English

a definition

scientist.

of

* Rolling

materials.

operations

produce

preferential

orientation

of crystal ine

grains

in

Dissipated
E

Sec.

2-6.

Other

Idealizations

of

Constitutive

Relations

69

(a)

(b)

Permanent

Elastic

elergy
I I

Gyp

iI
/ /

set

recovery

(c)

plastic

Fig.

2-1t

material.

Stress-strain
P

diagrams:

(a) linear
materials,

elastic
such as

material,
cast iron

(b) nonlinear
and concrete

elastic
are

material,
very

and
weak

(c) inelastic
in tension

or
(a)

I
(b) (c)

but

not in compression. depending on

the

For sense

these materials, of the applied


the

the force.
and

diagrams

dif er

considerably,
it wil Sketches interpreting be

material;

Fig.

2-t3

Idealized
and

(c)

elastic-linearly

stress-strain

diagrams:

hardening

(a) rigid-perfectly
material.

plastic

material;

(b)

elastic-perfectly

plastic

It is well to note that in some of advantageous to refer to elastic bodies such as shown in Fig. 2-12 are frequently

subsequent analyses, systems as springs. used in practice for

a case,

a stress.can

range

and
shown

terminate
in Fig. 2-13(c)

anywhere

between

+%,,

and

the
2.6.

physical
Other

behavior
Idealizations

of mechanical
of

In an based
P

(a)
P

increasingly larger number of technical problems, stress analyses on the assumption of linearly elastic behavior are insufficient. For this reason, several additional stress-strain relations are now in general use. Such relations are frequently referred to as constitutive relations or laws. The three idealized stress-strain relations shown in Fig. 2-13 are encountered particularly often. The two shown in Figs. 2-13(a) and (b) wil be used in this text; the one in Fig. 2-13(c) is often more realistic, however, its use is considerably more complicated and generally wil be avoided because of the introductory nature of this book. The idealized -e relationship shown in Fig. 2-13(a) is applicable to problems in which the elastic strains can be neglected in relation to the plastic ones. This occurs if plastic (inelastic) strains are dominant. Perfectly (ideally) plastic behavior means that a large amount of unbounded deformation can take place at a constant stress. The idealization shown in Fig. 2-13(b) is particularly useful if both the elastic and plastic strains have to be included. This situation frequently arises in analysis. Both of the previous idealizations are patterned after the behavior of low-carbon steel (see Figs. 2-6 and 2-8), where at he yield stress %,, a substantial

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


proximation for many materials and
Constitutive Relations

systems.

-%,. good

The

For moderate agreement with


-e idealization

amounts experimental

of plastic straining, observations. is more

this
provides

assumption
a reasonable

is in
ap-

models over a wider range of strain. Beyond increase in strain, many materials resist additional referred to as strain hardening. In some refined analyses, the stress-strain 2-13 may not be sufficiently accurate. Fortunately,

accurate

the

elastic stress,

than

range, a phenomenon

the

previous

on

an

shown in Fig. the use of computers, much better modeling of constitutive relations for real material is possible. For completeness, one such well-known algebraic formulation fol ows. In as much as implementation of such formulations requires a considerable amount of computer programming, this approach is not intended for general use in this text. An equation capable of representing a wide range of stress-strain curves with

idealization

has been

developed

by Ramberg

and

Osgood.

s This

equation

9 is

o
where eo, o, and n are characteristic

Cro
to the
Commit ee

 +3  \(__' " fro/


constants for a material. The

(2-4)
con-

stants
Parameters, used
arises

eo and

o correspond
National
n =

yield

point,
on Aeronautics,

which,

for
TN

all cases

other

(b)

plateau
stances,

in the
that

and

Fig.

2-t2

nonlinear

Linear

spring

(Hookean)

it is assumed

stress-strain

that

the

diagram

mechanical

is generally
and

properties

observed.

of the

material

In both

are

in-

8 W. Ramberg
in some
when

and

W. R. Osgood,
3/7 is chosen
Advisory

Description
formulation,

of Stress-Strain
a discontinuity

Curves
values
902, in the

9 The

coefficient

the
assumed

same

in tension
during

and
unloading,

in compression,
the material

%,,
behaves

= [ -%,
elastically.

I. It is also
In such

investigations.
m.

In this

somewhat

arbitrarily;

dif erent

1943.

by Three
function

have

been

response.

68

7O

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Sec.

2-7.

Deformation

of

Axial y

Loaded

Bars
6061-T6 aluminum

7t

n=2 2

60

75F
... .700F 500F
65 28 130

100

, 40
Fig. 244 Ramberg-Osgood

stress-strain.

diagrams.

/%

than that of ideal plasticity, is found by the offset method (see Fig. 2-10). The exponent n determines the shape of the curve, Fig. 2-14. Note that Eq. 2-4 is writ en in dimensionless form, a convenient scheme in analysis. One of the important advantages of Eq. 2-4 is that it is a continuous mathematical
Et

trai (mm/,
-lOO

50
30
10

4.8
18 -54 23

X 10 -a

10 -s

function.

For

example,

an instantaneous

or tangent

--.-! !

-1
I 4

X10
I 5

-s
,

moduhts

defined

as

I 3

Strain

(%)

(2-5)

Fig. 245 computer


of cyclic diagrams

Menegotto-Pinto model simulation


stress-strain for steel.

and

Fig.
strain

2-t6

temperature
curves

Effect
for

of strain
on
6061-T6

stress-

rate

can

2-4,

equation,

In most applications, i.e., to express

be uniquely

determined.

simulations of cyclic stress-strain diagrams can be obtained. An is shown in Fig. 2-15. I In this diagram, a series of characteristic referred to as hysteretic loops since they represent the dissipation ergy (see Section 2-11), are clearly evident. Regardless of the idealization used for a stress-strain diagram,

developed

stress

by

it is advantageous as a function

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com Menegotto and Pinto, m remarkably accurate


behavior and a member subjected

aluminum

alloy.

to a constant
time; see

stress,
Fig.

the
2-17.

elongations
This phenom-

or

to work of strain.

with With

the inverse of Eq. the aid of such an


example loops, of en-

deflections

continue

to increase

with

enon is referred to as creep. Creep is observed in reinforced concrete floors and in turbine discs, for example. Likewise, the prestress in bolts of mechanical assemblies operating at high temperatures, as well as prestress in steel tendons in reinforced concrete, tend to decrease gradually

with

time.

This

phenomenon

is referred

to as relaxation;

see

Fig.

2-18.

be recognized
example
to be aware of materials
Loaded Nonelastic

of such

that it is strongly
an effect
that
and

of the fact is considered


Manegotto,

no time-dependent in this text.


P. E. Pinto,

is il ustrated

dependent

in Fig.
For

on ambient
phenomena

2-16.

2 It is also
with

temperature.

it must

example, "Method
Changes

in the behavior time-dependent


for Cyclically
and

iml

An

2-7.

Deformation

of Axial y

Loaded
member

Bars
Axial
is a design deformations parameter, are

When the deflection of an axial y loaded it is necessary to determine the deformations.

required

in the

analysis

of statically

indeterminate

bars.

The
strain,

deflection

also

o See

in IABSE
Defined

Reinforced Behavior

M.

posium

on Resistance
Repeated

(International

Concrete Plane Frames Including of Elements under Combined

of Analysis
Normal

oration

 F. C. Filippou, .2 K. G. Hoge,

Loads,

and Ultimate
Lisbon,

Association

EERC-83/19, Aluminum chanics,

on Hysteric

August,

Behavior
"Influence

E. P. Popov,
1983,

p. 119. and

of Reinforced
Biaxial p. 204.

and

1973.

Deformability

for Bridge

and

of Structures

Structural

in Geometry Force and Bending"

Constant

stress,

o o

Constant

Engineering)

Acted

on by Well-

V. V. Bert,ero,

Concrete

Joint."
Stress,

"Effects

Report
Properties
"Experimental

of Bond

No.

Deteri-

UCB!
0 Time
Time

Under Uniaxial 6, no. 10 (April

of Strain

Rate

States

on Mechanical
of

of 6061-T6

Me-

Fig.
constant

2-17

Creep
stress.

in bar

under

Fig.
curve.

2-18

Stress-relaxation

1966),

72

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Sec.

2-7.

Deformation

of

Axial y

Loaded

Bars

73

du

u(L)

u(O)

e. dx

P

JOB
(a)

:u! 
(b)

where

P.

a rigid body displacements

of points

u(L)

D and B, respectively.
axial translation is the change

= ur and

u(O)

= UB are the

of the in length

As can

absolute

bar. The A between

be seen

or global

dif erence points

from

the figure,

displacements

between these D and B. Hence

u(0)

is

(2-7)

Any
bar

Fig.

2-t9

An

axial y

loaded

For

appropriate
linearly

elastic

constitutive

materials,

relations

according

can

be used

to Hooke's

to define

law,

e..

e. =

.dE,

Eq.
Eq.

2-3,
2-7

where
and

. = P. dA.,
simplifying,

Eq.

1-13.

By

substituting

these

relations

Jr/to

characteristics of bars also provide the stif ness of systems in mechanical Consider the axial y loaded bar relation for axial bar deformation. held in equilibrium by the force P4.

is permit ed
in the
determined.

bar

between

to gradually

points
the

change.

B and

for
is

In order to formulate a dif erential element

dx.

relation, Thus

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION The change in length that takes place www.avs4you.com


D due to the applied forces is to be
Eq. 2-1 for the normal strain is recast the normal strain e. in the x direction
where A is the change in length ?. = P(x), the cross-sectional E. = E(x)can vary along the
Procedure Summary
(2-6)

necessary information for determining vibration analysis. shown in Fig. 2-19(a) for deriving a The applied forces Pi, P2, and P3 are The cross-sectional area A of the bar

(2-8)

of an elastic bar area A. = A(x), length of a bar.

of length and the

L, and elastic

the force modulus

It should be emphasized chanics of solids consists developing the theory for


summarized as fol ows:

that the of repeatedly axial y loaded are used


first introduced

central applying bars for solution determining

theme
three

these

in engineering basic concepts. basic concepts the


1. As

mecan
In be

1. Equilibrium
on a bar from an initial fixed location formation of the infinitesimal element. equation for axial y loaded bars. It is to be noted that the deformations

conditions
at a section,

internal
shown

resisting
later in

where,

due

to the applied

forces,

u is the absolute

in space, and du This is the governing


considered

displacement

is the
text

axial dif erential

of a point

forces

in Chapter

de-

this
problem.

chapter,

this

may

require is used
remain

of a statically

indeterminate change
after

2. Geo/net/7
in this are gen-

a bar

due 2-19(b).

to axial
to the

ofdefor/nation
axis

forces
of a bar

by assuming

in deriving

that

sections

the

initial y

in length

perpen-

of
see

erally

merical

veo'

mations.

(undeformed)

examples

small

length L, between points such as B and D in Fig. 2-19, rather than its deformed length. Rearranging Eq. 2-6 as du = e. dx, assuming the origin of x at B, and
integrating,

In the fol owing

dimensions

throughout

(infinitesimal).

of members
derivation

this text.

This

Therefore

should

become

this

can be used for calculating


permits

in calculations

apparent

the bitial

from

nu-

dicular

perpendicular

straining,

the use of the initial

defor-

3. Material
normal

Fig.

deformations

stresses

properties

between
on this

to axial

(constitutive
theory

sections.
give

normal

strain

relations)

and

permit

are used in relating


calculation

of axial

axial

Solutions

based

correct

average

stresses

at a section,

see Section 1-6. However,

at concentrated

forces and abrupt changes in

74

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Sec.

2-7.

Deformation

of Axial y

Loaded

Bars

75

cross section irregular local stresses (and strains) arise. Only at distances about equal to the depth of the member from such disturbances are the stresses and strains in agreement with the developed theory. solutions based on the concepts of engineering mechanics of solids are best suited for relatively slender members. The use of this simplified procedure is rationalized in Section 2-10 as Saint-Venant's principle. Several examples showing application of Eq. 2-8 fol ow.
EXAMPLE 2-t

A.E

- AE

-

= A-

Hence,

I pL]
It is seen from Eq. 2-9 that the deflection of the rod is directly proportional

(2-9)

Consider

bar

BC

of constant

cross-sectional

area

A and

of length

L shown

in Fig.

2-20(a). concentrated
Solution

Determine

force

the deflection P. The elastic

of the free end, modulus of the

caused material

by the is E.

application

of a

A graphic interpretation of the solution stant axial bar strain fol ows by dividing the axial strain is constant, the displacements directly with the distance from the origin is possible at the left end.
the applied force and the length Since Eq. 2-9 frequently occurs
fol owing form:

is shown in Figs. 2-20(f)-(h). The conthe constant axial force P by AE. Since of the points on the bar increase ofx at a constant rate. No displacement
to

The deformed bar is shown in Fig. 2-20(b). to think of such elastic systems as springs;

Conceptually, see Fig.

it is often 2-20(e).

convenient

and is inversely in practice,


P = (AE/L)

proportional it is meaningful
A definition or [N/m] for the

to A and E. to recast it into-the


(2-10) spring constant (2-11) or

A free-body arbitrary section


cluded that the

diagram a-a
axial

for an isolated is shown in Fig.


force P. is the same

part 2-20(c).
everywhere

of the From
2-8,

loaded this
and

bar diagram,
is equal

to the left of it can be conto P. It is given

that

A. = A,

a constant.

By

applying

(a)

(b)

' - C
C'

(f)
(g)

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION Force I www.avs4you.com


Eq.

This stiess

equation k reading

is related

to the

familiar

k = p/A

[lb/in]

o
0

Axial

force

L
L

This constant = 1. Therefore,


constant

represents for
section,

the force required an axial y loaded ith

to produce bar or bar

a unit segment

deflection, of length

i.e., A Li and

cross

(c)
AE

I ki=AiE1---]
Li

(2-12)

Axial

strain

{d)

and the analogy The reciprocal

between of k defines =

such

a bar and the flexibility = A/p

a spring , i.e., [in/lb]

shown or [N/m]

in Fig.

2-20(e)

is evident.
(2-13)

1/k

(e) (hi

Displacement

A-

PL

AE

The
force,

constant For
i.e.,

represents
P = 1.

the deflection case of an axial y


f, -

resulting loaded
Zi

from ith bar

the application of constant cross

of a unit section,
(2-14)

the particular

Axial

displacement

Fig.

2-20

AiE

76

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars

Sec.

2.7.

Deformation

of

Axial y

Loaded

Bars

77

The analysis,
systems,

concepts including
the

of structural stif ness mechanical-vibration


expressions for k and

and
f become

flexibility problems.
more

are For
involved.

widely more

used complex

in structural structural

Soldion

By inspection,

EXAMPLE

2-2

ahvays be made before starting a problem. The variation of the bar is determined by taking three sections, a-a, 21(a) and determining the necessary forces for equilibrium

it can be seen that the bar is in equilibrium.

grams

Determine of variable centrated kN and OB, BC,

the relative displacement of point D from cross section shown in Fig. 2-21(a) caused forces P = 100 kN and P3 = 200 kN acting P4 = 50 kN acting to the right. The respective and CD are 1000, 2000, and 1000 mm 2. Let

O for the elastic by the application to the left, and areas for bar E = 200 GPa.

steel bar of conP2 = 250 segments

algebraically applicable
be writ en

ment, the forces 2-21(e). Therefore,


as

in Figs. 2-21(b)-(d).

the individual for each segment.

are constant, the solution

This leads to the conclusion


deformations Hence,
resulting in the axial of the deformation

for the three segments. the total axial deformation

force diagram shown in Fig. problem consists of adding

that withh

in P,. along the length b-b, and c-c in Fig. 2in the free-body dia-

Such

a check

must

each bar seg-

Equation 2-9 is for the bar can

2000

mm

A = . PL AlE = PoLo AoBE + PcLc ABcE


where

+ .AcZ>EK __
O and D is
50 x 103 x 1500

PcoLco

(a)
O

(b)

A a100 kN' :
250 kN -150 kN 250 kN 200 kN
,o kN kN

Using

the

this

subscripts

relation,
x 103
-

identify

the relative
x 2000
+

the

segments.

displacement
150 x 103

between
x 1000
mm

A = + 1000 x 200 x 103 - 2000 x 200 x 103 + 1000 x 200 x 103


= +1.000 0.375 0.375 = + 1.000

100

(c)

(d)

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


Note that in spite of large A graphic interpretation dividing the axial forces strains along the bar are segment. The area of the change in length for that
numerically
+100

stresses in the bar, the elongation of the solution is shown in Figs. in the bar segments by the corresponding obtained. These strains are constant

strain segment.

diagram These

for each segment values correspond

small. and (g). By AE, the axial within each bar of the bar gives the to those displayed

is very 2-21(0

before.

(e)

+50

kN

o
Axial force

EXAMPLE

2-3

Determine
w lb/in;
Soldion
Axial strain

see Fig.

Lhe deflection

2-22.

The

of free end B of elastic


constant cross-sectional

bar OB caused
area

is A. Assume

by its own

that

weight

E is

given.
0.5
(f)

X 10 -3

0.25

X 10 -3

I mm

0.625

mm

1 mm

The free-body diagrams of the bar and its truncated segment are shown, respectively, in Figs. 2-22(a) and (b). These two steps are essential in the solution of such problems. The graph for the axial force P. = w(L - x) is in Fig. 2-22(c). By applying Eq. 2-8, the change in bar length A(x) at a generic point x,

(g)

Relative

axial

displacement

=
A plot of this

_o

A.,E

AE

1
in Fig. 2-22(d),

- x) dx =
with its maximum

as B.

Fig.

2-2t

function

is shown

78

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars

Sec.

2-7.

Deformation

of Axial y

Loaded

Bars

79

wL

}wL

FwL4

.__.. ,, , . P=3k

2.23k

x
Fig. 2.22
The

0
(c)

0(d)

(a)
deflection of B is

(b)

2.83k -----6"
(a)

"

C ef ormed shape


(b)

B
(c)
Fig. 2-24

L
where
bar
I i

wL
2AE

WL
2AE

Solution

W = wL If a concentrated
OB at end B,

is the

total

force
the total

weight of the bar. P, in addition to the


deflection due to

by

superposition

as

L I -- _ -I
I I

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


bar's own weight, were acting on
the two causes would be obtained
are

As found in Example 1-3, the axial forces in the bars of the bracket are CrA = 17.8 ksi and Crac = 12.9 ksi. The length of member AB is 6.71 in and that of BC is 8.49 in. Per Table 1A in the Appendix, for the specified material, E = 10.6 x 103 ksi. Therefore, according to Eq. 2-9, the individual member length changes
17.8 x 6.71

A =

PL

+ 2AE =

WL

[P

AE

(W/2)]L

10.6

10 3

--

11.3

10 -3

in

(elongation)

In problems where the area of a rod is variable, be substituted into Eq. 2-8 to determine deflections. sufficiently accurate to analyze such problems rod by a finite number of elements, as shown
each one of these elements are added to obtain

a proper fitnction for it must In practice, it is sometimes by approximating the shape of a in Fig. 2-23. The deflections for
the total deflection. Because of

ABcand B2 are incompatible


bar

12.9

10.6 X 103 -as BB


lengths shortened

8.29

10.3 X 10 -3 in
BB2, are 2-24(b).
CB2

(contraction)

These in relation

length changes, to the bar


AB
deals

Fig.

2-23

the

rapid

variation

in the

cross

section

shown,

the

solution

would

be approximate.

elongated

and

with

the physical
bar

and in Fig.

support points This is shown


EXAMPLE 2-4

A and C such schematically


with In such

respective that points B and B2 meet at common point B3. in Fig. 2-24(b). However, since in classical solid
(infinitesimal) it is customary deformations, to assume an approximation that short arcs of

requirements
must

shown to a greatly exaggerated scale The indicated locations of points B


be rotated

of the problem.
around

their

Therefore,

mechanics, one can be introduced.


analyzed by the
of the bracket

small analyses,

For the of point


vertical

bracket B caused
stif ness

for stresses applied vertical


at B.

in Example force
Assume that

1-3,

P =
the

determine 3 kips. Also


members are

the deflection determine


made of 2024-

the

bar ends move dicated in Fig.


lengths and

large

circles

to achieve compatibility 2-24(b), locating point this approach for locating


by M. Wil iot

can

be approximated

by

normals

B4.

at the joints. This An enlarged detail point B4 is shown

to the

members

construction 3 is inof the changes in bar in Fig. 2-24(c). The

along

which

the

T4 aluminum the enlargements

alloy

and that they at the connections.

have

constant cross-sectional See idealization in Fig.

areas, 2-24(a).

i.e.,

neglect

First

introduced

in 1877.

8O

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars

Sec.

2-7.

Deformation

of

Axial y

Loaded

Bars

8t

required numerical nometry. Here the If A is the deflection and changes in bar

results lat er

can be procedure or displacement lengths ABc= cos 02

obtained either is fol owed. of point BB2 and AAB and lAB

graphically
B to position = BB,

or
B4,

by

using
Fig.

trigo2-24(c),

A
nu-

O C
' ' L -

COS

01
substituting one the

On forming equal merical values for

ratios Ac
..

for

and

both sides AA found

of these equations, earlier, and simplifying,

obtains

cos cos

02 0

IBc lAB

10.3 11.3

X 10 -3 X 10 -3

0.912
(c)

However,

since

02
it fol ows that

180 -

45 -

26.6

0

108.4

lb)

Fig.

2-25

cos

02

cos

108.4

cos

0 +

sin

108.4

sin

0,

and

cos
cos 01

cos

108.4

Therefore,

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


sin 108.4 tan 0, = 0.912
Solution

**EXAMPLE

2-5

Two hinge-ended elastic bars of equal lengths and cross-sectional areas attached to immovable supports are joined in the middle by a pin, as shown in Fig. 2-25(a). Initial y, points A, B, and C are on a straight line. Determine the vertical deflection A of point C as a function of applied force P. Consider small deflections only.

tan
Based on this result,

0 =

1.29

and

O =

52.2

I
forming an angle the of 11.2

= IAa/cos
with constant
P

0 =
the vertical.

18.4

10 -3

in

The given structural system is incapable of supporting any vertical force in its initial configuration. Therefore, equilibrium of the system in a slightly deflected condition must be examined, Fig. 2-25(b), where initial bar lengths L become L*. For this position of the bars, one can write an equation of equilibrium for joint C' and express elongations of the bars via two dif erent paths. One such relation for elongation of each bar fol ows from Eq. 2-9 and the other from purely geometric considerations. On these bases,
P TL*
AE

from
= 2T sin

equilibrium,
0

Since
is given

Arm
by

= A cos
spring

11.2 = 18.0

x 10 -3 in, the

vertical

stif ness

of the

bracket

lvert
This problem neglected; mon practice contains therefore, for geometric fghe solution many engineering

18.0

X 10 -3

167

kips/in
which deformations, has been a com-

and

L*

L*

L'cos0

nonlinearity is accurate problems.

in displacement, only for. small

Hence,

T =

AE(1

cos

0)

On substituting

this

expression
P =

for
2AE(1

T into
-

the
cos

first

equation,
0

....... -

0) sin

82

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars

Final

shape

Further,

by expanding

cos

0 and

sin 0 into

Taylor's

series,

e = 2AE
On retaining only one term

7., in each series,

+ ..
p  AEO

)(
3

0-7.,+. .

)
deflections, angle

the elastic by v (nu)

modulus E, and is called and is defined as fol ows:

Poisson's

ratio.

4 It wil

be denoted

P
(a)

I Ilateral strain lateral strai1n


v = 'aal st axial strain
stress where tension because the
stress.

(2-16)

Final

shape

However,
A/L. Therefore,

since

the

analysis

is being

made

for

small

axial strains are caused by uniaxial or compression. The second, alternative the lateral and axial strains are always
of v fluctuates as 0.1 (some for dif erent materials

only, i.e., by simple form of Eq. 2-16 is true of opposite sign for uniover a relatively as 0.5 narrow occur.

P  
This result, relationship
encountered

AE A3
lead

or
to linear

A = L
relationships

 AE '
exhibits of the
between loads and

(2-15)
dis-

axial

The

value as low

range.
values

Generally,
value

it is on the

shown qualitatively between P and


in this text

wil

in Fig. 2-25(c), A. By contrast,

clearly most

the highly nonlinear problems that wil

concretes)

order

of 0.25
and

as high

to 0.35.

In extreme
(rubber)

cases,

be

The

during

lat er

placements. The more accurate solutions of this problem show that imate solution just obtained gives good results for A/L, on the order In this problem, the effect of geometry change on equilibrium was whereas in Example 2-4, it was neglected because the displacement
small.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


verse deformation is inhibited or prevented.
EXAMPLE 2-6

the approx0.3. considered, was very

son's ratio wil be used only when materials In conclusion, note that the Poisson effect
no additional stresses other than those

plastic

flow

is the

and

largest

signifies

possible.

constancy

It is normally

of volume.

attained

considered

behave exhibited

earlier

elastically. by materials
anless

15 In this

by materials

text,

Pois-

(b}

the trans-

causes

Fi g. 2-26 (a) andLateral(b) lateral contraction expansion of solid bodies


subjected
(Poisson's

to axial
effect).

forces

2-8.
In addition

Poisson's
to the

Ratio
deformation of materials in the contraction where direction takes deformations of the place. applied

force,

of lateral nomenon

namely,

another

that

(transverse) is il ustrated

at right

remarkable

angles

property
expansion in Fig.

to the applied
or 2-26,

can be observed
uniaxial
the

force,

in all solid

a certain

materials,

This pheare greatly

amount

Consider a careful y conducted experiment where an aluminum bar of 50-mm diameter is stressed in a testing machine, as shown in Fig. 2-27. At a certain instant the applied force P is 100 kN, while the measured elongation of the rod is 0.219 mm in a 300-mm gage length, and the diameter's dimension is decreased by 0.01215 mm. Calculate the two physical constants v and E of the material.
Solution
Transverse or lateral strain:

exaggerated. For clarity, this physical body is subjected to an axial tension, hand, if it is compressed, the material

this in mind, directions of lateral deformations are easily determined, depending on the sense of the applied force. For a general theory, it is preferable to refer to these lateral deformations on the basis of deformations per unit of length of the transverse
dimension. Thus, the lateral deformations on a relative basis can be

fact may it contracts "squashes

be restated laterally; out"

thus: if a solid on the other sideways. With

... exIn this


creases

0.01215
50

/. = 300

mm

0.000243
since the

mm/mm
diameter of the bar de-

case,
by/X,.

the

lateral

strain

et is negative,

lateral bear

pressed

strains. a constant

in in/in

Moreover, relationship

or m/m.

These

it is known to the

relative

from longitudinal

unit

lateral

experiments

deformations
or axial

that lateral strains strains caused by

are termed

an axial force, and isotropic.

provided a material remains elastic This constant is a definite property

and is homogeneous of a material, just

in 1828.

4 Named

after

S. D. Poisson,
1950).

the French

scientist

who

formulated

this

concept

like

McGraw-Hil ,

s A.

Nadai,

Theory

of Flow

and

Fracture

of Solids,

Vol.

1 (New

York:

= 50

mm

Fig.

2-27

83

Axial Strains
Axial strain:

and Deformations
A

in Bars
For
0.219 300

Sec. 2.9. Thermal


An increase

Strain and Deformation


values.
of bars due to an
 1

85

a decrease

e,,
Poisson's ratio:

= -

0.00073

mm/mm

il ustration of the in temperature

in temperature,

thermal is shown

bT assumes

effect on deformation in Fig. 2-28.

negative

EXAMPLE
v ..

2-7

e, e,,

( - 0.000243) 0.00073

0.333

Determine
temperature
Eq.
70 GPa

the displacement
of 100F.

See

Fig.

Of point

2-29(a).

B in Example

2-4 caused

by an increase

in

Next,

since
E-

the
PL
AA

area
-

of the
100
1960

rod
103
X

A = x
X
0.219

x 502
=70x

= 1960
103

mm 2, from
N/mm 2 =

2-9,

Soldion Determining to the solution the deflection of Example at point 2-4 for B due finding to an increase the deflection in temperature of the same point is similar caused

300

by stress. 2024-T4

Per Table aluminum

1A in the Appendix, the coefficient alloy is 12.9 x 10 -6 per F. Hence,

of thermal from Eq.

expansion 2-18,

for

(b)

In practice, when a study it is best to work with the the quantities determined
behavior. Also note that

of physical corresponding are associated


it makes no

quantities, such as E and v, is being made, stress-strain diagram to be assured that with the elastic range of the material
dif erence whether the initial or the final

AAB ABc=
Here change

= 12.9 12.9

x 10 -6 x 10 -6

X 100 X 100

X 6.71 X 8.49

= 8.656 = 10.95
B4,

x 10 -3 in X 10 -3 in
(c)

lengths

are

used

in computing

strains,

since

the

deformations

are

very

small.

2-9.
With perature change renheit,

Thermal
changes

Strain

and

Deformation

of temperature, solid bodies and contract on its decrease. The in temperature from To to T measured can be expressed as

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


Ar cos 02 = A,_a and

the displacement in temperature,

At of point B to position is related to the bar elongations Ar

Fig. 2-29(b), in the fol owing 0 = ABc

caused

by

manner:

of bars
surface.

Fig.

2-28

resting

Thermal
final

on
lines

frictionless

expansions
for an

Dashed

cos

represent increase

shape in temperature.

expand on thermal strain in degrees

increase of temer caused by a Celsius or Fah-

Forming values

for

equal AAa

ratios for both sides and Aac, and simplifying

of these leads

equations, to the

substituting
fol owing
= 0.7905

numerical
result:

COS cos

02 0

AAB Ac

8.656 10.95

X 10 -3 X 10 -3

Fig.

2-29

(2-17)

8 2

where expansion. sonably Equal mogeneous uniform temperature

o is an For
constant. thermal

experimental y moderately

narrow

determined ranges

coefficient in temperature,
for length

of

linear thermal c remains reahoto in a

strains develop in every direction isotropic materials. For a body of temperature, the extensional deformation of  T = T - To is

unconstrained L subjected A r due to a change

B 26.6o
(b) (a)

B

At = a(gT)L.)

(2-18)

86

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars

Sec.
0 = 71.6 0; therefore,
P

2.10.

Saint-Venant's

Principle

and

Stress

Concentrations
P

87

Here,

however,

02

45 +

26.6

cos and
Hence,
Based on this result, COS

02
02 0 

= 02

cos cos
=

71.6 71.6
0.500

cos + sin

02 71.6
and

sin tan
02

71.6

sin 0.7905

0z

--

COS

0 =
= 26.6

tan

2.575
(b)

1.38703,,

Oma x = 1.027oav
{d)

A T -- ABc/COS
forming

01 =
18.4 with

12.2
the

X 10 -3
horizontal.

in

(a)

It is interesting

an

angle

of 45 -

to note

that

0 =

Fig.

2-30

Stress

distribution

near

a concentrated

force

in a rectangular

elastic

plate.

the small
to the

displacement

Ar is )f comparable
force P in Example

order
2-4.

of magnitude

to that

found

due

applied

vertical

2-10.

Saint-Venant's

Principle

and

Stress

Concentrations
of
and often can

The analysis of axial y loaded bars based on engineering mechanics solids is very accurate for bars of constant cross section when transmit ing uniformly distributed end forces. For such ideal conditions stresses strains are uniform everywhere. In reality, however, applied forces approximate concentrated forces, and the cross sections of members

is also shown on these diagrams. From these it can be noted that at a section a distance b/4 from an end, Fig. 2-30(b), the maximum normal stress greatly exceeds the average. For a purely elastic material the maximum stress theoretically becomes infinite right under the concentrated force, since a finite force acts on a zero area. In real situations, however,

using Figs.

the methods 2-30(b), (c),

of the theory and (d). 17 The

of elasticity gives the results shown in average stress av as given by Eq. 1-13

change

abruptly.

This

causes

stress

deformation

imity of such forces and changes situations were studied analytically ticity. In such an approach, the infinit.esimal elements is formulated

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


impossible.

a truly some

concentrated plastic behavior;


for

force

is not possible therefore the

and virtually all materials attainment of an infinite

exhibit stress

is

and

strain

disturbances

in the

prox-

and

mechanical

properties

in cross sections. using the mathematical behavior of two or and the conditions

of material

6 are

the past these theo3, of elasthree dimensional of equilibrium,

In

It is important average stress always correct.


width

The It was

of the second

member observation

to note two basic aspects from this solution. First, the all cases, being based on conditions of equilibrium, is Second, the normal stresses at a distance equal to the
are essential y il ustrates uniform. the famed

satisfied

subject

to the prescribed merical procedure a discrete number analysis is carried method of analysis. two methods can gineering mechanics solutions by these bution at concentrated with those found
solids.

boundary conditions. More recently has been developed, where a body is of finite elements, such as squares or out with a computer. This is called the The end results of analyses by either be very effectively used to supplement of solids. An example showing the two advanced methods for the nature force fol ows. These solutions provide by applying the method of engineering

a powerful nusubdivided into cubes, and the finite element one of these solutions in enmore accurate of stress districomparison mechanics of

engineering on stresses is applied.

enunciated

Using the finite element method,8 the results of a solution for the same problem are shown in Fig. 2-31. The initial undeformed mesh into which the planar block is arbitrarily subdivided, and the greatly exaggerated deformed mesh caused by the applied force are shown in Fig. 2-31(a). By placing the mesh on rollers as shown, only the upper half of the block
27 S. Timoshenko, and J. N. Goodier, McGraw-Hil , 1970, p. 60. Fig. 2-30 8 For this subject see for example, Method, 3rd ed. (London: McGraw-Hil Numerical Methods in Finite Element Hall, 1976). R. H. Gallagher, Finite
N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1975).

in cross section. Consciously ways applied in idealizing

terms it simply means that the manner of force application is important only in the vicinity of the region where the force This also holds true for the disturbances caused by changes
load or unconciously carrying this principle is nearly systems.

by

the

great

French

elastician

Sa#zt-Venant's in 1855.

In

principle. common

al-

A short at its ends.

block is shown in Fig. Analyzing this block

2-30(a) acted for stresses

upon by concentrated as a two dimensional

forces problem

6 These

are the same basic concepts

as use ineering

mechanics

of solids.

Treaty of Elasticity, 3rd. ed., New York: is adapted from this source. O. C. Zienkiewicz, The Finite Element Ltd., 1977). K. J. Bathe and E. L. Wilson, Analysis (Englewood Clif s, N.J.: PrenticeElement Fundamentals (Englewood Clif s,

88
Deformed mesh 100

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars

Sec.

240.

Saint-Venant's

Principle

and

Stress

Concentrations

89

3.0 ndeformed mesh

2.8
30 25

2.6
2.4 K

2.2
2.0 1.8 1.6
1.4

2.7

o.v

1.2

. .f2. 

. . .O. . c.L. .;. . ?. . t.?. . .?. .

2..

10

1.0

1.5

%v

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
rid

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

Fig. 242 concentration


bars in

Stresstension.

factors

for

flat

(a)

distributions

Fig.

2-3t

.(a) Undeformed
at b/4

and

b/2

and

below

deformed

top.

mesh

of an elastic

plate.

(b) cry contours,

(c) Normal

stress

this

members. to one-quarter

For
the

scheme,

the example given width, K = 2.575.


maximum

normal

before, Hence

stress

at a depth below mx = 2.575 .


at a section is

the top equal Generalizing

calculated stress contours in Fig. 2-31(b) clearly show of large stresses in the vicinity of the concentrated solution based on mathematical elasticity, in the finite stresses at the applied force are very large, but finite, mesh size. As to be expected, the corners carry no distribution at b/4 and b/2 below the top, shown in reasonable agreement with the more accurate results 2-30(b) and (c). Better agreement can be achieved by This versatile method can be applied to bodies of any load distribution. Its use in accurate stress analysis an ever wider use. However, because of the simplicity discussed in this text, at least for preliminary design, pensable.

needed

to be analyzed

because

of symmetry

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


the development force. Unlike the element model the because of finite stress. The stress Fig. 2-31(c), are in given in Figs. using a finer mesh. shape and for any problems is gaining of the procedures they remain indis-

around

the

mid-section.

The

'mx=Kg a =KP-P1
A

(2-19)

where Two loaded graphs


average

K 'is an appropriate
stress per Eq. 1-13.

stress-concentration

factor,

and

P/A

is the

on the net section tration also occurs upon the sharpness

particularly signScant stress-concentration bars are shown in Fig. 2-32? The Ks that give the ratio of the maximum normal stress
as shown in Fig. 2-33. at the root of threads. of the cut. For ordinary

A considerable This depends

factors for flat axial y may be read from the to the average stress
stress to a large concendegree

threads,
"Factors
1935, vol. 57,

the
of Stress

stress-concenConcentration

The appear

uations, however, the maximum

example cited to be possible


normal

such

above is extreme, at the concentrated


as at bolt stresses

since

holes or changes are finite. These

force.

theoretically There

relation materials,
ratio of

to the depend
the

average only

stress on the
to the

as given geometrical
average stress

by

Eq. proportions
the

in cross maximum 1-13 for

are

infinite stresses numerous sitsection, where


stresses, in

Photoelastically

0 This

figure

is adapted
Determined."

from

Trans.,

M. M.

ASME,

Frocht,

p. A-67.
\

linearly of a member.
stress-concen-

elastic The
of
(New

maximum

is called

the

,)
Oav K = max
gav
K =

tration

in technical

factor,

literature
and

designated
W.
1975).

19 as functions
C. Young,

in this text
Formulas

as K. Many
of
for

geometrical
Stress

such

factors
andStrain,

parameters
5th

are available
ed.

Fig.
(b) K.

9 R. J. Roark
York: McGraw-Hil ,

stress-concentration

243

Measing

of the

factor

(a)

9O

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars

Sec.

24t.

Elastic

Strain

Energy

for

Uniaxial

Stress

tration factor is on the order of 2 to 3. The no dif iculties, provided proper graphs or past many such factors have been determined toelasticity (see Sec. 9-4). An example of low-cycle fatigue fracture bolt with a minimum specified strength of Fig. 2-34. Note that the fracture occurred
EXAMPLE 2-8

application tables

of Eq. 2-19 of K are available. using the methods

presents In the of phoin

centration

in tension of a high-strength 120 ksi (830 MPa) is shown at the root of the threads.

stress across the net section occurs prior The previous argument is not quite than mild steel. Nevertheless, the tendency material is unusually brit le, like glass. to situations where the force is gradually It is not applicable for fiuctuating loads, For fatigue loadings, the working stress locally determines the fatigue behavior

is practically

eliminated,

and a nearly

permissible
at points
most

Find
Soldion

the

maximumstress

in member

AB

in the

forked

end

A in Example

1-3.

machine

stress

Geometrical

proportions:
radius of the hole
-

are of paramount importance, although some machine designers feel that the theoretical stress concentration factors are somewhat high. Apparently, some tendency is present to smooth out the stress peaks, even in
members

of high

parts

is set from

stress.

can be traced

an S-N diagram
to progressive

to necking. as true for materials less ductile is in that direction unless the The argument presented applies applied or is static in character. as found in some machine parts. level that is actually reached of the member. The maximum

uniform

distribution

of

(Section

In machine

design,

then,

cracking

1-9). Failure
concentrations
that

stress

originates

of

3/16

Fig. 2-3
fatigue
A325 steel

fracture

Low-cycle
bolt.

of 7/8

tensile
in

net

width

1/2

0.375

From

Fig.

2-32?

K - 2.15

for

r/d

= 0.375.
= 11.2 ksi. x 11.2 = 24.1 ksi. increase in stress occurs
at this

apparent junctures

From

the previous

subjected

to cyclic

why a competent and transitions

discussion

loads.

machine of elements

and

accompanying

designer tries to "streamline" that make up a structure.

charts,

it should

the

be

at a hole

Fig.

2.35

Stress

in an

elastic-ideally

distribution

plastic flat progressively


applied

bar

force

with increasing P.

Average stress fi'om Example 1-3: Crav = P/A,et Maxhnum stressr Eq. 2-19: Crmax = Kcrav = 2.15 This answer indicates that actually a large local hole, a fact that may be highly significant.

222-11. Elastic Strain Energy for NON-ACTIVATED VERSION the product of a force times the distance www.avs4you.com
In mechanics,
moves. areas

Uniaxial
in the direction

Stress
to do work,
by their The product

energy

is defined
deformations

as the capacity

In considering stress-concentration factors in design, it must be remembered that their theoretical or photoelastic determination is based on the use of Hooke's law. If members are gradually stressed beyond the proportional limit of a ductile material, these factors lose their significance. For example, consider a flat bar of mild steel, of the proportions shown in Fig. 2-35, that is subjected to a gradually increasing force P. The stress distribution wil be geometrically similar to that shown in Fig. 2-33 until O'ma x reaches the yield point of the material. This is il ustrated in the top diagram in Fig. 2-35: However, with a further increase in the applied force, f max remains the same, as a great deal of deformation can take place while the material yields. Therefore, the stress at A remains virtually frozen at the same value. Nevertheless, for equilibrium, stresses acting over the net area must be high enough to resist the increased P. This condition is shown in the middle diagram of Fig. 2-35. Finally, for ideally plastic material, stress becomes uniform across the entire net section. Hence, for ductile materials prior to rupture, the local stress con2 Actually, the whether it is empty stress concentration or fil ed with
a bolt

forces.

two

quantities

In solid are forces, This

internal

is the internal
work

deformable and

bodies,

is stored

work

stresses multiplied are distances.

that

and

in an elastic

done

in a body

body

by externally
as the

respective of these

the force
applied

work

is

internal
2-36(a),

elastic
sub-

energy puting

Consider

of deformation, the internal

an infinitesimal

or the elastic energy in axial y


element,

strain loaded
such

as shown

energy. A procedure bars is discussed


in Fig.

next.

for com-

jected to a normal stress .. The force acting on the right of this element is  dy dz, where dy dz is an infinitesimal
element. where

Because of this force, the element elongates an amount e. dx, e. is normal strain in the x direction. If the element is made of a linearly elastic material, stress is proportional to strain; Fig. 2-36(b). Therefore, if the element is initial y free of stress, the force that finally acts on the element increases linearly from zero until it attains its ful

or the left face area of the

value.
place

which

is -  . dy

The

average

it acts

is the

force dz. This

work

acting average
strain

done

on the element force multiplied


on the

while done

element.

deformation by the distance


For

a perfectly

is taking through
elastic

body,

as recoverable ergy U for

no energy

internal an infinitesimal

is dissipated

energy. element

and

the work

Thus, subjected

the

internal to uniaxial

on the element

elastic stress

strain is

is stored

en-

depends or pin.

on

the

condition

of

the

hole,

22 This

section

can be postponed

until

study

of Chapter

12.

Axial

Strains

and Deformations

in Bars
0r

Sec. 2-tt.

Elastic

Strain

Energy

for Uniaxial

Stress
(2-23)

U = f

ol

dV

These forms in applications,


x
z

on force and distance. For a particular material, substitution into Eq. 2-22 of the value of the stress at the proportional limit gives an index of the material's ability to store or absorb energy without permanent deformation. The quantity so found is called the modtthts of resilience and is used to dif erentiate materials for 3, whereas applications where energy of Douglas must be absorbed by members. For

sion

of the equation for the elastic strain although they mask the dependence

energy are convenient of the energy expres-

example,
lb/in
Fig. 246 (a) An element in

106 psi has a modulus

a steel

with

a proportional
grade

uniaxial

Hookean

tension

stress-strain

and

(b)

a
(a) (b)

diagram.
dU =

2 :,dydz
average
force work

x e:,dx
distance

where

dV

is the

volume

of

the

element.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


represented
line
of stress.

= xexdxdydz

(2-20)

strain energy under range, able. terial imen

of 6450 psi and an E of 1,920,000 psi has a modulus (1,920,000) = 10.8 in-lb/inL By reasoning analogous to that before, the area

a good

of resilience

of 2/2E

limit

of 30,000
fir,

= (30,000)2/2(30)106
having

psi and
a proportional

an E of 30 x

= 15 inlimit

of resilience
under

of (6,450)2/

diagram, Fig. 2-37, gives a measure of a material's ability to absorb up to fracture and is called its toughness. The larger the total area the stress-strain diagram, the tougher the material. In the inelastic only a small part of the energy absorbed by a material is recoverMost of the energy is dissipated in permanently deforming the maand is lost in heat. The energy that may be recovered when a spechas been stressed to some such point as A in Fig. 2-37(b) is
since

a complete

stress-

OD,

by

all materials

the

triangle

essential y

ABC.

Line

behave

AB

of this

elastically

triangle

upon

is parallel
the

release

to

By
Thus,

recasting

Eq.

2-20,

one

obtains

the

strain

energy

stored

in an elastic

body

per

unit

volume

of the

material,

or its strain-energy

density

Uo.
Dissipated

Stronger
material

UoThis
area

d U

d-

o'xex

Tougher
material

2
2-36(b).
as an area
axis

(2-21)
The corresponding
under the
com-

clined

expression
enclosed

line

on the
by

may

the

stress-strain

be graphically
line

inclined

diagram;

interpreted
the

and

Fig.

in-

vertical

is called

the

plementre3, energy, materials, the two apply to the normal


strains ey and
writ en

e:.

a concept to be used in Chapter 12. For linearly elastic areas are equal. Expressions analogous to Eq. 2-21 stresses %. and  and to the corresponding normal

may

Since

be

in the

elastic
as

range,

Hooke's
dU Ee}

law

applies,
ty}

. = Ee.,

Eq.

2-21

Permanent set JT
(a)

_,le resilience
(b)

Hyperelastic
resilience

Uo-

dV-

2 - 2E

(2-22)

Fig.

247

Some

typical

properties

of materials.

94

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars

Sec.

2-t2.

Deflections

by

the

Energy

Method

95

EXAMPLE

2-9

Two same
2A

elastic amount

bars, whose of energy

proportions delivered

by

are shown axial forces.

in Fig. 2-38, Neglecting

are to absorb stress concentra-

the

(2-24)

tions,
bar
Soldion

compare
is A, and that

the

stresses
of the right

in the
bar

two

bars.
2A

The

cross-sectional
as shown.

area

of the

left

is A and

The bar shown in Fig. 2-38(a) is of uniform normal stress ch is constant throughout. Using volume V of the bar, one can write the total
(a)

cross-sectional Eq. 2-23 energy for

and
the

area, therefore, integrating over bar as

the the

is reached in a manner similar Therefore, the external work multiplied by the deflection in next section, this approach wil
EXAMPLE 2-t0

applied.

In this

This means

treatment,

that,

it is assumed

as it is being
to We the be

that

that shown in Fig. 2-36(b) for stress. is equal to one-half of the total force direction of the force action. In the generalized for dynamic loads.

applied,

the

external

its ful effect

force

on a member

is gradually

(b)

Fig.

2-38

fv0.I
where The stress Again, that the A is the cross-sectional bar shown in Fig. or2 acts in the lower by using Eq. 2-23 total energy that area

' fv

0.7
.

of the bar, and L is its length. 2-38(b) is of variable cross section. Therefore, if the part of the bar, the stress in the upper part is EO' t 2 and integrating over the volume of the bar, it is found this bar wil absorb in terms of the stress or2 is

Find area
Soldion

the deflection A and length

of the free end of an elastic L due to axial force P applied

rod of constant at the free end.

cross-sectional

If force P is gradually applied to the rod, external the deflection of the end of the rod. The expression
U of the rod was found in Example 2-9, and since

work, W,. = pA, where A is for the internal strain energy


cr = P/A, it is

0.2 dV = 0. owerpart dV +  2E U2 = - 0. (0'2/2)2 2A - 2E + 2E


If both bars are to absorb the same amount of energy,

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION U = 0.7 AL AL www.avs4you.com


pperpart dV
2E

p2L 2AE
PL
AE
--

U

U2

and

Then,

from

We

U,

p A

AL) =
Hence, for the same energy load,

AL
the stress

or
in

0.2 = 1.2650.
the "reinforced" bar is 26.5 which is the same as Eq.

p2L
. 2AE

and

2-9.

percent over
design

higher than in the plain a part of the bar is actually


of members for static loads.

bar.

The detrimental.

enlargement This

of the situation

cross-sectional is not found

area in the

members.

The

use of Eq.
Since

2-24

internal

can

strain

be extended

energy

to bar

is a positive

systems

consisting
scalar

quantity,

of several

the

2-12.

Deflections

by

the

Energy

Method

energies for the several members can be simply added arithmetically. This total strain energy U can then be equated to the external work W, caused by one force for finding the deflection in the direction of that force. To
il ustrate, for the bracket
U-

The principle of conservation of energy may be very effectively used for finding deflections of elastic members due to applied forces. General methods for accomplishing this wil be discussed in Chapter 12. Here a more limited objective, determining the deflection caused by the application of a single axial force, is considered. For such a purpose, the internal strain energy U for a member is simply equated to the external work W,, due to the applied force, i.e.,

shown

in Fig.
+

2-24

for

Example 1
2

2-4,

1 P,BLAB
2 AABE

..

1 PcLBc
AacE

pA

where

deflection

the

subscripts

A of force

P.

refer

to members.

A solution

of this

equation

gives

96

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars

Sec.

2-t3.

Dynamic

and

Impact

Loads

97

This

method

any any

number direction.

is extended of applied forces

in

Chapter for finding

12 to solution the deflections

of

problems at any

with

point

in

spring

evenly

elastic

*'232-13.

Dynamic

and

Impact

Loads
delivers such ideal-

pay,/k, spring.

W is As,

constant
=

system
W/k.

k, the static
Similarly,

may

be treated
the

deflection

as an equivalent
maximum

A.t of the spring


dynamic

sprhg.
deflection

due to the weight


Amax

Using

the
=

deflections

where Pdyn iS the maximum Therefore, the dynamic force


of the spring is

dynamic in terms

force experienced of the weight

by the W and the

A freely fal ing weight, what is called a dynamic forces may be analyzed izing assumptions:

or a moving body, that strikes a structure or impact load or force. Problems involving rather simply on the basis of the fol owing

Pdyn = As---- W
This relationship is shown the instant the spring the fal ing weight is transformed fore, an equation representing strain energy may be writ en At in Fig. deflects
as

Amax

(2-25)
of

1. Materials at the
deformation

behave
point of
of

elastically, impact
materials.

or

and no dissipation at the supports

of energy takes place owing to local inelastic be neglected. to the magnitude or statically

2. The inertia 3. The deflection of the applied plied.

of a system resisting an impact may of a system is directly proportional force whether a force is dynamically

2-39(b). its maximum amount, all energy into the strain energy of the spring. Therethe equality of external work to ,.'nternal
1

ap-

W(h + Amax)
A graphical interpretation that a factor of one-half since the spring takes

= Pdyn

Amax

(2-26)

Then, using the principle of conservation of energy, it may be further assumed that at the instant a moving body is stopped, its kinetic energy is completely transformed into the internal strain energy of the resisting system. At thi instant, the maximum deflection of a resisting system occurs and vibrations begin. However, since only maximum stresses and deflections are of primary interest, this subject wil not be pursued. As an example of a dynamic force applied to an elastic system, consider a fal ing weight striking a spring. This situation is il ustrated in Fig. 239(a), where a weight W fal s from a height h above the free length of a spring. This system represents a vety general case, since conceptually, 23 This is an optional section.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


W(h + Amax) --

of this equation appears in front on the load gradually.

is shown in Fig. 2-39(c). Note of the strain-energy expression, Then, from Eq. 2-25,
1 (A max)
2

--

Ast

or
hence

(Amax)

2 -- 2Ast

Ama x -- 2h Ast

= 0

Ama x - Ast

q- '/(hst)

2 q- 2h As,

or
and
Ast
Deflection

Amax = Ast 1 +
again using Eq. 2-25,

+ AstJ

(2-27)

Amax

External

work

of

Strain

energy

fal ing

weight
(a)

of spring
(b) (c)

Pdyn = W (1 +
system under an impact force.

+ j
Eq. occurring 2-28 giveg

(2-28)
in a spring struck the maximum

Fig.

2-39

Behavior

of an

elastic

Equation 2-27 gives by a weight W fal ing

the

from

maximum

a height

deflection h, and

98

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars

Sec.

2-t4.

General

Considerations
Long bolts

99

weight After putations

force experienced equations, the

W is computed the effective as a static

by the spring for the static deflection A st caused

by the formulas derived earlier. dynamic force Pdyn is found, it may be used in comforce. The magnification effect of a static force when

same condition. by the gradually

To apply applied

these known

O'max--dyn
The large dif erence

-- 177
in the

1+
stresses

1 + 1.66 x
for the two solutions

-6

= 243 MPa
suggests the need for

dynamically applied is termed the impact sion in parentheses appearing in Eqs. surprisingly large in most cases. For elastic system suddenly, i.e., h = 0, force gradually applied. If h is large

is approximately.
For

equal

to st.

factor and is given by the expres2-27 and 2-28. The impact factor is example, if a force is applied to an it is equivalent to twice the same compared to A st, the impact factor
where stopped
the external Therefore,

flexible systems for resisting dynamic taking into account the results obtained that for obtaining the smallest dynamic
1-. select a material with a small elastic

loads.

A further study of this problem, and in Example 2-9, leads to the conclusion stresses for the same system, one should:
(a)

modulus;
Short bolts

Similar moving
body.

equations horizontal y
this body, purpose,

may with
using
be

be derived a velocity
it is necessary a consistent

for the case v and is suddenly


to replace system

a weight W by an elastic
work

2. 3.

make stress

the the

total volume of the material uniformly,

member large; and avoid stress

concentrations.

by the kinetic

a moving

fal ing

weight

in the
shown

preceding
that

derivation

of units.

by the

kinetic

energy
since

the

Several

cases

can

be cited

as il ustrations

of practical

situations

where
(b)

of gravity,

energy

it can

of a moving

body

is Wv2/2g,

where

g is the

acceleration

these principles and the cost

Pdyn = W
where direction.
EXAMPLE

l)2 -st

A.t

is the In Eq.
2-tt

static 2-29,

deflection caused by W is in U.S. customary

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


ures occurred.

. and

Amax = Ast
W acting units.

/ gAst 112
in the

(2-29)

in operation,

inders and jackhammers, ends to the tube. Long

are used. Wood is used in railroad ties per unit volume of the material is small.

development

of this equipment,

is uniformly

Fig. 2-41, bolts provide

very

stressed

short bolts were used, and frequent

in tension.

10ng bolts a large volume

In the early

are used to attach the of material, which,

since its E is low, In pneumatic cyl-

stages

of the (b) bad design of a

Fig. 2-4t (a) Good

design

and

fail- pneumatic

cylinder.

-- _F __4 kg
15 1.5 m
m

mass shown
steel

Determine

of 4 kg fal ing in the figure,


rod, assume

the

maximum

freely and
200

stress

through another
GPa,

in the
and

a distance when the


for the

steel

rod

of 1 m. Consider rubber washer


washer, take

shown

in Fig.

two cases: is removed.


4.5 N/mm.

2-40

caused

one For

by a
as

244.

General

Considerations

E =

k =

mm

Solufion

round rod

The
Sohttion

4-kg

mass
for
PL

applies
rod with
P

a static
washer:

force

P = ma

= 4 x 9.81

= 39.2

N.

The

rod

area

A = 'rr x 152/4

= 177 mm 2. Note
39.2 x 1500

that

the rod
39.2

length

is 1500

mm.

I
Rubber

6mm
washer

Ast --AE

+ k

177 x 200 x 103 + 4.5


= 1.66 x 10 -3 + 8.71 = 8.71 mm

As pointed out in Section 1-9, for some structural systems, the equations for static equilibrium are insuff icient for determining reactions. In such cases, some of the reactions are superfluous or redundant for maintaining equilibrium. In some other situations, redundancy may also result if some of the internal forces cannot be determined using the equations of statics alone. Both cases of such statical indeterminacy can arise in axial y loaded systems. Two simple idealized examples are shown in Fig. 2-42. For the system shown in Fig. 2-42(a), reactions R and R2 cannot be

compression

f max--dynFig. 2-40

A
without washer:

17 ( 39.

1+

1 + 8.71 x

= 3.58

MPa

determined shown distribution sideration.

equations of statics alone. 2-42(b), whereas the reaction of forces between the two springs In both instances, the deformation tem components must be considered. There are various procedures for resolving
in Fig.

using

However, for the system can be readily found, the requires additional concharacteristics of the sysstructural

Solution

for

rod

in order

to reduce

a problem

to statical

determinacy

such

that

indeterminacy

the internal

tO0

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Sec.

245.

Force

Method

of

Analysis

forces three
fied:

can basic

readily concepts

be found. Common encountered

before

'to all of these are applied,

procedures, and

must

the same be satis-

1. Equilibrium
local and global

conditions
sense.
must boundaries

for
be

the
among
satisfied.

system
the

must
deformed
relations)

be assured
parts
for the

both
of a body
materials

in the
and
of the

2. Geonetric
at the

conpatibi[ity
relations

3.

Constitutive

(stress-strain

system

must

be complied

with.

The approach in one restoring a redundant


boundaries is satisfied.

Two

general

methods

of these reaction
This

for solving

is the force

methods such

consists of first that the compatibility


method

simpler

problems

of analysis,

removing condition

wil be presented.
since

and then at the


solution

is obtained directly for the unknown reaction forces. compatibility of displacements of adjoining members aries is maintained throughout the loading process, placements are obtained from equilibrium equations.
merit method of analysis.

Alternatively, and at the and solution for disThis is the displace-

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 2-43 Force (flexibility) method of elastic analysis a statically indeterminate axial y loaded bar. Deformations are greatly exaggerated.

for

It is important damental problem librium, compatibility, sequence in which


Fig. 2-42 Examples
and
statical

to reiterate consists they


Method

that'in of fulfil ing and conformity are applied


of

external internal

statical

of (a)
(b)

2-15.

Force

Analysis

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


Note same Then that only the axial deformation/Xo, if the flexibility bottom
Ao =

any one of these methods, the three basic requirements: with constitutive relations. is immaterial.

the

funequiThe

is temporarily removed, making the system statically an arbitrary choice is made to remove the upper the system of two bar segments to deform, as shown a simplified structural system is referred to as the from the point of view of statics, it can, by itself, (However, from the point of view of strength, the be necessary and, thus, in the actual field situation,

determinate. Here R, permit ing in Fig. 2-43(c). Such prbnao, systen, since, carry the applied load. redundant reaction may cannot be removed.)
reaction
here. Therefore, of bar, as at point the deflection
(2-30)

indeterminancy, indeterminancy.

As an example of the force method of analysis, consider the linearly elastic axial y loaded bar system shown in Fig. 2-43. The initial y undeformed bars are shown in Fig. 2-43(a) with zig-zag lines as a reminder that they can be treated as springs. On applying force P at B, reactions R and R2 develop at the ends and the system deforms, as shown in Fig. 2-43(b). Since only one nontrivial equation of statics is available for determining the two reactions, this system is statically indeterminate to the first degree. Here the upward direction of the applied force P, as well as that assumed for R  and R2, coincides with the positive direction of the x axis. For this reason, these quantities wil be treated as positive. With this sign convention, if an applied force acts downward, it would be taken as ative. A calculated reaction with a negative sign signifies that it acts in the opposite direction from the assumed. Adherence to this sign tion is desirable, although in axial y loaded bar problems, it is not
since the directions of deflections and reactions can be usually seen

bar segment is stressed occurs at A, at the top of the lower elastic bar is f2,
f2P

the B.

This result, dition at A. In the unloaded caused by the these bars are

shown in Fig. 2-43(c), violates the geometric boundary order to comply, the deflection a i caused by R  acting bar ABC is found next; see Fig. 2-43(d). This deflection stretching of both bars. Therefore, if the flexibilities f and f2, Fig. 2-43(a), the deflection
A = (f + f2)R

conon is of
(2-31)

The

compatibility

of deformations

at A is then

achieved

by requiring

that
(2-32)

inspection. complex
sign convention

However, problems

discussed
becomes

for
method

computer in Chapter
necessary.

solutions', as well as for the more 13, a strict adherence to a selected


loaded bars, one of the

In applying

the force

to axial y

Ao+ A= 0

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Sec.

2-15.
R 2

Force

Method

of

Analysis

i03

By substituting
has

Eqs.

2-30

and
R

2-31
= ---P

into
f,_

Eq.
+ f2

2-32

and

solving

for R, one


(2-33)

R1N

x3P

1.75P

f,

The
also

rection

negative
holds

from
true

the

sign
for

assumed.

of the
A .

result

As

to be expected,

indicates

that

R t acts
according

in the

to Eq.

opposite

2-31,

this

di-

{P

-F
R 2

I
P

-1.75Pf

The algebraic

reactions becom6 known, the previously discussed procedures mining the internal forces and deflections apply. Inasmuch as member flexibilities are particularly useful solutions by the force method, this approach is also known bility tnethod of analysis.

complete sum

solution of this statically indeterminate of the solutions shown in Figs. 2-43(c)

problem is the and (d). After the


for deterin formulating

0.75P I
0 - 1,25P
Axial force

t---2.50Pf

Displacement
{e)

as the flexi-

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

text. This principle is based upon the premise that the resultant stress strain in a system due to several forces is the algebraic sum of their effects when separately applied. This assumption is true only if each effect linearly related to the force causing it. It is only approximately true whe the deflections 0r deformations due to one force cause an abnormal chan in the effect of another force. Fortunately, the magnitudes of deflections are relatively small in most engineering structures. In that regard, it important to note that the deformation shown in Figs. 2-43(b) to (d) greatly exaggerated. Moreover, since the deformations are very the undeformed, i.e., the initial, bat' lengths are ased in calculat#g
throaghout.

the principle

The algebraic

ofsuperposition,

sum of the two solutions,


and wil

be frequently

as before,

encountered

is an application

in this

of
doubling a displacement, say from A  to A2, also doubles the load. This is not so for a nonlinear system. Therefore, for linear systems experiencing small deformations, the sequence or number of loads is immaterial. The procedure just described is very general for linear systems and any number of axial loads, bar cross sections, dif erent material properties, as well as thermal effects on the length of a bar system can be included in the analysis. However, the force method is not favored in practice because a systemic selection of the redundants for large problems is difficult.

Fig.

2-45

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


Three axial y
EXAMPLE

examples loaded
2-12

fol ow

elastic

bar

il ustrating systems.

applications

of the

force

method

to

ear systems
F

An

il ustration

is shown

of force-deformation

in Fig. 2-44.

For the linear

relationships

systems

for

linear

considered,

and

nonlin-

here

An elastic coefficients

bar

at both f and 2f

ends is loaded for each of the

as shown three bar

in Fig. segments

2-45. are

The shown

known

flexibility in the figure.

Determine
2F

the
for the

reactions
bar.

and

plot

the

axial

force

and

the

axial

displacement

dia-

grams

Solution
"Nonlineal
system

F 1

Fig. 2-44 Comparison force-displacement relationships between and nonlinear systems.

of linear

Remove the lower support to obtain the free-body and calculate A 0. Since the applied forces act convention adopted in Fig. 2-43(b), they carry caused by R2 on an unloaded system is calculated 32, the reaction R2 is determined. The remainder procedure as that described in Example 2-2.

diagram shown in Fig. 2-45(b) downward, because of the sign negative signs. The deflection next. Then, on solving Eq. 2of the solution fol ows the same

Ao =  f,P,
i

= -2fP

- f(2P

+ P)

= -5fP

104

Axial
and

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Sec.

2-15.

Force

Method

of

Analysis

105

A,
A a tensile

= (2f
-F A2

+ f + f)R2
= 0, In problems
Eq.

= 4fR2
= 1.25P

and
Since

A
A0 + A = 0,

= Rf

R

RL
AE

Since

R2 where

-ot(T)AE

Note
and
the

that the applied


areas,
reaction
are

forces
determined

sectional
The

flexibilities

together

at the top.

are supported
using

by a compressive
2-14.

with

the elastic

moduli

E for the materials,


The

the bar lengths

reaction

and

at the bottom

are given,
force

the cross-

_bottom
The
are

axial
tensile

third

force

displacement

forces

of the bar causes


stretch
ends of

diagram

is plot ed
the
the

satisfied

at both

at the top is zero.

remainder
bar.

a downward

in Fig.

2-45(d).
of the

deflection

In this manner,

the kinematic

bar

0.75P

of 1.25P

compr.essive

boundary

+ 1.75P

x 2f = 2.5Pf.

in the
that

EXAMPLE

2-14
of the three elastic bars caused by applied force and their elastic modulus shown P. The is E. in Fig. 2-47(a), cross-sectional determine area A of

conditions

such

each

For the planar system the forces in the bars


bar is the same,
Solution A free-body middle bar

EXAMPLE

2-13

An

elastic

bar

is held

at both

ends,

as shown

in Fig.

2-46.

If the

bar

temperature

increases
Solution

by T, what

axial

force

develops

in the bar? AE for the bar is constant.

diagram of the assumed primary system with the support from the removed by cutting it at point B is shown in Fig. 2-47(b). Then, by using statics, the forces in the bars are determined, and the deflection of pcfint D is calculated using the procedure il ustrated in Example 2-4. Since bar BD carries no force, deflection 0 at point B is the same as it is at point D. Recognizing
symmetry,

First, the upper support is removed and A0 is determined using Eq. 2-18. The raising of the temperature causes no axial force in the bar. Thus, by using Eq. 2-13, A  is calculated. By applying Eq. 2-32, the axial force in the bar, R, caused
by the rise in temperature is found.
Ao
Ro=O

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


Therefore, F20 2 cos

F0

and

2F20
P et

cos

et = P

et(gT)L

Since

L4z

cos

et = L,

L4t

= L/cos

et

Fig.
F

2-47

F2

F F2 Fm Fm=0 F20

F21 L

{a)

(b)
D

Fig. 2.46

=0

rR 1

(e)

t06

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Sec.

2-16.

Introduction

to

the

Displacement

Method

t07

Hence,

per Eq.

2-9,

the stretch

of bar AD

in the primary
PL

system

is

// / / ,

(A,D)O
However, since Ao equals DD4 in Fig.

-- 2AE cos 2 a
2-47(c),

__

__

R R/?/A/ /
kaA

Ao cos

a = (AAO)O

and

Ao

PL

2AE

cos

3 c

where The
2-9

by the force F; see Figs. 2-47(d) and (e). However, the deflection increased by the stretch of the bar BD. The lat er quantity is calculated
again. On this basis,
FL FL

the negative same kind

sign signifies of relationship

that applies

the deflection to the upward

is downward. deflection

of point

of point using

D caused

B is Eq.

A  -- AE
By
2F2

+ 2AE cos 3ix


R2

applying
cos

a = P, on

Eq.

2-32,

simplification,

i.e.,

A0

+ A1 = 0, and

noting

from

statics

that

F +

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 2-48 Displacement (stif ness) method of analysis for a statically indeterminate axial y loaded bar.

P F = 2cos 3a + 1
2-16. Introduction to the

and

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION F, = P - 2cos 3a + lCS'-a (2-34) www.avs4you.com


Displacement Method analyzing statically indeterminate displacements at selected points the reactions and internal forces. method of analysis, consider in Fig. 2-48. The stif nesses, are indicated in the figure as causes reactions R and R2. considered positive when they act
In this il ustrative problem, it can be B causes compression in the upper bar BC. Therefore, if k and k2 are the respective respective internal forces are k A and reactions are shown on isolated free-bodies 2-48(c). These points are referred to as internal forces is known since the upper lower one is in tension. By writing an
body at node B, one has -k
and

seen that the displacement AB and tension in the lower stif nesses for the bars, k2 A. These internal forces at points A, B, and C in the node points. The sense of bar is in compression and equilibrium equation for the

A at bar the and Fig. the the free

Another well-organized procedure for problems is based on determining the and providing information for finding As an example of this displacement elastic axial y loaded bar system shown = AiEi/Li, Eq. 2-12, for the bar segments k and k2. An applied force P at point B forces and the displacement A at B are

A A -

k2 A -3- P
P

(2-35)
(2-36)

k

k2

The

equilibrium

equations
R = -k

for
A

the

flee-bodies
and R2

at i nodes
= -k2 A

A and

C are
(2-37)

in the positive
minate

there is only one such quantity and therefore the problem is said to one degree of kinematic indeterminacy, or one degree of fi'eedom. Thi s:
plex cases with the bars, giving
next section.

placement
is the

The main

to the

A, the principal
class of problems

objective

first

direction

degree.

of the x axis.

This

problem

is statically

indeter-

in this method

parameter
that

of analysis

of the problem.
in this

is to determine

In this em
More

the

Hence,

with
R

the
=

aid

of Eq.

2-36,
and R2 -k

only

several axial rise to several

loads and changes degrees of freedom,

is discussed

in the cross sections are considered in

section.

k P k + k2

k2 P + k2

(2-38)

negative
direction

signs
from

in Eq.
the

2-38
assumed.

indicate

that

the

reactions

act

in the

op-

t08

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars

Sec.

2-t7.

Displacement

Method

with

Several

Degrees

of Freedom

t09

Since

in

often

called

this the

solution stif ness/nethod.

bar

stif nesses

are

employed,

this

procedure

is

EXAMPLE

2-15

,k (A- A2)


bar is loaded as shown
segment

An
k 1

elastic

stepped

in Fig.
stif nesses

2-49.

Using
k and k2,

the

displacement
as well as their

method areas
Soldion

find the reactions. The bar A and A2, and E are given.

P2[ [
k 2 (A 2 --

According
respectively,

to Eql
are

2-12

the

stif nesses

k's

for

the

upper

and

lower

bar

segments

k = AE/a Therefore,
Fig, 2-49

and deflection
P]

k2 A at B due

= A2E/b
P3

per

Eq.

2-36,

the

to downward

force

P is
k3(A 3 -- A4)

k + k2
According previous to Eqs. expressions R 2-37, for Rt = -kA A, k and k2, P aA2/bA

AE/a

+ A2E/b

,/
By substituting the

1 +

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com either direction. Therefor e, this bar system


one obtains
y

andR2

--

k2 A.

LJ
P.
(b) (c)

and

R2

1 +

P bA/aA2

P4

Fig. with
freedom.

2-50 four

Axial y degrees

loaded of

bar

(2-3[

(a)

i.e.,

*'242.17

' Displacement

In this section the displacement method is extended bars to include several degrees of freedom (d.o.f.). most widely used approach for solving both linear and However, the discussion wil be limited to linearly already noted in the previous section, solution of nonlinear this method is beyond the scope of this text. The displacement method is perfectly general and analysis of statically determinate as well as indeterminate this in mind, consider a bar system consisting of three stif ness defined by their respective spring constants

of Freedom

Method

with

Several.
for This nonlinear elastic

Degrees
axial y method
is

in a geometrically compatible manner, as shown both the applied forces and the node displacements positive sense coinciding with the positive direction

An application

one

d.o.f.

per

of forces

node.:-'

at the nodes

causes

' '

has four degrees


the bar system

of freedom,
to displace

in Fig. 2-50(b). Here are shown with the of the x axis. Possible

displacernents
deflEtion

t problems. problems be used problems.


as shown

at the

at the nodes
ends,

one

give
has

a statically

rise to several

indeterminate

special

cases.

problem.

With

no
If,

can
segments ki's,

for

Fig. 2-50(a). Each one of these segments terminates at a node point,


24 This section is more advanced and can be omit ed.

however, only one node point is held and forces or displacements are applied at the other nodes, the problem is statically determinate. However, if a displacement is specified at a node, it is not possible to also specify an applied force and vice versa. With imposition of the applied forces and/or displacements, internal forces develop in the bar system. The magnitude and sense of these forces can be arrived at in the fol owing manner. With the adopted sign convention, the bar segment extension 25 between the ith and the (i + l)th

ofwhiare chcommon tothtewaodjobar inisegment ng Each nodri s. fortihsegment ebarthiente,trnal ensi folrce e(az--A/ )k/ +det isermined.
marked inthefigurefrom1to4,ispermit etoddisplace verticalily 2 Thicsanbeclarifiebynot d inthge f ect onabarsegment ofnode displacements taken one at a time.

nodes is Ai - A,+,. By multiplying

this stretch by the spring constant

11o

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Sec.

2-17.

Displacement

Method

with

Several

Degrees

of Freedom

1'il

Free-body applied
each
is

The problem
node.
obtained:

node

diagrams forces
Thus,

is resolved

for isolated are shown

beginning
- A2) - A2)

by writing
with

nodes in Fig.
node

equilibrium

showing 2-50(c).

these
fol owing

internal

as well

as

1, the

equation

set of equations
= = : :

 F. = 0 for

analysis
exarnp.

The

displacement

les fol ow. 2-16

of large

complex

method

problems

is very

with

extensively

the aid of computers.

used

in practice

Two

simple

in the

P, - k(A P2 + k(A P3 P4

- k2(A2 + k2(A2

A3) A3)

-- k3(A3 + k3(A3

-- A4) -- A4)

0 0 (2-40) 0 0

EXAMPLE
For the
cross
Solution

the elastic weightless node displacements


section of the bar

bar' held at both and the reactions


is constant throughout.

ends, using

as shown in Fig. the displacement

2-5 l, determine method. The

It is to customary

recast

these
-kl A2 + k2) A2

equations
-k2

into
A3

the fol owing

form
= P = P2

kl A - k A +(k,

-k2 A2

+ (k2 + k3) A3 -- k3 A4 = P3
-- k3 A 3 + k3 A 4 = P4

(2-41)

Here only A2 and A3 have to be found has two degrees of kinematic freedom. each segment of the bar. Applying Eqs.
-k

as A = A4 The stif ness 2-41 and setting


-k +2k -k A3 A3 A3
= = = = R -P -P R2

= 0. Therefore, the system coefficient k is the same for A  = A4 = 0, one obtains


a k

2k -k

In most problems, the applied forces Pi's Pi's occurring at nodes of zero displacement these equations can be applied tO a broader

ifying displacements instead of applied forces. node must have a known (often zero) displacement develop. As noted earlier, at any one node,

applied force or a displacement, simultaneously for the unknown quantities. In typical applications of the displacement
tions tomary A/s or reactions to recast Eq.
k -kl 0
0

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION but not both. These equations are solved www.avs4you.com In this problem, the force method would be simpler
In such cases, at least one where a reaction would one can specify either an
be anticipated, bottom one
distort
ment

are known, and the remaining are reactions. However, range of problems by spec-

A2 A2 A2

By solving

then from

the first
deflects

the

second

and

means is supported
since

and the last equations,


that,
as a rigid body

and

third

equations

in effect, the upper load is hung at the base. The middle segment
through a distance
one degree of static

R = R2 = P. This
of A2

simultaneously,

A2 = A3 = -P/k,
from the top and of the bar does
= A3.

result,

which

could

the not

Fig.

2-51

P/s are the unknowns, 2-41 in the fol owing


0
k2

method,
and

matrix

for form:

either the deflecclarity,

method

there

is only

indeterminacy.

to apply than the displace-

it is cusEXAMPLE 2-17
a k

-k k + k2 -k2
0

-k2 + k3
-k3

-k3

L4l

A3

L:l

(2-42)

(a) Consider the same and free at the bottom; reaction. For this case, 3P/k upwards.
Solution

loaded bar as in Example 2-16 supported only at the see Fig. 2-52. Determine the node displacements and R = 0. (b) Rework part (a) if the free end is displaced

top the

This equation shows how the system symmetric stif izess matrix is up from the member stif nesses. The pattern of this matrix repeats any number of node points. This formulation more clearly than the earlier case of single d.o.f. system shows why this approach is often referred as the stif lyess method. Excellent computer programs are available for solving these equations simultaneously?
26 E. L. Wilson, and the CAL/SAP CAL-86, Development Computer

(a) Here termined.

A = 0, and three nodal Therefore, this statically

displacements, determinate

A2, problem

A3, has

and three

A4, must degrees

be deof freea k

dom.

Applying

Eqs.

2-41,
-k

one
2k -k
A2 A2 A2

has
-k +2k -k A3 A3 A3
= = = = R -P -P 0

ment
1986.

of Civil

Engineering,

University

System,

of California,

Assisted Report

Learning of Structural No. UCB/SESM-86/05,

-k +k

A4 A4

Berkeley,

California,

=o

By

solving

the

last

three

equations

simultaneously,

A2

= 2P/k,

A3

= A4

Fig.

2-52

11:1

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Sec.

248.

Statically

Indeterminate

Nonlinear

Problems

113

-3P/k, checked
whereas
must

and then from the first equation, R = 2P. These results by the procedures discussed in Part A of this chapter.
the first
revised

can be easily

In calculating bars cut and

(b) In this case, a force R2 of unknown to cause the specified displacement


three equations
be to read

established

magnitude A4 = 3P/k.

for part

must be applied at the free end As before, A = 0. Therefore,


(a) apply, the fourth equation

system

-kA3

kA4

= R2

appropriate constitutive laws, including ment of supports, can be included in formulating bar behavior is linearly elastic, with the aid equation becomes
RL -AE

Any

maintained

these separated

in equilibrium

quantities, it is usually at B, and to determine

by the forces

convenient A's

thermal the of Eq.

at the cut.
last 2-9,

for

to visualize each part

the of the

effects and moveequation. If the the specialized

After substituting simultaneously,

the given value for 4 and solving 2 _= 0, 3 = P/k, and R = 0.

the four

applicable

equations
Since culating
able.

R2L2 -A2E2

(2-45)

no restfictions deflections
with

are

in Eq.

placed 2-44,

on numerous

the

constitutive nonlinear

relations problems

for

are

caltract-

2-18.
tive

Introduction
Problems

to Statically

Indeterminate
statically

Nonlinear

Problems similar manner. tinuous members with the described

internal statical indeterminacy can be solved in a It must be emphasized, however, that, except for conof linearly elastic material, superposition cannot be used procedure. Several examples using the just-descfibed

The procedures bar problems. determinacy,


material

for solution behavior.

discussed

By limiting the procedure

of linearly In this

in the preceding
elastic

three

symmetric bars in Fig. 2-47 can be analyzed regardless of the mechanical properties in each part of a two-part system. On the other hand, the bar in Fig. 2-45(a), having two degrees of kinematic indeterminacy and three distinctly dif erently stressed segments, is not susceptible to this kind of
analysis.

approach,

the problems to one degree can be extended to include


the stepped bar

indeterminate

sections

are very
axial y

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


in Fig. 2-53 or
A stepped bar is held upper part of the bar A2. (a) If the material

of kinematic incases of inelastic

loaded

effec-

procedure,
EXAMPLE

as well
248

as some

other

variations,

fol ow.

at both ends at immovable has a cross-sectional area of the bar is elastic with
by the

supports; see Fig. A; the area of the an elastic modulus

2-54(a). The lower part is E, what are


P at the point

of discontinuity

the reactions

R and

In this extended approach, the forces remain the unknowns and related at the juncture of the two systems by a compatibility condition. In su6h problems, a global eqtdlibrit m equation can always be writ en for a system. For example, for the bar in Fig. 2-53, such an equation is

= 1200 m m2, a = 750 mm, b = 500 mm, and the material is linearly elasticperfectly plastic, as shown in Fig. 2-54(d), determine the displacement A  of the step as a function of the applied force P. Let E = 200 GPa. (c) Assuming that at the instant of impending yield in the whole bar, the applied force P is removed,
determine the residual force in the bar and the residual deflection at the bar step.

of the section?

R2 caused

Use

Eqs.

application

2-43

and 2-45.

of an axial

(b) If A = 600 mm 2, A2

force

(d) Using a stress-strain of the two bar parts


Solution

diagram

for

the

during

application

material, show the strain history and removal of force P.

for

each

R+ R2+ P = 0)
Then, ends
bar

(2-43)

deflections
BC

to assure A and

at B are determined

cotnpatibility
and

at the juncture the deflection


that

C are held,

using

two

of bar AB

dif erent

of the two
paths.

bar segments,
Therefore

the that for

(a) In this approach, shown in Figs. 2-54(b)


to a tensile force R

it is convenient and (c). The


and elongates

to visualize upper part


an amount

the bar is subjected


A. The

to be divided throughout
lower part

in two, as its length


contracts an

at B is A4B

and

is ABc;

it fol ows

amount A2 under be equal. Therefore, the fol owing:


From statics:

the

action using

of a compressive Eqs. 2-43 and

2-44

force R2. These or its equivalent,

deflections Eq. 2-45,

must one has

Fig.'2-53
material.

A bar

of nonlinear

R

R2

P

114

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Sec.

2-t8.

Statically

Indeterminate

Nonlinear

Problems

115

R

. R

R = 1 + 750 x 1200/(500
Hence, the normal stresses are

P

x 600)
and

P

and
and

R2
-P/1600

3P

cr = R/A

= P/2400 lower part

or2 -- R2/A2

As [ cr2 I > crY, the load


A 2 R2

At this
tionship

400

MPa

the magnitude

load,

the

at impending
P,

between

of yp = cryp/E
cr2 and

of the

= 2 x 10 -3. Therefore,
= 640

bar just

yield

is found
reaches

by setting
yield,

cr2 = -400

from

the previous

the

strain

attains

MPa.

rela-

gX

10 a

Pyp
and

= 1600

tryp

x 103 N = 640 kN = 1 mm

x// / 4

'/ /x

A 2 = A = ypb
quantities locate point

= 2 x 10 -3 x 500
2-54(e).

(a)

(b)

(d)

Material

properties

P1
Oyp
720

On increasing P above 640 kN, the lower part of the bar continues to yield, carrying a compressive force R2 = CrypA2 = 480 kN. At the point of impending yield for the whole bar, the upper part just reaches yield. This occurs when R = CrypAl = 240 kN and the strain in the upper part just reaches gyp = CrypiE.
Therefore,

These

A in Fig.

640

A ,

:"'"" Contained
--lastic range

plast floicw
64 mm
(f) Strain
upper

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION A, , 1 . 3 3 00.75 DLI 


P = R + R2
0.50

720

kN

X 103

www.avs4you.com
and
2 ' X 10 a

/x = eypa
P = 720

= 2 x 10 -3 X 750
is the

= 1.5 Inm
or limit

These

is uncontained

quantities
the

and

locate

point

B in Fig.
kN

2-54(e).

ultimate

Beyond
load,
of

this
system.

load

point,

of the
In

the plastic
rod.

flow
no
plastic

Note
information

simplicity
on the

of calculating
deflection characteristics

the

limit

which,
the

however,
general,

provides

0.375

1.5
(e)

limit
path
bar

analysis
elastic-plastic

is simpler
load-deflection

than

'elastic

analysis,
relationship.

which
when 2-54(e),
kN.

in turn
the the
On

is simpler

than

tracing
reaches plastic.
the bar

in

(g)

Strain
lower

path
bar

in

the

Fig.

2-54

**(c) According to the solution 720 kN and deflects 1.5 mm,


At this instant, R = 240 kN

point
and

in part (b), B in Fig.


R2 = 480

applied whole
removing

force P just bar becomes


this force,

From

compatibility: A = A 2 or
gl a

R2b A2E

AlE

By solving

these

two

equations
P

simultaneously,

rebounds be treated per the actions The the bar force.

elastically (see Section 2-6). In the with an opposite sign from that of solution found for part (b) based on caused by the removal of the force P residual force Rr in the bar is equal parts less the reduction in these forces Hence, for the upper part of the bar,

elastic equations, such a force must the initial y applied force. Therefore, Eqs. 2-39, the upper and lower reare, respectively, - P/4 and - 3P/4. to the initial force in either one of caused by the removal of the applied

R = 1 + aA2/bA
yielding the same result as found
of data (b) By direct substitution into

and - R2 - 1 + bA1/aA2
in Example
Eqs. 2-39,

P

(2-39)

Re

= R

P/4

= 240

720/4

= 60 kN

2-15.

Lik.ewise,

for the lower


Re = R2

part
-

of the bar,
3P/4 = 480 3 x 720/4 = 60 kN

116

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Sec.

2.18.

Statically

Indeterminate

Nonlinear

Problems

117

Both
bar

results
The residual
discontinuity.

are the same,


deflection

as they

should

be, as no applied

force

remains
using

at the
either

Solution

part of the bar. For example,


tensile residual
rebound shown in this figure

at the bar discontinuity

force, based on Eq. 2-9, it contracts aPt/(4AE) deflection is 1.5 - 1.125 = 0.375 mm, as shown
by the dashed

since the upper

part loses P/4 = 180 kN of the


= 1.125 mm. in Fig. 2-49(e).
to OA.

can be determined

line BD is parallel

Hence, the The elastic

This problem resistahce to However, the see Fig. 2-55(c). of equilibrium

*(d) The strain histories for the two parts of the bar are given in Figs. 2-54(f) and (g). As shown in part (b), the lower segment begins to yield first. At that instant, /x = 1 mm and the strain in the lower bar is A/b = 2 x 10 -3, whereas in the
the figures.

problem.

upper bar it is /x /a = 1.33 x 10 -3. These results


The ins{ant when the upper

mm. Therefore, the strains in both parts of the bar have increased by a factor of 1.5 and are so shown in the figures by their respective point.s B. No increase in the stress can occur in the lower bar during this time, as it is in a state of pure

bar begins

are identified
to yield

occurs

by points

at /x = 1.5

A in

of deformations. However, since the requirements deformations involve displacements, a connecting erty of materials must be added. Let subscripts a and s on P, e, and cr identify aluminum and steel, respectively. Then, noting that

This

is internally statically indeterminate since the manner the force P is distributed between the two materials total axial force at an arbitrary section can easily be For an internal statically indeterminate problem, the remain valid, but an additional condition is necessary

auxiliary

condition

comes

from

the requirements

of statics condition

involve based

of compatibility
forces on the

in which is unknown. determined; requirements to solve

the

the
and propfor

by a force placement
elastic
From

plastic

deflection /x = 0.375 mm. Hence, the corresponding residual strains A/a and /x /b are, respectively, 0.50 x 10 -3 and 0.75 x 10 -3 m/m. The corresponding points are identified by points D in Figs. 2-54(f) and (g).
EXAMPLE 2-19

deformation.

When the applied

load is completely

removed,

the residual

response

developed in steel and aluminum or the strain of the two materials


of both materials, one

has

and that at every section, is the same, and tentatively


the fol owing:

these quantities the applied force

as being is supported

the disassuming

equilibrium: Pa + Ps = PorP2

From

compatibility: Aa = As or a ' Es

A 30-in long atuninum rod is enclosed and (b). The two materials are bonded

the two materials can be idealized as shown, end deflection wil occur for P = 80 kips

sectional

areas of steel

within a steel-alloy tube; see Figs. 2-55(a) NON-ACTIVATED VERSION together. If the stress-strain diagrams for www.avs4you.com As and of aluminum A are the same and equal to 0.5 in 2.
respectively, in Fig. 2-55(d), and for P2 = 125 kips? The what crossFrom material properties:

and

es

crdEs

o ksi

By
Steel

A s
20C

From
psi.

noting

the diagram

that

cr = P/A

the elastic

and

moduli

crs=

are Es = 30 x 10 a psi and E = 10 x 10 a


Ors Pa Ps

PdAs,

one

can

solve

the

three

equations.

Thus,

(b)

150

i
/
1.67 4 5 6.67
(d)

era

Hence,
=20k,

Ps = [AEd(AE)]P
andP = 60k.

= 3P,

and

P + 3Pa

= P = 80 k; therefore,

P

dx
Fig. 2-55
(a) (c)

100
10

By

applying
A

Eq.
-

2-9

to either

material,
-

the

tip deflection
=

for
0.120

80 kips
in

wil

be

Aluminum

PsL AsEs to a strain


elastically, of this

PaL AaEa
which solution.

20 0.5

x 103 x 30 x 10 x 106

This

materials respond made at the beginning

corresponds

of 0.120/30

tX10

materials, by direct proportion, At P = 100 kips, the stress stress-strain diagram,

since

for the linearly

elastic

response,

satisfies In fact,

= 4 x 10 -3 in/in.

the applied in aluminum no higher

the strain

the material-property as may be seen

In this
from

force

can reach
P can

stress

reaches can

be as large as 100 kips. 50 ksi. According to the be resisted by this material,

5 x 10 -3 in/in

assumption Fig. 2-55(d),

range,

both

for both

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Sec.

248.

Statically

Indeterminate

Nonlinear

Problems

119

the

although
Therefore

aluminum

the

strains
rod

can

may

be counted

continue

upon

to increase.
must

to resist

Therefore,
only

Pa

= Aao'yp

beyond

= 0.5

P = 100 kips,
X 50

Solution

25 kips.

The

crs=
in/in.

100/0.5
Therefore,

for

remainder

= 200 ksi. At this


the tip deflection

P2 = 125 kips,

of the

100 kips

applied

toad

stress

level,
x 10 -3

be carried

must

be carried

e = 200/(30

by the

x 103) = 6.67
in
in aluminum,

steel

by the

tube:

steel

Hence,

tube.

x 10 -3

If the applied be developed loading, the


deformation
From statics:

force in the steel Ac, of

P is sufficiently large to close the small gap, a force P wil steel rod and a force Pc, in the copper tube. Moreover, upon rod wil compress axial y A, which is as much as the axial
the copper tube plus the initial gap. Hence,

A = esL
Note rod flow.

= 6.67 to the stress


to determine/x

x 30 = 0.200
from the

unique
10 -3

that can
in/in;

strain

it is not

carry.

Thus,

However, the strains


see Fig.

corresponds

possible

in this case, in both materials


2-55(d).

the

of 50 ksi,

elastic are the

which

strain

steel same,

tube i.e.,

is all that

contains the plastic es = a = 6.67 x


the two a permanent

the

aluminum

since

no
From compatibility:

Ps

Pcu

25,000

lb

would terials

If the

minum bonded
axial

set (stretch)

rebound broken,

applied

deformations

rod. This together.

of (6.67

elastically. the steel

force

P2 = 125 kips
Thus, tube would

incompatibility Instead,
in

- 5) x 10 -3 = 1.67
both materials. In

if one imagines the bond between return to its initial shape. But

were

removed,

both

materials

in the

ma-

rod
By applying Eq. 2-9, A = PL/AE,
15.0025

As

Ac.

0.0025

substituting,
+ 15

and
0.0025

simplifying,

of strain cannot develop residual stresses develop,


this case,

x 10 -3 in/in

would

the

which

if the

aluminum

two maintain

occur

materials
rod

in the aluthe
remains

are same

slightly solution

compressed of this

kind

and the steel tube is slightly stretched. of problem is il ustrated in the next

EXAMPLE

2-20

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


Ps1.176Pc,
Solving the two equations simultaneously,

The procedure example.

for the

2 x 30 x 106Ps

- 3 x 17 x 106Pc"
= 10,000 lb

= 0.0025

A steel

rod

with

a cross-sectional

area is 15.0000

of 2 in 2 and

a length If an axial

of 15.0025

in is loosely P = 25 kips

Pcu

6900

lb

and

Ps cross-sectional

18,100

lb areas gives

inserted

sectional

into

area

a copper

of 3 in 2 and

tube,

as shown

in Fig.

in long.

2-56.

The

copper

force

tube

has a cross-

is

and

dividing

these

forces

by the

respective

applied through a rigid cap, sume that the elastic moduli


= 17 x 10 6 psi, respectively.
P=25k

what stresses wil develop in the two materials? Asof steel and copper are Es = 30 x 10 6 psi and Ecu

crcu

= 6900/3
stresses were
note

= 2300
too
Ls

psi
were small

and

ors =
the
considered

18,100/2
limit above
are

= 9050
of its solution
small,

psi
or if

If either of these the applied force


be valid. Also

above the proportional to close the gap,


the deformations

material

would
it is suffi-

not

that

since

ciently
0.0025"

accurate Solution

to use

= Lc,.

Alternative

Steel

rod

The force developing

F necessary this force,

A s = 2 in 2
Lcu =

force.
materials.

The

remaining

to close the gap may the rod acts as a "spring" force P' causes equal

found first, using Eq. 2-9. In and resists a part of the applied deflections A and A, in the two

be

Fig. 2-56

Copper tube
= 3 in 2

F ..

AAsEs
Ls

0.0025

x 2 x 30
15.0025

106
F=

10,000 25 -

lb 10

= =

10 kips 15 kips

P'

=P-

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Sec.

2-t8.

Statically

Indeterminate

Nonlinear

Problems

Then
From

Pu is the force


statics:

if P's is the force


carried

resisted

by the copper

by the steel
tube,

rod,

in addition

to the force

F, and

tightened. Find the stress in the tube if the temperature of the assembly is raised from60 Fto 160F. LetE = 17 x 106 psi, Es = 30 x 106 psi, a = 9.1 x
10 -6 p.er F, and a = 6.5 x 10 -6 per F.
Solution

p;
From compatibility:
cu

+p'

cu

= P'

15

or

P;Ls AsEs

Ac,E

If the copper tube and the steel bolts were free to expand, the axial thermal elongations shown in Fig. 257(b) would take place. However, since the axial deformation of the tube must be the same as that of the bolts, the copper tube wil be pushed back and the bolts wil be pulled out so that the net deformations wil be the same. Moreover, as can be established by considering a free body of

0025x 106 P' s = 3 x 1715 x 106 p, . . 2 x 15.30


By solving the two appropriate 6.9 kips and P's = 8.1 kips,
determined as fol ows:

P' = 20 17 Ps ,
tha t Pu =

presslye
are
From

th assembly
equal.

force

above

Hence,

P in the copper

some

arbitrary

tube and the tensile

section

such

as A-A

force

in Fig.

P in the steel bolts

2-57(a),

the com-

statics:

If (cryp)s = 40 ksi and (cryp)c = 10 ksi, the limit lead for this assembly
Pull = (Cryp)sAs
both
parts

equations simultaneously, it is found or Ps = P} + F = 18.1 kips.

Pu

Ps

can be

From

compatibility:

+'(f yp)cuAcu
yield,

At the ultimate
initial lengths

lo&d,
of the

materials

is of no consequence.

EXAMPLE

2-21

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com a(gT)Lu AuEu = as(gT)L


therefore, the small discrepancy in the
This kinematic relation, on the basis of Fig. 2-57(b)
and 2-9, becomes

= 110 kips

with
PsLs

the

aid

of Eqs.

2-18

PuLcu

A copper

between two very bolts are symmetrically 27 Invar this reason

tube 12-in long and having


rigid

caps made of Invar27; see Fig. 2-57(a). Four -in steel arranged parallel to the axis of the tube and are lightly has an a  0 and for and watch springs.

a cross-sectional

area of 3 in 2 is placed

or, since
9.1 x

L
10 -6

= L, T = 100 and 0.442


X 100 Pcu

in 2 is the cross
106

section

of one

bolt,

is a steel alloy which at ordinary temperatures is used in the best grades of surveyor's tapes
Elastic deformations

3 x = 6.5

17 X

10 -6

100

Ps

4 x

0.442

30

10 a

Thermal

d

By solving the two equations simultaneously, P = 6750 lb. Therefore, in the copper tube is crc = 6750/3 = 2250 psi. The kinematic expression just used may also be set up on the fol owing statement: the dif erential expansion of the two materials
Final

the

stress

change
that

in temperature
place

is accommodated
materials.

by or is equal

to the elastic

basis of the due to the deformations

position

take

in the

two

EXAMPLE

2-22

A steel

washers

bolt

Fig.

2-57

(a)

see Fig.

2-58(a).

of total

having

If the bolt

thickness,

a cross-sectional

in this

L, each

assembly

having

area

A = 1 in 2 is used

the cross-sectional
is tightened

to grip

initial y

area A2 = 9 in2;
so that its stress

two

steel

1:22

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Sec.

2-t8.

Statically

Indeterminate

Nonlinear

Problems

123

By solving
ml

the two equations


X P

simultaneously,
P

1 + A2/A

1 +

= 0.1P

1500

lb.

= 9A 1

Section

a-a

t t--tft
h
h

tt
hh+x (c)

tit
Y

stress in the bolt after the application of the force P becomes 21,500 psi. This remarkable result indicates that most of the applied force is carried by decreasing
the initial compressive force on the assembled washers The solution is not valid if one of the materials ceases if the applied force is such that the initial procompression
is destroyed.

Therefore,

the increase

of the stress

in the bolt

is X/A

= 1500 psi,

and the

since Y = 0.9P. to behave elastically of the assembled


are found in many

parts
prac-

or

(a)

(b)

Fig.

2-58

tical applications. A hot rivet used in the assembly of plates, upon cooling, develops within it enormous tensile stresses. Thoroughly tightened bolts, as in a head of an automobile engine or in a flange of a pressure vessel, have high initial P = 15 kips is
tensile
occurs

Situations

approximating

the above

idealized

problem

is 20 ksi, what
applied
Solution

wil
assembly?

be the final

stress

in this bolt

after

a force

to the

crucial y

stresses;

in the

important

so do the steel
tensile

initial

that

on applying
stresses.

tendons

the working

in a prostressed

loads,

only

concrete

a small

beam.

increae

It is

A free-body 58(b), where


force

force

in the washers.

corresponding It is the initial

the tensile force in the bolt,'and Y is the the washers due to P. As a result of these remain in contact, the bolt elongates the elastically. Hence, the final conditions are
From statics:

P is applied

is shown

From

to the initial conditions of the assembly tensile force in the bolt, and Ic is the initial
statics,

in Fig.

It = Io A free-body

is in Fig. 2NON-ACTIVATED VERSION compressive plastic range of material behavior and plot 2-58(c), where X designates the increase in www.avs4you.com
EXAMPLE 2-23

of the assembly

after

the

Extend
havior

the solution
the

of Example

2-14

for the frame


same.

decrease in the compressive force on forces, X and Y, if the adjacent parts same amount as the washers expand as fol ows:

cross-sectional

area

A of each
yielding

bar

is the

a force-displacement
Assume

shown

in Fig.
ideal

2-59(a)

elastic-plastic

diagram.

into

The

the
be-

with

material

at crvp.

Ovp A
B

P +
or since Ic = I,

(I-

Y)

(I,

+X)

A '

I +

2 cosa

F2

F,

F2
I + 2 cos 3 a

X+Y=P

x,
o

Elastic
range

From

compatibility:
c

Abolt
By applying Eq. 2-9,

 Awasher

s
c'
P P

AlE
COS 20

O,p L

(b)

(c)

XL

YL

A2

(a)

A

- A2E

Fig.

2-59

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Sec.

2-19.

Dif erential

Equation

Approach

for

Deflections

't25

Solution

,.282-19.
equilibrium equation for forces
F

Alternative
Deflections

Dif erential

Equation

Approach

for

The
is

atjoint
+ 2F2cosat

C, Fig.

2-59(c),
= P

recognizing

symmetry,

bars

The

AC'

compatibility
and

DC'

with

equation

that

of bar

at joint

BC'

C, Fig.
is

2-59(a),
at

relating

the elongations

in

to reformulate for linearly in general,

by solving

In Section

2-7, the axial

a first-order
elastic du/dx

this problem as a second-order equation. materials fol ows from two observations. =  = cr?E = P/AE, one has

dif erential

deflection

u of a bar was in essence

ex = du/dx,

Eq. 2-6. It is instructive


Such

determined

an equation First, since,

A 2 =

A

COS

p = AEx x
using Eq. 2-9 and the es-

(2-46)

ever,

In both of these equations, these equations hold

it is assumed true whether

that the deformations are small. the bar material behaves elastically

plastically.

tablished

By noting

compatibility

that
F2[L/cos

the inclined

equation,

bars
FL --cosat
AE

are L/(cos

ct) long,

The second finitesimal

a typical
with
SinceFx

at]
AE

or

F2

= Fcos

2at

a positive

element

relation element
= 0ordP

sense

such as that in Fig. 2-60, where


according
+pdx

is based on the equilibrium of an axial y loaded bar.

For

requirements this purpose,

to the previously
= 0, and

adopted

all forces

sign convention.

are shovn

for an inconsider

By substituting simplifying

leads-to

the last expression the same results

F = 1 + 2c0s 3at.
It is seen from this solution that

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION dx P and F2 1 + 2c0s P 3at www.avs4you.com This equation states that the rate of change
cos 2 at (2-34)
the maximum force occurs in the vertical bar.

into

the equilibrium as found in Example

equation 2-14:

at joint

C, and

n
with

(2-47)

F, = crypA into the left side of Eq. 2-34, the force


the limit of elastic behavior is obtained. E is identified by point A in Fig. 2-59(c). This value

At the impending

yield

Fl = crypA,

and,

per Eq. 2.9, A  = crypL/E.


of P occurring

P = crypA(1

By substituting

force

P is equal
AE

to the

negative

of the

applied

x of the internal axial force p. On this 'basis,

+ 2 cos 3 a) at
at A  = CrypL/

assuming

constant,

By increasing force P above the first yield remains constant, and the equation of statics force F2 until the stress in the inclined bars

CryvA.

yielding, condition cedure

At the impending

when the the concept

the joint C equilibrium equation corresponds to the plastic litnit of finding this load is rather simple,
limit load of the is reached. collapse In Chapter mechanism.

yield

in the inclined

in the vertical bar, force F = crvpA at joint C is sufficient for determining reaches Cryp. This occurs when F2 =

xx
2a This
panying

= AE xx
is optional; can

or
after

AE dx 2 Section
Px
unit

p
the

(2-48)
accom-

gives P = CrypA(1 q- 2 cos ct). This load for the system. Note that the proas the system is statically determinate
13, such a limit load is associated with

bars,

and the vertical

bar already

section
examples.

be studied

2-7 before
lb per
length

At the impending yield in the inclined bars, per Eq. 2-9, A2 = (CrypiE)[L/cos or] and A  = A2/cos ct = CrypL/(E cos 2 cO. This value of A  locates the abscissa for point B in Fig. 2-59(c). Beyond this point, all bars continue to yield without bound
based on ideal plasticity.

P+dP

-dx

element
bar.

Fig.

2-60

of

Infinitesimal
an

axial y

loaded

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in Bars

Problems

Itisimport tonot anttheat thtehree basi concept c ofengi s neeri me-ng


chanics of solids are included in deriving this governing dif erential equa-

The constants of integration C and C2 can be found by noting that the deflection t is zero at both ends, i.e., u(0) = 0 and u(L) = 0. Hence, from the last equation,
AEu(0) = 0 and C2 = 0

tion.
and

is defined
boundary elastic
terminate

that

The

of kinematics

requirements

conditions bar problem.


and

by Eq.

2-3.

through

of statics

statically

constitutes Equation

A solution

the

are satisfied
use

indeterminate

2-48

a solution is equally

of Eq.

of Eq.

2-48

2-6.

by making

problems.

of any given applicable

subject

The

constitutive

use

of Eq.

to the prescribed
for

relation

2-47,

AEu(L)
Since u'(x) = du/dx,

= poL2/2
from
R2

+ CL
Eq.
= P(O)

= 0

and

C = - poL/2

However

axial y loaded to statically deease

2-46,
= AE u'(O) = -poL/2

of

solution

discontinuous, obtaining conditions procedure procedure singularity


However lems

px/AE

several alternatives are possible. solutions for each segment of a bar at the junctures? This is related to discussed in Section 2-7, and to the considered in Sections 2-16 and 2-17. function. s, discussed in Section 5-16,
direct use of Eq. 2-48 for bars where

should

be a continuous

function.

One of them consists of and enforcing continuity the statically determinate statically indeterminate For concentrated forces, can be used to advantage.
several axial loads are

When

the

function

is
The
Similarly,

negative

sign
R

shows
= P(L) that

that

this
= AE

force
u'(L) forces

is generated
= poL/2 are shared

by compressive
= poL/2 equally by the

stresses.

These
ports.

results

indicate

the applied

two

sup-

applied and/or the procedures


into
in practical
tinuous
x

statically

cross sections change becomes cumbersome. Therefore discussed before, including the scheme for dividing probdeterminate and indeterminate ones, are more useful

The example
function.

applications.

dif erent conditions.


Similarly,

(b) The general

constants These

solution

of integration must are P(O) -- 0 and u(L)

for the problem

found

be determined -- O; hence,

in (a) remains
AE

from

applicable.
u'(O) the

two boundary = 0 and C -- O.

However,

that fol ows

il ustrates

EXAMPLE
R3

2-24

= poL2/2 + C2 = 0 NON-ACTIVATED AEu(L) VERSION www.avs4you.com


Therefore,

the procedure

when

px is a con-

and

C2 = -poL2/2

in a centrifuge such that an approximately develops in the bar, as shown in Fig.


(b) If the

(a) Consider

a bar

of uniform

cross

section

placements
Solution

same

u(x)

bar

be along

is supported

the bar?

only

uniformly distributed axial 2-61(a). Determine the reactions


at one end, Fig. 2-61(b),

held

between

two

rigid

supports

what

force po N/m at the ends.


wil the

spun

AEu

PO (L 2_ 2

x 2)

dis-

As

is to be

expected,

R3

=AEu'(L)

= poL

Po\

(a) Using

Eq.

2-48,

and

noting

Eq.
d eu
du

2-46,

on integrating

twice:

AE x2 = -(-Po)
AEu -

= po
+ Cix + C2

Problems
Section 2-4

and

12 mm

in diameter,

what

axial

stress

is caused

by

the
= 75

applied
GPa.

force?

Assume

elastic

behavior

and

let E

AE xx = pox + C = P
pox 2
2

(a)

(b)

Fig.

2-61

element at the B in Fig. 2-48(c)

nuity

29 This

to be equal,

requires

the

discontinuity where

and that the axial

displacements

of the

be in equilibrium. at a discontinuity

forces

abutting
the

acting

(See, force

example, P may also

on an isolated
for

bar

segments

at a

2-t. A standard steel specimen of in diameter is elongated 0.0087 in in an 8-in gage length when it was subjected to a tensile force of 6250 lb. If the specimen was known to be in the elastic range, what is the elastic
modulus of the steel?

Section

2-7

2-3.

the element be zero.)

infinitesimal

must for an aluminum m/m. If the rod rod due to an is 400 mm long

A steel
transmit

rod

a tensile

10 m long

force

used

of 5 kN

in a control

without

mechanism rod?

stretching

2-2. The axial applied force

strain is 10 -3

more than 150 MPa.

3 mm, nor exceeding an allowable (a) What is the diameter of the

stress Give

of

Axial the answer to the nearest mil imeter.

Strains E =

and 210

Deformations GPa.

in

Bars

Problems

Does strength (b) Find the

or stif ness spring constant

of the rod control for the rod.

the

design?

 1800 
rum

2-4. Revise the data in Example 2-2 to read as fol ows: P = 10 kips, P3 = 100 kips, and P4 = 30 kips, and the bar segments AB, BC, and CD are, respectively, 4-, 2-. and 3-ft long. Then find (a) the force P2 necessary for equilibrium and (b) the total elongation of
rod AD. The cross-sectional area of the rod from A to
60"

2400

100"

Bis
ment

1 in 2, from
diagram

B to C is 4 in 2, and

from

C to D is 2

Fig.
Pinned

P245

in 2. Let
2-$.
able 2-6.
cular

E = 30 x 103 ksi.
along the bar.

(c) Plot
constant
2-2. L, Z2,
cross

the axial
for
and
section

displacebar of varicirFig. P2-9

joint

Find
cross Assume
member

the
section

axial
that
of

spring
in Example segments
variable

the
L3

vertical placements
Fig. P2-'11

2-'16.
the

of the
in Problem

tionless shown,

1-13 are, respectively, the axial force, ment diagrams

600,

500, length

the axial strain, along the bar

and and

400 mm long. Plot the axial displaceE = 200 GPa.

drum what = 200 GN/m 2-t2. Determine

weighing 500 kg is placed in the position wil be the elongation of rod AB? Let 2. the shortening of steel tubular
The cross-sectional area

bars, BD as shown
stress

A planar

displacements are negligibly

are

and EG, and three rods, in the figure. On application


in all rods is 15 ksi.

mechanical

small, small).

the.horizontal

dis-

system

consists
AB,
rod

Each

CF, and EH, of force P at G


is 20 in. long.

of two rigid

2-7.
lem

Find
2-6.

the

axial

spring

constant

for

the

bar

in Prob-

2-8. consists
gether applied

A solid bar 50 mm in diameter of a steel and an aluminum


as

and 2000 mm part fastened

long to-

240. In a California oil field, a very pipe got stuck in hard clay (see figure). essary to determine at what depth this engineer on the job ordered the pipe
large upward tensile force. As a result

long

-aluminum Determine system the bar.

in the figure. When axial force P is system, a strain gage attached to the indicates an axial strain of 873 IJ.m/m. (a) the magnitude of applied force P. (b) If the behaves elastically, find the total elongation of Let Es, = 210 GPa, and E^ = 70 GPa.

to

shown the

tion, the the pipe Approximately

pipe came up elastically 2 ft. At the same time, elongated 0.0014 in in an 8-in gage length. where was the pipe stuck? Assume that

the

cross-sectional

that the media tic deformation

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


to
of this

steel It was occurred. subjected

spreader
nec-

C and

D.

bar AB due to application


E = 200 GPa.

of tensile
of the

tube

forces

is 100

at

mm 2. Let

(a) Determine the vertical deflection E, and G caused by the application lb. (Since vertical displacements zontal displacements are negligibly
the

ating the vertical

deflected

shape

displacements.

for

the

system,

of points B, D, of force P = 300 are small, the horismall.) (b) Show

Let E = 30 x 103 ksi.

greatly

exagger-

area

of the

pipe

was

constant

and

20"
20"
in Problem

C
/

surrounding of the

pipe

the pipe hindered the elasvery lit le in a static test.

Fig.
derrick

P2-'12

'2-13.
1-43 wire.

Determine

the

elongation

in rod

AB

if it is made of 0.125-in-diameter Let E = 10 x 103 ksi.

aluminum-alloy

- 20" I
2-]7. Jr

F P=300Ibr G
Fig. P246

'2-'14. Determine eter high-strength


lem 1-44. Let E =

the elongation steel rod CD


200 GPa.

in the

for

the

20-mm-diamframe in Prob-

Fig.

P2-8
Pipe Clay 

2-'15. hangers
ers
whose Fig. P2-10
constructed as shown in the

A rigid machine AE and BF,


are made
elastic

part AD as shown
cold-worked
E =

is suspended in the figure.


Monel
180 GPa.

by double The hangAlloy


This

of
modulus

(Ni-Cu)
material

2-9. Two wires are connected in the figure. The wire on the wire psi.
how

= 0.10

on the right (a) If a weight


much wil

in - and E = 30 x 106 psi. The


has
it deflect due to the

to a rigid bar, left is of steel,

A = 0.20 in 2 and E = 10 x 106 W = 2000 lb is applied as shown,


stretch in the wires?

aluminum-alloy

as shown having A
2-1t. A wall

yields

bracket

is

(b)

bar

Where

would

remain

should

the

horizontal?

weight

be located

such

that

the

figure.
Steel ber rod

All
AB

joints

may
a cross-sectional beam.

be
If

considered
area a 1000-mm

pin-connected.
of 5 mm diameter 2. Memfric-

BC

has is a rigid

hanger pair BF. Determine the deflection that would occur at D by applying a downward force of 10 kN at C. Check hanger stresses to assure that an elastic solution is applicable. Sketch deflected member AD, greatly exaggerating the vertical displacements (since

area

is 50 mm 2 for

at approximately

hanger

600

pair

MPa.

AE

The

and

cross-sectional

b weighJag ].12 lb/It, the free end to elongate  = ]0 x ]0 gsi.


2-]8. Wat wil be te

in xampie

2-3,

what 0.250

the rod

sou]d in under

is a ] in  umium
its length its ow
free

be weight?
of the

100 mm 2 for

deQecdoa

of the

end

rod in xamgJe 2-3 , instead of ooke's law, stress-straJ relatiosig is  = g", were n is a her dependent on the progenies of the material?
2-]9. A rod of two derent cross-sectional areas

made

of soft

cogget

and

is subjected

to a tensile

load

t30

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars
20 rnm
I1 i1

Problems
change in the length of the rod due to the application of force P. Assume that the support provided for the rod by the surrounding material varies linearly as shown. Express the answer in terms of P, A, a, and E, where E is the elastic modulus of the rod. 2-26. For the same frame as in Example 2-4, Fig. 2-24, find the horizontal and vertical deflections at

A = 1 in 2 /e'

A = in 2 '

25

mm

Fig.

P249

600
150 rn

mm

point
at B.
2-27.

B caused
Assume
Determine

by applying
linearly
horizontal

a horizontal
elastic behavior
and vertical

force
of the
elastic

of 3 kips
material.
dis-

as shown in the figure. (a) Determine of the rod caused by the application kips. Assume that the axial stress-strain
is

the elongation of force P relationship

5
75 rnrn

placements ing the

of load dimensions

point shown

B for the in the

two-bar figure.

system Assume

havthat

 = call6,000
where cr is in ksi. (b) Find upon removal of force P. ing, copper behaves as a an E equal to the tangent origin.' 2-20. A two-bar system in the figure. The cross-sectional
0.200 in 2 and for bar BC

+ (cr/165)

3
Fig. P2-2i ' '2-24. Find bar of constant in the figure, the

for
Fig. P2-23

each

bar,

AE

= 104 kips.

the residual bar elongation Assume that during unloa.dlinearly elastic material with to the virgin cr-e curve at the

weight volume
is E.

when hung from for this material


Two bars are to be

the top. is 'y and


cut from

The mass the elastic


a 1-in-thick

per unit modulu


metal

total elongation cross-sectional if it is rotated

A of a slender elastic area A, such as shown in a horizontal plane with

100"

has

the

configuration area for


in 2. If the

is 0.150

diagram for the rods is bilinear would each wire elongate due tical force P = 4 kips?

as shown, to the application

bar stress-strain how 'much

shown AB

2-22.

an angular velocity weight of the material


effect ample of the 1-6. inertial

of to radians per second. is % Neglect the small


Hint: the First
pin
forces between

The unit amount

is

plate
its

in. Bar A'is to have


and both
weight

so that

both

bars
Bar

entire

of ver-

1 in wide bars
same

to the

of the

-A

4-54-

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


length.

a constant
Determine

have

a constant

width
the

of 2 in throughout
at the
LA/LB

thickness

of

of extra material by the pin. at a section a distance r from

at the bottom. stretch


P.

B is to be

Each

bar is to be subjected
ratio

3 in wide

find the stress by integrating the r and L. See ExFig. P2-27

wil

load

the

same

amount.

Neglect

so that

the

bar.

2-28. linearly

For

the

tical
ksi.

displacements
A jib

elastic

data given behavior,

of load
the

in Problem 2-20, find the horizontal

point

B. Let

E = 10 x 103
shown

assuming and ver-

'P =4k 38'


oksi E2 =5


X 103 ksi

'
Fig. P2-22

Fig.
'2-25. is bonded thickness An elastic rod having to the surrounding a, as shown in

P2-24
a cross-sectional material, which the figure. Determine area has the A
a

figure.

2-29.

and tube BC, 320 mm 2. (a) Find the of the crane at point B. (b) Determine
caused
E = 200 GPa.

Rod

AB

crane

has

has

a cross-sectional
application

dimensions

vertical the

area

flection
Let

by the

of force

stif ness vertical deP = 16 kN.

of 300 mm 2

in the

10 Ei--10X 103 ksi


Fig. P2-20

cone supported at the large end on a rigid shown in the figure. Determine the deflection
piece
plate. caused

2-23. The dimensions of a frustum of a right


material the origin
extended

base

2-2'i.
figure increase

The
is cut in

small
from length

tapered

symmetric.
piece

shown
Determine by
its

in the
the own

top due to the weight of the body. The unit weight


is 'y; the of the
cone.

of the
of

a 4-mm-thick of this

elastic coordinate

modulus

axes

is E. Hnt: at the vertex

io yO unitdistarce p er nce)


Fig. P2-25
Fig.

Rod 

2000
P2-29

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars

Problems
Sections 24'1
the

t33
and 242
B caused using Eq.

Section
2-30. A steel

2-8
bar 2 in wide and 0.5 in thick is 25 in

long, as shown in the P, the bar width becomes Estimate the magnitude
elongation take E = of the

figure.

On

narrower of applied
Assume and v =

application of force by 0.5 x 10 -3 in. force P and the axial


elastic 0.25. behavior and

2-40. Verify by applied


2-24.
24

force applying
2-16.

vertical deflection of point P = 3 kips in Example 2-4

2-41.
P2-37
G in

By
Problem

Eq.
vertical

2-24,

find
deflection

the

deflection
of point

of point
B caused

30

bar. 10 3 ksi

Fig.
Fig. P2-32

2-42.

Find

the

dency
contraction.

for For and


in

thermal the data horizontal


temperature

expansion

is counteracted 2-20, of point


in the

by find the B caused


rod. As:

Fig.

P2-30

2-33. tical
a rise

given in Problem displacement


of 100 F

stress might 2-38. mit ing sions

concentration factors from Fig. 2-32. Where a potential fracture occur? A machine part of constant thickness for transcyclical axial loading should have the dimenshown in the figure. (a) Select the thickness

by the
2-43. by the

applied
Find applied the

load

in Problem

2-27

using
of point 2-29 using

Eq.

2-24.
B caused Eq. 2-24.

vertical deflection force P in Problem

2-44. spreader

2-3t,
wide

A
and

10-mm-thick
2000 mm
figure.

low-alloy-steel
long is subjected

plate
to a set

150 edges,
transin the

mm
of uni:

formly
as shown

distributed
in the

frictional
If the

forces
total

along
decrease

its two

verse plied
gation
= 200

150-mm forces
of the
GPa

dimension at section a-a due to the apis 15 x 10 -3 mm, what is the total elonbar
and

elastic behavior and use a and E given in Table 1 the Appendix for 6061-T6 aluminum alloy. 2-34. For the data given in Problem 2-29, find the tical and horizontal displacements of point B by a rise in temperature of 80 C only in the rod.
E
a = 11.7 x 10-6/C.

needed in the member for transmit ing an axial force of 12 kN in order to limit the maximum stress to 80 MPa. Approximate the stress concentration factors from Fig. 2-32. (b) Where might a potential fracture
occur?

CB, AD, as shown tance CD

mechanical bar AB and

and DB, is subjected in the figure. Determine that would occur on


bars AC and CB

four

system consisting high-strength

of steel rods,

to forces at C and D, the increase in disapplying the two 8-kN


have a cross-sectional

a steel AC,

forces.

Both

area
The
mm

of 20 mm 2, arid
cross-sectional
2. Let E = 200 GPa.

both
area

bars
of the
A

AD

and
spreader

DB,
bar

40 mm 2.
is 100

in the
v = 0.25.

longitudinal
Assume

direction.
that the steel

Let
be-

haves

as a linearly

elastic

material.

Section

150

_Px N/mm
16oo
Fig. P2-31

2-35.
hole of

A 6 by
25

]4oo
aluminum-alloy
figure. (a) Determine

axial tensile the longitudinal


able stress

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


P

2-'10

75 mm
diameter

plate

600

mm

long

has

a circulm
Find

mm

located

in its

center.

the

Fig.

P2-38

kN
the total of stress
cross-sec-

2
1

force

that direction
MPa.

can

be without

applied

to this

plate

exceeding

an

of

220

2-36. tensile
ened by

Determine bar used


having

the extent in a mechanical


an enlarged

by which application
section, as shown

is
in

2-39. A long slot is cut out from a 1 by 6 in steel bar 10 ft long, as shown in the figure. (a) Find the maximum stress if axial force P =' 50 kips is applied to the bar. Assume that the upper curve in Fig. 2-32 is ap-

Fig.

P2-44

figure.
Section 2-9
stress

Since
concentrations.

the

bar

is to be loaded

cyclically,

plicable. elongation
concentrations

(b)

For of the
and

the rod.
assume

same case, determine Neglect local effects


that the reduced

Section

2-`13
of dif erent

2-45.
bars

Compare

the dynamic
diameters

2-32.
uprights,

A rigid
as shown

bar
C.

rests
in the
Assume

on bar
the

and
the

steel
inP

!" radius
P

tional gation

area extends of the same

for rod

(c) Estimate if P = 160 kips.

24

in.

the

Assume

elonthat

shown

stresses

in the

in the three
figure

in their

steel

clination
ature of

of the
100

horizontal

after
coefficients

a raise

in temperof thermal

expansion for aluminum alloy and steel to be, respectively, 23.2 x 10-6/C and 11.7 x 10-6/C. To a greatly exaggerated scale, sketch the position of the bar after the raise in temperature. (b) What stresses would develop in the upright members if their tops
were prevented from expanding? Let the elastic mod-

1
2


P2-36

steel yields On removal deflection?

0.020 in per inch at a stress of the load in part (c), what Let E = 30 x 106 psi.
2" wide slot (1"radii at ends)

of 40 ksi. (d) is the residual


1.5 kg

115 mm
15 mm

Fig.

uli
GPa

for
and

aluminum

alloy

and

steel
the

be,
obtained

respectively,

75

those

given

200

in Table

GPa.

Compare

1 of the Appendix.

Hint:

stresses

The

with

2-37. mensions
cyclic

A machine shown
loading.

10 mm in the figure,
If the maximum

part

thick, having the is to be subjected


stress is limited to

c,_.+
to
Fig.

I
(a)

10

turn

(b)

(c)

0mm1Tn

. 1F

ten-

MPa,

determine

allowable

force

P.

Approximate

P2-39

Axial
response tance

Strains
through no

and
energy

Deformations
a dis-

in Bars
Ab,, force the deflection at a. LetA at b due to the application = 2A2. (In Section 13-4, of a unit it is shown

Problems

of

to 1.5-kg 1 m. Let

masses fal ing E = 200 GPa.

freely Assume

is

dissipated surfaces,
at supports.

through
nor at points

plastic

deformation of high local

of the
stresses

impact occurring

that
tems.

this
reached

relationship
It is widely used

is true
in analysis.

in general
This

for
conclusion

elastic

syscan

downward force of 5 kN, as shown in the figure. Initial y, this force is equally distributed among the three wires. The stresses in the wires are well within the linearly'elastic range of material behavior. (a) Determine

Section
2-56. An axial force of the bar

2-t6
elastic bar held at both ends P, as shown in the figure.
is constant. (a) Determine

be

by

inspection

for

statically

for the system shown in the figure, for stopping of 1 kg moving at a velocity of 3 rn/sec such that, impact, the spring deflection would not exceed
Neglect frictional effects.

2-46.

Determine

the

stif ness

required

in the. spring,

bars.)

a mass during 20 mm.

2-49.
sume

Consider
that ends

the
A and

bar

given
D are

in Example
held and that

2-2
P2

and
=

as-

A---

drop of 50 C in the right


a = 12.5
ature

the forces

in the wires

10mm

Determine strain,

kN

and

P3 = 200
and there

the reactions. axial displacement

kN

act

(b)

in the

Plot

the diagrams.

directions

axial

force,

shown.
applied

(a)

in the

x 10-6/C.
middle

2, L = 2000mm,
wire

wire.
would

caused

(b) At what

E=

Properties

by a temperature

is loaded by an Cross section A the reactions arid

200 x 103N/mm
change
slack?

of the wires:
in temper-

2,

interpret applied
assuming

the force.
that

results in relation (b) Plot the axial


E is known.

to the position displacement

of the diagram

it become

2-50.
forces, reactions
x 10-6/F.

If in Problem
is a drop would develop

2-49,

in addition
of

to the

in temperature at the supports?

100 F, what Let a =

2-51.
Fig. P2-46

For the 2-in 2 constant


in the figure, (a) determine

cross-sectional
the reactions,

elastic
axial-displace-

bar
and

Fig.

P2-56

shown

(b) plot

ment
Section 2-t5

diagrams.

the

axial-force,

Let

E = 10 x 103 ksi.

axial-strain,

and

the
Fig. P2-53

2-57.
(a). (b),

combined

For

symmetrically

spring

constant

arranged

k = n
in series, k fol ows

springs

ki;

in parallel,

see

figure

2-47. An elastic bar of variable cross section, both ends, is loaded as shown in the figure. ibilities.of the bar segments are /2, , and mine the reactions, and plot the axial-force

held
The flex. Deterand axial-

at

Justify that the system

1/ki,

or,

alternatively,
and

for the springs spring constant

= n

fi,

where

as in figure from 1/k =

is sysspring.

. displacement

diagrams.
2-52.
pended
force wil

If a load
by

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


2-54. hung Initial y, by three
become

on applying parallel wires


What

a 3-kN force to a rigid bar (see the figure), all three


forces would de-

tem

flexibility,

i the

flexibility

of an ith

Fig.

P2-51

wires

taut.

additional

of 1 kip
wires

is applied

to a rigid
The

bar

sus-

three

as shown
each

in the

figure,

velop in the wires its support. Each has a cross-sectional


modulus of 200

if the of the

left wire slips out 3 mm from steel wires is 2000 mm long, area of 10 mm 2, and an elastic

be resisted

by

wire?

outside

wire

GPa.

are aluminum (E = 10 7 psi). (E = 30 x 106 psi). Initial y,


Fig.
2-48. Consider the same

The inside wire there is no slack

is

in the
(b)

IP

P2-47
elastic bar of variable cross-

wire.

Fig.

P2-57 springs force Hint: is atP, as Use

sectional area shown Determine deflection tion of a unit force

in the two alternative figures. A,b at a caused by the applicaat b, and show that it is equal

---200

200

>

to

Alum.

wires

A = 0.3
L = 25'
Steel wire

in 2

2-58. tached shown

symmetrical to a rigid bar in the figure.

arrangement of and carries an applied (a) Find the reactions.

A2

l./4
L/4

L/4

t I

A = 0.2
/. = 50'

in 2
P=3kN

1
P2-54

: k = 300
k2 = 200

N/mm
N/mm

Fig. Fig. P2-52

AI 1lb L/4


7// / / /. //

clination
spaced a mass steel

2-55.
area

Rework
of bar

angles
BD

Example
as

a to 30 and
2A. The

2-14

taking
cross

by changing
the
sections

cross-sectional
of bars

the

bar

inAD
P = 6.2 kN

k = 250

N/mm

/ /,.

// / ,

7

Fig.

P2-48

2-53. tached

Three identical to a rigid bar

equally support

wires developing

and DC

remain

equal

to A.

Fig.

P2-58

i36
the
total

Axial

Strains

and

Deformations

in

Bars

Problems

i37

relationships
deflection

given
distributed

in Problem
between

2-57.
the

(b) How
upper

is the
two

springs? 2-59.
method.

dom springs. 2-6:3.

are

there?

(c)

Find

the

forces

acting

on

Rework
An elastic

Problem
bar

2-52
of variable

using
cross

the
section

displacement
and held

linearly

The

area

A rigid elastic
mm

of the
applied

bar is supported wires atB and

wire

at B is 60 mm 2 and
the reactions

by a pin C, as shown

for

at A and in the f

the

one i
and Fig. P2-65

2-60.

C is 120

2. Determine

at A,

B,

at both ends is axial y loaded, as shown 'in the figure. The cross-sectional area of the small part is A and of the larger, 2A. (a) Using the displacement method, find the reactionS. (b) Plot a qualitative axial-displacement diagram. Hint: Use the relationship given in Problem 2-57 for determining the combined stif ness of the bar
segments to the left of P.

caused

by

force

P = 6 kN.

2-66. Rework Problem 2-65 Hint: The degree of kinematic reduced by using a relationship
1000

after

removing force P. indeterminacy can be given in Problem 2-57.

Fig. serve neous able as reinforcement. elastic strength stresses. (b)

P2-69 Determine column the the instantaon allow(plastic)

Section

2-t8

(a) of the Estimate

based ultimate

-500o5+500oFig.
'2-6t. A bar of constant

2-67. A material possesses a nonlinear stress-strain relationship given as cr = Ke n, where K and n are material constants. If a rod made of this material and of constant area A is initial y fixed at both ends and is
then loaded as shown in the figure, how much of ap-

strength of the column. elastic-perfeCtly plastic.

Cryp = 60 ksi and E = 30 x 106 psi, and for concrete, Crano, = 2000 psi, Cryp = 3600 psi and E = 2 x 106
psi. (It has been shown experimental y yields, the concrete "yield" strength that when steel is approximately 0.85crut, where Cru, is the ultimate compresslye strength of an unreinforced cylindrical specimen of the same material, age, and curing conditions. In order to
achieve ductile behavior of columns, the use of lateral

Assume For

that

steel,

both materials are let Cra,o, = 24 ksi,

P2-60
thickness and held at both

plied
Fig. P2-63

force

P is carried

by the left

support?

ends
the Hint:
bar.

reactions First

hgs the geometry


find

caused the

by stif ness

shown

the for

axial y the

in the figure.

applied tapered

Determine
force part

2-64.

Five

P. of the

area ner,

of 500 mm 2, are as shown in the

haves as a linearly elastic Determine the deflection force P = 2 MN. Assume

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION  a  b www.avs4you.com


steel rods, each having a cross-sectional

assembled figure.

in a symmetrical manAssume that the steel bematerial with E = 200 GPa. of joint A due to downward that, initial y, the rods are

Fig.

P2-67

2-68.

A rod

is fixed

at A and

loaded

with

an

axial

force

-7-

taut.

P, as shown fectly plastic,

in the with

figure. The material E = 200 GPa and

is elastic-pera yield stress

of

200

MPa.

Prior

to.loading,

a. gap
fixed for

of 2 mm

exists
C. (a) point value
mm

bePlot asfor
2 and

ties 2-70. = steel 9.995 bar (b) wil

or spiral reinforcement is essential.) A rigid platform rests on two 10 7 psi) each 10.000 in long. A (E = 30 x 106 psi) and standing in long. (a) What wil be the if a force P of 100 kips is applied How much do the aluminum bars be the ultimate (plastic) strength

aluminum bars third bar made in the middle


stress in on the shorten? for the

(E of is

the steel platform? (c) What system if

L/2 < L/2 


Fig. P2-61

/ Z// // /Z/ /,/ / / / / / /,

tween the end of the rod and the load-displacement diagram suming P increases from zero
the rod. The cross section from

support the load to its ultimate


A to B is 200

(ffyp)Al

= 40 ksi and

(Cryv)St

= 60 ksi?
P

that
in addition, each having
indeterof freeFig. P2-64

from
force?

B to C is 100
displacement

mm 2. (b) What
B upon release

wil

be the
of the

reap-

2-62. A rigid is supported


stif ness minacy

bar is hinged at end A and, on three identical springs,


is the degree of (b) How many statical degrees

sidual
plied

of point

k. (a) What of this system?

-l- 2 mm
cross section and held
section for the A. (a) Compare

A = 2 in 2

Section

2-t7

AI

St

!AI
L

2-65. An elastic bar of variable


at both
shown in the figure. area is 2A, and for

A=4in

ends

is axial y

Determine
Fig. P2-62

degrees

of kinematic

The cross the smaller,

loaded

at several

points,

larger

as
the::

I---250mm---250 mm 
Fig. P2-68

A = 2 in 2

= P. (c) Plot axial-force

the reactions

and static

if P = 3P, P2 = 2P, and P3

indeterminacies.

(b)

2-69.

The

cross

section

of a short

reinforced

concrete

diagram.

column

is as shown

in the

figure.

Four

1-in

round

bars

Fig.

P2-70

t38
2-7t. A force P = 1 kN is applied

Axial
by three of equal wires, as shown size and the same
no slack between
2'/ / / / / /,

Strains
to a rigid

and
bar

Deformations
sus-

in Bars
2-73. An aluminum tube is axial y compressed between the two heavy nuts of a steel bolt, as shown the figure. If it is known that the axial stress in the sleeve at 80 C is 20 MPa, at what temperature does this prestress become zero? For the aluminum tube:

wir,

pended wires
initial y, applied

are A = 80 mm 2, E =. 200
there load were distribute
// / / / / ,

GPa,

in the material.

and

L = 4 m. If,
how wil the

figure. For

All each

pter

in the wires, the wires?

A = 1000mm 2, E= 70 x 103MPa, andct = 23.2 x 10 -6 per C. For the steel bolt: A = 500 mm 2, E 200 x 103 MPa, and ct = 11.7 x 10 -6 per C.
Aluminum tube

200
mm

100
mm

100
mm

4000
mm

 _
 100 _ '
Fig. P2-73

Steelbolt
Section
assuming
bar is three

P
Fig. P2.71

2-72. An aluminum rod 7 in long, having two cross-sectional areas, is inserted into a steel shown in the figure. If at 60 F no axial force the aluminum rod, what wil be the magnitude

dif erent link, as exists in of this

2-74.
elastic

Rework
modulus

Example
E1 for the

2-23
middle

after
bars,

that
E2 = E3

the
=

3-1.

Introduction

smaller
3E.

than

that

for

the

outside

i.e.,

force
Ctst

psi hnd ct^ = 12.0


= 6.5 x

when

the

temperature

10-6/F.

x 10-6/F;
Steel link:

rises

Est = 30 x 106 psi and

to 160 F? E^,

= 107

2-75.
Problem

that
area of each bar parallel to rod is 0.35 in 2

the

0.30

in 2

Section
*2-76. 2-77. *2-78.
tinuity

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION A of this chapter. In Part B, general mathematical www.avs4you.com and shear strains are given. Then, by employing
Plot the load-deflection diagram for joint A in
2-64 caused by the applied force P,

yield

stress

for

the

material

cryp

= 250

MPa.

In addition to the normal strain discussed in the previous chapter in connection with axial y loaded bars, in general, a body may also be subjected to shear strains. For the purposes of deformation analysis, such strains must be related to the applied shear stress. This topic is discussed in Part

2-t9

Rework Rework Rework


conditions

Problem Problem Problem


or

2-25 using 2-24 using 2-56 using


singularity

Eq. 2-48. Eq. 2-48. Eq. 2-48


functions.

and

con-

position, the generalized Hooke's and strains for a three-dimensional walled pressure vessels and shells eralized Hooke's law is 'employed important elements of construction.
solution for thick-walled cylinders

the method law is synthesized, relating state of stress. Next, in Part of revolution are considered.
for the deformation

definitions

for normal

Aluminum

rod,

0.40

in 2

of a typical boundary-value problem ticity, and, at the same time, provides equat ions mechanics. established for thin-walled solid

is developed.

In the concluding
This

analysis

of superstresses C, thinThe genof these

in the mathematical theory of elasbounds on the applicability of the pressure vessels using engineering

il ustrates

part,

Part D, a
a solution

Fig.

P2-72

SHEAR

CONSTITUTIVE
Relationships
An example

RELATIONSHIPS
for Shear
of such deformations

FOR

3.2.
cause

Stress-Strain
shear deformations.

In addition discussed

to the normal strains related to the axial strains in bars in Chapter 2, a body may be subjected to shear stresses that
is shown

in
t39

140

Hooke' Law, sPressure Vessel and sT,hiWal ck. lCyl ed inders '
planes in a body defines shear strain t (gamma). For infinitesimal elements these small angles are measured in radians. The / subscripts shown Fig. 3-1 associate a particular shear strain with a pair of coordinate Transformation of shear strain to any other mutually perpendicular of planes wil be discussed in Section 8-13. For the purposes of deformation analysis, it is essential to establish relationship between shear strain and shear stress based on experiments As wil become apparent in the next chapter, such experiments are mo conveniently performed on thin-walled circular tubes in torsion. The ments of such tubes are essential y in a state of pure shear stress. An il ustration of the conditions prevailing in a tube wall are shown in 3-2. The corresponding shear strains can be determined from the priate geometric measurements. Note that per Section 1-4, the shear stresses on mutually perpendicula planes are equal; see Fig. 3-2(a). Moreover, since in this discussion, stresses and strains are limited to a planar case, the subscripts for can be omit ed; see Fig. 3-2(b). By using experiments with thin-walled tubes, the generated shear stress-strain diagrams, except for their scale greatly resemble those usually found for tension specimens (See Figs. 2-

Sec.

3-3.

Elastic

Strain

Energy

for

Shear

Stresses

t41

Fig.

3-1.

The

change

in the initial

right

angle

between

any

two

imaginary

I tJ
(a)

(b)

material.

Fig.

3-3

Shear

stress-strain

diagrams;

(a)

typical

and

(b)

idealized

for

a ductile

where ticity,
3-4.

material.
EXAMPLE

G is a constant or the modulus

For

emphasis,

of proportionality of rigidity.

the relationship

Like

called the shear modulus E, G is a constant for

given

by Eq. 3-1 is shown

of elasa given

Fig.

3-4
and

Linear

or
strain.

Hookean

relation
stress

between

pure

shear

in Pig.

3-t

5, 2-6, and 2-13).


Fig.
deformations

3-1

Possible
of

shear
an element.

el astic-perfectly spectively,
just stress

Two

,-/di_agrams

yield

In numerous
as for and

the

strength

axial y loaded bars, the angle / it causes

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION Fig. 3-3(b), ,yp and /yp designate, retechnical problems, the shear stresses do not exceed the of the material. For most materials www.avs4you.com in this range of stress,
plastic yield behavi or, shear stress
are shown in Fig.
and

3-3.

In the

idealized

diagram

of

One of the shear has the dimensions

the

shear

yield

strain.

has G = 0.64
Neglect'the
Solution

stif ness

N/mm

mountings shown

2. Determine
of the

for a small in Fig. 3-5.

outer

metal

the shear

piece of vibrating The 8-mm thick

plates

spring

to which

constant

pad

mechanical of Grade

the

ks for this
rubber

equipment 50 rubber

is bonded.

mounting.

a linear can

relationship be 'postulated.

between Therefore,

pure

shear mathe-

Here 3' ';

hence from Eq. 3-1, x = Cry -

GA

t
(a)

maticext alleynsi of , Hooke' onlaw fosrhear stress and strai reads n


y

Further,
Therefore,
This
at the

'ks
solution
two

F = ,ab - G Aab t
F
A

small

Gab
t

local

0.64

20
8

40

,x

=
since

64 N/mm
no shear stresses act
Fig. 3-5
(b)

neglects
boundaries.

effects

at the

ends

3-3.
o
Fig.
shear.

Elastic

Strain

Energy
strain

for Shear
energy in a manner an element for

Stresses
an infinitesimal analogous to that in a state of shear, element in for one in as shown


(b)

An expression for the elastic pure shear may be established uniaxial stress. Thus, consider
Malaysian

3-2

Element

in pure
(a)

 P. B. Lindley,

Rubber

Engineering
Producers'

Research

Design

with

Association,

Natural

Rubber

1978).

(Hertford,

England:

Hooke's

Law,

Pressure

Vessels,

and

Thick.

Walled

Oylinders

Sec.

3.4.

Mathematical

Definition

of Strain

43

GENERALIZED NOOKE'S

CONCEPTS
LAW

OF

STRAIN

AND

**33-4.
Since strains must relate extensional Some points
x

Mathematical

Definition

of Strain

(a)

generally vary from point to point, the definitions of strain to an infmitesimal element. With this in mind, consider an strain taking place in one direction, as shown in Fig. 3-7(a). like A and B move to A' and B', respectively. During strain-

Fig.

3-6

An

element

for

deriving pure

strain shear stresses.

energy

due

to

(b)

in Fig.

where it is assumed that the bottom plane of the element is fixed in position. 2 As this element is deformed, the force on the top plane reaches a final value of dx dz. The total displacement of this force for a small deformation of the element is ' dy; see Fig. 3-6(b). Therefore, since the external work done on the element is equal to the internal recoverable elastic strain energy,

3-6(a).

The

deformed

shape

of this

element

is shown

in Fig.

3-6(b),

is t q- A u, since in addition to the whole element Ax, On this basis, the definition

ing,

point

A experiences

a displacement

to the rigid-body a stretch Au takes of the extensional


,.-.,o

u. The

displacement place within or normal

displacement

u, common the element. strain is 4


(3-6)

of point

 =

lim

A u

A x

du

dx

3 This
text.

and

the
fundamental concepts

next

section
definition of stretching

can

be omit ed
of extensional or extending,
D' C' -

without
strain, can
DC

loss
be

of continuity
more amenable expressed, using

in the
to the Fig.
(3-6a)

dUshear
where dV is the

= 'r dx dz
average force

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION x ' dy =   dx dy dz = www.avs4you.com


more
1 1
3-7(c), as

4 A more general

(3 -2)

ex =

axo

lim

DE

distance

volume

of

the

infinitesimal

element.

where DD'.
Also

By

recasting

Eq.

3-2,

the

strain-energy

density

for

shear

becomes

see

the vectorial For the small


Sections

8-11

displacements deformations
and

12.

of points considered

C and here,

D are Uc = CC' Eq. 3-6a reduces

and un = to Eq. 3-6.

shear
By using
as

2
Eq. 3-3 may

(3-3)
be recast

A,

,A'
Ax

B

., B'

'

X, U

y,

+ Au

.+dy

U

Hooke's

law

for

shear

stresses,

= G',/,

(a)

(U)sher=
or

- sher--2G
ol

(3-4)

+ dy

v

1
dy

Ushe = fv
Note
a state of

dV
'to Eqs. 2-20-2-23
in Chapters
less general.

(3-5)
for elements
4, 10, and 12.

the similarity
uniaxial stress.

of Eqs.
equations
not make

3-2-3-5
are
the

in
8x dx
X U

Applications
2 This assumption

of these
does

given
expression

x, u dimensional
(c)

Fig.

3-7

One
in

strained
initial

and

twoand final

elements

(b)

positions.

t44

mensional

entiate between the directions of the strains. For the same reason, it is also necessary to change the ordinary derivatives to partial ones. Therefore, if at a point of a body, u, v, and w are the three displacement components occurring, respectively, in the x, y, .and z directions of the coordinate axes, the basic definitions of normal strain become

Hooke' Law, Pressure s Vessel and Tshi,Wal ck.Cyl ledinders


If a body

Sec.

3.5.

Strain

Tensor

case in Fig.

is strained

3-7(b),

in orthogonal

subscripts

directions,

must

be attached

as shown

to e to dif er-

for

a two-di-

'Yxz = 'Y=
In Eqs. missible sequences
In

Ox + Oz
subscripts
distinction
3-9,

'Yyz

'Y

Oy + Oz
This
the
six strain-dis-

(3-10)
is pertwo

Ou

Ov

examining

3-9 and 3-10, the since no meaningful of each alternative


Eqs.

on ' can be permuted. can be made between


3-10, note that these

3-7,

subscript.
and

ax
Note
for these

Ox
analogously

Oy
to those of stress, can

(3-7)

that

double
strains.

subscripts,
Thus,

be used

v, and dependent among reduces

placement

w. Therefore, equations e,.x, eyy, ezz , to one for a

equations

depend

these equations cannot be independent. Three can be developed showing the interrelationships 'xy, 'yz, and -=. The number of such equations two-dimensional case. The derivation and the

only

on three

displacement

components

in-

u,
(a)

ap-

given
(3-8)

plication

in texts

of these

on the

equations,

theory

known

of elasticity.

as the equations

of compatibility,

are

**3-5.

Strain

Tensor

where one of the subscripts designates and the other, 'the direction of the elongations. In addition to normal strains, an strain as shown for example in the the sides of the deformed element Since v is the displacement in the direction, Ov/Ox is the slope of the tesimal element. Similarly, the vertical On this basis, the initial y right angle + Ou/Oy. Therefore, for small angle strain associated with the xy coordinates

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


the displacement.
element

direction
can

of the

Positive

line signs

element, apply

to

The normal and the shear strains defined in the preceding section together express the strain tensor, which is highly analogous to the stress tensor already discussed. It is necessary, however, to modify the relations for the shear strains in order to have a tensor, an entity which must obey

(b}

also

experience

a shear

certain

laws

of transformation.

5 Thus,

the physically

attractive

definition

x-y plane in Fig. 3-7(c). This inclines in relation to the x and the y axes. y direction, as one moves in the x initial y horizontal side of the infiniside tilts through an angle Ou/Oy. CDE is reduced by the amount Ov/Ox changes, the definition of the is

of the shear shear strain

strain as the is a component

change in angle - is not acceptable of a tensor. This heuristically

may
of shear

when the be attrib-

uted to the fol owing. vertical direction.


direction in Fig.

The
3-8(b).

In Fig. 3-8(a), same positive


In. Fig. 3-8(c),

positive -y -y is measured


the same

is measured from the


amount

from horizontal
defor-

the

'7y = '7yx Ox Oy
To arrive are equal

Ov +

(3-9)
,

mation is shown to consist of two 'y/2's. 3-8(a) and (b) can be obtained by rotating rigid body through an angle of 'y/2. The the correct one for defining the shear-strain a tensor. Since in this definition, the element the strain is said to be pure or #'rotational.
redefines the shear strains as
2

The deformed elements in Figs. the element in Fig. 3-8(c) as a scheme shown in Fig. 3-8(c) is component as an element of is not rotated as a rigid body, Following this approach, one

(c)

Fig.

3-8

Shear

deformations.

the

3-7(c).
shear

shear

(This
3-9:

strain

at this to the

deformation
see

applies
for

expression, it is assumed that tangents angles themselves in radian measure.

when
1-4.)

corresponds

the element
strains

to the for the

is deformed,

positive

directions yz planes

as shown

of small Positive

angles sign for

y = , _ '2yz _ %, 2


zx = xz --

(3-11)

in Fig.
similar

of the
appreciation

--

stresses;

Fig.

The
to Eq.

definitions

the

shear

xz and

are

5 Rigorous

transformation

of it wil
for

discussion

a two-dimensional

develop,

of this question
however,
case

is beyond
after

is considered.

the

study

the scope

of Chapter

of this text.

8, where

A better
strain

t46

Hooke's

Law,

Pressure

Vessels,

and

Thick-Walled

Cylinders

Sec.

3-6.

Generalized

Hooke's

Law

for

Isotropic

Materials

147

From
assembled

these
as

equations,
fol ows:

the

strain

tensor

in matrix

representation

can

be

have

the three

properties

nine

orthogonal

in the longitudinal,

independent

directions.

radial,
Such
constants,

material

materials,

and transverse
whereas,

referred two.

directions,

as it wil

to as orthotropic,

i.e.,

in

be shown

?yx

?yz

xx xz yx e. Eyy  yz


the

(3-12)

in the next section, isotropic materials have only tropic crystal ine materials the number of independent can be as large as 21.6 In this book consideration isotropic materials, although by properly selecting the developed procedures can be applied to orthotropic examples of these are wood and man-made materials,
sheets or fdament-reinforced plastics.

For ful y anisomaterial constants is basically limited to the directions of axes, problems. Notable such as corrugated
strain, such as shown or expansion of a is being stretched or

The strain tensor is symmetric. in the last expression is particularly in continuum mechanics (elasticity, the stress tensor, using indicial
tensor.

Mathematically, attractive plasticity, notation, one

notation employed and has wide acceptance rheology, etc.). Just as for can write e u for the strain

exists between the in Fig. 3-9. During body.takes place,

According

to the basic

Analogously to the stress tensor, the strain tensor can be diagonalized, having only el, e2, and e3 as the surviving components. For a two-dimensional problem, e3 = 0; and one has the case of plane strain. The
tensor for this situation is

shown

compressed. mulated using of deformations to a tensile


Eq.

The extent Poisson's


3-10.

applied stress and the this process, a lateral depending on whether

concept

of Hooke's

in Fig.

caused

of the lateral deformation ratio (see Section 2-8). by stresses applied along in Fig.
where

resulting contraction a body

law,

a linear

relationship

Fig.
between extensional

3.9

Linear
uniaxial
strain.

relation
stress and

is analytically Qualitative il ustrations the coordinate axes For

for-

are

Consider

first
2-3,

(:;
defined in

yy

i)
and
1-4,

or

The transformation Chapter 8. The similarities


Section

of strain

suggested
be

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION (i'i) www.avs4you.com o)


The corresponding lateral strains
g2

Ee,

stress
one

that

has

O'x, as shown

the element

shown
 and

e' = rx/E,

e' is the

3-10(b).

in Fig.
 along

3-10(a)
strain

this

is subjected
in the

case,

x direction.

from

o' = re4th

only

the

y and
Theory

z axes,
of Elas-

or

e2

(3-13)

ed.,

6 A. P. Boresi
(New
(New

by

Eq.
in

3-13

wil

be

considered

in

ticity

York:

and O. M. Sidebottom,
Wiley,
McGraw-Hil ,

chanics

of a Continuous

York:

1985).

I. S. Sokolnikoff,
1956).

Advanced
E. Malvern,

Medium,

(Englewood

L.

Mathematical

Mechanics
NJ:
Introduction

of Materials,
Prentice-Hall,

Clif s,

to the

1969).

Me-

dif erences
wil

between
discussed

plane
the

strain
next

and
section

plane
after

stress,
the

introduction of the generalized Hooke's law. The reader should note that in discussing the concept of strain, the mechanical properties of the material were not involved. The equations are applicable whatever the mechanical behavior of the material. However, only small strains are defined by the presented equations. Also note
placements

that

strains

give
do

not

only

affect

the

the

relative

strains.

displacement

of points;

rigid-body
Initial shape
(a)

Final

shape
(c)

3-6.

Generalized

Hooke's

Law

for

Isotropic

Materials

In this article, six basic relationships between a general state of stress and strain are synthesized using the principle of superposition from previously established simpler stress-strain equations. This set of ec tions is referred to as the generalized Hooke's law. These equations applicable only to homogeneous isotropic materials, i.e., materials having the same properties in all directions. Hooke's law for anisotropic materials. For example, wood has decidedly

Final

[  '"'
shape
(b)

%
(d)

Finalshape
axes.

Fig.

340

Element

deformations normal
directions

stresses

of

coordinate

caused acting

by

in

t48

Hooke's

Law,

Pressure

Vessels,

and

Thick-Walled

Cylinders

Sec.

3-6.

Generalized

Hooke's

Law

for

Isotropic

Materials

149

e', and e', when


strains, complete
shear
tained.

spectively, -Vrx/E. element

fol ow, Similar is stressed,

stressed,
strains

using Poisson's ratio, Eq. 2-16, and are expressions for strains e, e, and e apply as shown in Fig. 3-10(c), and again for

expressions
for the

as shown
for

normal

in Fig.

strains

3-10(d).
can

ex,
be

By superposing
ey, and
treated as

e = when strains

the

strain must mal deformation

be multiplied by the member's length. Ax in the x direction is given as


Ax = exLx

For

example,

the

nor(3-15)

e are

these where Lx is the member's length for Ay and A. An integration


the

Since

Cartesian

axes

in Fig. 3-1, for priate subscripts Based on the isotropic linearly


be writ en as

the

general problem into Eq. 3-1 are above, six equations elastic materials

only, the introduction needed. for the generalized for use with Cartesian

of the
Hooke's law

length. 'From the

in the x direction. process is used


law equations,

when

Similar

strains
useful

relations

vary
comments

apply along

generalized

Hooke's

some

coordinates

O'x

E
O'x O'x

O'y O'y O'y

O'z

not
O' z

shows that Crx and o'y may exist. If either one or both of these stresses are present, according to the third Eq. 3-14, a normal strain e wil develop. Conversely, in the plane strain problem, defined by Eq. 3-13, the normal strain e must be zero. Therefore, in this case, if either O'x and/or % are present, it can be concluded from the third Eq. 3-14 that cr should
be zero.
are

can be made strain problems.

to clarify the An examination

distinction

between of Eq. 1-3 for

pJane stress and plane the plane stress problem

The

similarity
in

and

the

dif erence

between

the

two

kinds

of

problems
strains

can

shown

be further
Plane

matrix

clarified
Stress

form.

from

the
Plane

table,
Strain

where

the

stresses

and

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION ( rxv 0) www.avs4you.com


v o'y
0

(3-1<

0
0

-/2
0

e,-/20)
ey
0

0
0

'/2
0

ey
0 e

,r 0

c& 0

These taneously
as an exercise.

six equations to express

have stresses

an inverse, in terms

i.e., of strains.

they

can

This

be is left

solved for the term sense the section, v, and

EXAMPLE

3-2

If normal stresses are compressive, the signs of the corresponding change in the previous equations for the normal strains. The positive of the shear strains corresponding to the positive direction of stresses (Fig. 1-3) is shown in Figs. 3-1 and 3-2. In the next wil be shown that in Eq. 3-14, the three elastic constants, E, are not independent of each other, and that for isotropic materials, are only two constants. If a body experiences a change in temperature, the three normal equations should be modified by adding to each the expression Eq. 2-17. No changes in shear strains due to a change in temperature

A 50 mm cube of steel is subjected to a uniform pressure of 200 MPa acting on all faces. Determine the change in dimension between two parallel faces of the
cube. Let E = 200 GPa and v = 0.25.

it

Solution

Using
given

a compressive

the Errst expression


stress,

in Eq.

3-14

and Eq.

3-15,

and noting

that

pressure

is

place
in all

in isotropic
directions.

materials
be clearly understood

since If the
determine

such
that

materials
Eq.
deformation

have
3-14 gives

the
strains,

same
i.e.,

e, = 200 x 105 = --5 X 10 -4

mm/mm

200 X 10 3 -x 50 = -0.025

200 x 10 i
mm (contraction)

It should

Ax
of

= xZx

= -5

x 10 -4

mations
member,

per
in

unit
order

length.
to

strain
the

is constant
of

along
such

the

length

In this case

A = Ay = Az.

a member,

t50
B

Hooke's

Law,

Pressure

Vessels,

and

Thick.Walled

Cylinders

Sec.

3-8.

Dilatation

and

Bulk

Modulus

t5t

3-7.

E, G, and

v Relationships
first it 3~11(a), This can'
a trian then with

()

In order to demonstrate the relationship among E, G, and v, be shown that a state of pure shear, such as shown in Fig. be transformed into an equivalent system of normal stresses. shown in the fol owing manner. Bisect square element ABCD by diagonal AC and isolate element, as shown in Fig. 3-11(b). If this element is dz thick, area associated with sides AB or BC is dA, and that associated

diagonal

AC

is V dA.
acting toward

Since

the shear

stress

acting

on the areas
'V
other

dA
element between extensional
001 002 T

, the forces
normal

the components

forces acting
to AC.

parallel

on these diagonal
force

to diagonal

areas are ' dA. The BD are in equilibrium.

BD develop
by

a resultant
normal

components On the
stresses

of

dA act
00

Fig.

342

force
'(b) Force diagram

on area X, dA associated with diagonal AC. This gives rise 00X/ dA shown in the figure. Since the shear stress resultant
must be equal,
and

This

is equilibrated

the

deformation shear

Kinematics a relationship
and strains.

of

for

it fol ows

that

00 = '. These

stresses

are

to a and
shown

establishing

t

3-11(c) By isolating proceeding 002 = -'. This representa. Fig. 3-1 l(a). represented stresses, as

Eq.

cannot be treated as forces. an element with a side BD, as shown in Eq. 3-11(d), in the same manner as before, a conclusion is reached The results of the two analyses are displayed in Fig. tion of stress is completely equivalent to that shown Therefore, a pure shear stress at a point can be alternative by the normal stresses at 45 with the directions of the shown in Fig. 3-11(e), and numerically,
001  --02  'r

v E =  (1 + v)
relations for the strain along the

(3-18)
shear

(c)

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


and 'simplifying,
2(1 +

Equating

the

two

alternative

v)

(3-19)

A B
(d)

This important stress transformation enables one to proceed in establi: ing the relationship among E, G and v. For this purpose, consider deformed element shown in Fig. 3-12, and determine the strain in DB on two dif erent bases. In one approach, determine strain from stresses; in the other, from the equivalent normal stresses. Considering only infinitesimal deformations, and let ing sin -    and cos  -- 1, it fol ows that displacement BB' due to shear is The projection of this displacement onto diagonal DB', which, to the of the approximation adopted, is equal to the stretch of DB, is

is the

basic

relation

between

E,

G,

and

v; it shows

that

these

quan-

tities

are not independent'of one another. If any two of these are deterexperimental y, the third can be computed. Note that the shear G is always less than the elastic modulus E, since the Poisson a positive quantity. For most matedhals, v is in the neighborhood
4.

Therefore,
Hence,

since

the

length

of DB
Eq.

is Va,

its normal

strain

45 is

Dilatation

and

Bulk

Modulus

recalling

that

' = C,W,

3-1,

one

has

-o 2

e45o = -
of

(3-15

(e)

Fig. 3-1t
pure shear equivalent

Transformation
stress normal into stresses.

However, the shear stresses causing the deformation shown in Fig. 12 are equivalent to the normal stresses represented in Fig. 3-1 l(e). fore, if the x axis is directed along diagonal DB, the first Eq. 3-14 applied by taking 00, = 00, cry = -002, and 00z = 0. In this manner alternative expression for the normal strain in diagonal DB is found.

extending some of the established concepts, one can derive an equafor volumetric changes in elastic matedhals subjected to stress. In the process of doing this, two new terms are introduced and defined. The sides dx, dy, and dz of an infinitestimal element after straining become (1 + e,) dx, (1 + %) dy, and (1 + ez) dz, respectively. After g the initial volume from the volume of the strained element, change in volume is determined. This is
Study of this section is optional.

52

Hooke's Law, Pressure Vessels, and Thick-Walled


(1 + e,) dx (1 + ey) dy (1 + ez) dz - dxdydz

Cylinders
 (e + ey + ez) dx dy

Sec. 3.9. Cylindrical

and Spherical

Pressure Vessels
r I = Inside

where the products of strain e.ey + eyez + eze, + e,eyez, being are neglected. Therefore, in the infinitesimal (small) strain theory, change in volume per unit volume, often referred to as dilatation,
fined as

small e, is
(a)

oa p

pLridO_ r;dius
O2

e= ex+ ey+
The

terms

Based

shear

of stresses

on the generalized
and

strains

cause

no

change

material

Hooke's

in volume.

constants.

law,

For
2v

the dilatation
this

purpose,

c an be found
the first

Eqs.

3-14

must

be added

together.

This
--(cr.
1 -

yields

/r lA=P , x pAl=2P oA =P


(3-21
(d) (e)

0 2e P
(f)

e = ex + ey + ez which
normal

+ cry + cr0

P
can

means
stresses.

that body

dilatation is subjected

is proportional

tensity

If an elastic

p, so that

cry, = cry = cr = -p,

to hydrostatic

NON-ACTIVATED i.e., no bending VERSION of the walls takes place. A sphere is an ideal a closed pressure vessel if the contents are of negligible weight; then from Eq. 3-21, www.avs4you.com ends, a matter to be commented on in more detail in the next
to the algebraic sum of
The walls of an ideal thin-walled pressure vessel act

Fig. 3-13 Diagrams

for analysis

of thin-walled

cylindrical

pressure

vessels.

as a membrane,

pressure

of uniform

drical

vessel

is also

good

with

the

exception

of the junctures

e =
The
bulk

E
k represents
in volume

P
the ratio
and

or
is called the

= k modulus

3(1

2v

pressure

The analysi

to the

quantity
modulus.

decrease

of the hydrostatic

of compression,

compressive

isolated from this vessel by passing two planes perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder and one additional longitudinal plane through the same axis, shown in Fig. 3-13(b). The conditions of symmetry exclude the presence of any shear stresses in the planes of the sections, as shear stresses would cause an incompatible distortion of the tube. Therefore, the stresses
that can exist on the sections of the cylinder only be the normal

vessel

s of pressure

such

as a boiler,

vessels

as shown

wil begin

in Fig. 3~13(a).

by considering

A segment

shape for a cylinwith the section. a cylindrical

is

the respective
inder

stresses,

cr! and

3-9.
In this

Cylindrical
vessels:
section,

and

Spherical
and spherical.
Hooke's

Pressure
toward

Vessels
of these
.types

sure

portance.
cation

very- widely

of the

In analyzing

used in industry;
generalized

cylindrical

attention

is directed

such

vessels

hence,
law

for

this topic
is required.

Both

two

elastic

is of great
deformations,

types

of thin-walled

of vessels

Let the internal pressure in excess of the external pressure Pa (gage pressure), and let the internal radius of the cylinder the force on an infinitesimal area Lri dO (where dO is an infinitesimal of the cylinder caused by the internal pressure acting normal pLri dO; see Fig. 3-13(c). The component of this force acting izontal direction is (pLr dO) cos 0; hence, the total resisting

in equilibrium

areas

cr2, shown

against

on which

in Fig.
the

they

3-13(b).

internal

act, maintain
pressure.

These

the element

stresses,

multiplied

of the cyl-

by

practical

an

im?

acting

on the

cylindrical

segment

is

be p psi or be ri. Then angle) thereto is in the horforce of 2P


(3-23)

2P

= 2

pLri

cos

dO

= 2prL

Hooke's

Law,

Pressure

Vessels,

and

Thick.Walled

Cylinders

symmetry, half of this total force is resisted at the top the cylinder and the other half is resisted at the bottom. stresses 0-2 acting in a direction parallel to the axis of the c do not enter into the above integration. Instead of obtaining the force 2P caused by the internal pressure integration, as above, a simpler equivalent procedure is available. an alternate point of view, the two forces P resist the force developed the internal pressure p, which acts perpendicular to the projected are A of the cylindrical segment onto the diametral plane; see Fig. 3-13( This area in Fig. 3-13(b) is 2riL; hence, 2P = Ap = 2riLp. This is resisted by the forces developed in the material in the longitudinal cut and since the outside radius of the cylinder is to, the area of both gitudinal cuts is 2A = 2L(ro - ri). Moreover, if the average acting on the longitudinal cut is 0-2, the force resisted by the walls of t cylinder is 2L(ro - ri)0-. Equating the two forces, 2riLp = 2L(ro - ri)0. Since ro - ri is equal to t, the thickness of the cylinder wall, the expression simplifies' to

Again through normal

from

Etowever, development

ro - r = t, the thickness is restricted to thin-walled

of the cylindrical wall, and since vessels, ro  r - r; hence,

this

(3 -25)

(a)

Note that for thin-walled cylindrical pressure vessels, 0.2  0.#2. An analogous method of analysis can be used to derive an expression for thin-walled spherical pressure vessels. By passing a section through center of the sphere of Fig. 3-14(a), a hemisphere shown in Fig. 3is isolated. By using the same notation as before, an equation idento Eq. 3-25 can be derived. However, for a sphere, any section that asses through the center of the sphere yields the same result whatever the inclination of the element's side; see Fig. 3-14(c). Hence, the maximum membrane stresses for thin-walled spherical pressure vessels are

(b)

The normal

stress

given

by Eq.

ferential or the hoop stress. Equation 3-24 is valid only for thin-w cylinders, as it gives the average stress in the hoop. However, as is in Example 3-6, the wall thickness can reach one-tenth of the inte radius and the error in applying Eq. 3-24 wil stil be small. Since Eq. 24 is used primarily for thin-walled vessels, where ri  to, the for the. radius is usually omit ed. Equation 3-24 can also be derived by passing two longitudinal as shown in Fig. 3-13(e). Because of the assumed membrane action. forces P in the hoop must be considered acting tangential y to the c The horizontal components of the forces P maintain the horizontal ponent of the internal pressure in a state of static equilibrium. The other normal stress 0-2 acting in a cylindrical pressure vessel

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION 3-24 is often referred to as the circu' www.avs4you.com


Infinitesimal elements for the vessels

(3-26)

analyzed

showing

the

normal

stresses 0- and 0-2 viewed from 3-14(a), and 3-14(c). According .ociated with these normal Which these shear stresses act ward a section through the wall

the outside are indicated in Figs. 3-13(a), to Eq. 1-10, the maximum shear stresses stresses are half as large. The planes on may be identified on elements viewed to-

Flg. 3-t4 spherical

Thin-walled pressure

vessel.

Fig.3-15. Thestress 0'2actsperpendicultaorlthyeplaneofthefigure.


Consider a closed cylindrical steel pressure vessel, as shown in Fig. 3-13(a). The radius of the cylinder is 1000 mm and its wall thickness is 10 mm. (a) Determine the hoop and the longitudinal stresses in the cylindrical wall caused by an internal pressure of 0.80 MPa. (b) Calculate the change in diameter of the cylinder caused by pressurization. Let E = 200 GPa, and v = 0.25. Assume that r  ro  r.
Solution
Planes
shear

of a vessel.

Such

a section

is shown

in

-*----t

o-

longitudinally, Fig. force problem. By its axis, a free-body

3-13(b), and it is determined passing a section through as shown in Fig. 3-13(0


for 0-2,

by solving the vessel is obtained.

a simple
peri:
The force

veloped longitudinal
forces and

by the internal pressure is prr, and the force developed stress 0-2 in the walls is 0-2(rr - rr2). Equating
solving

these

by the
The stresses fol ow by direct application of Eqs. 3-24 and 3-25:

of

maximum
stresses

prrT
0-2 -I

= 0-2(xPo
prT

- rrT)
prT

(ro

+ r)(ro-

ri)

0'2 =

pr =
t

10 x 10 -3

0.8 x 1

80MPa

Fig. 3-15 In yielded steel pressure vessels shear slip planes at 45 can be
observed on etched

specimens.

'55

Hooke's

Law,

Pressure

Vessels,

and

Thick.

Walled

Cylinders

Sec.

3.10.

Remarks

on

Thin.Walled

Pressure

Vessels

and

0'2 = 2t

pr

2 x 10 x 10 -3 = 40 MPa

0.8 x 1

Hence,

A = er = 0.15 x 10 -3 x 103 = 0.15 mm

decreases side. crBei it can be onegl setting cr t=o zero cry, %.on =theor2,outand = n0g insmal thel, first expressi n ectiend. Eq. Hence, 3-14, one 
obtains the hoop strain el:

The stress perpendicular

to the cylinder wall, or3 = p = 0.80 MPa, on the insi.d

For an industshown rial lainborat unit iswilto operat emple oy ata pressure e dimensions Fig. ory 3-16. a pi Thelot vessel an internal vessel pressure of thof
.7 MPa. If for this unit 20 bolls are to be used on a 650 mm bolt circle diameter, what is the required bolt diameter at the root of the threads? Set the allowable
Bolts

EXA[VIF

650

mm

-----

600

mm-----

el =  - v
On pressurizing condition, the
strained and
the initial h6op

0'

0'2

- 200 x 103

80

4 x 200 x 103

40

= 0.35 x 10 -3 mm/mm

the bolt threads


ution

in tension

the stress

for the bolts at 125 MPa; however,


concentration factor

is 2.

assume

that at the root of


Rubber gasket
500 mm --,

the

the cylinder, the radius hoop strain el can be found


unstrained hoop
length. Therefore,

circumferences
+ A)

r increases by an amount A. For thi by calculating the dif erence in


and dividing this quantity

vertical force F acting on the cover is caused 0.7 MPa acting on the horizontal projected area
gasket, i.e.,

by the internal pressure within the seif-sealhng

p of rubber

gl =
By
earlier,

2r(r

2xr

-- 2rr

--

r
value for el

(3-27

F = 0.7

x 106

x 'i1(600/2)
distributed

2 = 198
among

x 109 N
the 20 bolts,

Figure

3-t6

recasting

this

expression

and

substituting

0.35
EXAMPLE 3-4

x 10 -3

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


factor K = 2 and applying Eq. 2-19, the required x 103 = 0.35 mm
x 9.90 x

the

numerical

per

bolt is 198 x 109/20

that

this

force

= 9.90

is equally

x 109 N. Using

the given
bolt

area

stress-concentration

the

force

A at the root

of the

109

125

x 106

= 158

mm 2

Consider
ness

of 10 mm.

a steel

spherical

(a) Determine

pressure

the

vessel

maximum

of radius

membrane

1000

mm

stresses

having

caused

a wall

Hence
by

internal caused
Solution

pressure of 0.80 by pressurization.

MPa. Let

lb) Calculate the change in diameter E = 200 GPa, and v = 0.25. Assume

in the that ri 

min. tively

Note from Example 2-22 that initial small increase in total bolt stress

the required

bolt diameter

d at the root of the threads

tightening of the bolts results when the vessel is pressurized.

d = 2X/-

in a rela-

= 14.2

Remarks
maximum membrane normal stresses fol ow directly from
= 40 MPa

on to note stress

Thin-Walled

Pressure size and vessel

Vessels wall thickness, is only about the one-

The

Eq.

3-26.

is instructive maximum normal

0'1 = 0'2
expansion
The same

pr

2t

2 x 10 x 10 -3
example

0.80

radius circle.

r due to this cause, A = er, where However, from the first expression

of the sphere

procedure

as in the previous

due to pressurization.

el is the membrane in Eq. 314, one

Hence,

can

if A is the increase
strain

be used
has
x

for finding
on the

in the

el=-v

0'1

0'2

E-200x

40

103

4x200x

40

half as large as that in a cylindrical one. The reason for this can be clarified by making reference to Figs. 3-17 and 3-18. In a cylindrical pressure vesthe longitudinal stresses, 0'2, parallel to the vessel's axis, do not contribute to maintaining the equilibrium of the internal pressure p acting on the curved surface; whereas in a spherical vessel, a system of equal stresses resists the applied internal pressure. These stresses, given by Eqs. 3-24-3-26, are treated as biaxial, although the internal pressure p acting on the wall causes local compressive stresses on the inside equal
Study of this section is optional.

that for comparable in a spherical pressure

103

= 0.15

10-3mm/mm

Hooke's

Law,

Pressure

Vessels,

and

Thick.

Walled

Cylinders

Sec.

3-.

Introduction

(heads)
pressure

erical ends, ses increase


very

of pressure
undesirable.

thick end considerably;

plates

vessels

must be very
in Fig.

see

are

Fig.

used, the 3-19(c).

careful y
with

local bending For this reason,

and

designed.
from

9 Flat ends
given
sheets used in
(a)

the

shear ends

A majority are joined


be found

o 1

dif erent
An vessel. element cylindrical of a
Fig. 3-t8 thin-walled pressure An element spherical of

types

vessels

of pressure together of butt


in Section

are show.n
joints.

vessels by means
1-14.

are manufactured of welding. Examples additional

Some

3-20,

comments

preference
should
based

curved of welds

on welded
derived

to the
joints
thinpres-

Fig. 3-t7 thin-walled pressure

In conclusion, :ases
as in the

it must

be emphasized

that

the formulas

for

vessel.

of internal

pressure

vessels
case

pressure.

in the preceding
If a vessel
tank

to this pressure. As already pointed out in Example 3-3,. such stresses small in comparison with the membrane stresses 0. and 0'2, and are erally ignored for thin-walled pressure vessels. A more complete sion of this problem is given in Section 3-13 and Example 3~6. A more important problem arises at geometrical changes in the shape
vessel. These can cause a disturbance in the membrane action. An

of a vacuum

or a submarine,

is to be designed

section

instability

for

be used
on the

external

only
(buckling)

for
Fig. 3-20 Examples used in pressure Double-fil et lap (b) double-welded with V-grooves.

(b)

the
ulas

walls
can

may
be

occur,
meaningless.

and

stress

calculations

previous

o welds vessels. (a) joint, and butt joint

of

of each

tration of this condition is given in Fig. 3-19 using the numerical found in Examples 3-3 and 3-4. If a cylindrical pressure vessel has hemispherical ends, as shown Fig. 3-19(a), and' if initial y the cylinder and the heads were

other,

under

pressufization

they

by the dashed lines. In general, the cylinder by dif erent amounts and would tend to create as shown at A. However, physical continuity tained by local bending and shear stresses juncture, as shown in Fig. 3-19(b). If instead

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


would tend to expand, as
Introduction

and the ends would a discontinuity in the wall} of the wall must be in the neighborhood of of relatively flexible

Analysis discussed

of thick-walled cylinders under internal and external pressure in this part. This problem is related to the thin-walled cylinpressure vessel problem treated earlier. In order to solve the posed problem, acharacteristic method of the mathematical theory of elasticity is employed. This consists of assuring equilibrium for each infinitesimal and, through the .use of geometric relations, allowing only their (possibl) deformations. The equilibrium conditions are reto those of deformation using the generalized Hooke's law. Then

0.35

mm
Detail A

(b)

R

= 1000

mm

tained

governing dif erential subject to the from that used in statical indeterminancy assumption in each chanics of solids, it

the

equation prescribed engineering is particular becomes

using

the methods
was

of the mathematical

established on the preceding bases is boundary conditions. This approach difmechanics of solids, where the internal resolved by means of a plausible kinematic case. Occasionally, in engineering menecessary to draw upon the solutions ob-

theory

of elasticity.

This,

discontinuities

problems
Deformed

already resorted to in treating in axial y loaded bars. Solutions using the finite-element approach,
Vessel Code gives theory is beyond the formulas for thin-walled
of cases.

stress concentrations of two- and three-dimenphilosophically,

at

are

in

shape
(a) (c) Deformation of the same

9 The
cylindrical
at a flat head

pressure

vessel

ASME of ends; limitation,

Unfired Pressure the necessary the elementary


in the majority

practical information on the scope of this text. In spite of cylinders developed here

Fig.

3-t9

Exaggerated

deformations

of pressure

vessels

at discontinuities.

o The

suitable

remainder

of this

chapter

can

be omit ed

in a first

course.

t60

Hooke's

Law,

Pressure

Vessels,

and

Thick-Walled

Cylinders

Sec.

3-t2.

Solution

of the

General

Problem

'16'1

many ticity. yet


the

Mathematically,
solution

respects In both

similar cases,
is carried

it clearly
cylinders.
solution for

displays

the problem

to the methods of the mathematical one seeks solutions to boundary-value the characteristic
further

of thick-walled
including

by

method
and

cylinders

inelastic

used
plastic

behavior

in elasticity.

is rather

theory of problems
of thi,

zent shown. Further, equai and opposite The nature of the


formulated, pattern

a characteristic of reasoning.

the axial stresses cry, on the two faces of the element normal to the plane of the paper. stresses acting on an infinitesimal element having
elasticity solution pr6ceeds along

the

wailed
amined.

Both
of the

the
problem cylinders.
other

elastic-plastic
of thick-wailed

the

states
under

are
Equilibrium element chosen the desi must be in static is 1 x r dqb; equilibrium. To express err + dcrr this acts matheis 1 x

The

cylinders

pressure
earlier
of extrusion

provides

thin-wailed
molds

bounds
and.

on the applicability
This
mechanicai

solution
equipment.

of the equations
is also useful

for

requires :es are obtained


on which

err acts

the evaiuation by multiplying

of forces stresses
that

on which

acting on the element. These by their respective areas. The

**342.

Solution

of

the

General

Problem

inder be pi and the outside, or external, pressure be po. Stresses in the wall, the cylinder caused by these pressures are sought. This problem can be conveniently solved by using cylindrical nates. Since the cylinder is long, every ring of unit thickness perpendicular to the plane of the paper is stressed alike. A typicai
itesimai element of unit thickness is defined by two and an angle dqb, as shown in Fig. 3-21(b). If the normal radial stress acting on the infinitesimal tance r from the center of the cylinder is err, this distance r + dr wil be crr q- (do'r/dr) dr. Both normal radii, r and r +
element at a

Consider has the

a long cylinder with axial y restrained ends whose cross dimensions shown in Fig. 3-21(a).  The inside radius of this is ri; the outside radius is ro. Let the internal presst/re in the c'

+ dr) dqb; and each area on which crt acts is 1 x dr. The weight of the itself is neglected. Since the angle included between the sides of the element is dqb, both tangential stresses are inclined dqb to the line

erpendicular
0,

to OA. Then,

summing

the forces

aiong

a radiai

line,  Fr

Simplifying, and VERSION neglecting the infinitesimais of higher NON-ACTIVATED www.avs4you.com crt -- crr -- r-F-F = 0 or d-Z- + -dcrr dcrr Crr-

crrr dqb + 2crt dr

crr +  dr (r + dr) dqb = 0


order,
Crt
r

= 0

(3-28)
of defor-

acting ogous from


from

on the other to the hoop the condition


the center must
referred

two faces of the element stresses in a thin cylinder, of symmetry, every element
be stressed
Lamfi

variable stress tangential are err. These stresses, are equal. Moreover, at the same radi
stresses act on

at

it can
the

one equation are required

aiike,

no

shear

be solved. and properties Compatibility

has two to express


This

is done of materiais

unknown stresses, fit and cry. Intermediate this equation in terms of one unknown
by introducing into the the geometry

so

problem.

is sometimes

 This

problem

was

to as the

originally

solved

problem.

by Lamfi,

a French

engineer,

in

:tric

The

deformation . directions.

a cylindricai surface of radius r, Fig. 3-21(a), displacement or movement of the adjacent Hence, the strain er of an element in the radial
u+du

of an element is described by its strains Ifu represents the radial displacement

u + (du/dr) dr is the surface of radius r + direction is

in the radial or movement

and

u + rr du dr ) - u
dr
(b)

du
dr

(3-29)

FiG. 3-21 cylinder.

Thick-walled
(a)

The

strain et in the tangentiai of the circumference

direction of the deformed

fol ows

cylindrical

by subtracting surface

from the of radius

62

Hooke's

Law, Pressure
the

Vessels,
lat er

and Thick. Walled


of the unstrained length. Hence,
2x(r + u)
2xr

Cylinders
cylinder of radius
u
r

Sec. 3d2. Solution


r and

of the General
stresses are

Problem
by

r + u the circumference the dif erence by

s. 3-29
2w'

3-36

by expressing
and 3-30;

then

them

the

radial

in terms

and

of the

tangential

displacement

u, as given

fir = (1 + v)(1 - 2v) (1 - v)r + v


in terms of

(3-37)

Note
unknown

that
variable

Eqs.
of Material

3-29
u.

and

3-30

give

strains

expressed

Properties

(1 - v)(1 - 2v)
law relating strains to stresses here in the form 2 is given by

Vrr
Eq. 3-28 and simplifying, the desired

The generalized 3-14, and can

Hooke's be restated

by substituting

dif erential

these

equation

values

is obtained:

into

;r = _(O'r -- ]JO't -- l/O'x)


1
1

(3-31

k
of the Dif erential can be verified the radial

dr 2 +
Equation

r dr

r2

= 0

(3-38)

However, deformation, equation

in the case of the thick-walled cylinder with axial y the problem is one of plane strain, i.e., e, = 0. The then leads to a relation for the axial stress as
O' x = V(O' r q- O't)

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com u= Ar+ A2/r


by substitution, displacement the general u of any point 3-32 O'r and
-- lJ);r

solution on the

of Eq. cylinder,

3-38, is

which

(3-39)

Introducing taneously

gives

this

result into expressions


O' r (1 (1

Eqs. 3-31 for stresses


E

and

and solving crt in terms


q-

them of strains:

the
the boundaries

constants
u is not

A and
of the body.

A2

must

be determined
the

from

the
outer

conditions
boundary

Unfortunately,
2v) 2v)

for

the

+ v)(1
E

[(1

known

determination

at either

of the
inner

constants

or the

A and

A2,

the

of

Stresses
-

the cylinder's

acting

wall.

on the

However,

elements

the known
at the

respective

pressures
err(to) =

radii.

are equal
-po

Hence,

to the radial
(3-40)

+ v)(1

O'r(l'i)

= --pi

and

These
elastic

equations
material.

bring
of the Dif erential

the

plane

strain
Equation

condition

into

the

problem

)Ver,
equilibrium equation,
one

since

the

minus

Formation
Now
one variable
2 Since
two

into

u as given
the
by Eqs.

signs

expression

by Eq.
3-37

are

used

for

3-39

to indicate

O'r given

and

du/dr

compressive

by Eq.

= A - A2/r 2 can be sub3-37, the boundary con-

stresses.

More-

given

become

the

u. Thus,
sides,

eliminates
be

Eq.

3-28,
the
element

strains

can

be expressed
;r and
an

e, from

in terms
Eqs.
an

tween

an infinitesimal
of its
system.

it can

cylindrical

treated

as if it were

includes

an infinitesimal
element

fir(r/) = --pi = (1 + v)(1 - 2v) A - (1 - 2v)


Crr(ro) = -po = (1 + v)(1E - 2v) I A - (1 - 2v)

(3-41)

in a

coordinate

t64

Hooke's

Law,

Pressure

Vessels,

and

Thick.

Walled

Cylinders

Sec.

3.13.

Special

Cases
Plane

'165
of
Trnax

Solving

these

equations

simultaneously

for

A

and

A2

yields

A1 =(1+v)(1 -2v)pi 2-por2o ri1


E r r/2

A2 = 1 E+ v (Pi r2o- -po)riri22ro 2'

It is these stress-strain However, the resulting 38, and the radial and .walled cylinder that a dif erent constant radial displacement u.
A becomes

relations that must be dif erential equation tangential stresses are and are given by Eq. A must be used in The constant A2 remains

used in the solution process. remains the same as Eq. 3also identical to those in the 3-43. The only dif erence is Eq. 3-39 for determining the the same as in Eq. 3-42,

Po =0

Or = --Pi
max

A to

1 - vpri

r2 _ r2
po

2 - por2o

(3-46)
Fig. 3.22
*m

These constants, radial displacement specified pressures. aries of the cylinder If Eq. 3-39 and equations cylinder

used in Eq. 3-39, of any point on the Thus, displacements can be computed. its derivative, together

when

permit the determination elastic cylinder subjected of the inner and outer with stresses the constants at any given point by

An

element
occurs.

in

*'3-13.
Ec s. 3-43

Special
pressure simplify only, to

Cases
i.e., pt  0 and = 0, Fig. 3-22. For this case,

which

3-42,

are

substituted
for
are

the radial obtained.

into

and These

Eqs.

tangential are
C2

3-37,

and

the results

are simplified,

of an elas

O'r

O'r ' Cl

r2

where
Note that

C - piti2ra - Pr2 rt2


-O' r ' fit is constant

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION 2 and C2 = (pl www.avs4you.com


and crt = C + -w
F-

C2

- r2o-Pi-- r/2r/2- (1-) /


a compressive stress
and its

(3-47,
and
maxum

(3-43

ro2/r 2  1, fir is ways


, is ways
ri.

is mimum
so occurs

at r

= r. Similarly,

a tensile

stress,

- po)ri t'7 -- r/2

atr=

over

the

whole

cross-sectional

area

the
also inder.

cylinder.
constant

This
over

means
the entire

that

the
cross-sectional

axial

stress
area

cry, as given
of the

by
thick-walled

Eq.

3-34

For brit le mater,s, However, for ductile adopt the criterion mated's capacity ise for thin-wed

the second Eq. 3-47 genery governs the design. materies, such as md steel, it is more appropriate for the if itiation of yielding due to shear rather than for resisting normal stress. This issue does not cylinders. In such problems, the mimum radi

stress
shear nomal

Remarks

on

the

Thin-Disc

Problem

The to a were -v(. For

stress-strain relations used for a thick-walled plane strain condition. If, on the other to be considered, the plane stress condition + c&,)/E) governs. (See the discussion this case, the stress-strain Eqs. 3-31 and

hand,

cylinder corres an annular thin (i.e., cry, = 0 and at the end of Section 3-32 reduce to
1

disc e, = 3-6.'

to Eq. 1-10, the relationship between the mimum stresses is simple and dkect, being *m = */2, or she yield can be used as a criterion. However, cylinders, the radial stress r may be of the same as *t. For such a case, the maximum shear stress

equal

to pt,

i5 neglible

in comparison

with

,.

Therefore,

norm and and either the for thickorder of magmust be found


maximum shear

ac-

by supeosing

the effects
in Fig. 3-23. inner surface

from

both

of the lge

nom

stresses
their

3 in the

found

manner vues

in this manner

shown at the

should

Both of these of the cylinder.

be comped

with

stresses The

the mimum

reach mimum

shear
where

stress

stress
f yp

8r = _(O'r -- l/O't)
and by solving
E

and
simultaneously,

, =  (-vcrr

+ err)

that a material is the no

can yield

attain. stress

Such a vue can in uniial tension.

be taken as f yp/2, On this basis,


--

these

equations

Tmax =

(fit)max
has

-- (fir)max

r2o - r/2
between

p,r2o

-- O'yp

(3-48)

'r - 1 - v 2 (er q- vet)

and

or, - 1 - 1/2 (;t q- ]Yer)

0 <  < 0.5,

13 The

axial

this

stress

stress

cr z given

an intermediate

by Eq.

3-34

does

value

not

enter

the

or, and

problem,

err.

since

for

Fig.

transformations
maximum

3.23

Stress

shear

for

stresses.

obtaining

t66

'Hooke's
and

Law, Pressure

Vessels,

and Thick-Walled

Cylinders

Sec. 3.t4.

Behavior

of Ideally

Plastic

Thick-Walled

Cylinders

67

Pi = Pyp -External pressure


to

0'y(ro

2r2o

this case, Eqs.

only,

i.e.,

pi = 0 and po  O. For

43 simplify

r/2 (1 -'r/ ) O'r -- r2o-P"--2Since r/r 2 -< 1, both stresses compressive stress is crt and are
occurs

(3-5
(at)av = 10pi

(ar)rnin

= 0

(at)av
({/t)rnin = 9.5Pi

= Pi

Equations 3-50 must not be used for very thin-walled ling of the walls may occur and strength formulas give
EXAMPLE 3-6

always compressive. at r = ri.

The

)max = 10.5pi

(at)max
Radial

= Pi
stresses

- 'Pl
Tangential stresses

ylinders. misleading

(a)

G = 1.1q

or t=O.

lq

(b)

q =4qrt

i=3

Fig.

3-24

stress
can

is plot ed

in Fig.
this figure.

3-28(b).
The

A striking
average

variation
tangential

of the tangential
stress given by

given

Make a comparison pressure pl as given


ro = 1.1r,
Solution

of the tangential by the Lam6 by the appro_ximate formula


and if(b) ro = 4r4

see

stress distribution caused by the formula in Section 3-12 with the for thin-walled cylinders of Section 3-9 if
Fig. 3-24.

3-24,

be using

observed from t = 3r, is

(a)

Using

Eq.

3-47b

for

or,,

(Crt)a v = pirit = -Pi 5 NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


stress is nowhere near the true maximum

1 = 5Pi
stress.

The

(O"t)r=r i = (O't)max
while,
3-24 is

(1.1ri)2p,,._2 r/2 [ 1 qt = 0.1r, the average

(1.1ri 2r,)2']
hoop

stresses shown by the It is interesting

radial

= 10.5pi
shrunk

pressure, the maximum tangential this necessitates spe. cial techniques


in gun manufacture, onto the smaller
and tensile cylinder A greater

were shaded to note

also area that

computed by using Eq. 3-47a for in Fig. 3-24(b). no matter how thick a cylinder

err, and

the

results

(0',) . . -- (O")min -- (1.lr' - F/2 1 + kl.lr, j j = 9.5p,


since the wall thickness stress given by

inner

act

in tension.

instead of using a single cylinder, another cylinder one, which sets up initial compressive stresses in the stresses in the outer one. In operation, the compressive is released first, and only then does this cylinder begin range of operating pressures is obtained thereby.

stress 4 wil to reduce

not be smaller the maximum

is made

than p. In stress. For

to resist

pirlrl i -- 10pi (cr,)avg = pir_i t _ O.


24,
are

These results no appreciable

are

shown in Fig. error is involved.

3-24(a).

Note

particularly

that

in using

Eq.

Behavior Cylinders
case
yield

of

Ideally
cylinder section,

Plastic
under Eq. cylinder

Thick-Walled
internal 3-49 was pressure derived alone the was onset
shear.

(b) By using

Eq. 3-47b for or,, the tangential

stresses

are obtained

as before.

These

(O"t)r=ri = (O't)max -- (4ri7r2)21 j = - piri2 r [ 1 + (4ri 17 pi


(0',) . . = (O")min -- (4ri - ri2 k4riJ J = - p'

of a thick-walled in the previous at the inner surface 2uent increase the outer surface,
Problem 3-21.

and

for

of the due in the internal pressure, and an elastic-plastic

to the maximum the yielding state prevails

progresses in the

cyl-

]4 See

68

Hooke's Law, Pressure Vessels, and Thick. Walled Cylinders


inder with a limiting radius c elastic. As the pressure increases, tually, the entire cross section In the fol owing discussion, ideally plastic material wil be beyond

Sec. 344. Behavior of Ideally Plastic Thick-Walled

Cylinders

the

becomes as before, assumed

which radius ful y the as


--

the cross section c also increases until, plastic at the ultimate maximum shear criterion

*max
As noted earlier, this implies fi, and fir. A reexamination in the elastic range, provided this applies only if the ratio certain value. 5 For v = hence, the solutions to be long as ro < 5.75r (with v = is more complicated when the scope of this book.

--

fit

fir

fiyp

2
value this to plastic is less to valid and

(3-51
betwei be ran be
only
Elastic Plastic

that fi, has an of Eqs. 3-34 and that 0 < v < of outer to inner 0.3, this ratio can obtained in this 0.3). The task of this condition is

intermediate 3-47 shows 0.5, but in the radius, ro/rt, be established section wil be finding the stress not satisfied

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig.

3-25

5.75

fir = fiyp

lB r + C
be expressed

(3-53)

cylinder
(zero

is be'

external

with

inner

pressure)
fir(b)

radius

can

a and

outer

radius

as

b, the boundary

con(3-54)

= 0 = fiyp C is given --fiyp

In b + C as

Plastic
The the but Static

Behavior

of Thick-Walled

Cylinders

equations of static equilibrium are applicable, elastic or plastic state is considered. Hence, must be supplemented by a yield condition. equilibriu/n, Eq. 3-28:
dfir
dr

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


regardless Eq. 3-28 of

Hence,

the

integration

constant

is

C =

In b

radial and respectively.

tangential

stresses

are

then

obtained,

using

Eqs.

3-53

and
(3-55) (3-56)

Thus,

fir

-r

fit

fir = fiyp0n r -- In b) = fiyp in r/b fit = fiyp 3c fir = fiyp(1 q- In r/b)


stress distributions 25(c), whereas Fig. given

Yield

condition,

Eq.

3-51:
fit -fir fiyp

plastic state the ultimate


basic dif erential equation

3-25(b) represents internal

by shows

Eqs.

3-55 and 3-56 the elastic stress

are shown distributions.

in Fig. 3Since

the ultimate pressure, using

collapse Eq.

3-55,

of the thick-walled is given as

By
comes

combining

these

two

equations,

the

pult
Behavior
given cross any

= fir(a)
of Thick-Walled

= fiyp In a/b
Cylinders
the yield i.e.,

(3-57)

dfdrir
The solution of this can

fiYr P = 0
be writ en

or
as

dfir = fiyr__ppdr

5 See niversary
251.

W. T. Koiter, "On Volume on Applied

Partial y Mechanics

Plastic Thick-Walled (Haarlem, Holland:

Tubes," H. Stam,

Biezeno 1953),

232

value of pt that is intermediate to by Eq. 3-49 and Eq. 3-57, respectively, section of the cylinder between the radius c is ful y plastic, whereas b is in the elastic domain, Fig. 3-26. yield condition is just satisfied, and the Can be computed using Eq. 3-49 with r =

and ultimate values pyp < pt < pult, the inner radius a and an interthat between c and the outer At the elastic-plastic interface, corresponding radial stress X c and ro = b; hence,

68

' Hooke's Law, Pressure Vessels, and Thick-Walled Cylinders


inder

Sec. 3-t4. Behavior of Ideally Plastic Thick.Walled Cylinders


cross

tually,

elastic.

with

In the fol owing discussion, ideally plastic material wil

the entire

As the pressure

a limiting

radius

cross

section

increases,

c beyond

as before, be assumed

becomes

the radius

which

ful y

c also

the

the maximum as

plastic

increases

section

at the ultimate
shear

until,

criterion

load

'rmax
As

= fit --2 fir -- fiy2p


that fi has an intermediate value

(3-51)
betwe
Elastic Plastic

fi, and fir. A reexamination in the elastic range, provided

noted

earlier,

this

implies

this

certain

applies

value?

only

For

if the ratio
(with
book.

v = 0.3,

of Eqs. 3-34 and 3-47 shows this to be tru. that 0 < v < 0.5, but in the plastic ran of outer to inner radius, ro/ri, is less than
this ratio can be established to be a cylinder (zero

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig.

3-25

fir

= fiyp can

In r + C

(3-53)

hence, the solutions long as ro < 5.75ri is more complicated


the scope of this

to be obtained in this section wil be valid only v = 0.3). The task of finding the stress when this condition is not satisfied and is be'
Cylinders

with external

inner radius pressure)


fir(b)

a and outer be expressed

radius
as

b, the

boundary

con(3-54)

= 0 = fiyp C is given

In b + C as

Plastic

Behavior

of Thick-Walled

The equations of static equilibrium are appl/cable, the elastic or plastic state is considered. Hence,
but must be supplemented by a yield condition.
Static equilibriutn, Eq. 3-28:
--+--=0 dr

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


regardless Eq. 3-28
Hence, the integration constant

is

C =

--fiyp

In b
obtained, using Eqs. 3-53 and
(3-55) (3-56)

radial and respectively.

tangential

stresses

are

then

Thus,

dfir

fir

-r

fit

fir = fiyp(ln r - in b) = fiyp in db fit = fiyp + fir = fiyp(1 + In rib)


stress distributions whereas Fig. plastic state cylinder, the ultimate

Yield

condition,

Eq.

3-51:
fit -fir fiyp

given by Eqs. 3-55 and 3-56 are shown in Fig. 33-25(b) shows the elastic stress distributions. Since represents the ultimate collapse of the thick-walled internal pressure, using Eq. 3-55, is given as

By
comes

combining

these

two

equations,

the

basic

dif erential

equation
Behavior

Pult

= fir(a)

= fiyp

In a/b

(3-57)

of Thick-Walled

Cylinders

dfdrir
The solution of this can

fiYrP = 0
be writ en

or
as

dfir = fiYr__2 dr

any

value by Eq. section radius

of p that is intermediate to the yield and ultimate values 3-49 and Eq. 3-57, respectively, i.e., pyp < pi  pult, the of the cylinder between the inner radius a and an interc is ful y plastic, whereas that between c and the outer
elastic domain, is just satisfied, using Eq. 3-49 Fig. 3-26.

5 See W. T. Koiter, "On niversay Volume on Applied


251.

Partial y Mechanics

Plastic Thick-Walled (Haarlem, Holland:

Tubes," H. Stam

Biezeno

Ai

b is in the yield condition be computed

and

with

At the elastic-plastic the corresponding radial r = c and ro = b; hence,

interface, stress

70

Hooke's

Law,

Pressure

Vessels,

and

Thick.

Walled

Cylinders

Problems

}blerns
x

Sections

3-7

and

3-8

,ction

3-2
the shear mounting shear spring constant to a square pad with in Example ks, but 10-mm-thick 3-1 changing
rub-

3-5.
to

Using Using
moduli customary

the
alloy

values
calculate and

for
steel.

E and
Poisson's

G given
ratios

in Table
for 2024-

1A

Redesign the same dimensions

of the Appendix, T4 aluminum

3-6.
bulk U.S. Section

Table 1A for 6061-T6


units.

in the Appendix, alluminum

alloy

calculate the and steel in

'ion Consider

3-6 a 4-in
biaxial tensile

3-9

square
stresses

steel
of

bar
20

subjected
ksi in the

to
x

3-7.

A stainless-steel

cylindrical

shell

has

a 36-in

inthat es-

Fig.

3-26

XThis stress becomes the boundary

crvp b2 b--2 c2 2
condition to be used in

and 10 ksi in the y direction. to be in a state of plane stress, in the z direction and the elongations the x and y directions. (b) Assuming a state of plane strain, determine the and the elongations of the bar
: bar
Let E = 30 x 103 ksi and

v =

(a) Assuming determine of the the bar stress in in the x


0.25.

the plate to be
the and z y

what is the allowable working pressure? Assume appropriate hemispherical ends are provided. Also timate the bursting pressure. to a hydroelectric If the diameter
lowable quired? 3-9. A tank

side diameter of the material

and is 0.5 in. thick. If the tensile strength is 80 ksi and the factor of safety is 5,

3-8.

A "penstock,"
stress

with
radius

Eq.

3-53
c. Hence,

for

a ful y

plastic

err(C) = -X =
and
By substituting region is obtained

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION Cryp - c 2 -- Gyp Inc + C 2 b 2 b2 www.avs4you.com


Let E = 200 GPa and v = 0.25.

segment

with

inner

radius

a and

out

A piece of to uniformly (see the figure). change in 'these forces? ness as in part

50 by 250 by 10 mm steel plate is subdistributed stresses along its edges (a) IfPx = 100 kN and Py = 200 kN, thickness occurs due to the application (b) To cause the same change in thick(a) by P, alone, what must be its mag-

turbine, operates of the penstock


50 MPa, what of butt-welded construction

i.e.,

a pipe

at a head of 90 m. is 0.75 m and the alwall thickness for the is storre-

for

conveying

water

age of gasoline

(a) Select the plates. Allow

plate thickness 20 ksi for steel

is to be 40 ft in diameter

for the in tension

bottom
and

and

16 ft high.
row assume

of

C =
this
as

O-yp 2 b 2 b- 2 c 2
value of C into Eq.

Crvp In c
3-55, the radial stress in the

the efficiency of welds at 80%. Add in to the computed wall thickness corrosion. Neglect local stresses at vertical walls with the bottom. (Specific gasoline to be stored is 0.721.) (b) bottom of the tank does not restrain
of the tank occur at the walls, bottom? what increase E = 29 x
103

approximately to compensate
the juncture

gravity
in

Assuming the displacement


ksi

of the of the that the


would 0.25.

for

diameter and

v =

O' r = O'yp and by using Eq. 3-51, the tangential

In c

Gyp b 2 -- c 2
2 b 2
Fig. P3-3

(NH3)
vapor of the

3-t0.

A cylindrical
at the
pressure vessel

maximum
of NH3 material

vessel

temperature

is used

for

storing
of
The with

50

ammonia
C.
thickness a tensile

The

stress

in the

plastic

zone

becomes

at 50 C is 20 atm. is limited to 20 mm

3-4.
75

A rectangular
has the
and

steel
foilowing
c = 100

block,
dimensions:
mm. The

such
faces

as shown
of this

in Fig.
b
block

a = 50 mm, forces of 180 kN

O't = Cryp "Jc O'r = Cryp 1 + In


The internal be obtained, ri = c and
stress distributions

O'2yp

mm,

b 2

ected

to uniformly

distributed

(tension)

in the x direction,

200 kN

(tension)

in the y

in diameter

strength of 400 assuming that all what can be the For the selected
that

MPa. (a) If the factor of safety is 5, welds wil be inspected with X-rays, maximum diameter of the vessel? (b) wall thickness, calculate the change
would occur with ammonia at 50 C.

pressure pi at which the plastic using Eq. 3-61, simply as'pi ro.-b, provide the necessary
in the elastic zone.

zone extends from a to c = err(a). Equations 3-47, relations for calculating

and 240 kN (compression) in the z direction. the magnitude of a single system of forces in the y direction that would cause the same in the y direction as the initial forces. Let
0.25.

3-11. An air chamber for a pump, the sectional side view of which is shown in mm on the figure, consists of two pieces. Compute the number of 19-mm bolts (net area 195 mm 2) required to attach the chamber to
the cylinder at plane A-A. The allowable tensile stress

'72

Hooke's

Law,

Pressure

Vessels,

and

Thick.Walled
that
2.

Cylinders

Problems

'173
and 343
tangential a thickpressure

cylinder

stress determine
kN/m

to be completely
Let

the cylinder.
3-t5. An the diameter

develops in the ring what bearing develops


wire

rigid,

(a) determire

a = 2 x 10-s/C

upon cooling, and between the rin


taut

the

-t7.

and E = 7 x
as

An aluminum-alloy to form the pressure The wall thickness


of

tube is shrunk vessel il ustrated of each tube

a steel in the figis 4 mm. The


be used in caltube is pressurstress develops the ends of the develop= 0. Let E^ =

onto

Sections
3-19. 3-20. stress walled

3-12

in the figure.
A A

aluminum alloy of a cylindrical

thickness
tiate

X 103 MPa, of the steel


between

is 10 mm.
the

and a^t pressure

For

the wire:
(In
inside

is stretched pressure vessel,

'diameter s is 400 at 2 MPa, the aluminum

mm. what

= 23.4 vessel

A = 0.060

calculations,
and

x 10-a/C. The is 2000 mm and


do not
mean diameters

mm 2, E =
the
of

tube

interface

Fig.

P34t

cylinder.) For 11.7 x 10-a/C,


water
wood

steel, let E = 200 x 103 MPa, and Poisson's ratio v = 0.30.


to 1 MPa drops 50 C, Assume that of the wire
Wire

x 103 MPa and pressure, to cause hoop


;sion in the

can freely of longitudinal

the assembly to If the composite additional hoop tube? Assume that expand, preventing stresses, i.e., cry,

Verify the solution of Eq. 3-38. Show that the ratio of the maximum to the average tangential stress cylinder subjected only to internal

for

is di-

(1 + [32)/(1
3-2t. Show

+ [3), where
that no matter

[3 = roh'i.
how large the outside

Est = 200 x 103 MPa. Hint: The say , between the two materials tension in the outer tube and hoop
inner tube.

ameter of a cylinder, sure, is made, the less than p. (Hint:


3-22.
ameter)

subjected maximum Let ro -->


cylinder
OD.

only tangential
has a 6-in

to internal stress
ID (inside

presis not
di-

An
and

alloy-steel
a 18-in

Ifthi
oft

If it is subjected

to an internal

in the
is 1.5

bolts
MPa.

is 40 MPa,
water tank made

and

the
of

and
staves

air
is

pressure
5 m in

3-t2.

vessel is pressurized the temperature velop in the wire?


wire comes as well lower

diameter and 4 m high. Specify mm stel hoops if the allowable is set at 90 MPa. Use uniform
meter of the tank's height.

the spacing of 30 by 6 tensile stress for steel hoop spacing within each

as that of the and that the

cylinder deformation

and, at the what stress the temperature can be neglected.

same would

pressure
radial cipal)

ofpi
and tangential shear

= 24,000
stress stress.-(c)

psi (p,,
Determine

= 0), (a) determine

the
show

results
nal and
0.3.

on a plot.
internal

(b) Determine
diameters.

distributions

the
the

maximum
change

and

(prin-

the

of the

E = 30

x 106 psi

in exter-

and

v =
a
of

caused

by the

pull

3-23. 0.45
Fig. P347

An alloy-steel cylinder m OD. If it is subjected

has a 0.15-m to an internal

ID pressure

and

3-t3. A cylindrical pressure vessel of 120 in outside diameter, used for processing rubber, is 36 ft long. If the cylindrical portion of the vessel is made from 1-in thick steel plate and the vessel operates at-120-psi 'internal pressure, determine the total elongation Of
he circumference and the increase in the diameter's

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


;-18. Exceptionally been developed
the tensile forces

light-weight by employing
and

using

pressure vessels glass filaments for


epoxy resin

pi = 160 MPa (po = 0), (a) determine the radial and tangential stress distributions and show the results on a plot. (b) Determine the maximum (principal) shear
stress. ternal 3-24.
MPa.

as a

(c) Determine diameters. Rework

the changes in external E = 200 x 103 MPa and 3-23


3-23 of the

and inv = 0.3. po


MPa

Fig.

P345

binder.

dimension

caused

by

the

operating

pressure.

29 x 106 psi and v = 0.25. 3-t4. A thin ring is heated in oil 150 C above room temperature. In this condition, the ring just slips on a solid cylinder, as shown in the figure: Assuming the

3-'16. A cylindrical is made by shrinking tube. Both cylinders


nominal diameter

of

pressure vessel shown a brass tube over have a wall thickness


the vessel is 30

in

and

in the fi a mild of-}


room

0nly
aments

A diagram in the figure. hoop stresses, the cylinder is e  55 (tan'element

of a filament-wound cylinder is If the winding is needed to resist the helix angle a = 90 . If, howclosed, both hoop and longitudinal

Problem
Problem one-half

with
with cylinder

p = 0 and
p = 160

= 80
and 3-25

is to

'ces develop,

and

the requi.red
of unit width

used

in all

calculations

involving

the

diameter.

a = 2). Verify
and

helix

this

angle

result.

of the fil(Hint:
length

3-25. Rework Po = 80 MPa. 3-26. Isolate

of Problem

the

brass

cylinder

is heated

100

F above

a developed

perature, it exactly fits over is at room temperature. What cylinder when the composite
6

perature?
10.7
= 6.7

x 10-6/F.
x

For

brass:

For

steel:

EBr

= 16 X 106 psi and


Est

the steel cylinder, is the stress in the vessels cool to room


= 30 X 106 psi and
Brass tube

as in the if F is a force

figure.

For
is cut

such
by each

an element, n is . on hoop
section.

the
Therefore,

same

by'passing Then, respective


in equilibrium.

by Design

'a plane through the integrating the tangential areas, show that the
for

of the cylinder. stresses over isolated free body


of a 4-in of 8000 psi internal such

axis

the

is
as

10-6/F.

in a filament and a section, Py = Fn sin y. An equation based the longitudinal and the the required result.)

the number of Force P. can be the known ratio stress leads to

3-27. diameter

a thick-walled an internal

cylinder
pressure

to provide: (a) a factor ing in the cylinder, and ultimate collapse. The
is 36 ksi.

of safety of 2 against (b) a factor of safety yield stress of steel

any yieldof 3 against in tension

50

mm
Filaments

3-28. A 16-in OD steel cylinder with approximately a 10-in bore (ID) is shrunk onto another steel cylinder of 10-in OD with a 6-in ID. Initial y, the internal diameter of the outer cylinder was 0.01 in smaller than the external diameter of the inner cylinder. The as-

Developed

element

inder

sembly

in oil.

was

For

accomplished

both

cylinders,
the

by
pressure

heating

E = 30 x 106 psi and


at the boundaries

the

larger

cyl-

Fig.

P3-t4

Fig.

P346

Steel

tube

Fig.

P348

v = 0.3.

(a) Determine

Hooke's
between in the
decrease modates

Law,

Pressure

Vessels,

and

Thick-Walled

Cylinders

the diameter

two

cylinders. of the

outer

(Hint: The cylinder

elastic increase with the elastic


accomtwo cyl-

in the diameter of the the initial interference

inner cyclinder between the

3-29. Set up the dif erential equation for a thin rotating with an angular velocity of to rad/s. The weight of the material is % Hint: Consider an elem as in Fig. 3-21(b) and add an inertia term.
Section 3-30. outer For radius 3-14 a thick-walled b = 2a, cylinder (a) calculate of inner radius the internal a

inders.) (b) Determine the 'tangential and radial stresses caused by the pressure found in part (a). Show the results on a plot. (c) Determine the internal pressure to which the composite cylinder may be subjected without exceeding a tangential stress of 20,000 psi in the inner cylinder. (Hint: After assembly, the cylinders act as one unit. The initial compressive stress in the inner cylinder is released first.) (d) Superpose the tan_gential stresses found in part (b) with the tangential stresses resulting from the internal pressure found in part (c). Show the results on a plot.

at which the elastic-plastic (b) determine the radial butions due to the internal and show them on a plot,

boundary is at r = 1.5 a tangential stress pressure found in part and (c) calculate the

and

collapse fectly

load. plastic,

Assume the material to be with a yield stress of 250 MPa.

-][.

Introduction

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


re developed tssed in the in this preceding
are confined

Detailed axial y

methods of analysis for determining loaded bars were presented in the for members subjected to torques

first

about

stresses two

their

and chapters.

deformations Analogous longitudinal axes


of action, i.e.,

chapter. chapter

to the

The constitutive wil be employed


effect

of a single

relations for shear for this purpose.


type

disThe

a torque simultaneously By far,


treated

causing

a twist or torsion to torque and bending, part


9.

in a member. frequently is devoted

Members occurring to the

subjected in practice, consideration

ory
the

members having circular. cross sections, of such elastic and inelastic problems dures of engineering mechanics of solids. having noncircular cross sections,

the

in Chapter

major

of this

chapter

of elasticity
dif erence

in

order

(or finite
to

make

elements)

the

reader

must

either solid or tubular. Solution can be obtained using the proceFor the solution of torsion probmethods of the mathematical theaware

be employed.
Further,

of

the

dif erences

This

topic

is briefly
in

such

from

that

for

circular

members.

to lend

emphasis

to

for transmit ing equipment, Therefore,


derived

in the solutions discussed, this chapter is subdivided into parts. It should be noted, however, that in practice, members torque, such as shafts for motors, torque tubes for power etc., are predominantly circular or tubular in cross section. numerous applications fal within the scope of the formulas
in this chapter.

Application
gardless
engineering solid

of the
mechanics,

Method
in analyzing

of Sections
the basic method problems discussed
members

of the type of cross section, is employed. For the torsion

of sections (Section here, there is only

for

torque,

re-

'Torsion one relevant equation member, such an equation minate systems, there ' this torque, an analysis pendicular to the axis
be isolated and the

Sec. 4.3. Basic of statics. Thus, if the x axis is directed along is  M, = 0. Therefore, for statically can only be one reactive torque. After begins by separating a member of a section pe of a member. Then either side of a member
torque found. This internal torque must

Assumptions

for Circular

Members
T

It may be seen intuitively that for a member the maximum internal torque causes the maximum host severe condition on the material. Hence,

internal

ance

torques

the

lems, the formal calculation of a reaction may be bypassed by isolatin a bar segment with the unsupported end. Nevertheless, an equilibrium the whole system must always be assured. In statically problems, the reactions must always be found before one can the internal torques. Some guidance on calculating reactions in indeterminate problems is provided in Section 4-9 of this chapter. For simplicity, the members treated in this chapter wil be "weightless" or supported at frequent enough intervals to make of bending negligible. Axial forces that may also act simultaneously
the bars are excluded for the present.

are equal,

externally

but have

applied

opposite

torques,

sense.

i.e.,

In statically

the

external

determinate'

and

the

intern
ore
;critical

several sections may have to be examined internal torque. A section where the largest :d is the critical section. In Example 4-1, the

of constant cross section, stress and imposes the in investigating a torsion


to

internal critical

determine torque section

the is deis any-

Fig.

4-2

Alternative

representations

of torque.

dif icult

between may

to decide

points

B and

where

C. If the
the

material

torsion

is critically

member

varies computed

stressed.

in size,

Several

it is

eral Instead
Fig.

section. These situations are analogous to the case of an axial y rod, and means must be developed to determine stresses as a of the internal torque and the size of the member. In the next sections, the necessary formulas are derived. of curved arrows as in Fig. 4-1, double-headed vectors fol owing

have

to be investigated

and

stresses

to determine

right-hand
4-2.

screw

rule

sign

convention

wil

also

be used

in this

text;

EXAMPLE

4-t

Find
acted
Solution

the internal
upon by the

trque
three

at section
torques

K-K
indicated.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION 4-3. Basic Assumptions for Circular www.avs4you.com


for the shaft shown in Fig. 4-1(a)
establish a relation between the internal

Members
torque and the stresses it sets

The 30 N.m torque at C is balanced by the two torques of 20 and 10 N.m at and B, respectively. Therefore, the body as a whole is in equilibrium. Next, passing a section K-K perpendicular to the axis of the rod an3 and B, a free body of a part of the shaft, shown in Fig. 4-1(b), is obtained. upon, from , Mx = O, or

up

in members

to make

with

in addition

two

assumptions,

circular

solid
homogeneity

to the

the

and

validity

tubular
of the

of which
material,

cross

sections,

wil

are

be justified
as fol ows:

it is nec-

1. A plane

externally
the conclusion shaft between

applied

torque
internal Similar

= internal
or resisting considerations

torque
torque lead developed to the in

is reached that the A and B is 20 N.m.

member remains plane or distortion of parallel place.  2. In a circular member

section

of material

after the torques planes normal

perpendicular

are applied, to the axis


shear when

to the axis

i.e., no warpage of a member takes


strains  vary fin-

of a circular

subjected to D'O03C

to torque,

that

the

internal

torque

resisted

by the

shaft

between

B and
10 N-m

C is 30 N.m.

early from sumption


such

30 N.m
10 K 20 N-m
C B B

30 N-m

as DO03C

the central is il ustrated

moves

axis reaching m,, at the periphery. in Fig. 4-3 and means that an imaginary
the torque

This

is applied.

plane

as-

N.m

Alternatively, rection, similar new positions


Actually, a constant

if an imaginary radius 03C is considered fixed in radii initial y at 02B and OD rotate to the respective 02B' and OLD'. These radii remain straight.

20

N.m

internal
A

torque

Fig.

4-1

(a)

(b)

VI.

negligible. Advanced

since the usual


For

it is also distance

details, Theory

deformations

implied apart.

that parallel This is not

see S. Timoshenko, and Problems (New

are very

planes perpendicular true if deformations

small,

York:

Strength

stresses
Van

of Materials, Nostrand,

not considered

are

to the axis relarge. How-

1956),

3rd.

ed., Chap-

here

Fig. 4-3 circular


torque.

%,x

Variation member

of strain subjected

in to

Torsion
cular

Sec. 4.4. The Torsion


It must
solid

Formula
Trnax

be emphasized
and tubular

members.

that

these

For

assumptions
this

class

of members,

hold

only

for
D'

assumptions
limit

elastic behavior in Section 4-13,


is discussed.

work

of a material. where stress

so well

that

These assumptions distribution beyond

they

apply

beyond

wil be used the proF

the

limit

rmax

r=G7

Cord
Fig. 4-4 assumption Shear
stress

If attention
applies,
strain. For
deformation

is confined
and,
this

to the linearly
complete

elastic
stress
is found
these

material,
is proportional
between
assumptions.

Hooke's
'to
derived
Shear
variation

it fol ows
case

that
based

shear

Hooke's

law

agreement
on

determined
and

and

computed

formulas

quantities
of elasticity.

with

the

strain

Shear

variation

stress

dA

shear circular

leading

strain

distribution

to elastic

in

member.

their
mathematical

validity

can
theory

be rigorously

demonstrated

by the

methods

of

q-max fA p2 dA = T
c

(4-1)
of a cross-sectional area, area. It wil be designated 2xp dp, where 2xp is the width dp. Hence,

4-4.

The

Torsion

Formula

In the elastic is proportional


stresses stresses
variation

the plane sumption in Fig.


uniform
mote

vary linearly fi'om the induced by the assumed


of the-shear

case, on the basis of the previous to strain, and the lat er varies
to the section
stress

parallel

and the 4-4. Unlike


from

intensity.

the

center
the

normal to the axis of a rod. NON-ACTIVATED VERSION use of Hooke's law for shear, Eq. 3-1. This is the case of an axial y loaded rod, this stress is -] qTC4IT4d) www.avs4you.com
fol ows

central axis distortions

taken

of a circular member. are shear stresses and


from the shear-strain

assumptio'ns, linearly from

since the

However, fA p2 dA, the polar/noment of inertia is also a constant for a particular cross-sectional ! J in this text. For a circular section, dA = umference of an annulus 2 with a radius p of

lie

J =

fAfo

92 dA =

2'I103 dp=

2r

[- i 'iTc4
2
If c or

aid 4
32

(4-2)

directly

(4-2)

The

O and

maximum

is designated
linear

shear

stress

q-max.

occurs

These

at points
points,

most

such

points

distance

C and D in Figs.
c from

center.

4-3 and 4-4, lie at the periphery


For shear stress

variation,

of a section
once

d is the

diameter

of

a solid

circular

shaft.

d is measured

in

at any

bitrary

distribution

The

'resisting

point

at a distance
at a section

torque

can be expressed
is established.

p from

O, the shear
For

in terms

stress

equilibrium

of stress

is (D/C)q-max.
this

internal

the

J has the By using the symbol Eq. 4-1 may be writ en

units J for

of mm 4; if in inches, the the polar moment of inertia more compactly as

units become of a circular

in 4. area,

sisting

torque

must

equal

the externally

applied

torque

T. Hence,
(4-3)

fP Tmax
,stress
,force

dm
area,

p = T
arm,

to'que

expresses

equation

dimensions

the

is the maximum

where itesimal 4, over


torque.

the

integral sums up all torques developed on the cut by the forces acting at a distance p from a m.ember's axis, O in Fig. the whole area A of the cross section, and where T is the

be expressed
annulus work

of a member.
area

well-known shear

4 in newton-meters,
contained instruments.

In applying

torsion formula stress in terms

N-m,
name

this

formula,

3 for circular of the resisting


the

or inch-pounds,
concentric been

internal

shafts torque

c in/neters
by

torque

that and

2 An

is an

between

two

circles. immortalized

It was

developed

on

electric

by Coulomb,

a French

His

engineer,

has

in about the

1775

in connection J is used

its

use

At

any
can

given
be

section,
writ en as

q'max

and

c are

constant;

hence,

the

relation

a practical unit of quantity in electricity. 1 N-m is equal to 1 joule (J). However, the polar moment of inertia of a section.

in this

text,

symbol

only

SO

Torsion
or inches,
shear stress

Sec. 4-4. The Torsion Formula


and J in m 4 or in 4. Such usage makes the units of the tors
?c

r=G7

or pascals

(Pa)

in SI units,

or

r = G2'7

[in-l[ibn ] 4] [in] = [lb 1


or psi in the U.S. A more general a distance p from customary units. relation than Eq. 4-3 the center of a section
p
c

circular

Fig.

4-6 an

Elastic

member

behavior
in

torsion

of a

having
{a) lb)

material.

inner

core

of soft

for

a shear

stress,

, at any
If a circular bar is made from two dif erent materials bonded together,

is
Tp

shown

Equations 4-3 and 4-4 are applicable with equal rigor to since the same assumptions as used in the previous derivation apply. is necessary, however, to modify J. For a tube, as may be seen 4-5, the limits of integration for Eq. 4-2 extend from b to c. Hence,
a circular tube,

j = fAp2dA
or stated the outer otherwise: diameter

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION = fi2,lr@3dp _ 'Itcwww.avs4you.com 4 b4


Summary

shear

in Fig. 4-6(a), the same strain assumption applies as for a solid For such a case, through Hooke's law, the shear-stress distribecomes as in Fig. 4-6Co). If the shear modulus for the outer stif er G and that of the inner softer core is G2, the ratio of the respective stresses on a ring of radius OB is G/G2.

For

the

torsion

mechanics

problem

of solids

of circular

as used

shafts

above

the

may

three

be summarized

basic

concepts

in the

of

manner:

J for a circular tube equals +J for a solid and -J for a solid shaft using the inner diameter.

1. Equilibrium

conditions
at a section. varies

are used
from the

for determining
axis of a shaft.

the internal

resisting

of the

For. very

tube,

thin

J reduces

tubes,

ifb is nearly
to a simple

equal

approximate

to c, and c - b = t, the
expression:

2. Geometry
strain

torques

of deformation
linearly stregses case
is extended

(kinematics)
and Hooke's
to non-linear

is postulated
are used

such
of shear

that
stresses preceding

shear
shear
at

J  2xrR3at
where
tions. Tmin Truax

3. Material
strains
accurate in some
discussion.
13.
a section.

to shear elastic
This

properties

(constitutive

permit

relations)

calculation

to relate

Ray

(b

c)/2,

which

is sufficiently

a linear

using

law

is considered
material behavior

in the

in Section

4-

These large

of circular

basic

concepts

shafts.

are used

However,

for

determining
similar

to the

both

case

stresses
for

axial y

and

anglesloaded

the
Fig.
an

stresses

local ues or changes


and

strains

stresses in cross

are

arise at points section. According


accurately

described

of application to Saint-Venant's
by the

developed

of concentrated principle

theory

4-5
elastic

Variation
circular

of
tube.

stress

in

only beyond locations.

a distance Typically
factors.

local

about

equal stresses

to the diameter are determined

of a shaft by using

from stress

these con-

Torsion

4=5.

Remarks
shear

on only indeed

the

Torsion

Formula
have been thou to the axis of resisting the 4-4

So far the of as acting shaft. There


A B

stresses as given by Eqs. 4~3 and in the plane of a cut perpendicular they are acting to form a couple

(a)

applied torques. However, to understand the problem further, an tesimal cylindrical element, 5 shown in Fig.4-7(b), is isolated. The shear stresses acting in the planes Phrpendicular to the axis of rod are known from Eq. 4-4. Their' directions coincide with the direct of the internal torque. (This should be clearly visualized by the read

On adjoining
opposite
cuts

the

directions.
taken

parallel

normal

However,
to

planes

of a disc-like
axis

the

these

of

shear

element,
stresses

a rod

cannot

acting
stresses

these
exist

in the plane
alone, as

stresses

act
4-9 Fractured torsion

Fig. 4-t0 specimen

photograph
widely
shows

Fractured in torsion.
the

shown

in Section

1-4.

Numerically,

equal

shear

must

act

on

axial

requirements

planes

(such

Shear stresses acting intensity as do the shear of the rod. This variation

of static

as the

equilibrium

planes

aef

in the axial planes fol ow the stresses in the planes perpendicular of shear stresses on the mutually

for an element.

and

bcg

in Fig.

4-7(b))
same
pert

to ful al
variation to the

specimen

of A322

steel. if the converse is true, i.e., ch < *, a brit le fracturo is

ends are for such

separated.

specimen

on fhe

right
not

cast iron The


more used

normally specimens).

(Threaded

the bar

by the tensile 4-10.


4-11.

planes
removed
Truax

is shown
for the

in Fig.
purposes

4-7(c),

where

a portion

of the

shaft

has

of il ustration.

According an equivalent
shear each shear failure 4-8.
and

stresses (see Fig. 3-11). Numerically, these stresses other in the fol owing manner: , = ch = -or2. strength of a material is less than its strength in takes place on a plane perpendicular to the axis This kind of failure occurs gradually and exhibits
planes
surfaces

to. Section system

3-7, such shear of normal stresses

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION does not depend on material properties, is also www.avs4you.com


stresses acting can be trans at angles of 45 with
The
Fig.

in Fig.

axis 7; see is shown

Another

Fig. 4-8. A photograph in Fig. 4-9, and that

stresses

along

a helix

examples

of a brit le

of a ductile fracture of a steel of a brit le fracture for cast ron

forming

an angle

of 45 with is shown

fracture
the

for sandstone

stress

transformation

brought

into

previous

discussion,
of wood

since
on planes

are related Therefore, if tension, a of a bar; see ductile


through
coordinates.
Properties

in dif erent

For

example,

directions.

wood

exhibits
The

sheafing

drastically

strength

applicable dif erent

to anisotropic properties

of

(c)

5 Two

Fig, 4-7 stresses

Existence on mutually

of shear

such

two

perpendicular
are

perpendicular circular
torque.

shaft

planes subjected

in a to

6 Note that maximum shear stresses, as shown actually act on planes perpendicular to the axis through the axis of the rod. The representation free surface of a shaft is fi'ee of all stresses.
 Ductile material

an element

at dif erent

expressible

radii

to the

mathematically

are

axis

used

of the

to isolate

rod,

two

diagrammatically of the rod and shown is purely

in cylindrical

this

planes

element.

the

to the grain is much less than on planes perpendicular although equal intensities of shear stress exist planes, wooden shafts of inadequate size axial planes. Such shafts are occasionally used

to the grain. on mutually perfail longitudinally in the process in-

in Fig. on planes schematic.

4-2

the
shaft

maximum
from A to

torsional
C is 10

shear
mm in

stress
diameter.

in shaft

AC

shown

in Fig.

4-1(a).

Assume

failureplane
T T

From

be 30 N.m.

Example

Hence,

4-1,

the maximum

T = 30 N-m,
1d 4

internal

and

c = d/2

torque

resisted

= 5 mm.

by this
From

shaft
Eq.

4-2,

is known

Fig. 4.8 Potential


failure and surfaces
brit le materials.

in

torsional
ductile
Brit le failure material surface

J = 32
twisting

'i X

32

10 4

982 mm 4
in the classroom

Fig. 4-tt Part of fractured


sandstone core specimen

in

Ordinary

a piece

chalk behaves

of chalk

similarly.

to failure.

This may be demonstrated

torsion.
Pirtz).

(Experiment

by D.
'83

Torsion
and from Eq. 4-3,
Tmax
This maximum shear

Sec. 4.6. Design


Design
-stress

of Circular

Members

in Torsion
be seand of ma-

Tc
J

-at

30

103
982

-- 153
axis of the

MPa
rod acts in the

designing

These the intended

of Circular Members in Torsion members for strength, allowable shear


depend on the information application. Accurate
stresses comes from tests in routine tests. Moreover,

5 mm

from

the

of a cut perpendicular passing through

to the axis

the shear
equal.

stresses

on mutually
two

the axis of the rod


that

perpendicular
the

of the rod (Fig. 4-7(c)).


results

and

along Just as for

the

planes

for a cylindrical'
solution

longitudinal a Cartesian
can be

ele

It is instructive

to note

of this

'in

matrix

form

by

elements

in a stress

tensor

as

ing gives
0

tubes. Solid members are often used in power equipment, many fatigue experiments are done. the shear strength of ductile materials is only about half as as their tensile strength. The ASME (American Society of MeEngineers) code of recommended practice for transmission shaft-

; to resist shear is employed

available information

on thin-walled as torsion

stresses must from experiments on the capacity

o
with the ful y

1 3

o
stress tensor

MPa

allertl fter
given by Eq.

and

considerations.

0.3 of yield, In practical

an allowable

or 0.-18 of ultimate, shear strength, designs, suddenly applied and shock


(See Section 4-11.)

value

in shear

stress

of 8000

psi for unspecified

whichever loads warrant


Eq. 4-3,

is

the

This

is to be

contrasted

populated

ortions
EXAMPLE 4-3

allowable shear of a member

torque

to be transmit ed

stress are given

is selected, as

by a shaft

according

is determined

to

and.the

the

Consider a long tube of 20 mm outside d, twisted about its longitudinal axis shear stresses at the outside and the
Solution

diameter, do, and of 16 mm with a torque T of 40 N.m. inside of the tube; see Fig.

From

Eq. J ..

4-5,

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


inside dia Determine 4-12.

(4-8)

trea
,r(d4o
32

,i .(C 4 _ b 4)
2

_ &4)

,17(204
32

_ 164)

9270

mm

and fi-om
Tmax

Eq. 4-3,
Tc

'rm,Similarly from Eq. 4-4,

40

103

10

9270

43.1

MPa

Tmin

--

Tp
J

40

x 103
9270

x 8

34.5

MPa

Fig.

442

In a thin-walled tube, all of the material works at approximately the same level. Therefore, thin-walled tubes are more efficient in transmit ing torque solid shafts. Such tubes are also useful for.creating an essential y uniform of pure shear stress needed for establishing ?-,/relationships (Section 3-2). avoid local buckling, however, the wall thickness cannot be excessively

provide the required value of J/c. The reader should careful y note that large local stresses generally deat changes in cross sections and at splines and keyways, where the ue is actually transmit ed. These questions, of critical importance in design of rotating shafts, are briefly discussed in the next section. Members subjected to torque are very widely used as rotating shafts for transmit ing power. For future reference, a formula is derived for the conversion of horsepower, the conventional unit used in the industry, into torque acting through the shaft. By definition, 1 hp does the work of 745.7 One N.m/s is conveniently referred to as a watt (W) in the SI units.

Eq.

By using be determined.

of a member.

J/c is the parameter For an axial y loaded this


For

4-8 by varying

expression Any number

a solid

on which rod, such


shaft,

the ratio

of the outer

and Eq. 4-8, the required radius of tubular shafts can be chosen

J/c

the elastic a parameter

= rc3/2,

strength of a shaft is the cross-sectional


where c is the

de-

radius

to the inner

radius,

of a shaft to satisfy

outside

c/b,

1 hp can be converted dynamics that power


for

into 745.7 W. Likewise, is equal to torque multiplied


materials

it wil

be recalled by the angle,


design books.

8 Recommendations

example,

McGraw-Hil ,

see J. E. Shigley,
1977)
1967).

other

or R. C. Juvinal,

Mechanical

may

Engineering
Stress,

be found

in machine

Strain,

Design,

and

Strength

3rd ed. (New


(New

McGraw-Hil ,

Torsion

Sec.

4-7.

Stress

Concentrations

plied

do 2rfT

measured in radians, through which the shaft rotates per unit of time. a shaft rotating with a frequency of f Hz, 9 the angle is 2rf rad/s. if a shaft were transmit ing a constant torque T measured in N.m, it

c =

7.72

mm

or

d =

2c

15.4

mm.

ractical
MPLE 4-5

purposes,

a 16-mm

shaft

would

probably

be selected.

N.m

of work

per second.
x 745.7
r =

Equating

this

to the horsepower

hp
or

= 2rfT
119
f
159 x kW

[N.m/s]
[N.m]

,elect solid shafts to transmit psi. One of these shafts


iution

200 hp each without operates at 20 rpm

exceeding a shear stress of and the other at 20,000 rpm.

x hp

1 applies
4-11,

to the low-speed

shaft

and

2 to the high-speed

shaft.

From

or

T =

[N.m]

applied

where is the frequency hp, or kilowatts, kW.


torque.

in hertz of the shaft transmit ing These equations convert the


system of units,
minute. similar

applied
work

the horse power


of 550
at N can be

T - hp x N 63,000 _ 200 x 20 63,000 = 630,000 in-lb


'
if-lb
!FrOm Eq. 4-8,
T2 = 630 in-lb

tained:

second, (revolutions

In the

or 550

U.S.

x 12 x 60 in-lb per per minute), an equation

customary

1 hp does

63,000 xhp[in_lb]l
N

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION J d ( www.avs4you.com


C Tmax 10,000
c

If the shaft to those

rotates above

J - -- T
16

630,000

63

in 3

- --

or

d =

63)

= 321

in 3

Hence,

d = 6.85

in

and

d2 = 0.685

in

EXAMPLE
stress

4-4
is limited

machines
shaft
to 55

This

example
tubes.

Select

a solid

for

MPa.

a 10-hp

motor

operating

at 30 Hz.

The

maximum

in mechanical Further savings

il ustrates

equipment. The dif erence in-the weight of the material

the reason

for the modem

in size of the two can be effected

tendency

to use high-speed

shafts is by using

Solution

From

Eq.

4-9,

Stress

Concentrations

119
f
and from Eq. 4-8,
J ... C

x hp

119
30

10

39.7N.m

T Tma x

39.7 55

10 3

722

mm

J
C

,'ITC 3
2

or

c 3 ...

2 J'

2 x 722

4-3, 4-4, and 4-8 apply only to solid and tubular circular shafts material behaves elastically. Moreover, the cross-sectional along the shaft should remain reasonably constant. If a gradual Variation in the diameter takes place, the previous equations give satissolutions. On the other hand, for stepped shafts where the diameters of the adjoining portions change abruptly, large perturbations of stresses take place. High local shear stresses occur at points away
the
mm 3
ratio the center of the shaft. Methods of determining these local concenof the

uations

= 460

of stress

9 1 hertz

(Hz)

= 1 cycle

per second

(cps).

true

are beyond
maximum

shear

the scope

stress

of this
factor

to the

text.

maximum

However,

stress

by forming
given

by

.q. 4-3,

a torsional

stress-concentration

can

be obtained.

An

anal-

88

Torsion
3.4

Sec. 4.8. Angle.of-Twist


msons
tend

of Circular
2-10,
elastic

Members
matedhal
(a)

'ss concentrations
to.be

analogous
somewhat

to those
high.

based

pointed

on the

behavior

out in Section

of linearly

the theoretical

3.0

2.6

Angle.of-Twist
this

of Circular
for

Members
circular

2.2

1.8

X,'2'=7

-of-twist

section,

attention

solid

and

wil

tubular

be directed

to a method
elastic

shafts

for determining

subjected

the

to
(b)

1.4

Fig.
concentration

443

Torsional
factors

stressin

1.0

I
0 0.08
r

i
O. 16
d/2

0.24

circular
diameters.

shafts

of

two

geometry

axial y

ogous

method

loaded

of a member.

members

was

used

(Section

for

obtaining

Stress-concentration

2-10).

the

These

stress-concentration
factors

factors

for

depend

various

only

factors

to design it only to be strong enough: it also must not deform Then, magnitudes of angular rotations of shafts are needed the torsional vibration analysis of machinery. Finally, the angular twist members is needed in dealing with statically indeterminate torsional problems. According to assumption 1 stated in Section 4-3, planes perpendicular deformation
the axis of a circular

is important

loading.

to predict

The

interest

the twist

in this

of a shaft

problem

per se since

is at least

at times

threefold.

it is not
Fig. 445 Circular before and (b) applied.

First,

after

shaft

torque

(a)

is

tions

sponding read from

of stepped round shafts To obtain the actual stress shaft, a curve for a particular stress
to the given r/(d/2) the curve. Lastly,

are shown in Pig. 4-13.  at a geometrical discontinuity D/d is selected in Pig. 4-13.
from ratio,

in its undistorted

of the

type

rod

form

shown

do not

in Fig.

in Fig.

warp.

4-15(a).

4-15(b).

The

elements

From

The

such

shaded

of a shaft

a'shaft,

element

undergo

a typical

is

shear

is obtained

from

the modified

the stress-concentration the definition of/{,

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com Denoting the small angle DCD' by /mx,


Eq. 4-3
the actual factor K
osition OD'.

of a Then,

In the element shown, a line on its surface such as CD is initial y parallel the axis of the shaft. After the torque is applied, it assumes a new )osition CD'. At the same time, by virtue of assumption 2, Section 4-3, radius OD remains straight and rotates through a small angle dqb to a new
alternative expressions for the arc DD':

ent of length

dx is shown

isolated

in Fig.

4-16

similar

to Fig.

4-3.

from
arc DD'

geometry,
= dqb c

one has two

arc DD'
where
the

= 'ymax

dx

or

the

shear

stress
is made.

Tc/J

is determined

for

the

smaller

shaft.

the

A study
need
shaft

for

of stress-concentration
a generous stress attaching

diameter

fil et

radius

factors
also

r at all sections

shown

in Pig.

where

4-13

both

angles

are small

and
/,

are measured
dx = dqb c

in radians.

Hence,
(4-13)

a transition and mum shear

for a key, Fig. 4-14, is no longer a circular member. However, to the procedures suggested by the ASME, in ordinary design, tations for shafts with keyways may be made using Eq. 4-3 or 4-8 , the allowable shear stress must be reduced by 25%. This
compensates
area.

Considerable keyways for

increases pulleys

and

occur in shafts gears to the shaft.

at oil holes A shaft

makes /m=

for

the

stress

concentration

and

reduction

in cro,.

sion
the

angle-of-twist

Hooke's law applicable. Therefore, according to Eq. 3-1, the angle is proportional to *mx, i.e., /ma,, = *mx/G. Moreover, by Eq. 4-3, = Tc/J. Hence, /mx = Tc/(JG).  By substituting the lat er expresinto Eq. 4-13 and simplifying, the governing dif erential equation for
is obtained.

only in the zone of an infinitesimal stress *mx. Limiting attention

"tube" to linearly

of constant maxelastic response

Because
Fig. 4-14 keyway. Circular shaft with a

of some
figure
632.

inelastic
of Circular

or nonlinear
from a paper
and Variable

response
by L. S. Jacobsen,
Diameter,"

in real

matedhals,
Trans. ASME

Concentrations
(1925):

0 This

in Shafts

is adapted

gressively
ference

The foregoing
p from

in derivation

becomes

argument
smaller
the center
consists

as the axis of the rod is approached.


of the shaft
in taking

can be carried

out in terms

of any % which
to BD

and using

an arc corresponding

The only

pro-

Tp/J instead

of Tc/J for .

an arbitrary

dif-

circular

Fig. 446 Deformation


bar

'truax

torque.

element

due

of a

to

Torsion

Sec.

4-8.

Angle.of.

Twist

of Circular

Members

191

dqb
dx

T
JG

or

dqb

Tdx
JG

axial y
2-9,

Eq.

loaded

4-16

can

bars.

be recast

Here

qb <=> A, T <=> P, J  A, and G  E. Analogous


to express the torsional spring constant,

or tor-

to

al stif ness,

kt as

This

tesimal of-twist
is

gives

distance

the

relative

dx apart. any two

angle-of-twist
To

find

the

of two
total

angle-of-twist

adjoining
apart, expression

sections

qb between

an
(4-17)

two sections all elements

A and B on a shaft a finite distance must be summed. Hence, a general

the

rotation: for the

Fig. 4-t8 representation


spring.

Schematic

of _a torsion

between

sections

of a shaft

of a linearly

elastic

This

constant
axial y
or

'qb:qbB-qb4= f; dqb=f; JxG


and the
the

1. It depends

represents

loaded

bars,
shaft,

only

one can visualize


the torsional

on the material

the torque

required

properties

to cause

torsion

members

and size of the member.

a rotation

of 1 radian,
for a circular

i.e.,

as springs;

see Fig. 4-

As

reciprocal
hollow

of k, defines

flexibility

ft. Hence,

where

the length
Equation

A. The internal
direction

qbB and

of a shaft.
of the

rotation torque

qb4 are,

at A may T, and the


applied

respectively,

The direction
for

not polar

necessarily moment
T.

the global

torque

of the angle
and

be zero. of inertia

shaft

rotations

of twist
circular

In this e( J, may vary

at en&,

qb coincides
shafts,

ft = kt- JG Lin-lbJ
identifying -17 and 4-18.
Gi/mi

L [rad

or

[rad]

LN.m j
of a unit torque,

(4-18)
i.e.,

fol ows from thb sured in radians. the deformation il ustrate applications
EXAMPLE 4-6

4-15

is valid

assumptions used in the Note the great similarity of axial y loaded rods. of these concepts.

both

solid

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


derivation. The of this relation The fol owing

hollow

angle qb is to Eq. 2-7 three

constant defines = 1. On multiplying If in the analysis,


and

a shaft subscripts For example,

the rotation resulting from application by the torque T, one obtains Eq.

must be subdivided should be attached for the ith segment


crank shafts. problems,
twist.

into of regions, to the definitions given of a bar, one can write

4-16. a number

approby Eqs. (kt)i =

The previous

(f t)i = mi/JiGi.

nission shafts, including statically indeterminate


to limit

equations

are widely

used

Find

the

relative

rotation

of section

B-B

with

respect

to section

A-A

of the

sential

are required

elastic' through
Solution

shaft shown it. The polar

in Fig. moment

4-17

when of inertia

a constant torque of the cross-sectional

T is being area J is

measured
case, T. = T and Jx = J; hence, from Eq. 4-15,

Lastly,

the J/c used in strength calculations, problems, the cross-sectional

the

arhount'of

in the design

of members
For

n These considered
such

in mechanical

it should

or calculated

be noted

In this

for a specimen

from

that
the

can be determined

dimensions

since

in a torsion

is the governing area A serves

applications,

for torsional

equations are also useful for in the next section. These

vibration

analyses

of

stif ness
note

of a specimen,

test,

both

qb, T, L, and J can be


since
the shear

parameter. purposes.

that

when

In axial y
modulus

J, rather

it is

from

Eq.

4-16

G ='TL/Jcb.

JG
A B

JG

JG

JG

4-7

Consider the stepped shaft shown in Fig. 4-19(a) rigidly attached to a wall at E, and determine the angle-of-twist of the end A when the two torques at B and at are applied. Assume the shear modulus G to be 80 GPa, a typical value for

12 According

Fig.

radians.

In applying

Also

observe

Eq.

4-16,

the

note

great

particularly

similarity

of this

that

the angle
relation

qb must
to Eq.

2-9,

be expressed
A =

Errst

York:

Van to recognize

to S. P. Timoshenko,
Nostrand, and

study

1937),

in 1902, this important

Vibration

H.

Frahm, problem.

Problems

a German

in Engineering,

engineer,

2d ed.
was

Torsion

Sec.
25 mm

4.8.
'It

Angle.of-Twist
4

of Circular

Members

193

T o = 1000

N.m

JCD = JDE = (do - &4) = -(50 - 254) = 575 x 103 mm 4


To fnd the angle-of-twist the results summed.
The

'It

_
a-a b-b

of the end A, Eq. limits of integration


abruptly.

4-15 is applied for the segments

for each occur

segment at points

(a)
(c)

1250

-'

I 200.

J 300

ram_

1.

500 mm

the

values

of T or J change

qb =
the last
1150

JxG =
so each

J
reverts

.Je

JcG

+
are constant
solution,
TczLcz JczG
150 X

--JcDG
Eq.

+
4-16. Hence,

JDG

group

TIN-m] [
0

integral

of integrals,

T's and
TecLec
200

to a known

J's

between

the limits

con-

15o I
Torque diagram

=
=0+

JG i. JiTiGiLi_ TL +_ JcG


150 x 103 x

q---q---

TzLz Jz>G
103 X 300

38.3 x 103 x 80 x 103 + 575 + 103 x 80 x 103


+

1150

103

500

575

80

103

X 103

rad
A B

(d)

-23.3

Angle-of-twist

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


= 0 + 9.8 x 10 -3 + 1.0
from
D
E
x

x 10 -3 + 12.5
the angles-of-twist

x 10 -3 = 23.3
for the four shaft

x 10 -3 rad
segments

-13.5

-12.5

diagram

Fig.
Solution

4-t9

10 -3 rad. Summing these for the angle-of-twist shown in Fig. 4-19(d). Since
must be zero
0 -3 rad occurring No doubt local

starting

As can

from

be noted

the left end are: 0 rad,

the above,

at E, as required
direction

quantities beginning from A, in order to obtain the along the shaft, gives the broken line from A to E, no shaft twist can occur at the built-in end, this
by the boundary condition. Therefore,

9.8 x 10 -3 rad,

1.0 x 10 -3 rad,

and 12.5

to the

adopted

Except for the dif erence in parameters, to that of Example 2-2 for an axial y to assure equilibrium. Then internal left segment of a shaft, such as shown

of the

torque

vector

T coincides
This between

with

solution of this problem is loaded bar. First, the torque at E is torques at arbitrary sections, in Fig. 4-19(b), are examined. If the

the

in the disturbances

sign

convention,

of applied torques. in stresses and strains

the

angle-of-twist
occur

at A is -23.3
at the applied con-

centrated
the shaft.

torques
these

are

and

local

the change
effects

having

in the shaft
limited

size,

influence

as well

on the

as at the built-in
overall

behavior

end.

that

of the

positive

x axis,

it is taken
B
4-8
(a)

positive, is no

or vice

torque,

versa. whereas

leads

to the conclusion B and D the torque

that

between internal

D and torques,

E is + 1150 identified

Nm. The torque diagram by subscripts' for the various

is is drawn

between + 150

A and Nm. The

shaft

in Fig. 4-19(c). segments,

Determine that

the the

torsional rubber
metal

stif ness is bonded

k, for the to the steel

rubber shaft

and

bushing the

shown outer steel

in Fig. tube,

4-20. which

TA
The polar

O,
are
J

Teo
found
=

=
of

Tec
inertia

=
Eqs.
d 4 -32

Tco
for the

=
4-2
 --

150
two

N.m,
kinds

and
of cross

To
sections

1150

N.m

is attached
Solution

to a machine
in the

housing.
parts

The
of the

shear
assembly.

modulus

for the rubber

is G. Neglect

moments

this

problem

using
Jc -

and4-5
X
32

giving
254

38.3

103

mm

area

;ymmetry of the problem, on every imaginary cylindrical r, the applied torque T is resisted by constant shear of the imaginary surface is 2rrL. On this basis, the equilibrium

surface stresses equa-

(b)

Fig.

4-20

Torsion

Sec.

4-9.

Statically

Indeterminate

Problems

195

tion for stresses

the applied torque x acting at a radius

T and r is

the

resisting

torque

developed

by

the

T =

(2xrL)?r

[area

stress

arm]

Such problems remain simple to analyze regardless of the number kinds of applied torques or variations in the shaft size or material. Torsion problems also occur with bzternal statical indeterminacy
Ec

and
such as

From
1, the thickness

this
shear

relation,
dr,

x = T/2rr2L.
 can 4-20(a), be
from

Hence,
determined the for
fol owing


by using

Hooke's

law
tube

given
of radius

by

;hown

dsite

strain Fig.

an infinitesimal relation:
T

part of the member. Therefore, the particularly simple to apply to linearly roblems, the torque Ti for each ith part of the and 4-17. The total applied torque Tis then

in Fig. 4-6. In such

shafts

built

up from

cases,

two

the angle-of-twist

or more

tubes

displacement (stif ness) elastic problems. In such shafts is Ti = (kt)iqb, Eqs. the sum of its parts, i.e.,
(4-21)

qb is the same

or materials,

in

for each

L

J2

/ - G - 2rLGr
This shear infinitesimal this angle strain angle
is

2
through

in an infinitesimal dqb. Since in the

tube limit

permits the shaft to rotate r + dr is equal to. r, the

T= i(kt)iO)
For complex

dqb = /dr
r

.imilar
over the rubber bushings,

to that given
is limited

kinematic

externally

degrees

statically

to the

in Section

of freedom,
case

indeterminate
the
d.o.f.

of one

2-18 can be used.


Such

general

elastic
cases

displacement

problems
can

Here,

however,

method

with

be analyzed

tile
to

The
infinitesimal

total

rotation
rotations,

qb of the
i.e.,

shaft

is an integral,

From

which

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


For global equilibrium:

the procedure shaft in Fig.

4-21,

described in Section 2-16. Applying one can write the fol owing two
T + T2 + T = 0

this basic

approach equations:
(4-22)

Fig.

indeterminate

4-2t

Externally

bar

in torsion.

statically

For

geometric

compatibility:

k, - qb - 1/d 2 - 1/D 2

rLG

qbAB

= qbBc
A and

(4-23)
fixed.

(4-1
According
and

qbA and qbc are, r.espectively,


BC, assuming

to Eq.

4-16,

that

for linearly

ends

the twists
elastic
C are

at B of the bar segments


Eq. 4-23 becomes
(4-24)

behavior,

*4-9.
The allels with degree tions, problems redundant port. member

Statically

Indeterminate

Problems
shear
dif erent Solutions
bars.

TL -J G

T2L2 J2G2

analysis of statically indeterminate members subjected to twist the procedures discussed earlier in Part B of Chapter 2 in c axial y loaded bars. In considering linearly elastic problems of external indeterminacy, i.e., cases where there are two the force (flexibility) method is particularly advantageous. are reduced to statical determinacy by removing one of reactions and calculating the rotation qbo at the released The required boundary conditions are then restored by at the released end through an angle qb such that
qbo+ qb = 0

moduli

are given
in the d.o.f.

as G and

G2 to provide

for the possibility


inelastic problems

materials for one

two parts statically

of the shaft. indeterminate

fol ow

the
bars
elastic

procedure

given
cross
and

in Example

2-18
than

for
circular,

axial y
such

loaded
as dis-

The

previous
in Sections

procedures
4-14

having
problem

can

sections

be applied

other

to the analysis
method

of statically

4-16.

example

of an application

fol ows.

of the force

for a statically

in-

Torsion
2 mm

Sec. 4-40. Dif erential


1000 N*m

Equation

Approach

for Torsion

Problems

--TiLi
T, has the

TAX103
= (147
units of N.m.

x 10 -6 + 17 x 10-6)TA
defining rotation in the

'38.3x103x80x103 450
direction

= 164 x 10-6TA

+575x103x80x800
of T, as positive,

rad
one

103 )
has

To

500mm I
Hence,

Eq.

4-20

and

-23.3
(b}

x 10 -3
and

+ 164
TB =

x 10-6TA
1150 -142

= 0
= 1008N.m

TA

142N.m

The
isolated iSitive.

torque

diagram for the shaft is shown if the direction of the internal shaft segment coincides with that Note that most of the applied torque
4-7,
A to C is more flexible than from

in Fig. 4-22(d). torque vector of the positive is resisted at


C to E, only

As in Fig. 4-19(c) of T on the left part of x axis, it is taken as the end E. Since the
torque develqps

from
A.

a small

(d)

 X 103

VERSION TN,m.[ NON-ACTIVATED www.avs4you.com


1008

0-142

Torque

diagram

rad

Calculating the angles-of-twist for the four segments of the shafts, as in Example the angle-of-twist diagram along the shaft, Fig. 4-22(e), can be obtained. of this diagram is left as an exercise for the reader.) The angle-ofwist at A and E must be zero from the prescribed boundary conditions. As to expected, the shaft twists in the direction of the applied torques. Whereas this problem is indeterminate only to the first degree, it has three kinematic degrees of freedom. Two of these are associated with the applied torques and one with the change in the shaft size. Therefore, an application of displacement method would be more cumbersome, requiring three simulequations.

taneous

(e)
0

-11,6
Fig. 4-22 EXAMPLE 4-9

-11,1
Angle-of-twist

-11,0
diagram

Alternative
Torsion

Problems

Dif erential
can be recast

Equation
into a second-order

Approach
dif erential

for
4-

Assume

that

the

stepped

shaft

of Example

4-7,

while

loaded

in the

same

is now built-in and plot the


Solution

at both ends, torque diagram

as shown in Fig. 4-22. Determine for the shaft. Apply the force

the
method.

end

Preliminary to this step, consider an element, shown in .Fig. subjected to the end torques Tand T + dTand to an applied distributed ue t, having the units of in-lb/in or N.m/m. By using the right-hand
This and the next two sections can be omit ed. in-lb/in
T+ dT

const,

ant JG,

Eq.

4-14

There

are

two

unknown 10 -3 rad.

reactions,

T, and

TE.

One

of them

can

be considered

qbo = 23.3
A is found

redundant, diagram

shown

and,
x
using

arbitrarily, reaction in Fig. 4-22(b). The

T, is removed..This solution.to Example

results 4-7 gives

in the the end

applying

Fi'om

Example

T, to the tinloaded


Eq.

4-7,

J,c

= 38.3

4-16.

bar, as shown

x 103 mm 2 and

in Fig. 4-22(c),

JcE=

end rotation

575

x 103 mm 2.

qb at

-< dx

Fig.
element

4-23
of

Infinitesimal
a circular bar

subjected

to torque.

Torsion

Sec.

441.

Energy

and

Impact

Loads

199

having

screw

rule

a positive

for

the

sense.

torques,

For

all these

equilibrium

quantities

of this
dT

are

infinitesimal

shown

in

element.
TA
TB

JG  dx
d4
=
=

d24

= 0
=

tx = -to
hence,
toL
2

t dx + dT = 0
On dif erentiating Eq. 4-14 with respect

or
to x,

dx

t

J G xx = T T(0)
T(L)

tox 

2- + C 
C = 0

I JGd24 dT -tx1
dx 2 dx

JG4 = - 6- + C2
4B = 4(L)
of a shaft,

toX 3

= 0 = -
that the

hence, - 6toX 3

C2 = 6

toL 2

The

determined

constants

from

appearing
the

boundary

in the

conditions

solution

of this
at the

ends

dif erential

equation

JG4
those
that of the positive

toZ 2

the

conditions
the

rotation

torque Equation indeterminate


cussed
concentrated

for 4 should

4 or the

torque

in Section

T fol ow from Eq. 4-26 can be used problems. By


5-16, this
moments.

be evident

T must

equation

4-14 since T = JG d4/dx. for solution of statically making use of singularity


can be employed

from

be specified.

the problem,

The

rotation

wl-/ereas
determinate functions,
4-26

means x axis.
(a).

torque

vector

acts

in the

direction

oppos.ite

Except
same

for the change


as in part

in the boundary

conditions,
x

the

solution

procedure

is

The applied

fol owing torque

example il ustrates the is a continuous function.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION J G xx www.avs4you.com


for problems

JG d24 dx 2
d4
JG4

application

of Eq.

when

=T=

---+C

to x2
2L

---

to x3
6L

Cx C2 C

+ = =

C2 0 toL
6

**EXAMPLE

4-t0

= 4(0)
circular

= =

0 0

hence, hence,

Consider

varying

A is free
Solution

its length

torque
and

an

elastic

and

that

the

&, as shown
end

reactions

B is built-in,

at ends

in Fig. 4-24.
(b)

bar

having

a constant

A and

Determine

JG

assume

B for

that

two

the rotation
cases:
ends

subjected

both

(a)

of the

Assume

of the bar al n
bar

to

that

JG4

toLx
6

toX 3
6L

T(O) = T(L)
toL
2

+--

toL
6

toL
6

toL
3

(a) By integrating and C2 from the

Eq. 4-26 boundary

twice and conditions,

determining the required

the

constants solution

of integration is determined.

Energy
X  to

and

Impact

Loads
and impact members,
be

ions

Fig.

4-24

deflection

concepts of elastic strain energy 2-12 and 2-13 for axial y loaded pure shear, transfer directly
of a member can

loads as well
by

discussed as those
equating

in Secin Section

to the

determined

torsion

problem'.

For

the

example,

internal

200
dA = 2rp dp c rma'
Truax
p

Torsion

Sec.

4-t2.

Shaft

Couplings

20't

applied

shear

strain

(Example
EXAMPLE

force,

energy

2-10),
4-tt

Eq.

as well

2-24.

U.h for

as for elementary

This

a member

concept

to the

can be applied
solutions

external

work

of dynamic

to static

W,. due

problemi

to th

-12.

Shaft

Couplings

(a) Find the energy absorbed by an elastic circular shaft torque in terms of maximum shear stress and the volume 25. (b) Find the rotation of the end of an elastic circular
built-in
Fig. 4-5

subjected of material: shaft with

to a constar see Fig. respect to

end

when

a torque

T is applied

at the

free

end.

Solution

(a) The
from

distance 0 from the center of the cross section is 'rmxO/c. and integrating over the volume V of the rod L inches long,

the

shear

longitudinal

stress

in an elastic
axis.

Hence,

circular

the

shaft

shear

subjected
stress

acting

to a torque
Then, one
on

an element

varies

linearb
Eq.

where the available lengths of shafting are for maintenance or assembly reasons, it is desirable to make up a long shaft from several pieces. To join the :es of a shaft together, the so-called ranged shaft couplings of the type in Fig. 4-26 are used. When bolted together, such couplings are rigid, to dif erentiate them from another type called flexible that vides for misalignament of adjoining shafts. The lat er type is almost / used to join the shaft of a motor to the driven equipment. Here rigid-type couplings are considered. The reader is referred to ma:hine-design texts and manufacturer's catalogues for the other type. For rigid couplings, it is customary to assume that shear strains in the bolts vary directly (linearly) as their distance from the axis of the shaft.
at tic

uently, situations arise lon enough. Likewise,

between

the

flanges

is neglected.

Therefore,

analogous

to the

using obtains

shear

problem

Ush =
=
=

, p3 dp = ,72G,x 2rL 2Gax 2rL/ c 2 o NON-ACTIVATED c 2 c4 4 VERSION


for
n'Tnax

9dV

= Jv 2--c 2 2rpdpL

assumed to the center

stresses in the bolts also from the center of a coupling. to be uniform and is governed

of circular

shafts,

if the bolts
vary The

linearly as their respective shear stress in any one bolt by the distance from its center

are

of the

same

mater.

ial,

its cross-sectional

of the coupling.

area,

the

Then,

force

if the shear

in a bolt

is found.

stress

in a bolt
On

this

is multiplied
basis,

for

2G

vol

If there

were

uniform

shear

stress

throughout

the

member,

www.avs4you.com
a more efficient

bolts of equal size in two "bolt circles," the forces on the located by the respective radii a and b are as shown in Fig. 4-26(c). The moment of the forces developed by the bolt3 around the axis of a shaft gives the torque capacity of a coupling. The previous reasoning is the same as that used in deriving the torsion
formula for circular shafts, except that, instead of a continuous cross a discrete number of points is considered. This analysis is crude, since stress concentrations are undoubtedly present at the points of conof the bolts with the fl&nges of a coupling. The outlined method of analysis is valid only for the case of a coupling which the bolts act primarily in shear. However, in some couplings,

rangement 4-8) with


torques from

for their

absorbing small
a shaft.

energy G values

would provide

be obtained. an excellent

Rubber device

bushings for absorbing

(b) If t. orque T is gradually applied to the shaft, the external work We = where (b is the angular rotation of the free end in radians. The expression for internal train energy Ush, which was found in part (a), may be writ en in a

convenient
=

form

by noting

that

rm, = Tc/J,

the volume

of the rod rc2L,

and

'rrC4/2.

Thus,

the bolts
act

initial

tension in friction.

are tightened

in the Under

so much

bolts is great enough these circumstances,


Bolts

that

the coupling

to cause the the suggested

acts

in a dif erent

entire

coupling analysis

fashion.

is

Ush = 'r2G x
Then, from We = Ush

G (1vol) - 2J2G T2c212 'trc2L = ZIT2L


ZIG
T2 L

Tqb
which is the same as Eq.

2
4-16.

and

qb

JG
(a) (b) (c)

TL

Fig.

4-26

Flanged

shaft

coupling.

202
Eight 30-mm bolts

Torsion

Sec.

4-t3.

Shear

Stresses

and

Deformations

in Circular

Shafts

203

coupling should tensile strength and the strength


bolts had to

not

valid,

or is valid

the stresses in the bolts be reduced. bolts are used, there is lit le danger of the coupling may be greater than
in shear. 14

only

as a measure

of the

ultimate

However, of this it would

strength
hap

if

be if i

act

EXAMPLE

4-t2


(b)

(e)

Estimate the torque-carrying capacity of a steel the shaft, shown in Fig. 4-27, as controlled by MPa in the eight bolts. The bolt circle is diameter
Solution
Area of one bolt:

coupling forged integrally an allowable shear stress 240 mm.

Assumed

strain
(c)

(f)

A
Fig. 4-27
Allowable force for one bolt:

= (1/4)r(30)

2 = 706

mm

variation

Pano,

= A%no,

= 706

Since
rnow

eight
= 28.2

bolt
x

are available
103 x 120

at a distance

x 8 = 27.1

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


of 120 mm from
x 106N.mm

x 40

= 28.2

103N

the central

axis

= 27.1

103

(g)

Corresponding
stress distribution

(d)

Stress-strain

relations

members

Fig.

4-28

Stresses
due

to torque.

in circular

section

periments 443. Shear in the Stresses Inelastic and Deformations Range in Circular

(d).

case.

The

properties with thin


The

is shown

through

schematically

a shaft

is shown

corresponding

of materials in shear, obtained, tubes in torsion, are as shown


shear-stress distribution
from

in the

in Fig.
same

figure.

4-28(a).

shear stress

strain is found

stresses ate determined is a at an interior annulus, from the stress-strain

The torsion formula for circular sections previously derived is ba Hooke's law. Therefore, it applies 0nly up to the point where the portional limit of a matedhal in shear is reached in the outer annulus
shaft. Now the solution wil be extended to include inelastic

matedhals, The derivation


After

as well provided for

as to integral the corresponding a linearly elastic


is known,

Fig. diagram. shafts

the strain. For example, 4-28(a), the correspondThis procedure is ap-

is shown

for example, in Figs. 4-28(b),

Some

The

possible

linear

strain

to the

in ex(c),
fight

me-

of concentric stress-strain matedhal is simply


T cardhed by these

made

tubes diagrams a special


stresses

a matedhal. As before, met. The deformation remains applicable.


solution.

the equilibrium requirements assumption of linear strain Only the dif erence in matedhal
on High-Strength
AISC

at a section variation from the properties affects


I, by L. T. Wyly,
1-13.

of this approach. the stress distribution as before, i.e.,

torque

T = fA ('r dA)p
integral must be evaluated over the cross-sectional area of the

(4-27)
shaft.

I by

4 See

E.

J. Ruble,

"Symposium

Proc.

(1950).

Also

Bolts,"

see

Section

Part

and

Torsion
Elastic stress distribution

Sec. 4.'13. Shear

Stresses

and Deformations

in Circular

Shafts

205

Inelasticstressdistribution

tubes elastic fs small.

Fig.

4-29

the

dif erence and inelastic

For

thin-walled

Although the shear-stress distribution after the elastic limit is ex( is nonlinear and the elastic torsion formula, Eq. 4-3, does not apply, sometimes used to calculate a fictitious stress for the ultimate torque. computed stress is called the modulus of rupture; see the largest of the dashed lines on Figs. 4-28(0 and (g). It serves as a rough the ultimate strength of a material in torsion..For a thin-walled tube, stress distribution is very nearly the same regardless of the mec properties of the material; see Fig. 4-29. For this reason, with thin-walled tubes are widely used in establishing the shear strain ?-/diagrams. If a shaft is strained into the inelastic range and the applied then removed, every "imaginary" annulus rebounds elastically.

r MPat

160 [- ,

7,/,'

2 d
(b)
MPa

7X

10 3

(a)
51 MPa

between stresses

of the material,

dif erences residual

in the stresses

strain paths, which cause permanent develop. This process wil be il ustrated
of twist form:
dx

set i n
/

89.7

MPa

of the examples that fol ow. For determining the rate can be used in the fol owing

3 MPa

of a circular

shaft

or tube,

Eq.

89.7

MPa
(e) Residual

' 51 MPa
stresses

Here from

either the maximum the stres-strain

shear diagram

strain at c or the must be used.

EXAMPLE

4-13

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


strain at pa
'ibution stresses

Elastoplastic

stress

'(d)

Elastic

rebound

Fig.

4-30

the

small

contribution
?max

to the
--

total

of the

first

integral.
MPa

--

Tc J

574

103

(r/32)
~

x 12 = 211 X 244
in Fig.

A solid diameter can be rotation


Solution

steel shaft of 24-mm diameter is so severely twisted that only an elastic core remains on the inside, Fig. 4-30(a). If the material idealized, as shown in Fig. 4-30(b), what residual stresses and wil remain upon release of the applied torque? Let G = 80 GPa.

At

p = 12 ram, Two alternative

7'residual residual

= 211 - 160 = 51 MPa. stress diagrams are shown

4-30(e).

For

clarity,

results

the

are replot ed

in the opposite The initial rotation


the magnitude of the initial y applied torque must be determined. The stress distribution is shown in Fig. 4-30(c). The stresses vary and corresponding linearly

To begin, of twist condition

from

to the 0 to 160

4-16. Same
hzelastic:

At 9 = 4 mm,
The rotation direction,

residual torque is clockwise; an exactly direction in the inner portion of the is best determined by calculating

from

the vertical

line.

In the entire
equal
shaft. the twist

residual

shaded
of the

portion

torque
: ' elastic

when
4-27 elastic two
stresses.

0 -< 9 -< 4 ram;


can

the

stress

is a conskant
applied

160 MPa

for

9 > 4 ram.

Ec

dif erence per unit the shaft

 = 2 x t0 -3. The'
between length responds

the inelastic of shaft. If the elastically.

elastic

and initial

rebound

the

elastic torque

of the shaft

twists is reapplied

is given
gives

the in the

by

be used to determine the stresses, and Eq. 4-3 applies; stress distributions, corresponding

torque T. The release of torque see Fig. 4-30(d). The dif erence 1: to no external torque, gives the

dqb dx
Elastic:

% p,

2 X 10 -3 4 x 10 -3

0.50

rad/m

+
= (16

(160)2*rp
+ 558) x

2 dp
103 N.mm = 574 x 103 N.mm

574

103

103

- JG

(r/32)

x 244

X 80

103

0.22

rad/m

2O6

Torsion

Sec.
Residual:

4.t4.

Solid

Bars

of

any

Cross

Section

207

dO = 0.50 - 0.22 = 0.28 rad/m dx


EXAMPLE 4-t4

found in the preceding example, line i is the residual 0 for the same problem. It should be noted that in machine members,
matrials, ' minor the
importance.

AB

is the because shafts

elastic

rebound,
here

and

point

ultimate

static

capacity

of the

of the fatigue as evaluated

properties is often

Determine the shear stresses For mild steel,

ultimate torque carried above the proportional the shear stress-strain

by a solid circular limit are reached diagram can be

shaft of mild steel essential y idealized to that shown

as the proportional'limit
Solution

Fig.

4-31(a).

The

shear

yield-point

in shear,

%.

stress,

Typ,

is to be taken

as being

the

If a very large torque is imposed on a member, large strains take except near the center. Corresponding to the large strains for the idealized considered, the yield-point shear stress wil be reached everywhere except the center. However, the resistance to the applied torque offered by the located near the center of the shaft is negligible as the corresponding p's Fig. 4-31(b). (See the contribution to torque T by the elastic action in 4-13.) Hence, it can be assumed with a sufficient degree of accuracy that a cons

44.
scope

Solid
of this

Bars
treatment

of Any
of solid

Cross
noncircular

Section
members in torsion is beyond

first

two bers.

assumptions Sections

book.
The

stated perpendicular

Mathematically,

in Section 4-3 do not apply to the axis of a member

the

problem

is complex.
for

noncircular warp when

s The
a

responding 4-31(c)

shear

stress

to this condition gives a firmer basis

Typ i_s acting

everywhere

may be considered for this statement.)

on the

Tult =
Since ihe maximum

4 Typ TfC 4
3 c 2

f ('rypdA)p
this value, of torque is shown

=
3

4 TypJ
c

fo c 2'Irp2'ryp

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


section
the ultimate Thus,

torque

considered.

limit

The

torque.

torque

is applied. section

can

nature be surmised

of the from

distortions Fig. 4-32.


at all. at the

that take place 6 For a rectangular


Therefore midpoints

in a recmem-

ber, the comer the corners are

2C3 do = --Typ
shaft

Figure emanating distribution

shear stresses at of the long sides. 4-33 shows the shear-stress distribution along three radial lines from the center. Note particularly the dif erence in this stress compared with that of a circular section. For the lat er, the is a maximum at the most remote point, but for the former, the is zero at the most remote point. This situation can be clarified by
problem developed
this

elements zero; they

do not distort are maximum

4-3, and Tuft is  times of that at yield. A plot ful plasticity develops

elastic

torque

the remaining torque capacity after yield T vs. 0, the angle of twist per unit distance, in Figure 4-31(c). Point A corresponds to
T Asymptote

capacity

of a solid

is Typ = TypJ/c,

Venant

remained

6 An

experiment

is sometimes

type

with

referred

a solution

unsolved

of distortion.

a rubber

to as the

for

until such

eraser

St.

the famous French elastician problems in 1853. The general


Venant

on which

a rectangular

problem.

B. de torsion

grating

is ruled

Tui t =  Tvp
/ /

T.-Typ  Tpl /

ResidualO

do/dx
(a) (b)

(c)

Fig.

4-3t

(a)

(b)

Rectangular Fig. 4-32 before and (b) after is applied.

bar (a) a torque

208

Torsion
t is useful to recast for a rectangular the section, second
giving

Sec. 4-t4. Solid Bars of any Cross Section


Eq. 4-30 to express the torsional stif ness

209

Tk, - 4)
Formulas
Fig. 4-33 Shear stress distribution in a rectangular shaft subjected to a torque.

[3bt3
for many solved other mathematically, types of

(4-31)
crossa re-

areas

such

Fig.

shown

4-34

cannot

The

shear

exist.

stress

For

cases

as these-are available in more advanced books.S that cannot be conveniently

considering
existed

at the

a comer

corner,

element,

it could

be resolved

as shown

in Fig.
into

two

4-34.

components

If a shear

stres

lem
similar must

method tif erential is mathematically film, lightly


to the be kept
to be true:

tble

has been devised.9 It equation that must be identical to that stretched over a hole.
cross section on one side
at

happens that the solution of the solved in the elastic torsion probfor a thin membrane, such as a This hole must be geometrically
studied. Then

to the edges of the bar. However, as shears always occur in pairs on mutually perpendicular planes, these components would have to met by shears lying in the planes of the outside surfaces. The lat er uation is impossible as outside surfaces are free of all stresses.
must be zero. Similar the boundary. All shear act parallel to them. been The considerations stresses

of the shaft being of the membrane.

the

Light air fol owing

pressure can
of

be
the

in the
used

Analytical

obtained? final results

solutions

The methods of such analysis,

for

torsion
4-33)

are however,

of rectangular,

imum
be put

shear
into

stress
the

(see
fol owing

Fig.
form:

and

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


beyond

can be applied plane of a cut the

to other near

points

are

scope of interest.

elastic

members

1. The shear stress stretched membrane 2. The direction of a to the slope of the 3. Twice the volume

any point is proportional to the slope at the same point, Fig. 4-35(a). particular shear stress at a point is at right membrane at the same point, Fig. 4-35(a). enclosed by the membrane is proportional

angles
to the

of this For the

torque

carried

by the

section.

the angle-of-twist,

these

results

Torsional

s R. J. Roark and W. C. Young, Formulas McGraw-Hil , 1975). Finite-element section are also available. See, for

Analysis

of Irregular

Shapes,"

for Stress and Strain, analyses for solid bars example, L. R. Herrmann, J. Eng. Mech. Div., ASCE

5th

ed. (New of arbitrary "Elastic (December

*max -- cT
where T as before and t is the thickness is the applied or width
recorded in the

and
[3 depend

4) - [3
long

9 This
in 1903.

analogy

was

introduced

by the

German

engineering

scientist

L. Prandtl

torque, b is the length of the of the short side of a rectangular


fol owing table.

The

these

values

values

of parameters
are

c and

upon

For

the

thin

ratio

sections,

b/t.

A few

b is much
Table
b/t

greater

than
for
1.50

t, the values
Rectangular
2.00

of c and
Bars
3.00

[3 approach

.
Weightless

of Coefficients
1.00

x7
6.00 10.0 m

cap

0.208

0.231

0.246

'0.267

0.299

0.312

.
McGraw-Hil ,
7 S. Timoshenko

0.141
1970),
and

0.196
312.
J. N.

0.229
The
Goodier,

0.263
is adapted
Theory

0.299
from
of Elasticity,

0.312
source.
3rd ed. (New

0.333
Stretched membrane

,<['
lb)

Membrane

  ''d'x

Fig. 4-35 Membrane analogy:


(a) simply connected and (b) multiply (tubular) region.
connected

region,

table

this

(a)

Torsion

Sec. 4-15. Warp

of Thin-Walled

Open

Sections

-t ' a

,k- t

Membran,_.x
t -----t
Section

Y

' slope
box

Maximum

ized

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Fig.

4-37

Members

of equal

cross-sectional

areas

of the

same

thickness

carrying

the

same

torque.

(a)

(b)

(c)

)the
MPLE

analysis
4-t5

indeterminate procedures

bars having discussed

any cross in Section

section

are

susceptible

4-9.

Fig.

4-36

Il ustration

of the

membrane

analogy

for

a rectangular

bar

in torsion.

The foregoing analogy is called the membrane its value in experimental applications, it is visualizing stresses and torque capacities of sider a narrow rectangular bar subjected to 36. A stretched membrane for this member such a membrane is lightly stretched by
through the membrane is a parabola, maximum slop6, hence maximum Fig. 4-36(c). No shear' stress develops hess t. The maximum shear stresses volume enclosed by the membrane the member can carry at a given Fig.

4-36(b). For this surface stress, occurs along the along a line bisecting the bat' along the short sides are small. is directly proportional to the maximum stress. For this reason, sections shown in Fig. 4-37 can carry approximately the same torque the same maximum shear stress (same maximum slope of the since the volume enclosed by the membranes would be the same in all cases. (For all these shapes, b = L and the t's are e However, use of a litfie imagination wil convince the reader that contour lines of a soap film wil "pile up" at points a of re-entrant Hence, high local stresses wil occur at those points. Another analogy, the sand-heap analogy, has been developed for

shear

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


?oP a rectangular
W12 x
and

analogy. In addition a very useful mental aid members. For example, torque T, as shown in is shown in Fig. 4-36(a). internal pressure, a

using

with
Jtion

Jquiv for a W12


the 2.18

the

membrane

analogy,

in 4 given

x 65 steel

determine

in the

AISC

beam;

Manual

see Fig.

an approximate

of Steel

4-38.

Compare

value

for

Construction.

the calcula{ed

the

torsion

comparing

the

bar,

equations

Eq.

4-30,

given

it can

for

4 for

be concluded

a circular
as implied

that
from

section,

Jquv
the

Eq.

= f3bt 3. Further,
4-37(e), by
both for

4-16,

with

that
three
I

0.605"
'

65

section

can

be

approximated,

in Fig.
table

separate

narrow

that

for

bars:

the

two

web

flanges

is 10.91/0.390

and a web.

= 28.0,

Since

b/t for the flanges

is 12/0.605

cases,

. Hence,

--0.390"
be

10.91"

Jequiv
value
problem
numerical

= (2 x 12 x 0.6053
in the .AISC
is identical.

+ 10.91
is larger (2.18
inside point

x 0.3903)
in4). The
corners. of view

= 1.99
discrepancy
using Eq.

in 4
can
4-21. The

given
work

Manual

to neglecting can

the f ilets at the four be solved from a dif erent

2.00"  O.E!5"
Fig. 4-38

tic

torsion?

Dry

sand

is poured

onto

a raised

flat

surface

having

shape of the cross section of the member. The surface of the sand so formed assumes a constant slope. For example, a cone is formed a circular disc, or a pyramid on a square base. The constant slope of the sand corresponds to the limiting surface of the membrane the previous analogy. The volume of the sand heap, hence its weight, proportional to the ful y plastic torque carried by a section. The
items in connection with the sand surface have the same

Warpage
solution
section

of Thin.Walled
general
associated

Open
torsion problem
name of Saint-Venant.

Sections
discussed
membrane

of the
is

elastic
with

in the
Solutions

prefor

the

thin-walled
This
In

this

open

rigorous

sections

approach

22 may
As pointed

result

(which

in significant
out in connection
discussion

includes

inaccuracies
with
important

analogy,)

in some
twist
as

as those
McGraw-Hil ,

in the
1950).

membrane Theory of Flow

analogy. andFracture of Solids, Vol. 1, 2nd ed.


mathematics, i.e.,

applications.
section presents
such

the
to

of

2o A. Nadai,

the boundaries sections are

only

a qualitative
neither

of

such sections tubular nor

are hollow.

of this

referred

topic.

simply

Sec,

4-t6.

Thin-Walled

Hollow

Members

2t3

oA

-16.
Fig. 4-39 Cross-sectional

Thin-Walled
solid noncircular

Hollow
members,

Members
thin-walled tubes of any shape can be

warpage
torque.

due

to applied
(a) (b)

a narrow line bisecting take place


The same

rectangular thickness along the


holds true

Fig. t. This entire width


for middle

bar,

4-36, means and


surfaces

no
that length

shear

stresses no in-plane of the bar'


bars/as

develop deformation s middle


well

along smfacei
as for:

shown

ube of an arbitrary Fig. 4-40(a), subjected


enlarged
action of forces

simply -of-twist

analyzed caused
in Fig.

shape
Fz,

by

for

4-40(b). on the

with to torque
F2,

the magnitude a torque applied


This
F3,

varying wall thickness, T. Isolate an element


element must
and F4. These

of the to the

shear tube.

be in equilibrium
are

such from

stresses Thus,

as shovn this tube,


equal

and consider

the

under

in as
the

of curved

forces

to

assembly of of three flat bars do not By virtue which in this

bars. In this sense, an I section, shown in Fig. 4-39, bars, and, during twisting, the three middle surfaces of thes develop in-plane deformations. of symmetry, this I section twists around its centroidal axis: case is also the center of twist. During twisting, as the

hear

stresses

acting

cut

planes

multiplied

by the

respective

areas.

From  F, = 0, F = F3, but 2 and  are shear stresses acting

flanges
about surface warp, members,

displace

laterally,

the

undeformed

ing (See Section

point A, Fig. 4-39(a). Similar of the other flange. In this i.e., cease to be plane, during the sections perpendicular

does take place for effect is negligible. commonly employed

4-3, assumption

cross-sectional

warpage,

other thick On the other in aircraft, and,

or its restraint,
particularly

sections, including rectangular hand, for thin-walled torsion automobiles, ships, bridges,

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION 1). Although warpage www.avs4you.com of the cross


behavior is exhibited manner, plane sections twisting. By contrast, to the axis remain by the of an I for

middle

surface

abcd

rotate

Hence, x2t2 dx = ? t dx, or t = 1'2t2. However, since the longitudinal sections were taken an arbitrary distance apart, it fol ows from the previous relations that the product of the shear stress and the wall thickness is the same, i.e., constant, on any such planes. This constant wil be denoted by q, which is measured in the units of force per unit distance

F = 1'2t2 dx, on the respective

and

F3 = t dx, where areas t2 dx and t.dx.

along

the

perimeter.

Therefore,

its units

are

either

N/m

or lb/in.

may
its

have

an important

bars, memben etc.,

Section 1-4, Eq. 1-2, tually perpendicular planes at a corner such as A in Fig. 'r4tl = w3t2, or, in general,
dicular mulated. to the axis The inner

In

it was established that shear stresses on muare equal at a corner of an element. Hence, 4-40(b), 'r2 = '3; similarly, z = 4. Therefore, q is constant in the plane of a section perpenthis basis, of the an wall analogy can be can thought be forof as

effect

23

of a member. On and outer boundaries

on

member

strength,

on

stif ness.

being
tity

Warpage applications. support,

compatibility 4-39(b),
beam distance beams,

of deformations, TM must develop.


and reduces

of cross sections For example, the attached cross

in torsion by welding section

Such

in-plane flange moments an enforced restraint

is restrained in many engineering an end of a steel I beam to a rigid cannot warp. To maintain required

of water

the boundaries

steadily

of a hannel.
circulating

in this

Then

channel.

one can imagine

In this

arrangement,

a constant

quan-

the
t1

M,'shown effectively

in Fig. stif ens a


at some for short: This '

F3

from cutouts,

its twist. the support, etc., the

This effect is local in character becomes unimportant. Nevertheless, warpage:restraint effect is dominant.

and,

portant
subject. Israel
are Elastic

topic
See Translations,
shown

is beyond
Vlasov
his book,
in the

the

scope
of 1940

of this
Elastic

text?
Beams,

23 V.

Z.

in a series

24 Shears 25 For
not

that

occur

Thin-walled Office of Technical

papers

made

Structures,

details,

see,

2nd

for example,
ed.

diagram.

in the flanges
(New

and
York:

efficiently
McGraw-Hil ,

Services,

carry and

1961).

2nd

basic

ed.

contributions

(Washington,

to

part
1981).

of the applied Mechanics

torque of
(a) (c)

J. T. Oden

E. A. Ripperget,

Fig.

4-40

Thin-wall

tubular

member

of variable

thickness.

2t2

2t4

Torsion
quantity of water flowing through a plane across the channel Because of this analogy, the quantity q has been termed Next consider the cross section of the tube as shown The force per unit distance of the perimeter of this tube, previous argument, is constant and is the shear flow q. is const the shear in Fig. 4-40 by virtue of This shear

Sec.
In the elastic range, Eqs. For inelastic behavior, analysis of tubes

446.

Thin.Walled

Hollow

Members
shape of t is conscope of

4-34 and 4-35 are Eq. 4-35 applies of more than one

applicable to any only if thickness cell is beyond the

ential length. The product of this infinitesimal some convenient point such as O, Fig. 4~40(c), an element to the resistance of applied torque
this,

multiplied

by the length

ds of the perimeter

gives

force q ds and r gives the contribution T. Adding or

a force

q ds per

book. 27 For linearly elastic materials, the angle of twist for a hollow tube can found by applying the principle of conservation of energy, Eq. 2-24. this derivation, it is convenient to introduce the angle-of-twist per unit of the tube defined as 0 = dqb/dx. The elastic shear strain energy the tube should also be per unit length of the tube. Hence, Eq. 3-5

the elastic
= 1 x t ds. simplifying,

strain
By
--

energy
substituting

here
Eq.
T 2

reduces
4-35 and

to Ush
then
T 2

= J'vo (,2/2G)
Eq. 4-34
ds

dV,
this

where
relation

into

T =  rq ds
where the line of the
be writ en

integration perimeter.
as

process Since

is carried for a tube,

around the q is a constant,

tube this

along equation

the
in the last

Usa '  8Q2G-----'  -ds - - 8(2  5the constants are taken outside the integral. = TO/2,

(4-36)
length
becomes:

expression,

T= qfrds
Instead of carrying out the actual integration, a simple inter of the integral is available. It can be seen from Fig. 4~40(c) that r ds twice the value of the shaded area of an infinitesimal triangle of altit r and base ds. Hence, the complete integral is twice the whole bounded by the center line of the perimeter of the tube. Defining this

Equating

as We

this

relation

to the
the

governing

external

work

dif erential

per

unit

equation

of member

by a special

symbol

(),

one obtains

T 0 = dqb dx - 4(2G NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


Here again it is useful to recast Eq. 4-37
for a thin-walled a constant torque, hollow tube. 4> = 0L, Since

 -' ds
to express
a prismatic

(4-37)
the torsional
tube subjected

stif ness
to

for

T = 2()q
proximately an outside surfaces line of the wall's is slit, when Eqs. Since for any the definition of
the wall thickness

or
to thin-walled

q - 2()
tubes. The area () is
portant members
F.XAMPLE

kt - qb-  ds/t
cross-sectional for tubular fol ows
4-t6 Example of 10 and 4-3 8 ram, using Eqs. respectively, 4-34 and and the 4-35. The applied tube torque has outside is 40 N.m. and

(4-38)

This

equation

26 applies

average of the two areas enclosed by the inside and of a tube, or, as noted, it is an area enclosed by the contour. Equation 4-34 is not applicable at all if the 4-30 should be used. tube, the shear flow q given by Eq. 4-34 is constant, shear flow, the shear stress at any point of a tube
is t is

only

warpage members. the procedures

discussed in Section Analysis of statically discussed earlier.

4-15 is not indeterminate

very
tubular

im-

inside

The

mean
York:

radius
McGraw-Hil ,

of the

tube

is 9 mm
1981).

and

the

wall

thickness

is 2 mm.

Hence,

engineer

26 Equation

who

developed

4-34

is sometimes
it.

called

Bredt's

formula

in honor

of the

27 j. T. Oden,

and

E. A. Ripperger,

Mechanics

of Elastic

Structures,

2nd

ed.

*Torsion

Problems

Fig.

t 20mmJ
12.7

mm

x-

q _
t

2()t-

2,r x 92 x 2

40 X 103

-- 39.3 MPa

X-max

..

Tc

50.4

103

10

J T

 X 104/2 25.3 x 224 x

32.1
= = 31.6 46.7

MPa
MPa MPa

103 103

4-t

Note that by using Eqs. 4-34 and 4-35, only one it is just about the average of the two stresses thinner the walls, the more accurate the answer, It is interesting to note that a rectangular tube, thickness of 2 mm, for the same torque wil have
that of the circular tube. This is so because its

shear stress is obtained and t computed in Example 4-3. .or vice versa. shown in Fig. 4-41, with a nearly the same shear stress
enclosed area is about the

*2-m

= ebt 5 = 0.267
T

x 30 x 102

*3-m - 2()t
Stress Tl-max Occurs along the

2 x 40 x 20 x 3
perimeter of the knob,

T2.ma x at the

midheight

of

as the ( of the circular


be present at the inside

(reentrant)

tube.

However,

corners

some

of a square

local

stress
tube.

concentrations

stresses

and 'r3.max in the 3-mm


cannot may

great
lets
EXAMPLE 4-t7

concentrations

at reentrant comers can Member torsional stif ness


tsis and
role.

advantage

to determine
the solution

be considered be particularly

walls

be a remedy. found in this


of statically

the location

precise. important.

of the tube.

of stress
manner,
indeterminate

In mechanical Membrane

Due

to the approximations
analogy

concentrations.
such

applications, can

Generous
for

stress be used to

m?de,

fil-

as needed
elastic problems,

vibration
would

for

An

300 N.m

aluminum

is applied,

extrusion

(a) determine
parts
stress

has

the

cross

the maximum
member, and

section

shown

shear
(b) find

stresses

in Fig.

4-42

that would

If torque

sufficiently

accurate

since

local

effects

such

as stress

concentrations

play

de,

or

in the
the
Solution

three
member.

dif erent
Neglect

of the
concentrations.

the

torsional

stif ness

The cross section consists essential y of three parts: a circular knob (), a  tangular bar (), and a rectangular hollow box with variable wall-thickness,
During application of torque T, each one of these elements rotates through

same

angle

qb, and

therefore

each

element
by the for (kt)[s constants

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


4-4 ond 4.5
The

Probeores

4-2.

6-in

diameter

core

of

3 in

radius

is bored

out

resists

a torque

(kt)iqb.

Hence,

;hown

solid in mm

on

cylindrical the

figure,

shaft of is acted

variable upon

by

size, the

as tor-

from

a 9-in

diameter

solid

circular

shaft.

What

per-

centage
ation?

of the

torsional

strength

is lost

by

this

oper-

to Eq. 4-21, the total torque resisted for the three parts. The expressions by Eqs. 4-17, 4-31, and 4-38. These

member is the for the parts are

sum are

of these

quantitiei

ques

the

indicated.

shaft,

and

What

between

is the
55

what

maximum

two

pulleys

torsional

does

stress

it

N'm

880 N-m

(kt) = J G _ 'rr x 2 104 LG _ 1.57 x 104 G L L


(k,)2 = [3bt  = 0.263 x 30 x 103 = 0.789 x 104
3G G G

(kt)3 = 4Q2 G_
4

ds/t L (40 + 2 x 20)/3 + 40/4  =


values that the are in mm. In 4 mm thickness

4 x (40 x 20) 2
evaluating of the

6.98 x 104 G
in


Fig. P44

'
4-6
4-3. A solid circular shaft of 2-in diameter is to be

2000
A 120-ram-diameter solid-steel sht ansmits

where tion,
=

By adding
9.34 x

all numerical it is assumed

the

104G/L.

the stif nesses


On
torque
N.m

for the parts,


the torques

the member
are 300
the

box

torsional
three

integral extends

for

stif ness
in

40 mm.

4-4.

104G/L) = 50.4 box. The maximum tively, Eqs. 4-3,

(kt)i/

The

applied

(kt)i.

for the knob, stresses in each 4-30, and 4-34.

this

basis,

is

distributed

among

25.3 N-m for of the parts

the are

x (1.57

parts

bar, and determined

104G/L)/(9.34
224 N.m using,

a ratio
for

by

a hollow
mbe

circular
is limited

tube.
to 3 in,

If the
what

outside
must be

dithe

400 kW at 2 Hz. (a) stress. ) What would

Detemine be the

the requked

maximum sh

shear diameter

to operate

at 4 Hz at the same
a set
figure, on

mimum

sess?

of the

tube

for

the

same

linearly

elastic

ma-

terial working at the the ratio of weights

same maximum for the two

stress?

Determine

shafts.

4-5. A motor, through sht, as shown in the delivered to a machine

of ges, drives a line at 630 m. Thiy hp e the right; 90 hp on the left.

Torsion

Problems
Section 4-8

h 90 Mt 3 r h 0 p 30' >1


Fig. P4-5

200-ram
be the length
that
= 27

pitch

4-10.
minum

What
wire
42 MPa?

must
so

ofa
be

5-mm
twisted

diaineter
through

Through

diameter;

what

angle

the gear at C, a 400-mm


wil end A turn

if at A

pitch

it could

a torqu.e

complete
of

revolution
G

without
GPa.

exceeding
steel line

a shear
shaft s

-15.
AB

is prevented

of 560 N.m

4-1t.

The

solid

50-mm-diameter

in the
Find the

figure
maximum

is driven
torsional

by

a 30-hp
stresses

motor
in

at 3 Hz.
sections

the figure is subjected T2 = -8 k-in, and

A circular
of twist
(b) Let

steel

from

is applied

shaft

rotating?

and end D of the second

of the right

to three torques: T] = 28 kT3 = 10 k-in. (a) What is the

of the dimensions

G = 84 GPa.

shown

end due to the applied


diagram

tor-

Fig.

P447

Select The

a solid allowable

round shear

shaft stress

of the same size is 5750 psi.

throughout.

BC, angle

CD,

and of twist

DE of the shaft. between A and


30 hp

(b) E. Let

ues.

G = 84 GPa.

Plot the angle-of-twist G = 12 x 106 psi.


1"

along

the
rotation of the free end if d] = 6 in, d2 = 2 in, L =

diam.
bore

4-6. (a) Design at 75 rpm without


Use1.2:1 as

the

a hollow exceeding
ratio

steel
of the

shaft a shear
solid

outside

to transmit 300 hp stress of 6000 psi.


diameter to the

Bearing 5hpoff

 N 

15hpoff

10hpoff

jected

20 in, and assumptions

Determine 4-18.

the A thin-walled

to torque

T = 27,000 of strain
torsional

apply,

in-lb. in prismatic

Assume

that

and

flexibility

let G = 12 x 106 psi.


of the shaft. of a cone

circular

the shafts

usual sub-

(b)

elastic

frustum

has

the

inside
instead?

diameter.

(b)

What

shaft

could

be

used

dimensions sional
Fig. P4-tt

shown
stif ness

in the figure. of this member, is G. (b) What

(a) Determine the i.e., the magnitude is the

torof

4-7. A 100-hp motor is driving A at 26.3 rpm. Bevel gears cement mixers. If the power driven by gear B is 25 hp and are the required shaft diameters? stress in the shaft is 6000 psi. bearing is provided to avoid

a line shaft through gear at B and C drive rubberrequirement of the mixer that of C is 75 hp, what The allowable shear A sufficient number of bending.

for
is used as
Fig. P445
of

torque

the
this

material
member?

per

unit

angle

of twist.

The

torsional

shearing

flexibility

modulus

4-12.

A hollow

steel

rod

6 in long

spring. The ratio of inside to outside diameters is The required stif ness for this spring is  of a de per 1 in-lb of torque. (a) Determine the outside ameier of this rod. G = 12 x 106 psi. (b) What is torsional spring constant for this rod?
4-t3. and
shaft shaft

d.

A []

d:z

A solid 1000 mm
of the would

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


A dynamometer
two

is employed

an

exhaust

to calibrate
300

fan

at 20

the
apart,

Hz.

re1" diam.

1/2r"Wall
thickness

shaft

dynamometer
and

disks

consists

attached

of a 12-mm-diameter
to the shaft

mm

solid

aluminum-alloy long is to be
outer exceed

shaft replaced

50 mm by a

in

same neither

diameter twice

such the
of

that maximum
the tubular

the

as shown in the figure. tube at the input end; The relative displacement stroboscopic light the given

One

the


Section
4-8. A solid

20
Fig. P4-7

 - 10'-:-

stress
What

nor
should

the
GAI
criteria

angle
be the

of twist
inner

of the
radius

aluminum
= 84 GPa.

shaft.
(b)

(a)

power

speed.

input

was in hp required
Let

is fastened through a other is near the output end. of these two disks as viewed found to be 6 0'. Compute

disk

diam.

G = 84 GPa.

to operate

the

fan

at

Fig.

P448

shaft?
of the

Let
two

= 28 GPa
governs?

and

Gst

4-14. steel 4-7


circular shaft of 150 mm diameter is ma-

Two shafts,

gears are as shown

attached jn the

to two figure. The

gear

at B

449. The loading on a control torque eron of an airplane may be idealized varying torque t = kx in-lb/in, where (see the figure). Determine the angle
free end. Assume JG to be constant.

tube for an ailby a uniformly k is a constant of twist of the

300

mm

chined

down

to a diameter

of 75

mm

along

a part

of

/ 3000mm
12 mm

the
eters,

shaft.
the

If,
fil et

at the
radius

transition
is 12 mm,

point
what

of the
maximum

two

diamshear

stress plied
be

is developed to the shaft?


if the fil et radius

when a torque of 2700 N.m What wil the maximum shear


is reduced to 3 mm?

is apstress of
if
6000 mm

Motor

Dynamometer

Fan

Fig,

P446

4-.9.
the

a 6-iri shear

Find
shaft

diameter

the

required
is limited

shaft

with

fil et

a 4-in

radius
psi.

diameter

for

the juncture
the

Fig.

P449

segment

A solid
Fig. P444

tapered
end

steel
(see

shaft
the

is rigidly
is subjected
Find

fastened
the

to
angular

transmits
stress

110 hp at 100 rpm


to 8000

and

maximum

at the

support

other

at one

end

and

figure).

to a torque

*4-20. A torque applied to a circular as uniformly varying from the built-in

shaft

is idealized

end,

see the

fig-

")20

Torsion
bution and
4-23.
'N.m/m

Problems
on a graph. (b) Determine flexibility of the shaft.
A tube of 50-ram outside

221

the

torsional
and

diameter

it is equal

the application
2-:8.)

to qbba, the angle-of-twist


of a unit torque

of a unit

torque

at b, and show
J = 3J2.

at a. Let

at b due to the
(See

that

thickness flanges in the of the applied

is attached at the ends to a solid shaft of 25-mm figure. If both the tube and same linearly elastic material, torque T is carried by the
25 2

by means of diameter, as show the shaft are what part tube?

:tions

(a) Using the force method, for the circular stepped The applied torques are T and T3 = 200 lb-in. Th 2.83 in and d2 = 2.38 in. (b)
 for the shaft along

Fig.

P4-20

its length.
d2

shaft Plot

determine shaft shown = 600 lb-in,


Let

diameters are the angle-of-twist


E =

the rein the figT2 = 500

Fig.

P4-32

d

of torque
the angle-of-twist

T ;. see

the
q>(x)

figure.
diagrams.

Plot

the

torque

T(x)

and

10 x

103 ksi.

*4-33. Section
reactions
ure

ure. Determine torsional rigidity

the

angle of twist JG of the shaft

of the right is constant.

end.

The

'4-21.

A 2000-mm

long

circular
along rigidity

shaft

attached

at one-

end_and free at the other ing distributed torque figure. The torsional stant. Determine the caused by the applied

is subjected to a linearly varyits length, as shown in the JG of the shaft is conangle of twist at the free end torque.

T I
4-24.
the
of 200

500
Fig. P4-23

. "
4-23,
is subjected
in this condition

 

dl

along
gram Section

I T'

T2

, , T3

for

Using Eq. 4-26 and continuity conditions (see 2-19) or singularity functions, determine the caused by a uniformly distributed torque to one-half of the shaft length, as shown in the figProblem 4-28. Sketch the angle-of-twist dia-

along

the 4-'i'i

shaft

length.

Assume
rigid
N-m

that
plates,
and maintained

in Problem
the shaft

prior
wil

to
to

Fig. An elastic circular

P4-27 shaft attached at both ends

end

2000--

welding
the shaft

process.
upon

4-25. reactions lowing = .2r

Using

the displacement method, determine for the shaft shown in Fig. 4-21 for the data: T = 40 k-in, L = 15 in, L2 = 10 in, in 4, J2 = ,r/2 in 4, and G = G2 = G = 12

103 ksi.
shaft along

Also
its

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


release of the applied torque?

What

residual

torque

remain

is subjected to a uniformly distributed torque to per length along one-half of its length, as shown in figure. (a) Using the force method, find the reac(b) Determine the angle of maximum twist and the angle-of-twist diagram along the shaft length.
torsional rigidity JG of the shaft is constant.

4-34. A circular stepped shaft has the dimensions shown in the figure. (a) Using an energy method, determine the angle of twist at the loaded end. G is given. (b) Check the result using Eq. 4-16.
--3 d

plot

the

angle-of-twist
elastic
angle

diagram

for

length.

4-26. shown
Fig. P4-2t

Consider in the
determine

the
two

same alternative
the

stepped
figures. of twist
T

circular
Using the qb,b at a
N

to

Fig.

P4-34

method,

Section
Fig. P4-28

4-'i2

Section

4-9
that cross

4-22. An aluminum-alloy rod, forming a shaft 40 in long and has the


Assume elastic behavior

tube is shrunk acts as a unit. section shown


and let Est =

onto a steel This shaft is in the figure.


3E, u = 30 x

Assume

that

the

shaft

in

Problem

4-20

is at-

4-35. A coupling is made with eight -in-diameter high-strength bolts located on a 10-in-diameter bolt circle. (a) Calculate the torque that can be transmit ed by this coupling if the allowable shear stress in the bolts is 10,500 psi. (b) Find the hp that can be transmit ed
when 4-36. sectional the shaft A flange area and couplings are rotating at 250 rpm. coupling has six bolts having a crossof 0.2 in 2 each in a 8-in-diameter bolt

tached
(a)

at both ends. the reactions.

(a)

Using (b) Find

the the

force angle

method, of maximum

de-

103 ksi.
a torque

(a) What
T = 200

stresses
k-in?

would
Show

be caused
the shear

by applying
stress distri-

and
shaft length.

plot

the

angle-of-twist

diagram

along

the

circle,
4.t0

0.5 in 2 each in a'5-in-diameter able shear stress in the

and

six

bolts

having
bolt

bolt circle. is 16 ksi, what

a cross

sectional

If the is the

area

allowtorque

of

Rework
Rework
Steel

Problem
Problem

4-20
4-21

using
using

Eq.
Eq.

4-26.
4-26.

capacity Section

of this 443

coupling?

(b)

Using 2-19)

Fig.

P4-22

Fig.

P4-26

at the

Eq. 4-26 and or singularity


built-in

ends

continuity functions,
caused

by

conditions determine
the

application

(see the

4-37.

diameter

A specimen
and

450-mm

of an SAE
length

failed

1060

steel

at a torque

bar

of 20-mm

of 900

Torsion
N-m.
torsion?

Problems
of this
and

223

What

is the

modulus
shaft such

of rupture
of 20-ram diameter that. a 16-mm-diameter

steel
1000 core

in

elastic

into

the

600-MPa

range.

Idealized applied stress


(b)

x-- dia

9ram

for
A solid steel long is twisted

the

two

materials

are
4-40 the the residual
critical

il ustrated

in the figure:
torque pattern?
Determine

4-38. mm

remains elastic; see que applied to cause

the the

figure. yield

(a) Determine state. (b)

Find

the torthe re-

4-4t. If in Problem (a) what wil be


results with the

is relea Draw
the

values.

i< 120mm-- 8
Fig. P4-45

sidual stress distribution that would the torque. Draw the residual-stress critical values. Assume the idealized erties for the material given in Fig.
4-13.

occur on removing pattern with the mechanical prop4-30(b) of Example

sidual

angle

of twist

per

unit

length

of shaft.

Section

4-14

,torsional

Using

the sand-heap
moment

of resistance

an.logy,

determine
for

a rectangular

the ul- , 100 mm 

4-42.
and

Compare
a circular

the
members for a square
section.

maximum
of equal section,
All members

shear
length a

stress
and
are

and
cross-

an

of twist for tional areas


Elastic
core

the
is 100 mm

of a by 2a. (Hint: First, using the analogy, Eq. 4-29 for a solid circular shaft, where the of the heap is CXyp. Twice the volume included heap yields the required results.)
on 4-16 a member having the cross section shown

Fig.

P4-48

the
2O T

same

torque.
and Compare
tubes

The
the rectangular

circular
torsional

section
section

diameter

is 25 mm

MPa. there
4-49.

4-43.
thin-wailed

the
of

strength
cross section

and a longitudinal

stif ne
of lira

centerline

Neglect the any advantage


dimensions.

effect of stress concentrations. to thicken the inclined plates?


-

Is Use

circular

For

A shaft

having

elastic (see

the

material figure).

with

and

without

Fig.
4-39. If the shaft in Problem

P4-38
4-38 is twisted at the free

end

through
critical

an angle
values.

qb = 0.25 the

rad

and

then

released,

'what shear
the

wil be the residual stresses. Draw


A thin
circular

angle qb? Also residual-stress


steel
streel. The

find

the residual
pattern with

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


Fig. P4-43

figure, find the maximum shear stresses and anof twist per unit length due to an applied torque 1000 in-lb. Neglect stress concentrations. Comment the advantage gained by the increase in the wall thickness over part of the cross section.

figure timate

is subjected the percentage

the cross to a torque of torque

section shown in the T = 150 N.m. (a) Escarried by each of the

two cross-sectional maximum shear concentrations.

components, and calculate the stresses in each part, neglecting stress (b) Find the angle-of-twist per unit

length
103

GPa.

caused

by the

applied
'3 mm

torque.

Let

G = 25

4-40.
a solid

tube
rod

of nickel-alloy
of mild

is shrunk
cross-sectional

onto
in mm
by
on

100

mm
:ram

30

mm

dimensions
on
shaft

of the
figure.
if the

composite
the
shear

shaft
torque
stress

are
deYeloped
measured

shown

the

Determine
maximum

this
the

surface However, whereas

is 480 MPa. the mild the alloy

For steel steel

either yields remains

steel, G = 120 GPa. in shear at 120 MPa, essential y linearly

4-44. An agitator shaft acting as a torsional is made by welding four rectangular bars to a pipe, as shown in the figure. The pipe is of 4 in diameter and is in thick; each of the rectangular

0.20"

Fig.
A thin-walled cross

P4-47
section in the form of a sim-

is { by 2 in. If the maximum glecting the stress concentrations,


what torque T can be applied

elastic
to this

shear is'limited
member?

stress, to 8

airfoil

is shown

in

the

figure.

Determine

the

torque

it would

carry

at a maximum

shear

stress

of 20

Fig.

P4-49

Alst loeyel
Mild steel o

120 MPa
4-45. A torsion member

Fig.

P4-44
has the cross section

Fig.

P4-40

in the

figure.

Estimate

the

torsion

constant

Jequiv.

Sec.

5-2.

Diagrammatic

Conventions

for

Supports

?chapter

ems wil be ful y analyzed for these quantities. Special procedures to developed in subsequent chapters are required for determining reacin.statically indeterminate problems for complete solutions. Extenion to members in three-dimensional systems, where there are six posinternal force components, wil be introduced in later chapters and wil rely on the reader's knowledge of statics. In such at a section of a member there can be: an axial force, two two bending moment components, and a torque. probshear

as

;.2.
5=][. Introduction

Diagrammatic
for and

Conventions

for Supports

The

effect

of axial

forces

and torsion
applied beams.

the preceding chapters. There may be subjected. In many


members must Such members resist forces are called

are other instances


The

laterally main

buildings machinery modern

act materials,

are

beams, just.as simultaneously the beam

an axle of a car is a beam. Many shafts as torsion members and as beams. is a dominant member of construction.
forces objective members necessary of this previously for eq chapter.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


types of forces to which in structural and machine
or transversely members supporting to

on straight

members

was

treated

desi

determination of the system of internal of any beam segment wil be the main For. the axial y or torsionally loaded

only one internal force was required at an arbitrary section to satisfy conditions of equilibrium. However, even for a beam with all forces the same plane, i.e., a planar beam problem, a system of three force components can develop at a section. These are the axial force,
shear, and the bending moment. Determining these quantities is
of this chapter.

it is essential to adopt diagrammatic conand loadings inasmuch as several kinds of of loads are possible. An adherence to such inventions avoids much confusion and minimizes the chances of making These conventions form the pictorial language of engineers. types of supports are recognized for planar structures. These are by the kind of resistance they offer to the forces. One type of physically realized by a roller or a link. It is capable of resisting in only one specific line of action. The link shown in Fig. 5-1(a) can resist a force only in the direction of line AB. The roller in Fig. 5can resist only a vertical force, whereas the rollers in Fig. 5-1(c) can only a force that acts perpendicular to the plane CD. This type of ort wil be usually represented in this text by rollers as shown in Figs. and (c), and it wil be understood that a roller support is capable a force in either direction 2 along the line of action of the To avoid this ambiguity, a schematic link wil be occasionally to indicate that the reactive force may act in either direction

planar structures their supports a great variety

(a)

Roller

IRA

Fig.

chapter lating reactions for calculating representations optional topic


dueed.

The

is divided into three parts. In Part A, methods for are reviewed; in Parts B and C, two dif erent  the internal shear and bending moment and their along a beam are discussed. At the end of Part C, on singularity functions for solving such problems is
largely confined to consideration of single wil be shown in the horizontal position. problems of planar frames resisting axial moments is also given. Only statically

of statics two components type of support a support is realized such supports wil
and the next three

equations the

5-4).

A reaction

applied. For inclined reactions, the ratio is fixed (see Example 1-3). that may be used is a pin. In construction, by using a detail shown in Fig. 5-2(a). In this be represented diagrammatically, as shown in
sections are an informal review of statics.

of this
are

type.

corresponds

to a single

unknown

This

2 This

Attention wil be which, for convenience, discussion of related shears, and bending

y from the beam; in other words, the beam is not allowed to lift off from support at A in Fig. 5-1(b). In this figure, it may be helpful to show the roller top ' the beam in the case of a downward reaction in order to make it clear constrained against moving vertically at the support. This practice
wil be fol owed in the text.

imples

that

in the actual

design,

a link

must

be provided

if the reaction

(c)

Fig,

of supports. possible
reactions dashed

5-1

Link
lines
are lines.)

(']'he only of action


shown by

and

roller

types
of the
the

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment

Sec.

5-3.

Diagrammatic

Conventions

for

Loading

227

L Beam
(a)

Rcx

I I;, / / j/ /Pi/ n/ /"'


(a) (b) (c)

P
RAx

P

b)
actual,

Fig. support: (a)

Fig.

5-2

and

Pinned

roller

Simple

5-4

or a link

Three supports:

basic
resists

types of idealized (a) a pinned support


only one

directed

supports resists

force.

two

for
Fixed

planar structural force components,


support:

(c)

a fixed

and

lb) Fig. 5-5

(a)

(b)

(b)

diagrammatic.

support

resists

two

force

components

and

a moment.

Concentrated

loading

on a beam,

(a) actual,

and

lb) idealized.

Fig. 5~2(b). A pinned support direction of the plane. Hence, may have two components, direction. Unlike the ratio
between determine the these reaction two components components,

is capable of resisting a force acting in general, the reaction at such a one in the horizontal and one in the applying to the roller or link support,
for two the pinned equations support of statics is not must

in

types
loads.

of distributed important: the


The first

could

loads uniformly

easily

occur. Among distributed

be an idealization

loads

these,

and

of the

two the

warehouse

kinds uniformly

are

just
be u.

mentioned, where along the beam. area, is an excellent


and
otherwise.

the same Likewise il ustration

kind of goods the beam itself, of the same

are piled up to the if of constant crosskind of loading. A

Fig.

5-3

Fixed

support.

third type of support is able to resist a force in any and is also capable of resisting a moment or a couple. Physically, a support is obtained by building a beam into a wall, casting it into crete, or welding the end of a member to the main structure. A s
of a is it

The

three forces can exist at such a support, two components of force moment. Such a support is called afixed support, i.e., the built-in fixed or prevented from rotating. The is shown in Fig. 5-3. To dif erentiate fixed supports from the roller and pin supports, are not capable of resisting moment, the lat er two are termed supports. Figure 5-4 summarizes the foregoing distinctions between three types of supports and the kind of resistance offered by each In practice, engineers usually assume the supports to be of one of three types by "judgment," although in actual construction, supports beams do not always clearly fal into these classifications.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


(N/m); per
Hence, the total force exerted
bottom. formly. Finally,

istic situation load is usually noted

a diagrammatic expressed as force

idealization are shown in Fig. 5-6. per unit length of the beam, unless In SI units, it may be given as newtons per

in the U.S. customary units, as pounds per inch (lb/in), as foot (lb/ft), or as kilopounds per foot (k/ft). Uniformly varying loads act on the vertical and inclined walls of a vessel Containing liquid. This is il ustrated in Fig. 5-7, where it is assumed that vertical beam is one meter wide and /(N/m 3) is the unit weight of liquid. For this type of loading, it should be careful y noted that the intensity of the load of qo N/m is applicable only to an infinilength of the beam. It is twice as large as the average intensity
by such a loading on a beam

(qoh/2)

'5-3.

Diagrammatic

Conventions

for Loading
to support to a beam 5~5(a). Such the beam forces. other hand, portion piled up along a variety of loads. through a post, a arrangements apply and are idealized for These are shown in many instances of the beam. In a the length of a

Horizontal bottoms of vessels containing liquid are loaded uniVarious aerodynamic loadings are of distributed type. it is conceivable to load a beam with a concentrated moment to the beam essential y at a point. One of the possible arrangefor applying a concentrated moment is shown in Fig. 5-8(a), and

N,

and

its resultant

acts

at a distance

h/3

above

the

vessel's

Uniformly varying
load

Structural members are called upon example, frequently a force is applied or a bolted detail, as shown in Fig. force over a very limited portion of purposes of beam analysis as concentrated grammatically in Fig. 5~5(b). On the forces are applied over a considerable house, for example, goods may be

Such

distributed
per

loads

are defined

by their

load

intensity

at any

point

i
Fig. 5-6

(a}

(b)

qo N/m

(max)

= 3,'h
wall.

'1

Fig.

5-7
a vertical

Hydrostatic

loading

force

unit

length.

Distributed

loading

on a beam,

(a) actual,

and

lb)

idealized.

on

228

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment
1,1/

Sec.

5-4.

Classification

of

Beams

229

Fig. 5-8 applying


moment

A method a concentrated
to a beam.

for

;Pulley
its diagrammatic
5-8(c).

(a)
1,1/

(b)

(b)

(c)

representation

to be used

in this

text

is shown

in
(c) (f)

A less artificial example of the application of a concentrated to a member, frequently occurring in the design of machine and elements, is il ustrated in Fig. 5-9. In order to maintain the applied P in equilibrium at joint C, a shear P and a moment Pd mt at the support, Fig. 5-9(c). These forces apply a concentrated
and an axial force, as shown in Fig. 5-9(b).

representation particularly ports and


These

The

necessity

notations

supports and forces cannot be overemphasized. the kind of resistance offered by the dif erent types the manner of representation of the forces at such
wil be used to construct free-body diagrams

for

for

a complete

understanding

of the

foregoing

(d)

(g)

Fig.

540

Types

of beams.

*54.

Classification

of

Beams

of supports
or rollers, and (b).

Beams

are classified
the

used.

The
A

beams beam

Thus,

into

are simply supported, becomes a fixed beam,


A

if the supports

Several

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com groups, depending primarily on


i0(c), Scheme one

of

if the ends have fixed supports. Likewise, fol owing the of nomenclature, the beam shown in Fig. 5-10(d) is a beam end and simply supported at the other. Such beams are also ted beams, as one end is "restrained" from rotation. A beam

same fixed called fixed

at one end
the

and

completely
projects the

free

at the other
a support, in Fig.

has a special
the

name,

a cantilever
to have an
beam.

Fig.

5-10(e).

are at the ends

or simple beams, or fixed-ended

and

are either
Figs. beam,

Fig.

(c)
B

Fig. 5-10(g), the beam is termed a continuous beam. For the distance between supports is called a span. In a there are several spans that may be of varying lengths. In addition to classifying beams on the basis of supports, descriptive pertaining to the loading are often used. Thus, the beam shown Fig. 5-10(a) is a simple beam with a concentrated load, whereas the in Fig. 5-10(b) is a simple beam with a uniformly distributed load. types of beams are similarly described. For most of the work in engineering solid mechanics, it is also meanto further classify beams into statically determinate and statically ate beams. If for a planar beam or a frame, the number of reaction components, including a bending moment, does not exceed three, such a structural system is externally statically determinate. unknowns can always be found from the equations of static equi-

If intermediate

beam Thus,

beyond

as a beam, all beams,

supports

beam

are. provided

shown

for a physically

5-10(f)

beam is said is an overhanging

continuous

member

{a)

{b)

librium.

The

next

section

wil

briefly

review

the methods
beams. is given

of statics

for

Fig. 5-9
moment

Loaded
to

the

vertical

horizontal

member.

member

applies

an axial

force

and

a concentrated

:omputing

reactions mg reactions

for

statically in indeterminate

determinate beams

A procedure in Chapter

for
10.

230

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment

Sec.

5.5.

Calculation

of

Beam

Reactions

*5-5.
All
mination

Calculation
subsequent
of the reactions.

of Beam
work with
When

Reactions
all of the

160

200

N.m

beams

in this

forces

chapter

are

wil

applied

begin

in one

with

de
RA 1-

200N.m I100N ] 16N


0.4 m
(b)

three

are  Fx = 0,  Fy = 0, and  Mz = 0, and have


in Chapter
in a horizontal and the z axis

equations

of static

equilibrium

are available

for

be taken rection,

1. For

straight

direction, the y axis in the upward normal to the plane of the paper. The

beams

in the horizontal

position,

already

the

analysis.

been

the x axis
vertical

discus,.

> I RB

(a)

Fig.

5-tt

of these equations to several beam problems is il ustrated in the examples and is intended to serve as a i The deformation'of beams, being small, is neglected when the of statics are applied. For stable beams, the small amount that does take place changes the points of application of the forces
perceptibly.
EXAMPLE 5-'1

If more

unknown reaction components becomes statically indeterminate. .Xlote that the concentrated moment the summation of moments. The been correctly assumed in Fig.
vertical reaction
if the calculations

or moments applied positive 5-11(b).


as shown.

exist

at the

support,

the

prob-

at C enters sign of Rs The opposite


A check on

only into the indicates that is the case


the arithmetical

expressions its direction of R.4y, and


work is

at A

acts
are

downward.
made

Find
11(a).
Solution

the
Neglect

reactions
the

at the
weight

supports
of the beam.

for

a simple

beam

loaded

as shown

in Fi

Solution

The

leading

of the beam

is already

given

supports is examined next, and the unknown components of these reactior clearly indicated on the diagram. The beam, with the unknown reaction ponents and all the applied forces, is redrawn in Fig. 5-11(b) to emphasize important step in constructing a free-body diagram. In order to the applied forces and reactions, fol owing the suggestion made in Section
slashes are drawn across the reaction force vectors.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


in Fig. The this involves
the details are dif erent. The reactions for

computing
a time.

reactions, 5-12.

some engineers Fundamental y,

prefer

to make
the
every

calculations use of the


force are

same

in the manner principles.


one

determined

in diagrammatic

form.

The

nature

of

total reaction is obtained by summing these reactions. This propermits a running check of the computations as they are performed. For t force, the sum of its reactions is equal to the force itself. For example, for 160-N force, it is easy to see that the upward forces of 40 N and 120 N total N. On the other hand, the concentrated moment at C, being a couple, is

by a couple.
of

It causes
500 N at

an upward
the left reaction.

force

of 500

N at the

fight

reaction

and

At A,
The The reaction points

two

unknown
at B can of application

reaction
act

components
the equations

may
direction careful y

exist,
since noted.

since
the After

the
end

end
is on

is
a

only in a vertical of all forces are

200N.m IlOON 1180N


c

gram
solution.

of the

beam

is made,

of statics

are

applied

to

Fx MA

= 0 = 0

200

+ 100

x 0.2

+ 160

x 0.3

--RB
RB = +

RL x 0.4
670
00 x

R}
100 x

i 'R
0.4 m

 M

= 0

R^y

x 0.4

+ 200

- 100

x 0.2

- 160
RAy =

x 0.1
--410

1/(0.4) = 500 N (0.2)/(0.4) =


=
500 N

t MA=0
500 N = 200 X 1/(0.4)

50 40 g0

N N N

i60

x (0.1)/(0.4)

Check:
Note
thus, only

F:,
that
two additional

= 0'

+
one of the three
reaction-components

-410independent
can be

100
determined

- 160 + 670
equations
from

R 410N 
Fig. 5-t2

R=670N

120 N = 160 X (0.3)/(0.41

50 N = 100 X (0.2)/(0.4)

(moment) (100 N force) { 160 N force)

 F. = 0 uses

of

232

Axial Force, Shear, and Bending

Moment
P-sX3X
_ 1

Sec. 5.5. Calculation


10=15kN

of Beam Reactions

q. = 10 kN/m

_,-crlqT
RAx

R''f -X3=2 m
5m

(a)

4k

Fig.

5-t3

(b)

/3k5k
(b)

Rax

RAy

EXAMPLE

5-2

Find shown
Solution

the

reactions for the partial y loaded in Fig. 5-13(a). Neglect the weight

beam with of the beam.

a uniformly

varying
Iution

Fig.

5-t4

An examination-of known reaction

the supporting conditions indicates that there are components; hence, the beam is statically determinate. and the applied load are shown in Fig. 5-13Co). Note particularly that figuration of the member is not important for computing the reactions. shaped outline, bearing no i-esemblance to the actual beam, is indicated

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


y diagram is shown in Fig. 5-14(b).

At

A,

there

are

two

unknown

re-

components,
plane the

RA

and

R,..

At B, the

reaction

RB

acts

normal

to the

supthis are two are

the

10rting

by

and constitutes two components


Similarly,

phasize
same

manner

this point.

as the

However,

original

beam.

this new

body

is supported
load

at points

A and
forces.

to

equal.

components

shown.
tuilibrium.

These
cal.

It is expedient to replace in this particular problem it is best to replace the inclined force with the steps reduce the problem to one where all forces This is of great convenience in applying the equations

a single R.,. and

unknown. RB., which

concentrated

For

calculating

force

the reactions,

P. It acts

through

the distributed
the

centroid

of the

is replaced

distributed

by an

pertinent quantities are marked on the working body diagram is prepared, the solution fol ows
equilibrium.

sketch, Fig. 5-13Co). After by applying the equations

MA=0G+

iM=0G
,F = 0--

+
+

4x3-R RAy
RAx

m. x12=O X 12 - 4 x 9 = 0
-- 3 1 = 0

R,=
RAy

lkt
= 3 k 1

= I g. I

R ,. = 4 k--*

F. = 0 M/ = 07+  M = OG+

+ 15 x 2 - RB x 5 = 0 - RAy x 5 + 15 x 3 = 0
-9+

R/ = 0 RB = 6 R/y = 9
15-6

R,

= X,/42

+ 32 = 5 k

R

= Vff7+

12 = /k

+3-4+1=0

EXAMPLE

5-3

Determine applied

the
force.

reactions

at A and

B for

the

beam

shown

in Fig.

5-14(a)

h#ges or p#medjoints are introduced is capable of transmit ing only horizontal and be transmit ed at a hingedjoht. Therefore, the a particularly convenient location for "separation" oses of computing the reactions. This process part of the beam so separated is treated independently.
axis around which moments may be taken

into beams and frames. vertical forces. No moment point where a hinge occurs of the structure into parts is il ustrated in Fig. 5-15. Each hinge provides
to determine reactions. The

234

Axial Force,

Shear,

and Bending

Moment

Sec. 5-7. Axial Force in Beams


considered earlier in Section 5-5. The externally applied the reactions at the support keep the whole body in equilibrium. ider an imaginary cut X-X normal to the axis of the beam, the beam into two segments, as shown in Figs. 5-16(b) forces Now which and (c).

235

(

1 - -a

.

2
B

particularly that the imaginary section goes through and separates it too. Each of these beam segments must be in equilibrium: These conditions of equilibrium stence of a system of internal forces at the cut section

the distributed is a free-body


require the of the beam.

In general,

Fig. 545 "separated" determine


statics.

Structures the

at hinges reactions

to

by
(b)


introduction of a hinge or hinges
is not

(c)
into a continuous beam in many cases

a moment [m. These quantities wil be discussed


Axial Force

and

at a section

are

necessary to maintain the take on a special significance separately.


Beams

of such

a member,

a vertical

isolated part in equiin beams and there-

force,

a horizontal

in

the
beam

system
results

statically
in a beam

determinate.
that

The
stable.

introduction
Note that

of a hinge
the reaction

into

a deterr
at the hit

horizontal

force

such

as P,

shown

in Fig.

5-16(b)

or

(c),

may

be

nec-

;sary

at a section

one

beam

acts

in an opposite

dh'ection

on

the

other

beam.

5-{.
The
the

Application
main
forces

of the
of this
exist at

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com Method of Sections '


W (total
varying

called a thrust; if away, it is called axial tension. In referring to either these forces, the term axial force is used. The effect of an axial force a section of a member has already been discussed in Chapters 1 and was shown that it is imperative to apply this force through the centroid
uniformly
load)

equation

and

 Fx = 0. If the horizontal

sense

of a beam

of this

to satisfy
force

fol ows

the

conditions

force

from

P acts

a particular

of equilibrium.

toward

the section,

solution

The

of

/P2(tta'ad )
M

objective
that

chapter
of

is to establish
a beam or

means
a frame.

for
To

dete
obtain

a section

(a)

forces,

the

method

of

sections,

the

basic

approach

of solid

wil

be applied. This procedure The analysis of any beam begins with thd preparation plied and the reactive forces. the equations of equilibrium
If the labeled system and is statically shown on
the

is referred to here as a direct or frame for determining the internal of a free-body diagram showing both The reactions can aiwa3 provided the system is staticall3
reactions manner, are
for and section either case,

the
(b)

P2

complete
no distinction The method

indeterminate, the free-body. In this force system is identified. In the has to be made between the of sections can then be applied

subsequent
applied at any

steps
reactive of a
(c)

P

by employing the librium, any part To be specific,


certain concentrated

previously used concept that if a whole body is in of it is likewise in equilibrium. consider a beam, such as shown in Fig. 5-16(a),
and distributed forces acting on it. The

W2
lR,v

B
the method of sections to a

also

presumed

to be known,

since

they

may

be computed

as in the

/RB

statically

determinate'beam.

236

Axial Force, Shear, and Bending


of the cross-sectional area

Moment
of a member to avoid bending. Similarly,
Resultant of all forces

237
wil always
area.

the line
centroid

of action
of the beam's

of the axial
cross-sectional

force

be directed

throu
of is

section along a beam may axial force in the previous manner. tomarily taken positive. The axial
5-16(b) 5-8. and Shear (c) is equal in Beams to the horizontal

Any

be examined The tensile force (thrust)


force

for the magnitude force at a section at section X-X


P2.

," to theleftofsection
+V
element

(including

reactions)

in Fi

Beam
(c)

In general, to maintain a segment of a beam, such as that shown in 5-16(b), in equilibrium, there must be an internal vertical force at cut to satisfy the equation  Fy = 0. This internal force , angles to the axis of the beam, is called the shear, or shear force. shear is numerically equal to the algebraic sum of all the vertical ponents of the external forces acting on the isolated segment,

Arbitrary

section

+ V

opposite

This shown

is opposite

in direction.
to the

shear

direction

may in Fig.

in direction

Given

also be computed 5-16(c). It is then


sum of all the

to the

the qualitative
downward
vertical

by considering equal numerically


forces,

load

data shownin
to the
the
including

action components, segment or the left terial--arithmetical


be computed At this

to the is used simplicity

right of the to determine governs.

shown in the

of section maintain

in Figs. 5-16(b) two diagrams.


X-X, vertical

similarly. time, a significant

the beam
At a section,

exerts
"two

a downward
segment
of the

the beam at the forces in equilibrium.

observation must be made. The same and (c) at the section X-X is opposite in For that part of the downward load W to the
section

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


the vertic

right-hand and is

left

of the

Fig. 5-16(b)
se

Fig.

5-t7

Definition

of

sec

positive

shear.

i specifying

section

X-X

section. Whether the ri the shear at a section is ' Shears at any other section

side

the

of Fig.
in

of a section,
Sections

direction

5-16(a)

of a shear
Fig.
1-3 and

is a negative
5-17(c).
1-4.)

V, it is essential
This

shear.

Note

is also

to associate
true

that

in addition
stresses.

with

it with
+v

discussion

shown

selected Historically,

sign

in Fig. 5-18(a). A few books to be consistent with the direction

convention it appears

for shear tO be based

3 reverse f axes

in this book on directing

the direction of positive in Fig. 5-18(b).

is the one the coordinate

generally

axes

force

on the beam,
must

provides Conversely,

as shown
be dif erentiated,

an upward the loaded

Bending
shear

Moment
and axial

in Beams
forces at a section of a beam satisfy only two

(a)

in Fig.

[ de

5-16{
from
in

uations

directions"

of shear

of equilibrium: of static equilibrium


can
moment

 Fx = 0 and  Fy = 0. The remaining confor a planar problem is  M = 0. This, in


only
the

upon

familiar action-reaction case of an axial y


The direction

which

of the
loaded
shear

concept rod,

beam
and

at section

of statics again
of

is considered.
X-X

and has occurred earlier in the torsion problem.


would be reversed

This

fol ows

be

satisfied
within

by
cross-sectional

developing
area

a couple
of the

or an
cut to

internal
counteract

remoment

diagrams
similar another

necessary to dif erentiate between the two possible directions of The definition of positive shear is il ustrated in Fig. 5-17. A internal force V acting at a section on an isolated left segment of beam, as in Fig. 5-17(a), or an upward force V acting at the same on the right segment of the beam, as in Fig. 5-17(b), corresponds
itive lated shear. from Positive a beam

reversal along

if the

in the a beam.

distributed

direction Therefore,

load

W were

shear takes the adoption

acting

place at one of a sign

upward.

Fret

governing

moment act

caused by the external in a direction opposite

section

magnitude These usually To determine . equilibrium,


S. H.

equation

of the internal resisting moment equals the external momoments tend to bend a beam in the plane of the loads and referred as bending moments. an internal bending moment maintaining a beam segment either the left- or the right-hand part of a beam free-body
N.
2nd

 M

= 0. It fol ows

forces. to the

The external

internal

resisting

from

the

moment

same

to

equation

satisfy

that

the

(b)

by

shears two

are shown sections,

and

in Fig. again

5-17(c) in Fig.

for an element 5-17(d). The

Crandall, tSolids,

C. Dahl, ed. (New

and York:

T.

J. Lardner, McGraw-Hil ,

An

2nd Solids,

ed.

(New (Englewood

York:

Clif s,

Wiley,

NJ:

1971). E. Prentice-Hall,

P. Popov,

1968).

Introduction J. L. Introduction
1978).

to the
Merriam,

MeStat-

Fig. 548 Positive sense of shear and bending moment defined in (a) is used in this
text with coordinates shown

to Mechanics

in (b).

238

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and Bending

Moment

Sec. 5-9. Bending

Moment

in Beams

23 {)

can be used, as shown in Figs. 5-16(b) and (c). The magnitude of bending moment is found by the summation of the moments caused all forces multiplied by their respective arms. The internal forces V P, as well as the applied couples, must be included in the sum. In
to exclude the moments caused by V and P, it is advantageous to

Yll 3m 9 kN

)' 10 kN/m
x

--i3

15kkN/m
A 9 kN

which the the beam

the point
moment

of intersection
moments cross section.

are on the

summed. In Figs.

of these

two

This point 5~16(b)

internal
and

lies

forces

on the centroidal (c), the internal

as the point
top fibers

arot
of

may
and

be physically Fig.
lower

interpreted
ones.

as a pull

on the

beam

If the load Win resisting moments situations require


merits. This

a push

convention

5-16(a) were acting in the opposite in Figs. 5-16(b) and (c) would reverse. the adoption of a sign convention for
is associated with a definite

physical

direction, This and the bending

- 2 m--
(a)

-

<

(c)

the beam. For example, in Figs. shown cause tension in the upper lower. This tends to increase the
and to contract the lower surface.

5-16(b) and (c), the internal part of the beam and com length of the top surface
A continuous occurrence

ments "shed versely, in the


Under

along the beam makes the beam deform water." Such bending moments are assigned a positive moment is defined as one that

top

such

part

circumstances,

and

tension

in the
the

beam

water."
forces

deflects

For

example,

down

as shown

a simple

in exaggerated

beam

suggested bending shears


the moment

by physical intuition. Demitions for positive and ne moments are shown in Figs. 5-19(b) and (c). Note that, ast V, in addition to the sense of M, it is also essential to
for a particular side of a section.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


lower
assumes

part

of a beam's
form

of the of such convex upwards, a negative sign. produces compre.,

a shape

cross
that

supporting

a group

in Fig.

5-19(a),

of

(b)

Fig.

5.20

EXAMPLE

5-4

;ider a-a
SOlution

earlier and

Example
b-b; see Fig.

5-2

and 5-20(a).

determine

the

internal

system

of forces

at sec-

+M

+M

free-body
Fibers in Fibers in +M

for
left

the

member,
a-a

including
in Fig.

reactions,
5-20(b)

is shown
shows the

in Fig.
maximum

5-20(a).
ordinate

A freefor

to the

of section

tension
+M
+M

compression

isolated

part

of the
1

applied

load.
2

Using

this

information,

v, = -9 +  x 2 x  x 10 = -2.33kN
{b)

M, = -9 x 2 +
-M

x 2 x  x 10 x  x 2 = -13.6kN.m
sense

forces
{a)

Fig. 5-20(d).
549 Definition of bending moment signs.
directly

are shown Jy to the left

It is evident

with correct of section

that the second

b-b

in the figure. is shown in Fig.

free-body

is simpler

5-20(c),

for calculations,

and

to the

right,

Fig.

240

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and Bending
Vb =

Moment
+6kN

Sec. 5.t0.

Axial.
P=Sk

Force,

Shear,

and Bending.Moment

Diagrams

and
rigidly must

Mb = -6 x 1 = -6kN.m
The same
joined together be perpendicular

-[
I

procedure

as well to the

can be used for frames

as for curved bars. axis of a member.

consisting

In all such

of several
cases,

the

memb
secti6fi

{a) (g)

3k

2X8-4X3= 4 k-ft

2k,J'
J
3k
I I I

I
I
I

5-10.
By the shears, beam. a plot

Axial-Force,
Diagrams
methods discussed and bending Moreover, with of their values

Shear,
before,

and
the

Bending-Moment
magnitude be obtained sense of axial fo at many sections adopted for these separate diagrams.. On such and

.[2k

i
4 k-ft

i, 

113k
4 k-ft

t' '2k

(h)

o
-3 +2 k k I I I Axial force

moments may the sign conventions may be made on

of
3k 2k
(d) (i)

a base line representing the length of a beam. When these ordinate are plot ed and interconnected by lines, graphical representations of functions are obtained. These diagrams, corresponding to the kind quantities they depict, are called,. respectively, the axial-force the shear diagram, or the bending-moment diagram. With the aid of diagrams, the magnitudes and locations of the various quantities becor immediately apparent. It is convenient to make these plots directly the free-body diagram of the beam, using the same horizontal scale the length of the beam. Draftsmanlike precision in making such is usually unnecessary, although the significant ordinates are
marked with their numerical value.

grams,

ordinates

may

be laid

off equal

to the

computed

qantities

2 k T.2, Jr-t
I

 2
2 kj-O k-ft
(j)
+4 k-ft

Shear

2k

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


,-';--J

3k

Ii

+10

k-ft

+4

k-ft

J

5-

Bending

moment

4 kl

(k)

axial-force diagrams are not as commonly the bending-moment diagrams. This is so because investigated in practice are loaded by forces that axis of the beam. For such loadings of a beam, at any section. Shear and moment diagrams are exceedingly designer sees at a glance the kind of performance beam at every section. The procedure of sectioning and finding the system of forces at the section approach. It wil be used in the fol owing il ustrative of these examples, algebraic expressions for these wil be given. A systematic method for rapidly constructing grams wil be discussed in the next part of this
EXAMPLE 5-5

The

used the

act there important. that

as the shear majority perpendicular to are no axial

Deflected

shape

Fig.
Solution

5-21

From them, is desired from a beam or a is the most examples. In functions along a and moment

shear chapter.

A free-body diagram of the beam is shown in Fig. 5-21(b). Reactions fol ow from inspection after the applied force is resolved into the two components. Then several sections through the beam are investigated, as shown in Figs. 5-21(c)(g). In every case, the same question is posed: What are the necessary internal forces to keep the segment of the beam in equilibrium? The corresponding quantifies are recorded on the respective free-body diagrams of the beam segment. The ordinates for these quantifies are indicated by heavy dots in Figs. 5-21(h)(j), with due attention paid to their signs.
Note furnish that the the same free bodies information, shown
and

in Figs. normally

5-21(d) both

and would

(g) are alternates, not be made.

Note

as they that

Construct in Fig.

axial-force, 5-21(a) due

shear, and to the inclined

bending-moment force P = 5 k.

diagrams

for

the

beam

a section just to the left of the applied force has one sign of shear, Fig. 5-21(e), whereas just to the right, Fig. 5-21(f), it has another. This indicates the importance of determining shears on either side of a concentrated force. For the condition shown, the beam does not resist a shear that is equal to the whole force. The
bending moment in both cases is the same.

:242

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment

Sec.

540.

Axial.

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending-Moment

Diagrams

243

In this particular case, after a few individual points have been J the three diagrams in Figs. 5-21(h)-(j), the behavior of the respective across the whole length of the beam may be reasoned out. Thus, although segment of the beam shown in Fig. 5-21(c) is 2 ft long, it may vary in len anywhere from zero to first to the left of the applied force, and no change in shear and the axial force occurs. Hence, the ordinates in Figs. 5-21(h) and remain constant for this segment of the beam. On the other hand, the moment depends directly on the distance from the support; hence, it varies early, as shown in Fig. 5-21(j). Similar reasoning applies to the segment in Fig. 5-21(d), enabling one to complete the three diagrams on the ri side. The use of the free-body of Fig. 5-21(g) for completing the diagram to fight of center yields. the same result. The sign of a bending moment, per Figs. 5-19(b) and (c), defines the sense which a beam bends. Since, in this problem, throughout the beam length, moments are positive, the beam curves to "retain water." In order to this physical behavior some analysts find it advantageous to draw a short line directly on the moment diagram, as shown in Fig. 5-21(j), to ifidicate manner in which a beam or a beam segment curves.
Sometimes, in addition to or instead of the shear or moment dia

(a)

*
(d)

>1

Axial

force

Shear

(f)

p PLf

P I \PL - Px

-PL

Moment

expressions of the

for
beam,
V= V=

these functions are the fol owing relations


+2k -2k

necessary. apply:

For

the

origin

of x at the

left

Deflected

shape

Fig.

5-22

M=

+2x

k-ft

+2xcan respectively,

4(xbe easily

5)

+20-

These expressions of 2 ft and 8 ft,


EXAMPLE 5-6

established in Figs. 5-21(c)

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


for0<x<5 for5<x<

for0-<x-<

10 5

EXAMPLE

5-7

2xk-ft

for5-<x-<

10

forces

Construct

shown

shear

in Fig.

and

5-23(a).

bending-moment

diagrams

for

the

beam

loaded

with

the

by mental y and (g) by

replacing an x.

the

Solution

An arbitrary section shown in Fig. 5-23(b).


shear, force and bending-moment at the end; see

at a distance x from the left This section is applicable

support isolates for any value

the beam segment of x just to the left

Determine loaded
Solution

with

axial-force, an inclined

Fig.

diagrams 5-22(a).

for

the

{-,+---a

>l

First, the inclined force is replaced by the two components shown in Fig. and the reactions are determined. The three unknowns at the support fol ow the familiar equations of statics. This completes the free-body diagram shown Fig. 5-22(b). Completeness in indicating all of these forces is of the utmost
portance.

(a)

,
 p,[
(d)
Shear

A segment of the beam is shown in Fig. 5~22(c); from that the axial force and the shear force remain the distance x. On the other hand, the bending moment is summation of moments around C gives PL - Px acting This represents a negative moment. The moment at the negative bending moment as it tends to pull on the upper
seen
three diagrams are plot ed in Figs. $-22(d)-(f).

this segment, it may same regardless a variable quantity. in the direction support is fibers of the beam.

(b)

(e)

Fig.

5-23

Moment

244

' Axial Force, Shear, and Bending


of the applied remains constant port, reaching P. The shear, and is +P. The a maximum of +Pa. force

Moment
regardless bending of the

Sec. 5-10. Axial-Force,


moment
distance from varies linearly the from su the

Shear, and Bending-Moment

Diagrams

obtained
and

customary by considering sign conventions.


(d).

to isolate the left-hand segment, similar expressions may the right-hand segment of the beam, with due attention The plot of the V and M functions is shown in Figs. 5-

An

arbitrary

section

applicable

anywhere
force Only zone. diagrams

between

the

two

applied

forces
mu

shown in Fig. segment in this be resisted by pure bending. Shear and Figs. 5-23(d)
force at any

5-23(c). No shear part of the beam. the beam in this bending-moment and (e).
section

is necessary a constant Such a state for diagram this

to maintain equilibrium bending moment of + Pa of bending or flexure is condition as there are shown is no

MPLE

5-9

No
of the

axial-force
beam.

loading is necessary,

the beam

moment

in Example

M as a function

5-4,

shown

of x along

in Fig.

the

5-25(a),

horizontal

express

member.

the shear

V and

the

Solution

EXAMPLE

5-8

Unlike
diagrams
5-24.

Plot shear distributed


Solution

and a bending-moment load; see Fig.

for

a simple

beam

with

Therefore, the solution is determined V and M are continuous. A free-body load is shown in Fig. 5-25(b), and required expressions for 0 < x < 3 are

the preceding

example,

in this case, a load discontinuity

in two parts for each of which the funcdiagram for the beam segment under for the remainder, in Fig. 5-25(c). The

occurs at x = 3

The best way of solving this problem is to write algebraic expressions quantities sought. For this purpose, an arbitrary section taken at a distance the left support is used to isolate the segment shown in Fig. 5-24(b). applied load is continuously distributed along the beam, this section
and

for
Since is

V(x) = -9 +

x 10

= -9 + x kN

The

applies shear

to any section along the length V is equal to the left upward

section.
action on

The
the

internal
left less

bending
the moment

moment
caused

M resists
by

= -9x + x 10 NON-ACTIVATEDM(x) VERSION www.avs4you.com


of the reaction beam. less

= -9x

+ x kN.m

the

load

to the
left

left

of th

For

3 < x < 5,

the

moment

caused

by

the

the

forces

to the

of the

section.
w o N/m

The

summation

of moments

is performed

around

an axis

at the

V(x) M(x)

= =

-9 -9x

15 = + 15(x

+6kN - 2) = 6x

- 30 kN.m a lit le simpler to use a free-

To obtain
body

the last

expression,

it would

have

been

This

diagram

problem
5-16.

similar

can also

to Fig.

be solved

5-20(d).

using

the singularity

functions

discussed

in

} woL

Section

'

oF>---..

-%L

Y--3 m
I kN

10kN/m

6kN'
I

k.1  ..M(x)
V(x)
90 N

r,,

v=
(b)

Wo.

Moment

-

5m

<
(b)

2 --J-
(c)

- WoX

(d)

Fig.

5.25

Fig.

5-24

246

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment

Sec.

5.10.

Axial-Force,

Shear,
X 1

and

Bending.Moment

Diagrams

2,47

'
P(x)
D

&

Fig,

5-26

V,.
EXAMPLE 5-t0

I V(x)

V.''
2Pa

('M(x,)

Pla x3)

Write
Solution

analytic

expressions

for V and

M for the beam

shown

in Fig.

5-26.

Unlike
degree
procedure
origin,

having

the preceding
careful y
is the

one

redundant
same

cases,

this is a statically
reaction.

There

is no horizontal
numerical

indeterminate

proble
cannot

reaction

m to the
and
be obtai

y2Pa
(b)

V(xa)pl'xa

at A.

(a)

cept

for

identifying

until

the reactions

are determined.
V(x)

as before,

the

although

unknown

reactions

On this
wox

basis,

at a distance

results

as VA,

VB,

MA,

Fig.

5-:27

x away

from

V.

and

M(x)

= MA - Mn

+ +
10 and

VAx Vx

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


(WoX)X/2 WoX2/2

These forces are constant throughout the length of the vertical bar and become the reactions at B for the beam segment BC. It is important to note that the axial force in member AB acts as shear in BC. After the reactions at B for BC are known, the usual procedure gives the fol owing internal forces:

P(x2)

= 0, V(x2)

= -P

and

M(X2)

= +2Pa
the force as before,

- PlX2
P at C, the progiving

for

Sometimes,
unknown

reactions
54

it wil be necessary

in Chapters

to use such expressions


12.

in the process

of solvin

For cedure

member CD, for determining

except

for the the internal

need for resolving forces is the same

P(x3)
bending
directly

= -P/V,
moment

V(x3) = -P/V
x3 = X/a
at D is zero,
of the

and
for this
be.

M(x3)
structural

= + Pa - Px3/V
it can be verified
system

EXAMPLE

By substituting
Shear

into

Consider a structural system of three interconnected straight bars, as shown Fig. 5-27(a). At arbitrary sections, determine the internal forces P, V, and M the members caused by the application of a vertical force P at D.
Solution

and bending-moment
outline

diagrams
frame.

as it should

the last expression,

that

the

can be plot ed

on the

EXAMPLE

542

The frame is conveniently shown in Fig. 5-27(b). and sections through


origin.

analyzed by isolating For each case, a dif erent the members are shown At an arbitrary +P,
by calculating

the three coordinate at arbitrary


at A,

straight members, system is indicated, distances from the


which

Consider

a curved

beam

whose

centroidal

axis

is bent

into

a semicircle

of 0.2

beam
are

The
seen

segment
to

solution
be

AB.

begins

section = 0

the

reaction

through and

this beam, M(x)

the internal = +2Pa

is then

shown

forces

on

radius, forces A-A,


Solution

as shown in Fig. 5-28(a). shown, find the axial force, ct = 45 . The centroidal axis

If this member the shear, and and the applied

is being pulled by the 1000-N the bending moment at section forces all lie in the same plane.

P(x)

V(x)

There

is no essential

dif erence

in the

method

of attack

in this

problem

compared

with

that

in a straight-beam

problem.

The

body

as a whole

is examined

for

con-

248

Axial Force, Shear, and Bending

Moment
derived. These
as well

Sec. 5-tt. Equations


can
as for

of Equilibrium
construction
of reactions.

for a Beam Element


of shear and moment sections

be used
the

for
calculation

the long,

P=I

Consider

a beam

element

Ax

isolated

by

two

adjoining

perpendicular to its axis, Fig. 5-29(b). Such an element is shown a free-body in Fig. 5-29(c). All the forces shown acting on this element have positive sense. The positive sense of the distributed external force
c = 45

(a)

is taken to coincide ar and the moment that on the right designated V +

Eig.

5-28

From

the condition

for equilibrium T +

with the direction may each change side of the element, A V and M + AM.
V+
AV

of the positive from one section these quantities

y axis. As the to the next, are, respec-

of vertical
(V+

forces,
AV)

one
= 0

obtains

ditions

of equilibrium.

From

the

conditions

of the

problem

here,

such

is

A is taken perpendicular to the axis of the beam. Before determining wanted at the cut, the applied force P is resolved into components perpendicular to the cut. These directions are taken respectively axes. This resolution replaces P by the components shown in Fig.
707

the case.

Next,

a segment

of the beam

is isolated;

see Fig.

5-28(b).

 Fx = 0, the axial
in several of action
N in the

Therefore,

dif erent of the


only

direction

force

the

ways. applied

shown.

at the cut is +707


The

axial

For force
force

example, P and
at the

bending

centroid

the

if  Mo = 0 is used, shear at the section


of the cut

moment

N. From

at the

 Fy = 0, the shear
cut can

parallel as the y and 5-28(b).

the

Section

qAx-

Ax
L,
For So, equilibrium, upon noting
one has

= q
arm around A also must of the distributed
since, simplification in the

(5-1)

be considered, in the direction


= 0. At

C, a point

and the resisting bending moment is 707(0.2) shown. An alternative solution may be obtained
lying on the centroid, the axial force

The bending moment is then the m arm. In both of these methods


components of the force

P is avoided

product of the of determining


as this

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com Y +q(x)


times the radius has

note that the line pass through

the summation that from


of q(x) within in q becomes

point

of moments A the

be zero. force is
limit is not as Ax an ap-

and

= 141.4 N.m, by applying


the shear

intersectl

4 No variation O, the change Proximation.

Ax need negligibly

be considered, small. This

is more

applied force P and bending moment,


involved

the 0.141 use of

It is suggested that the reader complete a. Several interesting observations may The moments at the ends wil vanish for shear vanishes and the axial force becomes
the maximum bending moment is associated

this problem in terms of a general be made from such a general solution. a = 0 and a = 180 . For a = 90 , equal to the applied force P. Likewise
with a = 90 .
(a) Beam sign

+'"

+M "+v
convention

+q(x)

5=]]

Dif erential
Element

Equations

of Equilibrium

for

a Beam
shear

Y (qx) load per uni


(b)

(c)

be used.

Instead of the direct approach of cutting a beam and and moment at a section by statics, an efficient alternative
For this purpose, certain fundamental dif erential

determining procedure

Flg.

5-29

Beam

and

beam

elements

between

adjoining

sections.

250

Axial Force, Shear, and Bending


=o+

Moment
+ AM)
AM
Ax
=V+

.
VAx
q Ax
2
-dx

Sec. 542. Shear Diagrams


=

by Integration

of the Load
q = +q2

(M

- M

- (q Ax)(Ax/2)

basic

Equations

dif erential

5-1 and

equations:

5-2 in the limit

as Ax --> 0 yield

the fol owing

dV

= -wodx

and

I dv I )
By substituting Eq. 5-4 into Eq. 5-3, another
=q

Slope = d__V=-wo dx
(a)

xx = +ql
(b)

dV

dV

dx - +q2
(a) a uniformly load intensity, uniformly intensity.

Fig.

5-30

Shear
increasing

Slope

of shear

diagram:

dV
useful relation is

dx - q ""---...Slope

Slope

distributed and (b)

diagrams

for
a load

dx

This

3 and grams.

ically

dif erential
5-4

determinate
are These

equation

very convenient applications

beams

from

can
wil

be used

for construction be discussed

the

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION boundary conditions,www.avs4you.com whereas Eqs. by the summation process. For this purpose,
"jump,"
dx 2

cess

remains

in the value
valid
the beam.

of the shear
nevertheless,

occurs.
since

a concentrated

The

continuous

force

summation

may

be

of as being
basis

a distributed
above

force

extending
diagram

for

an infinitesimal
can be established

dis-

for

determining
next.

reactions
and

of

tance

On the

along

of the

reasoning,

a shear

of shear

moment

5-12.
By transposing

Shear

Diagrams
and integrating

by Integration
Eq. 5-3 gives the

of the
shear

Load
V:

be determined are successively mathematical at a section


the section.

Then the vertical components of forces and reactions summed from the left end of the beam to preserve the sign convention for shear adopted in Fig. 5-17. The shear is simply equal to the sum of all vertical forces to the left of
shear diagram is constructed from the load diagram by the

first.

the reactions

must

always

summation process, two important observations can be made regarding its shape. First, the sense of the applied load determines the sign of the slope of the shear diagram. If the applied load acts upward, the slope of the shear diagram is positive, and vice versa. Second, this slope is equal to the corresponding applied load intensity. For example, consider a segBy assigning definite of integration limits to this constant integral, it is seen is equal to the that shear the shear at

When

the

section beam
by

hand

constant
the

is simply from the end.


amount

left

an integral (i.e., a sum) of the vertical end of the beam to the section any two
vertical

Between

C. This any

forces in question the shear


these

along
on the
sections.

plus

ment of a beam with a uniformly distributed downward shears at both ends, as shown in Fig. 5-30(a). Since intensity Wo is negative and uniformly distributed,

of the

def'mite
two

force

seciions

included

of a beam,
between

If a concentrated

no force

occurs

between

force

comes

into

sections,

the

summation,

no change

a discontinuity,

in shear

takes'

or

stant, the slope of the shear diagram exhibits Alternatively, the linearly varying load intensity segment with known shears at the ends, shown in Fig. 5-30(b), gives rise to a dif erently shaped shear diagram. Near the left end of this segment, the locally applied upward load q is smaller than the corresponding one

load Wo and known here the applied load i.e., q = -Wo = conthe same characteristics. acting upward on a beam

q2 near

the fight

end.

Therefore,

the positive

slope

of the shear

diagram

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment

Sec.

543.

Moment

Diagrams

by

Integration

of the

Shear

253

on
concave

the
Do not

left
upward.

is smaller
fail to note

than
that

it is on
a mere

the
systematic

right,

and
consecutive

the

shear
summa

dia

the vertical components of the forces is all that is necessary to the shear diagram. When the consecutive summation process is diagram must end up with the previously calculated shear the right end of a beam. No shear acts through the beam just last vertical force or reaction. The fact that the diagram closes in
manner check offers should

rapidly.

pendently graphical practical

procedure problems.

an important check on the never be ignored. It permits with al. most complete assurance

arithmetical calculations. one to obtain solutions

of integration It is the basis

outlined for sketching

of being correct. The before is very qualitative shear,


dia
with

dMIdx

= -V

From the physical point plotely consistent. Whenever from one side of the beam
by looking this statement at the same on some

beam simple

of view, the shear sign conventionbeams are analyzed, a shear is opposite in sign to a diagram
from the

is not
should 

-M B
MB

dM = - V1dx
(a)

cases,

other such

side. The reader as a cantilever

dM.
Slope of moment diagram:

= V dx

force

trated

unimportant.

in the

force

middle.

at the end

For

and a simply
design

purposes,

5-13.
Transposing

Moment

Diagrams
and integrating Eq.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION dM_ V /+Slope Fig. 541 Shear and moment diagrams for (a) a uniformly by Integration of the Shear www.avs4you.com 5-4 gives the bending moment
the sign of the shear is
dx

supported

beam

with

'"'-----Slope

increasing

load

intensity.

distributed
to their

load intensity,
end and
sign,

and (b) a uniformly

By proceeding

moment
moment
construction

the

where tions

C2 is a constant at x = 0. This
of shear

of integration corresponding equation is analogous to Eq.


diagrams. The meaning

of the

to boundary 5-6 developed


term

V dx is

for

minate

by the hatched of these areas responds to an evaluation are on rollers, pin-ended, are zero. If the end is built-in
beams, the end

graphically summation

moment

areas of the shear diagrams in Fig. 5-31. between definite sections through a beam of the definite integral. If the ends of a or free, the starting and the terminal (fixed against rotation), in statically
is known from the reaction

earlier to go from loading to shear diagrams. The change in in a given segment of a beam is equal to the area of the coronding shear diagram. Qualitatively, the shape of a moment diagram be easily established from the slopes at some selected points along beam. These slopes have the same sign and magnitude as the corshears on the shear diagram, since according to Eq. 5-4, dM/ = V. Alternatively, the change of moment dM = V dx can be studied the beam. Examples are shown in Fig. 5-31. According to these
variable shears cause nonlinear variation of the moment.

from

diagram is obtained. the shear difigram

areas

continuously

of the

shear

along

This process by summation

diagram

the beam

with

from

of obfaining the moment is exactly the same as that

due

the left-hand
regard

constant

sulting
the

If the fixed sign is the 19. Moments

end initial

of a beam constant cause

is on the of integration

left,

this C2. fibers

moment

with

the

Since

in a straight portion
dM/dx

shear

produces

maximum

or minimum

= V, according an invaluable

line in the moment of a beam, no change


moment

a uniform

change

to the

occurs

fundamental

diagram. If no shear occurs in moment takes place.


where the

in the

bending

moment,

along

re-

theorem

shear

is zero.

of calculus, again. The

5 Bending

moments
that

carry

compression

signs according

in the top

to the convention

of the beam

adopted

are

end

In a bending-moment
of the beam,

diagram

check

obtained

on the

by summation,
work

is available

at the right-hand

:254

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment

Sec.

5.13.

Moment

Diagrams

by

Integration

of the

Shear

255

along
P' --2-L

The

sum

cha)Ige
area.

: of +PL/4. the

the beam

of the positive
This

until

in the moment
diagram
second
areas

moment

the quarter

portion

of the

can be made
the
shear

remains

point,

shear

in this zone
decreases

constant

where

diagram

in the by

the moment

increases
half

as there
-P

middle

reaches

at a constant
of the dr.

a magbeam.

is no corresponding
Since

(a)

in this zone
of the

force,

moment

has a constant,
diagram

are equal,

negative

at the right

slope.

dx in eve3'
end,

the

the positive
moment

Hence,

zero.
-p

the work
MPLE

This

is obtained.
5-t4

is as it should

This

be, since
moment

the right
diagram

end is on a roller.
is symmetrical.

Thus,

a check

I
{

I
PL

shown
V and

a simple in Fig. diagrams


M using

beam with a uniformly increasing load intensity 5-33(a). The total applied load is W. (a) Construct with the aid of the integration process. (b) Derive
Eq. 5-5.

from

an end, shear and expressions

(c)

Solution

Elastic

curve

Fig.

5-32

(d)

terminal conditions for or pinned, the computed end moment computed for the reaction. These
be satisfied.

moment must be satisfied. sum must equal zero. If the by summation equals the one are the boundary conditions

the

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


shear diagram
load is smaller

the

Since the downward

total load reactions

given

W = kL2/2, k = 2W/L 2. For are W/3 and 2W/3, as shown

in Fig.

on the

5-33(b)
left

end

begins

than

and

on the

ends

the given load in Fig. 5-33(a).


right,

as shown.
the

shear

Since

distribution, Therefore,
diagram

the rate

is

If the end is end is built-in, calculated init: and must

is balanced

upward.

by the

The

applied
W

point

load,
1

of zero
2W

i.e.,

shear

occurs

where

the reaction
L

on the left

- = x-7x
the bending moment is maximum;
W L

hence,
therefore,

x - V

EXAMPLE

5-t3

Construct in Fig.
Solution

shear

and

5-32(a)

by

the

moment integration

diagrams

for

the

symmetrically

loaded

35

+ 2v'

process.

L  - 9V' 1 L 2W L ( L) _ 2WL


+2W/3

The reactions are each equal to P. To obtain the shear diagram, Fig. 5-32(b), summation of forces is started from the left end. The left reaction acts up, so ordinate on the shear diagram at this force equal to P is plot ed up. Since are no other forces until the quarter point, no change in the magnitude of t shear ordinate is made until that point. Then a downward force P brings
ordinate back to the base line, and this zero ordinate remains until the next

(b)
-W/3

ward force P is reached upward reaction closes diagram is antisymmetrical. The moment diagram, shear diagram. As the

where the shear changes the diagram and provides Fig. beam 5-32(c), is simply is obtained supported,

to -P. At the right end, a check on the work. This by the summing moment up the area at the left

kx = (2W/L)x
2W/3

(c)
2WL

9v'

Fig.

5-33

256

' Axial Force,


By fol owing
in Fig.

Shear,
the rules

and Bending
given in Fig.

Moment
5-31, the
the

Sec. 5-t3. Moment


moment diagram has
for
C D
30 k

Diagrams
k

by Integration

of the Shear

257

the

shape
30k

50 40 k

Although
Applying

5-33(c).

the shear
necessary

and bending
to supplement

moment
it twice,

diagrams
results analytically

could
has

be sketched

1 k/ft

tively,
critical

it was
values.

-15'--

Xl-'-

(b)

Eq.

5-5

and

integrating d2M

one

dx 2 - q=
C and
require
M(L)

+kx=
M
that

+'-x
=
the
6

2W

t27.5k
(a)

37.5

o
-150

dM

kx 2

kx 3

Cx

C2
x
-30 k Axial force

 37. k/5ft IF
k/f 

Moment

However,
L be zero,

the
i.e.,

boundary
M(0) =

conditions
0 and

moments
since

at x = 0 and

= 0. Therefore,

(d)
(b)
+10 k 12'
B


 16.36'

M(0)
and, similarly, since M(L) = 0,

C2

+12.5

kZ 3 -+
6

CL

With

these

constants,

dM. dx
and M =

kx 2 2
kx 2
6
those found

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


6
-151 -27.5 k

or

C

kZ 2

Deflected
(e)

shape

kL 2 6

Wx 2 L 2

W 3

Shear

(c)

Fig.

5-34

kL 2x
6
earlier.

Wx
3L 2

Wx
3

sum
acts

of the
forces.

vertical
segment

reaction

components

is 65 kips

and

equals

the

sum

of the

These

results

agree

with

diagram
approach used in this in the
to situations in Section 5-16.

for the axial


AD

force

is shown
beam.

in Fig.
Fig.

5-34(b).

This

compresslye

force

The

attractive

features
dif erential the singularity

of the
equations functions

boundary-value
can be extended discussed

for solving loads using

the beam

EXAMPLE

5-t5

the shear diagram in the zone . This is in accord with Eq. 5-3, il ustrated Wo, the negative slope of this shear diagram
diagrams process. for loaded beam shown in Fig.
to zero at A. The total downward

an equal

known, to obtain the load accumulates

increment

the summation shear diagram, at a rapid

of the

of distance

along

rate.

of forces is begun 5-34(c). At ftrst, Then, as the load

the

CA is a curved line, which is concave in Fig. 5-30. Since dV/dx = q = is large on the left, and gradually
force from C to A is 15 kips, and

beam,

a smaller

from the left end of the downward disintensity decreases,

change

in shear

Construct 34(a) with


Solution

shear and bending-moment the aid of the integration

this is the

Reactions must force is resolved

action

at A is 30 kips

be calculated first, into its horizontal

and

acts

to the right.
this).

and, and

before vertical

From

 M, = 0, the
the reaction

proceeding components.

further, The

the at A is 27.5 kip

negative ordinate the upward reaction + 12.5 kips. This value right of the support
but this total

does

of the shear diagram, just to the left of 27.5 kips moves the ordinate of the of the shear applies to a section through A. The abrupt change in the shear at A
not represent the shear through the

beam.

of the support shear diagram the beam just is equal to the


of the

at B is found

to be 37.5

kips

(check

Similarly,

:rated

the

value

force

of the

are applied

drops

the value

shear.

to the beam
At D,

of the shear

the

40-kip

between

to -27.5

downward

A and

D; hence,

kips.

component

there

is no change

Similarly,

the value

concen-

of

258

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment

Sec.

5.t4.

Concentrated

Moment

on

Moment

Diagrams

259 At

the

shear

tributed decrease
To

is zero,

which

is raised to + 10 kips at B. Since between E and F, the load acts downward, according to Eq. 5-3, and shown in Fig. in shear takes place at a constant rate of 1 kip/foot. Thus,
serves as the final check.

counterclockwise

moment

on

the

right

must

be

Mo

MA.

point

to

construct

the

moment

diagram

shown
CA,

in Fig.

5-34(d)
area that is contributed is concave

by

the
to the

the concentrated in applying the

of the externally

applied
summation their

moment

from the left in a distance

method,

areas

in the moment in Fig. 5-31. progressively of the shear

and

it may

be determined

down is in accord with Eq. 5-4, dM/dx = V, Here V, defining the slope of the moment diagram is negative becomes larger to the fight. The moment at A is equal to the diagram in the segment CA. This area is enclosed by a curved

end. In the segment dx than a lit le farther

of the

shear

diagram

at ftrst, less along, so a line

in Fig.

5-34(c)

must

be continuously

conventional this vertical Oncentrated


over

summation

appears in the moment diagram. process, due regard must be given effect is not apparent in the shear diagram. process may be applied up to the point
this point, a vertical in the diagram. The "jump" direction

moment,

a discontinuity,

or a "jump,"

the of

diagram.

This

of a concentrated to the external moment

moment. At must be made

by integration,

6 since

the shear

along

this

"jump" moment to Fig. 5-35. the summation


the remainder

in the diagram depends and is best determined After the discontinuity process of the shear-diagram
of the beam.

upon the sense of the with the aid of a sketch in the moment diagram is areas may be con-

be expressed analytically. bending moment at A may

This procedure be obtained

often
from

is cumbersome, the fundamental

and definition

of a

ment at a section. By passing a section the moment at A is found. The other


are easily is convenient
the

determined. to arrange
check

Due

attention the work

must in tabular

through A and isolating areas of the shear d!agram


be paid form. to the signs At the right

the

of these area end of the

segment in this

:EXAMPLE

546

customary

is obtained.

 Fig.
ution

5-36(a).

bending-moment

diagram

for

the

horizontal

beam

loaded

as shown

MA
MD

--(15)2(10) + 12.5(15)
-27.5(5)

= =
=
=

--150.0 + 187.5
+ - 100.0

37.5

- 137.5
+
-

MB

+ 10(5)
ME

50.0
50.0

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


k-ft

k-ft

(moment (shear
(shear
(shear

around A) area A to D)
area
area

! taking
drawn

be P/6.

moments

At A, the
beam.

about

reaction
After

either

acts

end

down;

of the

at C, it acts
the summation

beam,

the

vertical

up.

From

reactions

 Fx = 0, it is
shear diagram for the whole
the moment

are found

D to B)
B to E)

that
of

k-ft k-ft

next;

at A, a horizontal reaction equal to P acts to the see Fig. 5-36(b). It has a constant negative
this, by using

left. The ordinate


process,

the

+(10)10
MF

50.0 0.0

k-ft

(shear (check)

area

E to F) 2Pa/3.
further
The

shown in Fig. 5-36(c) is constructed. is zero, since the support is pinned. is given by the area of the shear diagram

The

moment

diagram

in zone
of

AB

moment The total change between these

The

has
the

a constant
force

at the left in moment sections

negative
to

of the from A and equals

end

slope.

For
and

analysis,
moment on

an element
the left-hand

is isolated
side

from
this

beam,

as shown
is known be

in Fig.
-2Pa/3,

5-36(d).

element

5-]4.

Effect Diagrams

of Concentrated

Moment
by

on

Moment

concentrated

moment

caused

by the

applied

P about

the

neutral

axis

In the derivation for moment diagrams areas, no external concentrated moment ment was included, yet such a moment the summation process derived applies of an external moment. At a section moment, a dif erent bending moment of a beam in equilibrium. For example, moment MA is acting on the element of clockwise moment on the left is Mo,

summation of acting on the infinitesimal may actually be applied. only up to the just beyond an externally is required to maintain the in Fig. 5-35 an external the beam at A. Then, if the for equilibrium of the element,
by various

.p
P

(c)

(a)
=?

FIG.'5-35
on

An external
element

concentrated
an

moment
of

a beam.

acting

a vertical the Appendix.

6 In this

line

case,

through

the

shear

A.

For

curve

areas

is a second-degree
enclosed

parabola

curves,

whose

_ 2Pa

see

Table

(b)

(d)

Fig.

5-36

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment

Sec.

5-t5.

Moment

Diagram

and

the

Elastic

Curve

of the beam
element diagram,
summation

is Pa; hence,
be +Pal3. just to the
of the shear

for equilibrium,
AtB, right
diagram

the moment
"jump" ordinate
is continued.

on the rigfit
is made Beyond
area
Note

side
in the point
B

must and to
and

an upward of B, the
area

of +Pa is +Pa/3.
The

beam

at this
of +48
moment

end.
N.m.
of 0.6

Hence,
The
x. 120

the
other
=

plot
point

of the
on

moment
the
around

diagram
beam
the

must
axis.

start

with

where
neutral

a concentrated

between

o. ccurs

is C. Here

the horizontal

72 N.m

component

of the applied

force

Just

induces

to the

equal
beam,

-Pa/3.
thus the

This
that

value
boundary

closes
conditions

the
downward the

moment
are satisfied.

diagram
to the right is negative are

at the
that

right
the

end
lines

i0f

moment because
EXAMPLE

diagram the shear


5- 7

are everywhere

inclined
along

beam

parallel. This and constant.

a discontinuity

C, this

moment
areas

in the

must

are applied.

The

applies

necessai'y

moment diagram. for the segments

be resisted

by an additional

calculations
= = = =

The summation of the beam where

positive

are carried

out in tabular
area

process no external

moment.

form.

of the mo-

This

Construct dimensions
Solution

shear are

ar/d shown

moment in mm.

diagrams Neglect

for the member shown the weight of the beam.

in Fig.

ust

to

left

+0.6x80 +0.4x400 of C +0.6

x
x

120
700

+ 48N.m +160 + 208 N-m + 72


+280 kN.m
0

(shear

A to C)

(external
(shear (check) area

moment
C to B)

at C)

ust
are ass

to right

of C
-0.4

=
= =

- 280

In

this

case,

unlike

all

cases

considered

so far,

definite

dimensions

for the depth of the in its cross-sectional the top of the beam.
axis.

beam. The beam, for simplicity, is assumed area; consequently, the centroidal axis Note careful y that this beam is not supported
beam with Reactions the applied are computed force

to be lies 80 mm at the
resolved in the usual int

Note
a beam

that act

in solving this problem, the forces were on the beam. The investigation for shear determines what the beam is actually experiencing.

considered wherever they and moments at a section At times, this dif ers

the

procedure
of a member

of determining
is not important.

reactions,
that member, if a moment the basic
acts

where

the

actual

framing

or con-

A free-body diagram of the ponents is shown in Fig. 5-37(b).

Moreover,

since'the

shear
and

diagram
diagram

is concerned
shown

is easily

constructed

is shown

in Fig.

In constructing be exercised.

As

the moment was emphasized

earlier,

determined by considering a segment of a beam, computed by taking moments of external forces axis of the beam. Thus, by passing a section just the left-hand segment, it can be seen that a positive

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


only with the vertical it must be emphasized section through any
For inclined

or a shear is needed at a parmethod of sections may ahvays


normal to the axis of the beatn.

5-37(c).

; used.

members,

the

shear

in Fig. the bending

5-37(d),

particular

moments

may

care always
cem

and they are most around a point on the to the right of A and moment of 48 N.m

Moment
defined

Diagram

and

the

Elastic

Curve

7/'/ / / / / / / /

/ / / / / / / / /

20

in Section 5-9, .a positive moment causes a beam to deform upwards or to "retain water," and vice versa. Hence, the shape deflected axis of a beam can be definitely established from the sign moment diagram. The trace of this axis of a loaded elastic beam a deflected position is known as the elastic curve. It is customary to
the elastic curve on a sketch, where the actual small deflections

practice the physical


(a)
280 N 'm

calculations

are greatly exaggerated. action of a beam.


of beam

deflections

A sketch It also provides


to be

discussed

of the elastic curve a useful basis for


in Sections

[0-13

and
of

10-14. diagrams
a beam.

Some were

of the constructed

preceding

wil

examples be used

for to il ustrate

which

the

bendingphysical

48N.m o

0.6 kN 1
Fig. 5-37

0.8

kN

g. 5-32(c) shows that the bending length of the beam is positive. Accordingly, the Fig. 5-32(d) is concave up at every point. Correct or concavity of the elastic curve is important.
of the
(d)

moment throughout elastic curve shown representation of In this case, the

beam

rest

on

supports.

(b)

a more

complex

moment

diagram,

Fig.

5~34(d),

zones

of positive

262

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment

Sec.

5-t6.

Singularity

Functions

263
+

and negative moment occur. Corresponding ment, a definite curvature of the elastic place; see Fig. 5-34(e). On the other positive moment occurs, the concavity
Where
that There
of the

two

joining
the

curves

free is no

curves

join,

as at H and

end FG curvature

since

of the in FG,

the beam

J, there

to the zones of negative curve that is concave down hand, for the zone HJ, of the elastic curve is
are lines that
to the elastic curve is zero in that

of the

shear-diagram

area

from

A to H equals

this

moment,

i.e.,

- 150

12.5x

beam since

is tangent the moment

is physically

continuous.

are

tangent

Similarly, secofid r-cliagram


before.

= 0. Hence,

Also

-- 37.5/27.5

by beginning with a known positive moment of + 37.5 kip-ft at D, inflection point is known to occur when a portion of the negative area between D and J reduces this value to zero. Hence, distance
= 1.36 ft, or distance AJ = 15 + 1.36 = 16.36 ft, Fig. 5-34(e),

distance

AH

= 150/12.5

= 12 ft as before.

as any
, comer

infinitesimal of elastic

beam
in a continuous can act only

element
frame either

must
with rigid as shown

be in equilibrium,
joints. in Fig. Therefore, 5-38(a)

so must

also
(a)

beam.

element at a comer

the bending or 5-38(b). The

If the suggestion made in Example segments by means of short curved lowed, as in Fig. 5-34(d), the elastic
curves

5-5, indicating the curvature lines on the moment diagram curve is simply an assembly

of l

parts

curves

are

shown

in these

figures.

The called changes


This

fact

point of transition on the elastic curve into reverse the point of inflection or contraflexure. At this point, its sign, and the beam is not called upon to resist
often makes these points a deskable place for

drawn

to a proper

scale.

a field

curvature the any

g-16.

Singularity

Functions
(b)

connect

of large termining
EXAMPLE

members, points
5-t8

and their of inflection

location is calculated. wil be il ustrated

A procedure in the next

was pointed out earlier, analytical expressions for the shear V(x) and moment M(x) of a given beam may be needed in an analysis. If the q(x) is a continuous function between the supports, solution of dif erential equation d2m/dx 2 = q(x) is a convenient approach for V(x) and M(x) (see Example 5-14). Here this wil be extended
situations in which the loading function is discontinuous. For this

Fig.

5.38

Elastic

curves

at

comers
frames.

of planar

rigid

Find
see
Solution

the
Fig.

location
5-34(a)

of the

inflection

points

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


for the beam analyzed in Example 5-1

the considered of other

By definition, an inflection point corresponds to a point bending moment is zero. Hence, an inflection point can be an algebraic expression for the moment in a beam for the point. is anticipated, and solving this relation equated to
from end the beam C of the beam, is M = -(15)(2)(x Fig. 5-34(e), the bending - 5) + (27.5)(x -

15).

moment By

for simplifying
ft

on a beam located by segment where zero. By


segment

i ons
Consider

of this of beams.

notation here functions however, approach

of operational calculus wil be used. The functions are polynomials with integral powers ofx. The treatis beyond the scope of this text. For the functions the method is perfectly general. Further applicawil be given in Chapter 10 for calculating deflecas in Fig. 5-39. Since the applied loads are

a beam

loaded

3int
M

(concentrated)
moment
= RlX

forces,
expression

four
apply.

distinct
These

regions
are

exist
when

to which

dif erent
d b
c
L

and

0 -< x -< d -<


b <
c -<

this

expression

equal
M

to zero,
= 12.5x

a solution
337.5

for x is obtained.
= 0 x = 27

M M M
7 This

=Rlx-P(x= Rx-P(x= Rx Section can

P(x
be

omit ed.

d) d) d)

when

x <
x
x

+ Mo + Mo

when

<
-<

+ P2(x

c)

when

Therefore,

the

inflection
support A.

point

occurring

in segment

AD

of the beam

is 27

Similarly, ment DB

12 ft from

by writing and setting

an algebraic expression it equal to zero, the location

for the bending of inflection

moment for point J is

, P2

M
where
Often

=
a more

-(15)(2)(x
ft; hence,
convenient

- 5) + 27.5(x
the
method

AJ
finding

15)
the

- 40(x
ft.
inflection

- 30)
points

= 0

x = 31.36

distance
for

= 16.36

utilizing the known relations between the shear and moment diagrams. the moment at A is - 150 kip-ft, the point of zero moment occurs when

Thus the

Fig.

5-39

A loaded

beam.

Sec.

5.t6.

Singularity

Functions

265

All four equations


lowing symbolic
P (total)

function:

can be writ en

as one, providing
a) 

one demes

becomes a reminder

this

expression

infinite that the

and according range

is dimensionally
by

definition

is zero

correct,

everywhere integral and upon

although
subscript

(x - a) - at x
else. Thus, it of this integration,

sin. guIarfunction.
over

In Eq.

(x- a)= {0 (xx

ffoora<x< rO<x<a
becomes is unity.

to Eq. 5-9, e remains bounded

5-10,

the

asterisk

the

of the

expression

bracket
yields

point

wheren->0(n

= 0,1,2

..

).

be

adopted:

force

itself.

Therefore,

a special

symbolic

rule

of integration

(a)

reaches a. For x beyond a, the expression For n = 0 and-for x > a, the function

The expression

enclosed

by the pointed

brackets
across

separate
bined

into one expression

functions

for M(x) given for the beam of Fig. 5-39 can bel
that is appliable the whold

an ordinary On this basis,

does not exist

I P<x- a)"dx=P(x- a) 1
coefficient P in the previous functions is known as the strength t. For P equal to unity, the unit point load fimction is also called the Dirac delta or the unit impulse fimction. analogous reasoning, see Fig. 5-40(b), the loading function
moment at x = a is recentrated

(5-11)

M = R(x
m a

- O? - P(x - d)  + Mb(X
of a are 0, d, b, and this function further,

-- b) + P2(x
to

-- C)!

(x

of -

-

Ma (total)

Here

additional symbolic it as a degenerate

the values To work with

trated moment, treating it similarly. Rules for integrating all tions must b also established. In this discussion, the heuristic rigorous) approach wil be fol owed. A concentrated (point) force may be considered as an
treating

functions. One is for the concentrated case of a distributed load. The other

c, respectively. it is convenient

q for

strong

distributed

e as a constant,

load

acting

the fol owing

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION I www.avs4you.com over a small interval e, Fig.


function

force, is for the

(5-12)

is true

The

been

in being integrated second integral, stated as Eq. 5-11.

twice except

defines for the

two symbolic rules of inexchange of P by M, has

(b)
e--O .Ja-2 

'M,(x - a)-2 dx = M,(x - a) 


of force

(5-13)

+P(x

Here
for

such as lb/in, and corresponds to the distributed load treatment. Therefore, as (x - a)  -> 0, by an analogy
a concentrated force at x = a,

it can be noted

that

P/ has the dimensions

q(x) in the of (x -

per

fi M,(x - a) dx = M,(x - a)


5-12, the expression For M, equal to unity, -- a) 2, which is also so being infinite twice, a bounded are symbolic in character. loads is clearly evident The integral of binomial
the fol owing rule:

(5-14)

Eq.

q = P(x - a))
8 This approach was first his Electromagnetic Theory ational calculus. In 1919, W. brackets for beam problems.
transforms.

(c)

P and

Fig.

5-40

(b) considered
load,
notation

moment

Concentrated
(c)

and

for

P and

symbolic

as distributed
M

Ma:

(a) and

force

development

of this topic should

introduced by A. Clebsch in 1862. O. initiated and greatly extended the methods of H. Macaulay specifically suggested the use of s The reader interested in further and/or

is correct dimensionally one obtains the called the doublet at x = a and zero result is obtained. The relation of from Eqs. 5-11, functions in pointed

since q has the unit point moment function, or dipole. This function elsewhere. However, Equations 5-10, 5-12, these equations to the and 5-14. brackets for n -> 0 is

units

is
after and given

given

consult

texts on mathematics

treating

at a.

(x - a)n dx = (x n- +a)n+ 1

for n > 0

(5-15)

264

266

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment
+y 

Sec.

5-16.

Singularity

Functions

267

q = -w o lb/in

+q

+w
o

(a)
qo

L/2

-'

L/24
+ C2

(a)

(b)

Fig. M
(b)

5-42

dx 2 - q = -wo(x
--=
dM dx

- O) + wo( x - LI2)
O)  + wo(x - LI2) 1 + C1

V=

-wo(x-

ql=:qod[
oFig. 5.4'1 Typical integrations.

1 ' (x

- a) 1

m(x)
M(O)

= -
= C2

Wo(X
= 0

- 0) 2 + Wo(X
2 + wo(L/2)
Ci =

- L/2)

2 + Cx
= 0

}-'"
(c)

M(L)
x

woZ

2 + CiL
+as poL

 -(x

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


Hence,

V(x) M(x)

= -Wo(X - O)  + Wo(X - L/2)  + as woL = - Wo(X - 0) 2 + Wo(X - L/2) 2 + as woLx


is obtained,
form:

the

solution

these

relations

are

more

easily

read

by

rewriting

in
(d)

conventional

This equal
EXAMPLE

integration to zero,
5-t9

process one obtains

is shown conventional

in Fig.

5-41. integrals.

If the

distance

a is

+- woLx - - Wo. wox V = +-woL X 2 } when M + woL 2 - woL  woLx = -woL} V = +aswoLcan be checked of maximum moment to complete. by conventional can be found.

0 < x < LI2

when L/2 <- x < L


statics. By A plot of these setting functions V = 0, the is left for

reactions

Using
ing
Solution

symbolic
in Fig. 5-42(a).

functional

notation,

determine

V(x)

and

M(x)

caused

by the
EXAMPLE

5-20

To

and

solve

the same, see Fig.

begins

this

problem,
together 0 and

must 5-42(b).

at x = 0. Therefore,
exist. To

problem,

Eq.

5-5 can
function,

For

M(L)

this

represent

another

function

This terminate

a term

be used.

simply

= 0. These

supported

correctly

+wo(x
the are used

the

however, distributed

q = -wo

The

applied

beam,

applied

- L/2) must

propagates across the whole load at x = L/2 as required

or wo(x

load

- 0) , which two

q(x)

acts

V(x)
functions

and
and

M(x)
treat

for

a beam

loaded

as shown
problem.

in Fig.

5-43.

Use

singularity

it as a boundary-value

to determine

the known

load.

be added.
reactions:

The

in making
form. From of integration

direct

use

the

boundary

conditions

are M(0)

the

of Eqs.

conditions can be found:

5-10

and

M(0)

5-12,

= 0 and

the

function

M(L)

= 0, with

q(x)

can

be writ en

L = 3a,

the

in

268
-q ,

Problems

269

(a)

Fig.

5-43
a  C
b

aeM/dx dM/dx
M(O)
and

2 = q = -P(x = V = -P(x

- a);  + Pa(x - a} + Pa(x

- 2a) 2 - 2a)  + C

-=-%

M = -P(x
= C2 = 0

- a)  + Pa(x
+ Pa + 3Ca

- 2a} + Cx + :C2


= 0 Fig.
(b)

(c)

M(3a)
Hence,

-2Pa

5-44

Il ustration

for

formulating

signularity

functions

for

reactions.

C,=
and

V(_x)
M(x)
In

= +-aP(x= +P(x
for

0} -

- O)  - P(x
y(x),

writ en

the

final

in conventional

expression

form.

Such

the

terms.

last

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


P(x - a} + Pa(x
- a}  + Pa(x
has

- 2a};

- 2a}

through

5-4.

term

are

used

no

only

value

as tracers

if the

during

in the figures.

by

the

Determine applied loads

the

Correctly

for

draw}z'

reaction the

planar

fke-body

components framing

dia-

grams are essential parts of solutions. (Hint for Prob. 5-1: The effect on a structure of two cable forces acting over a frictionless pulley is the same as that of the same two forces applied at the center of the axle. Prove before using.)

integration process. It is suggested that the reader check the reactions out V(x) and M(x) for the three ranges of the are continuous, and compare these with a plot constructed by the summation procedure. A suggestion of the manner of representing 44(a), acting on a part of a beam is indicated functions are needed to define the given load In the previous discussion, it has been tacitly
at the ends of the beams. If such is not the

Cable

by conventional statics. beam within which these of the shear and moment a uniformly in Fig. completely. assumed
the unknown

3 k/f[

/ 12 k

varying 5-44(b). Three

load,

Fig
Fig, Fig. P54 P5-3

that
as

the
constants
_

case,

C2 must

be introduced

into

Eq.

5-5

as point

loads,

i.e.,

2 N/mm

C(x
This are

- a) 1

and

C2(x

- b) -

'x3 {

150 N'm
rl=1 rl

6k/f[
{-<--10' -- -<-- 10'
Fig.

C
P5-4

4k'1

is the condition shown necessary in a solution Singularity functions can lems for axial y loaded bars, the solutions are limited to the length of a member, the impractical.

in Fig. 5-44(c). No additional constants obtained in this manner. be used to advantage in statically indeterminate as well as for torsion members and prismatic members. If the cross procedure for using singularity functions

L300. 600ram[ 300 300J


IFig. P5-2

10'-- -<-- 10"' O,---

270

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment

125

kN

Sections
5-5 through the figures,
forces caused

5.6

through

5-9
shown in the axial
M

as specified.
tides For

P, the shears by the applied


-6 k/ft

549. For the planar structures find the reactions and determine
V, and the bending loads at sections

moments a-a, b-b,

sented by lines. are shown close

should simplicity,

be shown assume

Magnitude

When together,

etc.

of a given

dimension

sections such as a-a and one section is just to and the other is just to the

on separate free-body that members can

and

sense

of calculated
be

/Pin

2 

/Rod

2"

'---1800 mm 1200mm>
900 mm

--

mm
Fig. P5-16 P543 

1500

mm

Fig.

P5-5

4 kN/m

20 kN
I

Fig. P5*9 ---4'-''


Smooth wall

4'---

25

kN

] 5 m-

3m
Fig.

4m4 m--
P5-6
4k

Hinge

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION Barmass x www.avs4you.com

Fig.

P5-t7

T 9 k
8 N/mm

15kg/2
P

Fig.

P5.14

lk

2k

5 

12k

2000
mm

Fig. P5-t0 F1000 mm--


Fig.
4kN-

g. P5-15
8 kN/m--

Fig. P5-t8
C

' mm
6 kN/m

1500

mm-*'

P5-7

-
2000mm
Fig. P5-8

t 500

t
m

/.F
H s

2000mm I

Hin

Fig.

Fig.

P5d9

I lm

Ilm

3m

272
Section 5-10

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment

Problems

27:
y

5-26

through

5-28.

For

the

beams
expressions origins

loaded
for

as

5-20 through for the beams

5-24. shown

?lot shear and in the figures.

moment

diagrams

in the figures, along the spans. the applied loads apply for regions

write explicit Assume the are discontinuous. AC and CB.

of x at A.
z

Fig. P530
Fig.
(a) (b)

P5-35

Fig.

P5-20

3' >  3'-----


Fig. P5-26
Fig. P5-31

general by the
the bent

expressions application
bar. Plot

for V, of a force
the results.

M,

and T (torque) F normal to the


(b) If in addition

caused plane of
to the

applied length force for


M(0)

force is also components

weight to be considered, develops

F,

the

of the bar w lb per unit what system of internal at the fixed end?

Fig.

P5-2t

Establish
Fig. P5-27

general
V(0), 5-12, and Fig.

expressions
moment 5-28.

the

axial

force
bar

t p [P
 3@L/3 
Fig. P5-22
A

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


Angle
A rectangular
3m,

shear a Example

for the curved 0 is measured

coun-

Section 5-36.
mine

541 Using
V(x) and

the positive x axis. Establish general expressions for the axial force shear V(0), and moment M(0) for the ring with hinges of Prob. 5-11. Angle 0 is measured counfrom the positive x axis.
bar bent into a semicircle is built

the
M(x)

dif erential
for the

equation,
beam loaded

Eq.
as

5-5,
shown

deterin

Prob. statics. found


M(L) =

5-24. (Hint: from


0.)

Verify

the reactions The constants of the boundary conditions

using integration V(L)

conventional = can be 0 and

w o N/m

/,
Fig. P5-28

and is subjected to a radial pressure of length (see figure). Write the general for P(0), V(0), and M(0), and plot the reon a polar diagram. Show positive directions asP, V, and M on a free-body diagram.

one per

end unit

5-37

through

5-39.

Using

Eq.

5-5

for

the

statically

5-29
Fig. P5-23

through

5-3t.

Write

explicit
the statically in the figures. the reactions of symmetry
p lb/in

determinate beams shown in the figures, find V(x) and M(x) and the reactions at the supports. Plot the shear and moment diagrams. (Hint: The constants of integration are found from the boundary conditions for V and M. This approach cannot be extended to statically

M(x) along the spans for beams loaded as shown origins ofx at A. Consider unknowns. Take advantage
29.

indeterminate higher-order
ter 10.)

beams, dif erential

which equation,

require
discussed

the

use of in Chap-

on

the

in

------ L . x
Fig. P5-24

w o Ib/ft
Bar radius = R

Fig.

P5-34

5-25. shown

Plot shear and in Fig. 5-15.

moment

diagrams

for

the

beam

Fig 5-29

A bar

in the

shape

of a right

angle,

as shown

in

figure,

is fixed

at one

of its

ends.

(a)

Write

the

Fig.

P5-37

274

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment
M1
4k

Problems

275

Fig.

P5-42 Fig. P5-48

. m_ - 2m 1
Fig. P5-53

Fig.

P5-38

k sin

2rx/L

-----a
Fig. P5-43-

> -- bJ
Fig. P5-49

2 k/ft
> -
Fig.

/8 k
8'
P5-54
5 k/ft

> 2'

Fig.

P5-39

Sections

5-12

and

543

-Problems
oped

signed
5-40
for the

in these

for

5-20

solution

through
two
and

sections.

using

5-3t

the
and

can

methods
using

also

be

devel-

as-

NON-ACTIVATED k/ VERSION I/  6 , k/  6 kf f'" www.avs4you.com ---3' --'- 3' 8k 112k 18k
ig. P5-4
Fig. P5-50

Fig.

P5-55

through

beams
5-12

shown

5-66.

Plot
5-13.

in the

shear

figures

moment

the

diagrams
methods
to draw

of Sections

It is also

suggested

4@4'=
Fig. P5-45

16'
300 Ib/ft

the deflected given in Fig. drawing such

shapes 5-19. shapes

of the (A more is given

beams using the detailed discussion in Section 5-15.)

criteria

for

50 k 2 k/ft

Distribreact . ion
Fig. P5-51
2.5 N/mm 2.5

200Ib/ft
N/mm

4@3 "= 12"


Fig. P5-56

Fig. Fig. P5-40

P5-46

!;m._m,<40ram r,2-0m!'
Fig. P5-41

Fig.

P5-47

Fig.

P5-52

Fig.

P5-57

276
2qo

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment
200 Ib/ft
300 lb

Problems
The load distribution for may be idealized a small single-engine as shown in the

277

fig-

In

this

diagram,

vector

A represents

the

weight

the

'engine;

B,

the

uniformly

distributed

cabin

5-7t through 5-73. For the structural systems shown in the figures, plot the axial force P, shear V, and moment M diagrams. Note that the axial force and shear contribute to the equilibrium of forces at a joint in bent
members (see Fig. 5-27).

Fig.

P5-58

Fig.

P5-63

C, the weight of the aft fuselage; and D, the from the tail control surfaces. The upward ;E are developed by the two longerons from the Using this data, constrLtct plausible, qualitative  and moment diagrams for the fuselage.

.1.
qo qo

400 Ib/ft

,200mm 200mm ! 200mm


2q1/
Fig. Fig. P5-59 P5-64 Fig. P5-68

Fig.

P5-7t

10

kN/m

20kN 5kN/m NON-ACTIVATED VERSION +55 k-ft / +65 k-h: www.avs4you.com


and

The moment B is shown

diagram in the

for figure.

a beam How

supported is the

at
beam

Cables
Fig. P5-72

loaded?

Fig,

P5-65

Fig.

P5-60

160kN
3 wall

qo

Hinge

Fig.

P5-69

Fig. Fig. P5-61

P5-66

The
diaams

redundant

moment

over

support

B for

the

5-67, Qgue.

A sm lot she

and

momeQt

shown in the by the methods and moment


100
15k

figure

can discussed diagrams

be

shown to be -400 in Chapter 10. Plot for this beam.

Fig. P5-73

k N/m

20

kN/m

Water

level

1.5 k/ft

I,
Fig. P5-70

5-74. For member DF the axial force, shear, by the applied force.

of the frame and moment

in Prob. diagrams

1-44, caused

plot

3m3m
Fig. P5-62

! 8m----8 m 
Fig. P5-67

Sections 5-75 through in the figures,

5-14 5-8t. plot

and For
the axial

5-15 the structural systems shown force P, shear V, and mo-

278

Axial

Force,

Shear,

and

Bending

Moment

Problems

279

ment M diagrams due to the applied loads. grams are to be contimed only to the main members. Note that the beams in the last lems have finite depth.

These diahorizontal four prob-

Cable

3o"
Fig. Fig. P5-79 P5-83

"
--

Fig.

P5-85

9 lb/in

--

Fig.

P5-75

900

M o = 4 Pa

'
Cables

600

Fig.

P5-84

Fig.

P5-86

1200

900

Fig.

P5-76

80kN
A

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


Fig. P5-80
2 N/mm 4 N/mm
Cable B

' 35 kN

Fig.

P5-87

2--m  'Hinge
Fig. P5-77
50 k

Fig.

P5-8t

Section

5-16

5-82 through in the figures, (a) find V(x) tional statics.

5-87. For the beams loaded as using singularity functions and Eq. and M(x). Check reactions by (b) Plot shear and moment
qo N/m

Fig.

P5-78

Fig.

P5-82

Sec.

6-2.

The

Basic

Kinematic

Assumption

_ chapter

e of this
result

after

chapter.

the

study

A better

of column

appreciation

buckling

of the instability
in Chapter

11.

phenomenon

The

Basic

Kinematic

Assumption

the simplified engineering the applied bending


and the internal

stresses

theory moment,

and

of bending, to establish the relation the cross-sectional properties of a


deformations, the approach applied

a plausible
6-1o Introduction

in the torsion
strains

deformation
problem
be related

problem

to a determinate

assumption

is again

reduce
through

employed.

to stresses

one;

second,
the

the internally
appropriate

This

requires,

that

the deformations

statically

first,

that

in-

stress-strain

In the previous chapter, it was shown that a system of internal consisting of an axial force, a shear force, and a bending moment develop in planar frames and beams. The stresses caused b were already discussed in Chapter 1. The stresses due to bending considered in this chapter. For this treatment, it is convenient to the chapter into two parts. In Part A, only members having cross sections and subjected to bending in the plane of symmetry considered. Both elastic and inelastic stress distributions caused by ing are discussed. Stress distribution in curved bars is also included. Part B, the problem is generalized to include unsymmetric bending members with symmetric cross sections as well as bending of of arbitrary cross section. Consideration is also given to problems bending occurs in the presence of axial forces. For completeness, cussion on area moments of inertia for arbitrary cross
in Part C.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION For present purposes, consider a horizontal www.avs4you.com


md shells.

; and, finally, that the equilibrium requirements of external and forces be met. The key kinematic assumption for the deformation a beam as used in the simplified theory is discussed in this section. A of this assumption forms the basis for the theories of plates
section with avertical axis of symmetry; a typical see Fig. element

prismatic

line

simplicity, members wil generally be shown as beams in a zontal position. When a segment of a beam is in equilibrium under action of bending moments alone, such a condition is referred to as bending, orfiexure. A cantilever loaded with a concentrated the end, or a segment of a beam between the concentrated forces shown in Fig. 5-23, are examples of pure bending. Studies in subset chapters wil show that usually the bending stresses in slender beams dominant. Therefore, the formulas derived in this chapter for

For

to the as abcd. end moments Mz acting around in the plane of symmetry, and beam axis slightly tilt. Nevertheless, and b' c' remain straight. fundamental hypothesis 2 of the sections through a beam taken
beam
 This

two planes identified

txis

through

of a beam.

the centroid
Next,

perpendicular in the figure

consider

of the

cross

section

wil

beam axis. In side view, such When such a beam is subjected the planes initial y the lines such
observation

of the

be referred

6-1(a).

beam
beam

A horizontal

having
between

to as the

the

z axis,

Fig.

6-1(b),

 This

flexure normal

theory. It may be stated thus: plane to its axis remain plane after the
model with a ruled grating drawn

forms

perpendicular to the as ad and bc becoming


the basis for the

this

beam

an element to equal
bends

is subjected

to bending.

are

directly

applicable

in numerous

design

situations.
virtue under do of their an applied not come load within

It is important to note that some or lack of lateral support may become may buckle laterally and collapse.

beams by unstable Such beams

2 This hypothesis with an inaccuracy was first introduced by 1645-1705), a Swiss mathematician. At a later date a great Swiss Euler (1707-1783), who largely worked in Russia and tmportant use of this concept. This assumption is often referred noulli-Euler hypothesis. In the correct final form, it dates back
French engineering educator M. Navier (1785-1836).

is only

it. Alternatively, In the immediate However,


a local

can

be demonstrated

phenomenon

vertical rods passing through the rubber block can be vicinity of the applied moments, the deformation is more in accord with the St. Venant's principle (Section 2-10), this
that rapidly dissipates.

thin

by using

a rubber

Jacob Bernoulli mathematician, Germany, made to as the Berto the writings of

28O

282

Pure

Bending

and

Bending

with

Axial

Forces

Sec.

6-3.

The

Elastic

Flexure

Formula

283

b , d
p-y

The

fiber

dfi can

dif erence be expressed

the

length

gh located

between as fol ows

on a radius
fiber

lengths

p - y can
gh

and

be found

ef identified

similarly.

here
(6-2)

dfi

= (pand

y) d0-

pd0
of the

=
beam

-yd0
axis

--
(a)

Beamaxis

t dividing
Bent axis

d t

the

deflection

by ds and

using

rotations

Eq.

6-1,

the last

term

becomes

are

very

K. Moreover,
small,

the

(b)

:osines of the angles involved the horizontal axis are very


iber

the simplified
e,,

deformation,
one

beam

Omax

Plane

of

dds
has

and

ds by dx. 4 Hence, by dividing Eq. 6-2 by ds and by du/dx, which according to Eq. 2-6 is the normal

theory,

in making nearly unity.

it is possible

the projections Therefore,

to replace

of dfi and ds onto in the development

dfi by du, the axial

M z

I Y Imax

= C

a= EEl_

(6-3)

.nit lengt
(c)

(d)

Fig.

6-1

Assumed

behavior

of elastic

beam

As

demonstrated

in texts

on

the

true for elastic, rectangular members in pure bending; exist, a small error is introduced. 3 Practically, however, assumption is generally applicable with a high degree of the material behaves elastically or plastically, providing the depth of beam. is small in relation to its span. In this chapter, the stress anal' of all beams is based on this assumption.
In pure bending of a circle of radius by an infinitesimal
as ds = 0 dO. Hence,

is completely shears also

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


(e)

This

train

for the flexure theory. However, in a bent beam varies along the beam

equation

establishes

the

expression

although depth

for

the

it is clear linearly with

basic

kinematic

that the y, infor-

hy-

in bending.

nation is lacking oke's law and


next section.

for locating an equation

the origin of equilibrium,

of the y axis. this problem

With

the aid is resolved

of in

theory

of elasticity,

this

The

Elastic

Flexure
into

Formula

using
can

be

Hooke's

recast

law,

a relation

th.e expression

for

the

for the normal


normal

longitudinal

strain

given

stress

by Eq.
or.,.'

of a prismatic beam, the p, (rho) as shown in Fig. angle d0, the fiber length

beam axis deforms 6-1(b). For an ef of the beam

into

(6-4)

axis

is

this
Two

equation,
nontrivial

the
equations

variable

y can
of equilibrium

assume

both
are available

positive

and
to solve

negative
the beam

completes equations,
where bending
3 See

the

reciprocal of prismatic
discussion

of p defines beams, both


in Section 7-5.

the axis curvature p and K are constant.

K (kappa).

In

the

x direction

problem. One of these determines the origin for y: the second the solution for the flexure formula. Using the first one of these requiring that in pure bending, the sum of all forces at a section
must vanish, one has

4 A further

discussion

of the approximations

involved

may

be found

in Section

the

Pure

Bending

and

Bending

with

Axial

Forces

Sec.

6-3.

The

Elastic

Flexure

Formula
Omax

285

, F. = 0
(a)

/AO-dA = 0

where forces beam.

the must This

subscript be carded

A indicates out over

equation

with

the

that the summation of the infinites the entire cross-sectional area A of aid of Eq. 6-4 can be rewrit en as

a
X

=-Et<y
I Ymax
z

I = c

/A -E Ky dA = -E K fA Y dA = 0
where
(b)
M

definition,

the

constants
this

integral

E and

.fy dA

 are

= yA,

taken

where

outside

y is the

the

second

distance

integral. equals
the

fro m

(a)

(b)

(c)

origin to the centreid of an area A. Since here this and area A is not zero, distance y must be set .equal the z axis must pass through the centreid of a section'.

Neutral axis

is referred to as the neutral axis beam of homogeneous material


centreid of a cross-sectional
(c)

6-3 and 6-4, this means strain e, and the normal

that along the stress cry, are


area.

of a beam. The can be easily


elastic stress

z axis zero.

so chosen, In bending

integral to According

Fig.

6.4

Segment

of a beam

in pure

flexure.

neutral determined

axis

both theory,

to this
In

Mz = E fA y2 dA

(6-8)

for any by finding

in Fig. 6-1(c). with Eq. 6-4 a beam

Based

on this

corresponding is shown in Fig.

The

result,

linear

variation
6-1(d).

e, and the Alternative

absolute
are

il ustrated

maximum representations
are generally

in Fig.

stress of the
6-2.
used.

representations

problem

is three-dimensional,

although

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


Both distribution the absolute need in accord maximum Note

in strain

is schematically

mechanics, the last integral, depending only on the geometrical propof a cross-sectional area, is called the rectangular moment of inertia or second moment of the area A and wil be designated in this text by I. must be found with respect to the cross section's neutral (centroidal) Since I must always be determined with respect to a particular axis, is often meaningful to identify it with a subscript corresponding to such axis. For the case considered, this subscript is z, i.e.,

Crmx occur at the largest value elastic bending stress distribution


the for awareness

of;

that

The

for

locus

simplicity,
of

a neutral

two-dimensi

axis

length
(d)

Fig.
moment.

6-2

Alternative

representations

of bending

To complete relevant equation ternally applied in equilibrium.

of a beam

derivation of equilibrium and the internal For the beam

the

defines

the

neutral

of the elastic flexure formula, the must be brought in: the sum of the resisting moments must vanish, i.e., segment in Fig. 6-4(a), this yields
area

surface,

as noted

in Fig.

6-3.

Iz=/Ay2dA 1
yields the fol owing result: the curvature of an elastic beam subjected

(6-9)
(6-10)

this

notation,

Eq.

6-8

Neutral surface

 Mo = OG +
A negative
pressive

Mz - fAErYstress
of the
moment

dA 
because
moment

y=0
rhis

sign
stresses

in front
cry, develop
to this

integral
a counterclockwise
in the

is necessary
same

the
around

By
Errst

is the a specified
is

basic
obtained:

substituting

relation moment.

giving

Eq.

6-10

into

Eq.

6-4,

the

elastic

flexure

formula

5 for

axis.
sign,

The

contribute

tensile

stresses

below

the neutral

axis,

manner.

where

This

y's have

a ne

directly
Neutral axis

from
the

Eq.

6-4.

From

a slightly

dif erent

point

of view,
the at a section.  are c by

Eq.

Fig.

6-3

states that terclockwise casting Eq.

clockwise external moment Mz is balanced moment developed by the internal stresses 6-7 into this form, and recognizing that E and

5 It took nearly two centuries to develop this seemingly simple expression. The attempts to solve the flexure problem were made by Galileo in the sevencentury. In the form in which it is used today, the problem was solved in early part of the nineteenth century. Generally, Navier is credited for this
. some maintain that credit should go to Coulomb, who
derived the torsion formula.

286

Pure

Bending

and

Bending

with

Axial

Forces

Sec.

6-3.

The

Elastic

Flexure

Formula

287

that

results
of

from
the

pure
stress

bending
tensor, one

of a beam.
has

Therefore,

in the

matrix

Crx = -zy
The symmetric 6-5(b), derivation of this cross expression formula were for the was carried with out with the coordinate

(6:1

shown

in Fig.
the

6-5(a).

section

If the

derivation

(a)

done longitudinal

for

the coordinates stress crx would

a member

having

shown read

in

solved into In concluding

wil

be pointed

O'=x MZl
The My sign reversal in relation to Eq. 6-11 is necessary causes tensile stresses for positive z's. Application of these equations to biaxial bending of the bending theory for beams with unsymmetric because a

contracts. The strains in the ex = x/E, and crx is given

ratio,

the compressed

stresses this

out

acting discussion,

in Chapter

along

zone

dif erent it is interesting

8, this

stress

sets

of a beam

y and z directions by Eq. 6-11. This

expands

of coordinate to note that

may

be transformed
due

are ey = e = -vex, is in complete agree-

laterally;

6 the tensile

axes. to Pois-

or

Beam axis

sidered
(b)

Fig.
positive

6 -5 Definitions
moments.

of

confined symmetry. formula

sign as in Eq. stresses must moment, their


flexure formula

the value

as well as an cross sections is in Sections 6-11 and 6-14. In this part of the chapter, to beams having symmetric cross sections bent in the For such applications, it is customary to recast the to give the maximum normal stress Crmx directly and to desi

with the rigorous solution. Poisson's effect, as may be shown by methods of elasticity, deforms the neutral axis into a curve of large and the neutral surface becomes curved in two opposite directions; Fig. 6-6. In the previous treatment, the neutral surface was assumed be curved in one direction only. These interesting details are not sigin most practical problems. wedure Summary and Extensions

Neutral surface

of l y Im,, by c. It is also

6-11 as well as with subscripts develop a couple statically sense can be determined
becomes

common

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


onM and I. Since equivalent to the by inspection. On this

practice

to dispense

with

same three basic concepts of engineering mechanics of solids that used in developing the theories for axial y loaded bars and circular s in torsion are used in the preceding derivation of flexure formulas. may be summarized as fol ows:

basis,

(6-1!

resisting bending moment at a section. 2. Geometry ofdeformition (kinematics) sections through a beam remain plane to the conclusion that normal strains early from the neutral axis.

1. Equilibrium

conditions

(statics)

are used

for determining
is used by assuming after deformation. along a beam section

the internal
that This plane leads vary lin-

Fig.
beam.

6.6

Segment

of a bent

In conformity metric beam in Eq. 6-11


The flexure

with sections, on M and


formula

the

above practice, in dealing with the simplified notation of leaving out I wil be employed often in this text.
and its variations discussed before are

3. Properties Hooke's
Poisson

law effect

of

materials are assumed of transverse

(constitutive relations) to apply to the longitudinal contraction and expansion

in

the form normal strains. is neglected.

of

great importance in applications to structural plying these formulas, the internal bending newton-meters IN.m] or inch-pounds [in-lb], [in], and I in m 4 or in 4. The use of consistent

and moment

machine design. can be expressed c in meters [m] or units as indicated

In

In extending this approach to bending of beams (Section 6-8), as well as to inelastic bending the first two of the enumerated concepts remain the third, dealing with the mechanical properties As an example of a change necessary for

the

[lb/in

units

2] = psi,

of or: [N.m][m]/[m
be noted

as to be expected.
that

4]

= N/m2
by

= Pa,
Eqs. 6-11

or
or

[in-lb][in]/[in
6-12 is the

4]

the beam
6 An

up of two

having

materials,

the cross
with

1 and 2, bonded
an ordinary

section

shown

together

in Fig.

at their

6-7(a).

of two and more maof beams (Section 6ful y applicable. Only of materials must be such cases consider

interface.

This

beam

The

is made
elastic

It should

crx as given

experiment

rubber

eraser

is recommended!

288

Pure

Bending

and

Bending

with

Axial

Forces

Sec.

6-4.

Computation

of

the

Moment

of

Inertia

289

Stress

o=E

Mz

o = E2 E

Yb -- /A Ei dA
the integration This equation
axis.

(6-16)

Bending
(a)

strain
(b)

Bending
(c)

stresses
(d)

must be carried out with defines the modulus-weighted

appropriate centroid

E?s, and

for

each locates

neutral

Fig.

6-7

Beam
moduli
the

of two elastic
for the two

materials
materials

in bending
are E1 and

where
E2,

E2 > E.
where the-subscripts

material. For the purposes of discussion assume that E2 When such a composite beam is bent, as for a beam of one the strains vary linearly, as shown in Fig. 6~7(b). However, the dinal stresses depend on the elastic moduli and are as shown in
7(c). At the interface between the two materials, whereas the strain

both materials is the same, the stresses magnitudes of E and E2. The remaining of locating the neutral axis or surface. having cross sections with symmetry
For material
to

beams must

of
be

several identified.

dif erent
Let Ei

materials, be such

ith material
read

in a composite
Crx

cross

section.

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


around the the
an

are dif erent, and depend on issue in such problems cons: This can be easily done for
vertical elastic axes. moduli
for
elastic modulus for

the same process is used for inelastic bending analysis of changing the stress-strain relations. The first two of the enubasic concepts remain applicable. developed theory for elastic beams of one material is in complete with the mathematically exact solution 7 based on the theory pure bending of an elastic rectangular bar. However, even this limited case, the boundary conditions at the ends require the stresses Crx to be distributed over the ends as given by Eq. 6-11. )r this case plane sections through a beam remain precisely plane after However, in usual applications, per Saint-Venant's principle, it is generally assumed that the stresses, at a distance about equal to the

Essential y

by

depth

of a member
given

away

from

the applied

moment,
at points using stress is routinely

are essential y
of force concentration applied

uniform
application
fac-

Then

Eq.

6-4 can

be g

of cross

by Eq. 6-11. The in cross section are In applications the theory

section,

whether

a material

local stresses calculated discussed

is elastic

or plastic.

to any

kind

= Eix

-Ei

K y

measured
as shown.

Where

from

from

Fig.

the

6-7(a),

bottom

y = Yb -- Yb.
of the section,

In this
and

yb locates

relation

Yb is
the

neutral

In conclusion it should be noted that, in all cases in pure bending, the stresses acting on the area above the neutral axis develop a force of one whereas those below the neutral axis develop a force acting in the direction. An example is shown in Fig. 6~7(d) where the tension T is equal to the compression C, and the T - C couple.is equal to the moment Mz. This method of reducing stresses to forces and a couple can

Since vanish, 14 into

for pure fol owing Eq. 6-5,

bending the force the same procedure

Fx at a section as before,

in the x direction and substituting

be used

to advantage
Computation

in some

problems..

Eq.
In applying
the cross-sectional

of
flexure
area

the
the
the

Moment
rectangular
neutral axis

of

Inertia
moment
must be

the

formula,
about

of inertia
determined.

I of
Its

The the
that

last expression integral. By


Yb is a constant,

dif ers substituting

from

Eq. 6-6 only by not placing Ei outside y = yu - yu into Eq. 6-15, and reco

area

of a member,

is defined

by the

and it must

integral

be emphasized
computed of the

of y2 dA

over

that

the

for the flexure


the neutral area. 3rd ed.

entire

cross-sectional

formula,

moment ixis passes 7 S. Timoshenko,


8 This

of inertia through and


1970), 284.

must be the centroid J. N. Goodier,

around cross-sectional of Elasticity,

axis. This It is shown (New York:

-}c /A Ei Yb dA + }cYb fA Ei dA = 0

Theory

is a review

section.

290

Pure Bending

and Bending
and

with Axial

Forces

Sec. 6-4. Computation

of the Moment

of Inertia
(6-18)

in Sections 6-15 axis is perpendicular around such an reason, this axis for determining thoroughly discussed they are reviewed The first step

6-16 that for symmetric cross sections, the to the axis of symmetry. The moment of axis is either a maximum or a minimum, and for is one of the principal axes for an area. The centroids and moments of inertia of areas are in texts on statics. 9 However, for in what fol ows. in evaluating I for an area is to find its centroid

Iz = Izc+ Adz 2
is the parallel-axis 'inertia of an area the same area around theorem. around any a parallel

It can be stated as fol ows: the moment axis is equal to the moment of inertia axis passing through the area's centroid,

of

integration

of y2 dA is then

performed

with

respect

to the horizontal

the
the two

product
axes.

of the
Eq.
area has

same
6-18
been

area
must
subdivided

and
be

the
applied
and

square
to
the

of the
each
results

distance
part
summed

between
into which
to obtain

passing through the area's centroid. the actual integration over areas is shapes, such as rectangles, triangles, for some simple shapes may be found standard civil or mechanical engineering the Appendix). Most cross-sectional combination of these simple shapes. several simple shapes, the parallel-axis transfer formula) is necessary; its Consider that the area A shown of a cross section of a beam in flexure.
is at a distance dz from the centroidal

In applications of the flexure fo necessary for only a few etc. Values of moments of in texts on statics as well as. in handbook (also see Table areas used may be divided To find I for an area theorem (sometimes called development fol ows. in Fig. 6-8 is a part of a complex The centroidal axis zc for this
z axis for the whole

In

calculations,

ss-sectional

Iz for

the

whole

section,

i.e.,

It (whole
process is completed,

section)

= (Izc
the z subscript

+ Ad 2)
may be dropped

(6-18a)

in treating

of symmetric cross sections. The fol owing examples il ustrate integration for two simple areas.

area.
its

Then,
zc axis is

by

definition,

the

moment

Itc = AY2
On
the

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


of inertia Izc of the area A

theorem

fabricated Appendix.

steel

to a composite beams, angles,

the method of computing I directly Then an application of the parallelarea is given. Values for I for commercial y and pipes are given in Tables 3 to 8 of the

(6-1

EXAMPLE

6-t

the

moment

of inertia

around

the

horizontal

axis

passing

through

the

centroid

for the
z axis

the

rectangular

area

shown

in Fig.

6-9.

other
is

hand,

the

moment

of inertia

It of the

same

area

Iz = A (y + dz)2dA
By
outside

The Here

centroid of this it is convenient

section lies at the intersection to take dA as b dy. Hence,

of the

two

axes +hi2
--h/2

of symmetry. bh 3
12
y

squaring
the

the
integrals,

quantities

in the

parentheses

and

placing

the

.J-hi2

y2b dy = b

Iz = fA y2dA + 2dz A yC dA + d2 A dA


Here integral integral
Fig. 6-8 parallel-axis Area for deriving theorem. the

C bh3h
expressions are used frequently,

ib3h)
as rectangular beams are common.
Fig. 6-9

the

first vanishes reduces

integral

according as y passes to Ad 2. Hence,


ed. (New York:

to Eq. through

6-17 is equal the centroid

to Izc, the of A, and the

Vol.

9 For

1, Statics,

example,

2nd

see J. L. Meriam

and

Wiley,

L. G. Kraige,
1986).

Engineering

292

Pure Bending
EXAMPLE 6-2

and Bending
of inertia

with Axial Forces


,. the entire area:

Sec. 6-5. Applications


for a circular area of radius c;
bh 3 40 x 603

of the Flexure Formula

293

Fig.
y

Find

6-10.

the

moment

about

a diameter

Izc = 1-- =
Ad 2 = 2400(30
I for a circle,
the definition

12

- 72 x 104 mm 4
2 = 0.69 I = 72.69 X 104 mm 4 x 104 mm 4

Solution

- 28.3)

To find
Then
Eq. 4-2,

first

note

that

D 2 = Z 2 + y2, as may
the symmetry around

be seen
both

from
axes,

the fi
and

using

of J, noting

the

hollow

interior:

bh 3

20

X
12

303

Fig.

6-t0

J= f,p2.dA = f,(Y2+z2)
= + Iy=

dA= f,y2dA+
2 4

f,z2dA
composite

12

4.50

x
x

104
104

mm
mm

4
4

Ad 2 = 600(35
section:

- 28.3)

2 =
Iz=

2.69

7.19

104

mm

= --J_
In mechanical
20 wil interior be found must be

Iz = (72.69
Note particularly composite
area of an area

7.19)104

= 65.50

104

mm
term

4
element of is the moment term is due to the each

applications,
useful. subtracted For

circular
a tubular from the

shaft, the last expression.

EXAMPLE
Determine

6-3
the moment of inertia I around

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com 6-5. Applications of the Flexure Formula


moment of inertia of the

shafts

often

act

as beams;

hence,

Eq.

' inertia

that in applying contributes two around its own

the parallel-axis terms to the total centroidal axis,

theorem, I. One the other

transfer

of its axis in solving

to the such

centroid problems

of the whole correctly.

area.

Methodical

work

is the

prime

the

horizontal

axis

for

the

area

in mm
Solution

in Fig.

6-11

for

use

in the

flexure

formula.

largest

stress

at a section

of a beam

is given

by Eq.

6-13,

O'max

As

the

moment

of inertia

is for

use

in the

flexure

formula,

it must

be

around the axis through the centroid of the area. Hence, the centroid of the must be found first. This is most easily done by treating the entire outer and deducting the hollow interior from it. For convenience, the work is out in tabular form. Then the parallel-axis theorem is used to obtain I.
y [ram]

and in most practical be determined. Therefore, g O'max as simple as both I and c are constants is a constant. Moreover, dimensions of a
area. This

problems, it is this maximum stress that has it is desirable to make the process of depossible. This can be accomplished by noting for a given section of a beam. Hence, since this ratio is only a function of the crossbeam, it can be uniquely determined for any
ratio is called the elastic section modulus of a

wil

be designated

by

S. With

this

notation,

Eq.

6-13

becomes

Area
Entire Hollow
60

A [mm
40

2]
= = 2400 -600

(from

bottom)
30 35

Ay
72

area interior

-20

x x

60 30

-21

000 000

A

1800mm
28.3

2
mm from

Ay
bottom

= 51000
stated otherwise

O'max--
maximum bending stress =
bending
elastic section

(6-21)
moment
modulus

28.3

 Ay
Fig. 6-11

51 000 800

Pure

Bending

and

Bending

with

Axial

Forces

Sec.

6-5.
300

Applications

of

the

Flexure

Formula

295

If the moment S is measured

of inertia I is measured in in 3 (or m3). Likewise,

in in 4 (or m 4) and c in in ifM is measured in in-lb (or

r=20

kN
0.75 kN/m

mm

20kN 0.75kN/m
rn

the
that

units
the

of stress,
distance c as

as before,
used here

become
is measured

psi

(or
from

N/m2).
the

It bears
neutral axis to

Pa

most remote fiber of the beam. This makes consequently M/S gives the maximum stress. resisting elastic bending have as large an S as of material. This is accomplished by locating possible far from the neutral axis. The use of the elastic section modulus in what to the use of the area termA in Eq. 1-13 the maximum flexural stress on a section whereas the stress computed from Eq. 1-13
section of a member.

I/c = S a minimum, The efficient sections possible for a as much of the Eq. 6-21 corresponds (or = P/A). However, is obtained from Eq. holds true across the

--L

.I
(a) (b)
(c)

(d)

Fig.

6-t2

Eq.

6-19:

It . .
Eq. 6-13:

bh 3
12

300

X
12

4003

16 x 108 mm

Equation
facilitate are tabulated its

6-21

is widely

used
moduli

in practice
for many

because
manufactured a few steel

of its

simplicity.
cross

sections are givenl Tables 3 to 8 in the Appendix. Equation 6-21 is particularly for the design of beams. Once the maximum bending moment for is determined and an allowable stress is decided upon, Eq. 6-21 may solved for the required section modulus. This information is sufficientq select a beam. However, a detailed consideration of beam design delayed until Chapter 9. This is necessary inasmuch as a shear which in turn causes stresses, usually also acts at a beam section.
interaction of the various kinds of stresses must be considered first

use, section in handbooks.

Values

for

Crmx
From the are ,riven, sense seen the

Mc

38.5

16 X 108

106

200

= +4.81

MPa
the top fibers of in tension. In the the negative sign

gain

The fol owing two examples il ustrate at specified sections, where, in addition also required for equilibrium. As shown of small or moderate shears does not stresses in slender beams. Both moment the same section simultaneously.
EXAMPLE 6-4

complete

insight

into

the

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com problem.


of the bending moment to be in compression positive sign applies

shown in Fig. 6-12(c), and the bottom ones to the tensile stress and

applies

to the
the

compressive

stress.

Both

of these

stresses

decrease

at a linear

rate

toward

calculations for bending to bending moments, shears in the next chapter, the significantly affect the and shear frequently

neutral axis, where the bending on infinitesimal elements at A and  learn to make such a representation Chapters 8 and 9.

stress is zero. The normal stresses B are shown in Fig. 6-12(d). It is imof an element as it wil be frequently

Soldion

If only the maximum may be used. The

stress section

is desired, modulus

for I
c

the equation a rectangular bh 3 2


12 h

involving section bh 2
6

the section in algebraic

modulus form

is

A 300 by 400 mm wooden cantilever beam weighing concentrated force of 20 kN at the end, as shown maximum bending stresses at a section 2 m from
Solution

0.75 kN/m carries an in Fig. 6-12(a). Determine the free end.

s ..

(6-22)

[n this

problem,

S = 300

x 4002/6
M

= 8 x 106 mm 3, and
38.5

by Eq.

6-21,

A free-body diagram for a 2-m segment of the beam is shown in Fig. keep this segment in equilibrium requires a shear of 20 - (0.75 x 2) = 18.5 and a bending moment of(20 x 2) - (0.75 x 2 x 1) = 38.5 Both of these quantities are shown with their proper sense in.Fig. 6-12(c).
distance from the neutral axis to the extreme fibers c = 200 mm. Thi

O'maxsolutions lead to identical

S
results.

8 X 106

10 6

4.81 MPa

to both

the

tension

and

the

compression

fibers.

296

Pure

Bending

and

Bending

with
8k

Axial

Forces
8k

Sec.

6-6.

Stress

Concentrations

297

:P16"

 Ay

E
+

= 10.--- = +Ad 2)2xlx3


12.
8 8 x x 16
14.43

17.0

1.70

in

from

line

ab

I=
8 X

(Io
-
Mc
I

4xl 3
x x

12
2 x

+ 4 x 1.2 2
3 x 0.82 = 14.43in 4

.8k
16

+
2.3 1.7

k-in

mx O'max
These
obtained

= 20.4 =
the

ksi ksi
axis
properties
channel. Both

(compression) (tension)
and
area

(a)

Mc
I

16
14.43

15.1
neutral

stresses
would

vary
be

linearly
the
same

toward
same if the

vanish
of
these

there.
the bracket

The
were

rethe
have

cross-sectional

led,
axis

as shown
are the

in Fig.
as

6-13(e).
those of

The
the

of this

section
sections

about

I? .v_ i?':1
(d) (e)

axis

of symmetry.

Section

A-A

(b)

Fig.
EXAMPLE

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


ortioned

previous

so

as

example

to

have

shows

a dif erent

that

members

maximum

resisting
stress

in tension

flexure

may

than

be

in

6-t3

Find the A of the


kips.
Solution

maximum machine

tensile bracket

and shown

compressive in Fig.

stresses

acting

6-13(a)

caused

by

normal to the applied

This is significant for materials having dif erent strengths tension and compression. For example, cast iron is strong in compresand weak in tension. Thus, the proportions of a cast-iron member be so set as to have a low maximum tensile stress. The potential of. the material may thus be better utilized.
Stress Concentrations

force

The segment axis area the section sense


desired

and bending moment of proper magnitude and sense to of the member in equilibrium are shown in Fig. 6-13(c). Next the: of the beam must be located. This is done by locating the centroid shown in Fig. 6-13(b); see also Fig. 6-13(d). Then the moment neutral axis is computed. In both these calculations, the legs of the are assumed rectangular, neglecting fil ets. Then, keeping in mind of the resisting bending moment and applying Eq. 6-13, one obtains
values.

shear

beams

flexure theory developed of constant cross section, area of the beam varies 3attern discussed earlier holes, or an abrupt change high local stresses arise. earlier for axial and

in the preceding sections applies i.e., prismatic beams. If the gradually, no significant deviation takes place. However, if notches, in the cross-sectional area of This situation is analogous to torsion members. Again, it is very

only to cross-secfrom the grooves, the beam the ones dif icult

to obtain
Ihe

analytical

expressions
regarding experiments. extensively the

for

the

actual

stress.

In the past,
came

most
from finite

of
acelesince

y [in]

Area

Number
1 2 3

A [in 2]
4.0 3.0 3.0

(from
0.5 2.5 2.5

ab)

Ay
2.0 7.5 7.5

information photoelastic are now

actual stress distribution Numerical methods used for the same purpose.

employing

Fortunately,

of the

as in the
member

affect

other maximum

cases
the The

local

discussed, stress,

stress

pattern.

only

the

Moreover,

geometric

pro-

generally
in3
to

is in the
to an advantage. maximum

stress-concentration
maximum as given

factors
by

 A = 10.0

in 2

 Ay

= 17.0

be used the nominal

stress

ratio K of the actual in the nin#num section,

stress Eq.

298

Pure Bending

and Bending

with Axial Forces

Sec. 6-7. Elastic

Strain Energy

in Pure Bending

2.2

. r/d

= 0.05

(ama x) nominal
Fig. 644 concentratioh
bending.

= 'T

Me

1.8

0.1

,'
' ....
1.0 2.0

0.2
0.75
3.0 4.0 5.0

1.4

Meaning

factor

of stressin

K=

(amax) actual (ama x ) nominal

1.0

h

Fig. 6.t6 Stess-concentration factors in bending grooved flat bars.

for

6-13, is defined is il ustrated

as the stress-concentration in Fig. 6-14. Hence,

factor
in general,

in bending.

This

area

has

reentrant

angles.

For

example,

high

localized

stresses

may

at the point

where

the range

 and

the web

of an I beam

meet.

To

(O'max)actual
In this equation Figures 6-15 member, indicates
notches

representative
desirable

to reduce

may the

be obtained desirability
local

ases. o The factor


design.
stress

Mc/I is for the small width of a bar. and 6-16 are plots of stress-concentration from these of generous

K, depending
ductile

in machine

concentrations.

For

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION on the proportions of i www.avs4you.com


factors for
diagrams. fil ets and
are less

these, commercial y rolled or extruded shapes have a generous at all such points. In addition to stress concentrations caused by changes in the cross,nal area of a beam, another effect is significant. Forces often are over a limited area of a beam. Moreover, the reactions act only on a beam at the points of support. In the previous treatment, all uch forces were idealized as concentrated forces. In practice, the average

materials,

These

A study of these grap the elimination of


remedies

beam

pressure between the member delivering such a force and the are computed at the point of contact of such forces with the beam. bearing pressure, or stress, acts normal to the neutral surface of a and is at right angles to the bending stresses discussed in this chapstudy of all of the stresses effect of such forces on a local scale, and shows that the bearing they pres-

where

the 

A more detailed a disturbance

forces

are

Stress
o These Concentration

static, concentrations figures

stress

concentrations become

particularly

mportant. significant

sure
The

as normally
to the reader

computed
flexural stresses must remember the material behaves
these factors.

is a crude

approximation.

The
as shown

stresses

at right

if the
"Factors 57, (1935):

are adapted Photoelastically


rid = 0.05

from a paper Determined,"


h

by M. M. Frocht, Trans. ASME

while
to reduce

behave more nearly that the stress-concentration elastically. Inelastic

behavior

in Fig. 2-30. factors apply of material

2.0

:26=7.

Elastic
the

Strain
elastic stress

Energy
strain energy

in Pure

Bending
subelastic

My
I

1.8

Section 2-11, ected to a normal


0.2

1.6
K

1.4

0.27
0.5

17,

1.2

was energy for beams in stress varies linearly and, according to Eq. The volume of a dx is its length, and web
flanges.

pure

formulated. bending can from the neutral 6-11, in simplified typical infinitesimal dA is its cross-sectional part of a beam. until study

for an infinitesimal element Using this as a basis, the

be found. axis, notation, beam


Thin of Chapter

For this case, the as shown in Fig. 6this stress cr = element is dx dA, area. By substituting
parts 12. of a beam
Fig. 6-t7 deriving
bending.

dA

(a)

(b)

factors
flat

Fig.

6-t5
bars

in pure
with

Stress-concentration
vhrious

1.0

bending

Eftlets.

for

1.0

2.0 h/r

..

3.0

1.0

n The
4.0 5.0

n This

called

is a thin can

vertical be postponed

horizontal

section

A beam segment strain energy in

for

300

Pure

Bending

and

Bending

with

Axial

Forces

Sec.

6-8.

Beams

of Composite

Cross

Section

30'

these beam,
bending

expressions the expression


is obtained.

into

Eq. 2-23 and for the elastic

integrating strain

energy

over

the volume U in a beam

V of in
instructive
= 2CrmaxI/h,

U=
to write

 M2EI2 dx - 2EI M -t2o fz


and

dx'Thus,

M2L 2EI
since O'ma x ----- Mc/I, M
2E

this result

I = bh3/12,

in another

form:

J

2E

Rearranging constant

and

terms that U'=

and
the

remembering order of performing


ngth

that

M the

at a section integration =
2EI

of a
is

(2ffmaxI/h)2Z.=f 2max(bh_)= O'2max (31_VOl)


2EI 2E

--

2EI

dx

ea

y2 dA

given maximum as effective for U = (tr2/2E)(voD.


moment
even less

stress, absorbing
varies
effective.

the This
along

volume energy results

of the material in this beam is only oneas it would be in a uniformly stressed bar, from variable stresses in a beam. If the
beam, the volume of the material

also

a prismatic

where Equation matic


of

the
beams

last 6-24

simplification reduces the in pure flexure

is possible since, by deflation, I = f y2 volume integral for the elastic energy of to a single integral taken over the
from a dif erent point of a beam dx long, as is moments M, the two parallel. After the same two planes, which between these two
moment M is attained

a beam.

Alternatively, -Eq. 624 can be derived by considering an elementary segment of Fig. 6-18. Before the application of bending perpendicular to the axis of the beam are of the bendingmoments, extensions of the planes, intersect at O, and the angle included
is dO.
alternative

Beams den
uses beams

of

Composite
of dif erent reinforced

Cross by

Section
materials metal occur straps, in practice. plastics
steel

Fig.

6-18
energy

Beam

derivation

segment

of

for

ually,

Moreover,

strain

in bending.

external work We done on a segment of a beam since for small deflections, dx  O dO, where of the elastic curve, per Eq. 6-10 1/p = M/EL of conservation of energy, the internal strain
beam is

the average

since

'moment

the

ful

acting

value

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION through an anglewww.avs4you.com dO is M. Hence,


and reinforced concrete

of beams made are sometimes

is concrete

with

rein-

are

of the

is dWe  is the Hence, energy

= M dO: radius of from the of an element

the

The elastic bending theory discussed before can be readily to include such beams of composite cross section. an elastic beam of several materials bonded together with a axis of symmetry as shown in Fig. 6-20(a). The elastic moduli Ei dif erent materials are given. As for a homogeneous material, the extensional strains ex are assumed to vary linearly as shown
is an optional section.

bars.

This

dU = dWe = lMdO = lMdX p - M2 2EI dx


which has the same meaning as Eq. 6-24.
EXAMPLE 6-7

x

Find bending
Soldion
Section

the

elastic moment

strain energy M applied

stored in a rectangular at the end; see Fig. 6-19.

cantilever

beam

due

Unit distance

Cross

section

Bending (b)

strain

Bending (c)

stresses

Fig.

'6-'19

The El,

bending is constant.

moment By

at every section direct application

of this of Eq.

beam, 6-24,

as well

as the

flexural

(a)

Fig.

6-20

Elastic

beam

of composite

cross

section

in bending.

302

Pure

Bending

and

Bending

with

Axial

Forces

Sec.

6-8.

Beams

of Composite
7.5

Cross
= 150/20

Section

303'

in Fig. 6-20(b). ulus-weighted

using

At the interfaces of their Ei's, Following


ment

Eq. 6-16.

The neutral axis centroid, is located


between two a sharp discontinuity the same procedure

The stresses

shown

for this section, by the distance

materials,

depending in stress magnitudes as in Eq. 6-7, the

in Fig. 6-20(c)

passing through Yb and can

the

fol ow

relative arises. resisting bending

on the

from

Eq.

-t

250

mm

Neutral

axis

Mz = K fA Eiy2 dA = K(EI)*
where the curvature K, being constant for the section, is taken

10mm 
(a)

20X150=3000mm
Fig.
(b) 6-2t

mm

150
(c)

_1

the
the

integral,
middle

and
expression.

(E/)*

defines
Hence

symbolically
mz

the

value

of the

PLE

6-8

(E/)*

mm
'30

The strap
kN.m
wood?

a composite beam upper 150 by 250 is steel, Es = 200


around a horizontal

of the cross-sectional mm part is wood, GPa. If this beam


axis, what are

dimensions shown E, = 10 GPa; the lower is subjected to a bending


the maximum stresses

in Fig. 610 by 150 moment


in the steel

and

by substituting

this

relation

into

Eqs.

6-3 and

6-14,

e,=-(E/),y
where the last diately specialized In calculations

Mz

and

useful

sectional erence

to introduce
constant

expression is an analogue for a homogeneous of bending of composite

area in one material. Ei, defined here as Eref.

the concept

This Using

of an equivalent
requires this

cr,=- i(-Y NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


as in Fig.
The

E M

ilution

as Ee. 6-21(b)

Then with

n = EdEw the equivalent

= 20. Hence the width of steel


around the

transformed equal to 150


centroidal axis

cross x 20
for this

section = 3000
trans-

to Eq.
cross

6-11,

and

can

be

centtold

and

moment

of inertia

beam.

section
150

are,

respectively,
125

sections,

arbitrary notation

or transformed
selection the integral

sometimes

of

=
-

x 250

150 x 250 + 10 x 3000


+ 150x
4
in the wood is

10

x 3000

x 255

= 183mm
x 103
12

(from the top)


+ 10 x 3000 x722

in

150

x 2503
12

15, for

curvature

, can

be recast

as fol ows:

250x

582+

3000

= 478

x 10 6 mm
stress

Ely dA = Eref
where ni dA = (Ei/Ee) can be considered to dA. have

Yr dA = Erie
Therefore a beam the mechanical a cross section In transformed

y(ni dA) = 0
(O'w)mx
of composite properties
of

Mc

I
steel

0.03

478 X 10 6
0.03 x 109

109

183

11.5 MPa
77

cross the

maximum

stress

in

the

is

material,
vary

of Ei to Erie. tional elastic


obtained materials

provided

linearly

for the reference must be multiplied

from

After analysis

the dif erential


the neural

transforming is applicable.

areas

dA are multiplied

material, by

axis

in all materials.
whereas

in this manner, sections the

by hi, the
stresses
the

(O')mx
klternative Solution

= no-,

= 20

478

10 6

96.7

MPa

the

The

stresses

actual

in

ielect

E as Er.
6-21(c).

Then

nw

= Ew/E

= 1/20,

and

the

transformed

section

is as in

This

procedure

is il ustrated

on the

two

examples

that

fol ow.

304

Pure

Bending

and

Bending
7.5 x

with
250

Axial
x 135

Forces
+ 150 x 10 x 5

Sec.

6-8.

Beams

of Composite

Cross

Section

305

7.5 x 250 + 150 x 10


(from
2503
12

= 77

mm
x

the

bottom)

this sumes

the tension
hape

analysis, it virtually the form shown


can resist

zone

of a beam
the

Iz-

7.5

+ 7.5
10 x x 77 722

x 250
= 23.9

x 582
x

+
106mm

150

x
12

103

above

tension, There

neutral
the

does in Fig. steel

only

so it is shown

axis;

not exist at all, 6-22(c). The cross

holds

the reinforcing

below

as the dif erence

it, no concrete
transformed between

and the section

steel

transformed of concrete

in place?

is shown.
concrete

area.

section has the Steel, of


For

Hence,

(crs)mx = (Crw)mx
Note that if the

0.03

23.9 X 106 20 x
piece
of the

150 x

x 109

purposes,
to its centreid.
distances to the

is located
teel fibers.

by a single
been used, but

dimension
this

from
distance

the

neutral
and the

is a negligible

= 96.7 MPa 23.9 X 106


is an

various

far,

the

idea

of the

neutral

axis

has

its location

is unknown.

ors

0.03

109

x 183

11.5 MPa
wooden section

However,
the the

transformed

section

equivalent

transformed section. It is further known that the fn:st (or statical) area on one side of a centroidal axis is equal to the first moment on the other side. Thus, let kd be the distance from the top of the

it is known

that

this

axis

coincides

with

the axis

through

the

centreid

moment of the beam to

alent
stif er

stresses

section
than

in the
unit

is steel,
the material

actual

wooden

stresses
a higher

in steel
stress

are

are obtained
section

obtained

directly.

directly.

Conversely,

The

stress
since,

in

'if the
to

centroidal
the
stresses

axis,
distance from

as shown
top

in Fig.

6-22(c),

where

k is an unknown

ratio,

5 and

transformed

is increased,

the

same

strain,

is required.

the of the foregoing are determined

of the beam to the center of the steel. locates the neutral axis, about which as in the preceding example.

An algebraic I is computed

10(kd)
EXAMPLE
Determine

(kd12)
arm

=
transformed steel

30
area

(20

arm

kd)

6-9
the maximum stress in the concrete and the steel for a

concrete area

concrete

beam

with

the

section

shown

in Fig.

bending

(These
Solution

bars
ratio

momeni

are 1 in in diameter
steel

of 50,000

ft-lb.
of

The

and
concrete

have

reinforcement

the

of E for

to that

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


6-21(a) if it is subjected to a

a cross-sectional
to be

consists
i.e.,

area

of two
15.

of 1 in 2'

#9

steel

5(kd) 2 = 600 (kd) 2 + 6(kd)

30(kd) 120 = 0

15,

n =

kd

8.36

in

and

20

kd

11.64

in

Plane
line

beam.
ab.

sections

Strains
A transformed

vary
concrete
not

are

linearly

assumed
section

from

to

remain
in terms

the neutral
of

plane

axis,
the

in

as shown
is used

an

elastic
to

in Fig.
solve

6-22(b)
this

by
no

concrete

Mc

12 367 + 10(8.
I
Mc
I

10(8.36)
x
x

50,000
15

However,
cracks wil

is so weak
occur in the tension

in tension
zone of

that

there
beam.

is no
For

assurance
this reason,

that

6020

12

-- -+ (86)
8.36
x 12 x 11.64

0 + 30(11.64) 2 = 6020 in 4
= 17,400 psi

= 833 psi

50,000
6020

is given

to concrete

for

resisting

tension.

On
Solution

kd is determined, may be used. ;hydrostatic" manner


20 kd

Unit

distance

hA, = 30 in 2
(c)

I, a procedure evident from Fig. 6developed by the stresses acting in a side of the beam must be located kd/ below the top of the beam. Moreover, if b is the width of the beam, this resultant C = (cr)m,b(kd) (average stress times area). The resultant tensile force steel and is equal to Acr, where A is the cross-sectional the steel. Then, ifjd is the distance between T and C, and since T = C, applied moment M is resisted by a couple equal to Tjd or Cjd.

The

instead of computing resultant force on the compression

(b)

(d)

Fig.

6-22

In this text,

 This

Actually,

conforms

it is used
with

to resist
the

h is generally

used

usual

shear

to represent

notation

and

used

provide

the height

in books

fireproofing

or depth

on reinforced

for

the

of the beam.

concrete.

steel.

306

Pure

Bending

and

Bending

with

Axial

Forces

Sec.

6-9.

Curved

Bars

307

jd

= d -

kd/3

= 20

(8.36/3)

17.21

in

b Centroid

M = Cjd = b(kd)(c)mx(jd)
(O)m,,
M b(kd)(jd) = Tjd = Assjd
M

+y

--

2M

-50,000

2 x

50,00.0

12

10

x 8.36
x 12

x =

17.21 17,400
The second concrete

= 833

psi
.\
\

o-s = -A(jd)
Both convenient
lowable

the
said

2 x
same Since
to

17.21
answer. steel
have balanced

psi
method have
when

Straight
\

beam
(c)

\
is

(b)

methods
in practical
stresses,

naturally
the

give applications.
beam is

and allowable

reinforcement

designed

so that

the

respective

stresses

are

at their

level

simuttaneou

Note

ments

that

were

the

applied

beam

in the

shown

opposite

would

become

direction.

virtually

worthless

if the

bending
(a)

Fig.

6-23

Curved

bar

in pure

bending.

Curved
The flexure is confined this axis

Bars
is developed of symmetry the length as shown in this section. of the cross section, of the bar. Only the
area

b)/rqb,

its initial
is

and

the

length

normal

is rqb. The
stress

tr on

strain

an element

e of any

arbitrary
dA

of the

fiber

cross-sectional

is (R

- r)

case

is treated,
fibers fibers

theory for curved bars to bars having an axis lying in one plane along

7 with
and

the

usual

proviso

same Consider
outer inner

in tension a curved
are are

compression. member

such
of

at a distance at a distance

ro from of r. The

 = Ee = E (R - r) dqb NON-ACTIVATED VERSION rqb www.avs4you.com


that the elastic
of

modulus

is

(6-29a)
(6-29b)

For

future

use,

note

also

that

in Figs.
center

6-23(a)

and

(b).

the distance

from

curvatur60. O to the

trr -R -

r
The

E dqb qb
location

axis

is L The

solution

8 of this

problem

is again

based

on the

assumption: Sections perpendicular to the axis of the beam remain after a bending moment M is applied. This is diagrammatically by the line ef in relation to an element of the beam abcd. The is defined by the central angle qb. Although the basic deformation assumption is the same as for strai beams, and, from Hooke's law, the normal stress tr = Ee, a dif iculty encountered. The initial length of a beam fiber such as gh depends the distance r from the center of curvature. Thus, although the. total formation of beam fibers (described by the small angle dqb) fol ows law, strains do not. The elongation of a generic fiber gh is (R - r) where R is the distance from O to the neutral surface (not yet 6 Study of this section 7 For plastic analysis
Bending 27/4 (December

Equation

6-29a
section

gives
of a curved

the
be equal

normal
beam.

stress
i.e.,

acting

on
of the

an element

of area

of

from

the

the condition
section

must

that the summation

to zero,

of the forces

acting

neutral

perpendicular

axis

fol ows

F.=0
since bar,
obtained.

fA ,y a_A = fA E(R -rqb r) d4 dA


E, R, may qb, and dqb are be taken outside constant the at any integral sign one
Thus:

= 0
and section of a a solution

they

tic-Plastic Mech.

solution ticity

is This

of the same problem is due to M. Golovin,

approximate

of Curved 1960):

is optional. of curved

oo

---7--

oo

---

aA

=0
(6-30)

solution

Bars of Constant 733-734.

bars,

see,

for example,
and

Variable

H. D. Conway,
Thickness.

by who

was

the methods of the solved it in 1881.

developed

by E. Wintaler

mathematical

in 1858.

theory

The

of

308

Pure

Bending

and

Bending

with

Axial

Forces

Sec.

6-9.

Curved

Bars

309

where axis.
troidal
elastic

A is the Note that


axis.
beams.

cross-sectional the neutral


This dif ers from

area
axis
the

of the so found
situation

beam, does
found

and
not

R locates coincide
to be true

the
with
for

the

cr-

My

Ae(R

y)

(6-32)

that the location of the neutral axis is known, the equation for stress distribution is obtained by equating the external moment to internal resisting moment built up by the stresses given by Eq. The summation of moments is made around the z axis, which is to the plane of the figure at O in Fig. 6-23(a).

Now

These
fol ows
center

equations a hyperbolic
of

from
the

the

indicate pattern.

that

formula
of

the stress A comparison


for straight
the

bars

distribution of this

is shown
results

result

in a curved with the


in Fig.
from

6-23(c).

bar one

particularly

that

curvature

in the curved

bar,

beam.

the neutral
This

axis

is pulled

the

toward

higher

Stresses

 Mz=O
Again, remembering

M= /,cr dA (R- r)= f, E(R - r) 2 dqb


force arm

course,

developed only
For

a consideration

below to elastic
see

the neutral axis. stress distribution


of situations

The

where

theory and only

an

developed to beams
axial

force

applies, in pure
is

also

at a section,

Section

6-12.

that

E, R,

qb, and

dqb are

constant

at a section,

Eq.

obtained:

6-29b,

and

performing

the

algebraic

steps

indicated,

the

fol owing
2083
:urved

tVIPLE

6-'10

are N.m
to

stresses in three
? = 75

M=E  dqbf, (R -r r)2 dA - R---rr f, (R -r r)2 dA Solution + r2 R err -r f, g 2 - Rr r Rr NON-ACTIVATED VERSION
mm.

the

in a 50 by 50 mm rectangular special cases: (a) straight


centroidal axis, i.e.,

i = 250

bar beam,

mm,

subjected (b) beam


Fig.

6-24(a),

to end curved

and

moments of to a radius
(c) beam

dA

_ err (R2fAdA_RfAdA_RfAdA
R-r r

Here, from third


the

since R is a constant, the the expression in parentheses integral is A, and the last
radius of the centroidal
M

first

two integrals vanish appearing just before integral, by definition,


Hence,

+ fArdA) www.avs4you.com
S =

This

fol ows

directly

by

applying

Eqs.

6-21

and

6-22.

as may be Eq. 6-30. is ?A where

bh2/6 M

= 50 2083

x 502/6 103

=
+100

20.83
MPa

103

mm

crmx
This result
of curvature.

S
in Fig.

20.83
6-24(c).

x 103

axis.
O't"

is shown

? = oo since

a straight

bar

has

an infinite

.(?A

RA)

m
beam at a

To solve parts (b) general terms by mentary area is taken


limits r and
50

and (c) the neutral axis must be located first. This integrating Eq. 6-30. For the rectangular section, as b dr, Fig. 6-24(b). The integration is carried out
the
mm

is found the elebetween

from
from

where
the center

the

normal
of curvature

stress
is

acting

on

a curved

ro,
X 50

inner

and

outer

radii,

respectively.

100

MPa

93.6

MPa

80.9

MPa

I M(R- r)1
orrA(?R)
If positive
axis, and resembles

100 MPa 7' = .o

107 MPa 7' = 250 mm

/I-T

-v

{----v
128 MPa 7' = 75 mm

60ram

y is measured

toward
may for

the center

of curvature

from
that more

the
(a)

? - R = e, Eq. 6-31 the flexure formula

be writ en in aform straight beams:

0

(b)

(c)

Fig.

6-24

Pure

Bending

and

Bending
A

with

Axial

Forces
bh h

Sec.

6-10.

Inelastic

Bending

of Beams

I In r Ir?

In (ro/ri)

2.3026

log

(ro/rt)
and log is a
mm.

cross-sectional area may become very complex. Finally, calculations must be very accurate since dif erences between R and numerically quantities are used in the stress formula. last two dif iculties prompted the development of other methods solution. One such method consists of expanding certain terms of the into a series? another of building up a solution on the basis of

where h is the depth of the section, In is the natural logarithm, arithm with a base of 10 (common logarithm). (b) For this case, h = 50 mm, ? = 250 mm, rt = 225 mm, and solution is obtained by evaluating Eqs. 6-33 and 6-31. Subscript normal stress  of the inside fibers; o of the outside fibers.
g
e

special

reverse."

transformed
moments

Curved

section.
beams

of

Yet
exist

various

another
the

cross

approach

sections,

consists
quantities

curvatures,

of working
are divided

and

re = 275

are analyzed
stress that would are then tabulated?

for

stress;
for Hence,

then
same conversely,

these
beam

i refers

to

a flexural : ratios

if it were straight. if stress in a curved

m
=

50

beam
= 250 249.164 249.164 mm = 0.836 mm

is wanted,

it is given

as
 =

In (275/225)
? R

K McI
from a table or a graph and
is now

(6-34)

O'i

M(R riA(?
107 MPa

- ri) - R)
- re) - R)
MPa

2083

x 103 x (249.164 225 x 502 x 0.836


x 103 x (249.164 275 x 502 x 0.836

225)
ere the
axis

coefficient
as in the usual

K is obtained
flexure formula.

Mc/I
given

is

M(R roA(b
- 93.6

2083

275)
for

An expression
future

The the

negative corresponding

sign

of ere indicates stress distribution

a compressive are shown

(c) This 50 mm,

case is computed and re = 100.


R =

in the
Results
50

same of the
--50

way. computation
-

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


reference:

of a curved

for

the

beam

distance

of circular

from

the

cross-sectional

center

of curvature

area

to the

neu-

stress. These in Fig. 6-24(c);

quantities ? = 250

mm.

p+

V.2

- c2

(6-35)

Here

h = 50 mm, ? = 75 ram, as shown in Fig. 6-24(c).

ri:

where

? is the
radius

distance
of

from

the

center

of curvature
area.

to the

centroid,

and

c is the

the

circular

cross-sectional

In (100/50)
gR = 75

In 2
73.13

72.13mm

6-10.
2.87mm

Inelastic

Bending

of Beams
it is becoming beyond the in the post is limited increasingly important to deterelastic limit. In this section the inelastic rage of material behavior is to pure bending of beams around

e =

o-i = ' =

2083 2083

50 x 502 x 2.87 100 x 502 x 2.87


x 103 x (72.13

103

x (72.13

- 50) 100)

= 128 MPa = -80.9 MPa

reasons of economy, member strengths bending of beams considered. The discussion

mine

The
Several important conclusions, generally true, may be reached this example. First, the usual flexure formula is reasonably good beams of considerable curvature. Only 7 percent error in the stress occurs in part (b) for ?/h = 5, an error tolerable for most cations. For greater ratios of ?/h, this error diminishes. As the of the beam increases, the stress on the concave side rapidly ' over the one given by the usual flexure formula. When ?/h = 1.5, percent error occurs. Second, the evaluation of the integral for R

axis

elastic

perpendicular

bending

to the axis
introducing
the

theory

ship
To

for the material.


remain

The

same

for beams an uniaxial basic requirements


as for

of symmetry

the

elastic

can be readily extended to innonlinear stress-strain relationof statics and kinematics of


case.

of the beam

cross

section.

il ustrate such
1955),

the analysis procedure as shown in Fig. 6-25(a).


369

consider By assuming
3rd for ed., Stress

a beam having a cross as before that plane


Part and I (Princeton, Strain, NJ: Van

Nostrand,
York:

19 S. Timoshenko,
McGraw-Hil ,

Strength
and
1975).

20 R. J. Roark,

and

W. C. Young,

373.

of Materials, Formulas

5th ed. (New

Pure Bending

and Bending

with Axial Forces

Sec. 640. Inelastic

Bending

of Beams

5
0 2 ---

Y4

Y5
01

Finding the location of the neutral axis such that T = C may require trial-and-error process, although direct procedures have been devised some cross sections. TM After the neutral axis is correctly located, the : bending moment Mz at the same section is known to be C(a + or T(a + b), see Fig. 6-25(d). Alternatively, in the form of a general equation,

Mz = - cry dA
5 4 1 E2 3

(6-37)
cross
are the a priori

_ Unit 
length(a) Beam section

The

problem

I'strain

1
-O 4

horizontal

is greatly
For

axis and material these conditions

simplified

if the beam

properties it is known

section

same that

is symmetric

in tension the neutral

(b)

Bending

passes through applied. The


diagram

(c)

Stress-strain

ciated

define

in Fig. 6-26. with plane


the

the centroid of the section, and Eq. behavior of such a beam in bending
A sequence of progressively sections is shown in Fig.
stresses in the outer

maximum

6-26(b).

increasing

6-37 can is shown


of the

fibers

These

beam,

strains maximum

be diqualiasFig.

M z

(/5

o3

NON-ACTIVATED VERSION www.avs4you.com


the
Hil ,
(e)

resulting in progressively increasing bending stresses. As can be seen from Figs. 6-26(a) and (c), the maximum attainable 0-3. The instantaneous stress distribution in the beam associated 0-3, for this brit le material, is given by the curved line AB in Fig. in routine experiments the nominal stress in the extreme

often computed experimental y


1950), 356.

by applying determined
of Flow

the elastic ultimate

flexure bending

formula, moment.

Eq.

The

6-13, using stress so


McGraw-

stress with 6-26(c). fibers

2 A. Nadai,

Theory

andFracture

of Solids,

vol.

! (New

York:

(d)

Bending

stresses

Fig.

6-25

Inelastic

bending

of beam.

sections

remain

plane

after

deformation,

the

longitudinal

normal

Fracture

vary linearly as in Fig. 6-25(b). For the several selected strains .. es in this diagram, the correponding stresses 0., 0-2 . . . 0-5 defined on the given stress-strain diagram in Fig. 6-25(c). A plot of stresses along a section establishes a possible stress distribution in beam along the curved line AB as il ustrated in Fig. 6-25(d). (Except vertical scale, this line precisely corresponds to the curved line in stress-strain diagram.) These stresses, acting on the corresponding of the cross section, develop a compressive force C above the axis, and a tensile force T below it. When T = C, a correct location the neutral axis is found. This condition is equivalent to the
that at a section

Propordonal
limit

(b)
E1 2 3 01 0 2 0 3

fA 0- dA = 0
where 0- is the normal bending stress acting on a section.

(a)

Fig. 6-26 in bending proportional


(c)

Rectangular exceeding limit

beam the of the

material.

Pure Bending
Plastic zone

and Bending

with Axial

Forces
Elastic core

Sec. 6.t0. Inelastic


-The to that whole shown upper evenly into in Fig. 6-28(c) is permissible half of the beam is subjected a tension

Bending

of Beams

and has a simple physical to a uniform compressive zone

M2

-crvp,

divided

whereas

the lower

half

is all under
and

a compression

a uniform

tension

fol ows

crvp.

from

That

sym-

the

Numerically,

I
(a)

C = T = o.yp(bh/2)

i.e.,

stress
is

x area
the neutral axis. Hence,

(b)


of straining.

Neutralaxis
(c)

Each

one

of these
or ultimate

forces acts resisting,

at a distance hi4 from moment of the beam

Fig.

6-27

Elastic-plastic

'beam

at large

levels

found

is associated
actually

is called
attained.

with

the rupture
the

line

modulus
CD

in Fig.

of the material
6-26(c)

and

is larger

in bending.

than

This

Mp  Muir = C
is the breadth of the beam, and

( + )
h is its

= o.yp- 4
height.

bh2
Eqs. 6-36 and 6-37.

the
The

The elastic perfectly plastic idealization [Fig. 2-13(b)], for reasons simplicity, is very frequently used for beams of ductile materials in termining their behavior in bending, and as an important example elastic bending, consider a