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  • V O 7

WILEY

TOPPAN

Wiley International Edition

PRINCIPLES OF

REFRIGERATION

ROY J. DOSSAT, Associate Professor of Refrigeration

and Air Conditioning, University of Houston, Houston, Texas

W

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.

NEW YORK and LONDON TOPPAN COMPANY, LTD.

TOKYO, JAPAN

Authorized reprint of the edition published by John

Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York and London.

Copyright © 1961 by John Wiley ft Sons, Inc.

All Rights Reserved.

No part of this book may

be reproduced in any form without the written permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Wiley International Edition

This book is not to be sold outside the country to which it is consigned by the publisher.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 61-15396

Printed in Singapore by Toppan Printing Co. (S) Pte. Ltd.

Preface

This textbook has been written especially for use in programs where a full curriculum in refrigeration is offered. However, the material covered and the

method of presentation are such that the text is also suitable for adult evening

classes and for on-the-job training and self-instruction.

Furthermore, the

material is so arranged and sectionalized that this textbook is readily adaptable

to any level of study and to any desired method or sequence of presentation.

Despite a rigorous treatment of the thermodynamics of the cycle, application

of the calculus is not required nor is an extensive background in physics and

thermodynamics presupposed. The first four chapters deal with the funda-

mental principles of physics and thermodynamics upon which the refrigeration

cycle is based. For those who are already familiar with these fundamentals,

the chapters will serve as review or reference material.

Chapter 21 treats electric motors and control circuits as they apply to refrigera-

tion and air conditioning systems. This material is presented from the viewpoint

of practical application, the more mathematical approach being left to companion

electrical courses.

Throughout this textbook emphasis is placed on the cyclic nature of the

refrigeration system, and each part of the system is carefully examined in relation

to the whole. Too, care is taken continually to correlate theory and practice through the use of manufacturer's catalog data and many sample problems. To this end, certain pertinent catalog data are included.

July, 1961

Roy J. Dossat

Acknowledgments

Most of the material in this textbook

is based on information gathered

from

publications of the American Society of

Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Condition-

ing Engineers and of the following equip-

ment manufacturers

Acme Industries, Inc.

Alco Valve Company

Anaconda Metal Hose Division, The

American Brass Company

Bell & Gossett Company

Carrier Corporation

Controls Company of America

Dean Products, Inc.

Detroit Controls Division, American

Radiator & Standard Sanitary

Corporation

Detroit Ice Machine Company

Dole Refrigerating Company

Dunham-Bush, Inc.

Edwards Engineering Corporation

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company

Freezing Equipment Sales, Inc.

Frick Company

General Controls Company

General Electric Company

Halstead & Mitchell

Ingersoll-Rand Company

Kennard Division, American Air Filter

Company, Inc.

Kramer Trenton Company McQuay, Inc. The Marley Company Marsh Instrument Company Mueller Brass Company

Penn Controls, Inc.

Recold Corporation Sporlan Valve Company Tecumseh Products Company Tranter Manufacturing, Inc. Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers

Association, Inc.

Tyler Refrigeration Corporation

The Vilter Manufacturing Company worthington corporation

York Corporation, Subsidiary of Borg-

Warner Corporation

Appreciation is expressed to all these

organizations for their contributions in the

form of photographs and other art work,

and for granting permission to reproduce

proprietary data, without which this text-

book would not have been possible.

vi

Contents

  • 1. Pressure, Work, Power, Energy I

  • 2. Matter, Internal Energy, Heat, Temperature 10

  • 3. Thermodynamic Processes 24

  • 4. Saturated and Superheated Vapors 43

  • 5. Psychrometric Properties of Air 57

  • 6. Refrigeration and the Vapor Compression System 71

  • 7. Cycle Diagrams and the Simple Saturated Cycle 89

  • 8. Actual Refrigerating Cycles 107

  • 9. Survey of Refrigeration Applications 121

    • 10. Cooling Load Calculations 144

    • 11. Evaporators 164

    • 12. Performance of Reciprocating Compressors 203

    • 13. System Equilibrium and Cycling Controls 225

    • 14. Condensers and Cooling Towers 244

    • 15. Fluid Flow, Centrifugal Liquid Pumps, Water and Brine Piping 274

    • 16. Refrigerants 284

    • 17. Refrigerant Flow Controls 298

vii

  • viii PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION

    • 18. Compressor Construction and Lubrication 334

    • 19. Refrigerant Piping and Accessories 365

  • 20. Defrost Methods, Low-Temperature Systems, and Multiple Temperature Installations 388

  • 21. Electric Motors and Control Circuits 407

Tables and Charts 430

Index 535

I

Pressure, Work,

Power, Energy

l-l. Force.

A force is defined as a push or a

pull. It is anything that has a tendency to set

a body in motion, to bring a moving body to

rest, or to change the direction of motion. A force may also change the size or shape of a

body. That is, the body may be twisted, bent, stretched, compressed, or otherwise distorted

by the action of a force.

The

most familiar force is

weight.

The

weight of a body is a measure of the force

exerted on the body by the gravitational pull

of the earth (Fig. 1-1). There are many forces other than the force of

gravity, but all forces are measured in weight

units. Although the most commonly used unit

of force measure is the pound, any unit of

weight measure may be used, and the particular

unit- used at any time will usually depend on

the magnitude of the force to be measured.

1-2. Pressure.

Pressure is the force exerted

per unit of area.

It may be described as a

measure of the intensity of a force at any given

point on the contact surface. Whenever a force

is evenly distributed over a given area, the pressure at any point on the contact surface is

the same and can be calculated by dividing the total force exerted by the total area over which the force is applied. This relationship is

expressed by the following equation

'-h

(1-1)

where P« the pressure expressed in units of F

per unit of A Fthe total force in any units of force

A= the total area in any units of area

1-3. Measurement of Pressure. As indi-

cated by equation 1-1, pressure is measured

in units of force per unit of area. Pressures are most frequently given in pounds per square

inch, abbreviated psi. However, pressure, like

force, as a matter of convenience and depending

on the magnitude of the pressure, may be stated

in terms of other units of force and area, such as pounds per square foot, tons per square foot,

grams per square centimeter, etc.

Example l-l. A rectangular tank, measur-

ing 2 ft by 3 ft at the base, is filled with water.

If the total weight of the water is 432 lb, deter-

mine the pressure exerted by the water on the

bottom of the tank in

  • (a) pounds per square foot

  • (b) pounds per square inch

Solution

  • (a) Area of tank base

Total weight of water

Applying Equation 1-1, P

  • (b) Area of the tank base

Total weight of water

Applymg Equation 1-1, P

2x3

= 6sqft

= 432 lb

432

^

= 72psf

24 x 36

= 864 sq in. = 432 lb

432

864

= 0.5 psi

The problem described in Example 1-1 is illustrated in Fig. 1-2. Notice that the pressure

on the bottom of the tank in pounds per square

foot

is

equivalent to

the downward force

exerted by the weight of a column of water

having a cross section of one square foot, where-

as the pressure in pounds per square inch is equivalent to the downward force exerted by a

column of water having a cross section of 1 sq in.

Further, since there are 144 sq in. in 1 sq ft, the

force exerted per square foot is 144 times as great

as the force exerted per square inch.

1-4. Atmospheric Pressure.

The

earth

is

surrounded by an envelope of atmosphere or air

which extends upward from the surface of the earth to a distance of some 50 mi or more. Air

has weight and, because of its weight, exerts a

PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION

Pointer -

-Spring scale

Weight

cross section will be less when taken at an

altitude of one mile above sea level than when

taken at sea level.

Therefore, it follows that

atmospheric pressure decreases as the altitude

increases.

1-5. Barometers. Barometers areinstruments

used to measure the pressure of the atmosphere

and are of several types. A simple barometer

which measures atmospheric pressure in terms of the height of a column of mercury can be constructed by filling with mercury a hollow

glass tube 36 in. or more long and closed at one

end. The mercury is held in the tube by placing

the index finger over the open end of the tube while the tube is inverted in an open dish of

mercury. When the finger is removed from the

tube, the level of the mercury in the tube will

fall, leaving an almost perfect vacuum at the closed end. The pressure exerted downward by

the atmosphere on the open dish of mercury will

cause the mercury to stand up in the evacuated

tube to a height depending upon the amount of pressure exerted. The height of the mercury column in the tube is a measure of the pressure exerted by the atmosphere and is read in inches of mercury column (abbreviated in. Hg). The normal pressure of the atmosphere at sea level (14.696 psi) pressingdown on the dish ofmercury

will cause the mercury in the tube to rise to a

Fig. 1-1, Because of gravity, the suspended weight

exerts a\downward force of 7 lb.

pressure on the surface ofthe earth. The pressure

exerted by the atmosphere is known as atmos-

pheric pressure.

The weight of a column of air having a cross

section of 1 sq in. and extending from the surface

of the earth at sea level to the upper limits of the atmosphere is 14.696 lb. Therefore, the pressure on the surface of the earth at sea level resulting from the weight of the atmosphere is 14.696 psi

(14.7). This is understood to be the normal or standard atmospheric pressure at sea level and

is sometimes referred to as a pressure of one

atmosphere.

Actually,

the pressure

of the

atmosphere does not remain constant, but will

usually vary somewhat from hour to hour

depending upon the temperature, water vapor

content, and several other factors.

Because of the difference in the height of the

column, the weight of a column of air of given

Fig. 1-2. Of the total weight of the water in the

container, that part which is exerted on aI sq ft area

is the pressure in pounds per square foot. Likewise, that part which is exerted on a I sq in. area is the pressure in pounds per square inch.

PRESSURE, WORK, POWER, ENERGY

3

height of 29.921 in. (Fig. 1-3).

A column of

mercury 29.921 in. high is, then, a measure of a

pressure equivalent to 14.696 psi. By dividing 29.921 in. Hg by 14.696 psi, it is determined that

a pressure of 1 psi is equivalent to a pressure of

2.036 in.

Hg.

Therefore, 1

in. Hg equals

1/2.036, or 0.491 psi, and the following equa-

tions are established:

brated in inches to read the deviation of the mercury columns from the zero condition in

either direction (Fig. l-4a).

When in use, one side of the U-tube is

connected to the vessel whose pressure is to be

measured.

The pressure in the vessel, acting on

one leg of the tube, is opposed by the atmos-

pheric pressure exerted on the open leg of the

psi

in. Hg =

0.491

(1-2)

tube.

If the pressure in the vessel is greater

than that of the atmosphere, the level of the

and

psi = in. Hg x 0.491

(1-3)

Example 1-2.

What is the pressure of the

atmosphere in psi if a barometer reads 30.2

in. Hg?

Solution. Applying Equation 1-3,

P- 30.2 x 0.491 = 14.83 psi

Example 1-3.

In Fig. 1-3, how high will

the mercury stand in the tube when the atmos-

mercury on the vessel side of the U-tube is

depressed while the level of the mercury on the

open side of the tube is raised an equal amount

(Fig.

l-4b). If the pressure in the vessel is less

than that of the atmosphere, the level of the

mercury in the open leg of the tube is depressed while the level of the mercury in the leg con- nected to the vessel is raised by an equal amount

(Fig. l-4c).

In either case, the difference in the

pheric pressure is 14.S psi?

Solution. Applying Equation 1-2,

heights of the two mercury columns is a measure of the difference in pressure between

the total pressure of the fluid in the vessel and the pressure of the atmosphere.
0.491

= 29.53 in. Hg

In Fig. l-4b, the level of the mercury is 2 in.

1-6. Pressure Gages.

Pressure gages are

instruments used to measure the fluid pressure

(either gaseous or liquid) inside a closed vessel.

Pressure gages commonly used in the refriger- ation industry are of two types: (1) manometer

and (2) bourdon tube.

1-7. Manometers. The manometer type gage

utilizes a column of liquid to measure the

pressure, the height of the column indicating the magnitude of the pressure. The liquid used

in manometers is usually either water or mercury. When mercury is used, the instrument is known

as a mercury manometer or mercury gage and,

when water is used, the instrument is a water

manometer or water gage. The simple barom-

eter described previously is a manometer type instrument.

A simple mercury manometer, illustrated in

Figs. 1-4a, 1-46 and l-4c, consists of a U-shaped glass tube open at both ends and partially filled

with mercury. When both legs of the U-tube are open to the atmosphere, atmospheric pres-

sure is exerted on the mercury in both sides of the tube and the height of the two mercury

columns is the same.

The height of the two

mercury columns at this position is marked as

the zero

point of the scale and the scale is cali-

Scale (inches)

Dish of mercury

Fig. 1-3. The pressure exerted by the weight of the

atmosphere on the open dish of mercury causes the mercury to stand up into the tube. The magnitude

of the pressure determines the height of the mercury column.

PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION

Atmospheric

/pressure \

Manometers using water as the measuring

fluid are particularly useful for measuring very small pressures. Because of the difference in the

density of mercury and water, pressures so

slight that they will not visibly affect the height

of a mercury column will produce easily

detectable variations in the height of a water

column. Atmospheric pressure, which will

support a column of mercury only 29.921 in.

high, will lift a column of water to a distance of

approximately 34 ft. A pressure of 1 psi will

raise a column of water 2.31 ft or 27.7 in. and a

Fig. l-4o. Simple U-tube manometer.

Since both

legs of the manometer are open to the atmosphere

Atmospheric

pressure

30 in. Hg

and are at the same pressure, the level of the mercury is the same in both sides.

Vessel

- pressure

26 in. Hg

Atmospheric

pressure

30 in. Hg

Fig.

l-4c

Manometer indicates that the vessel

pressure is 4 in. pressure of 30 in. Hg.

Hg less than the atmospheric

Fig. I -4b. Simple

manometer indicates that

the

vessel pressure

vessel

pressure exceeds the atmospheric pressure

by 4 in. Hg.

below the zero point in the side of the U-tube connected to the vessel and 2 in. above the zero

point in the open side of the tube.

This indi-

cates that the pressure in the vessel exceeds the pressure of the atmosphere by 4 in. Hg (1.96

psi).

In Fig. l-4c, the level of the mercury is

depressed 2 in. in the side of the tube open to

the atmosphere and raised 2 in. in the side con-

nected to the vessel, indicating that the pressure

in the vessel is 4 in. Hg (1.96 psi) below (less

than) atmospheric. Pressures belowatmospheric are usually called "vacuum" pressures and may

be read as "inches of mercury, vacuum."

Fig. 1-5. Bourdon tube gage mechanism. (Courtesy Marsh Instrument Company.)

PRESSURE, WQRK, POWER, ENERGY

5

pressure of only 0.036 psi is sufficient to support

a column of water 1 in. high.

Hence, 1 in.

of water column is equivalent to 0.036 psi.

Table 1-1 gives the relationship between the

various units of pressure measurement.

1-8. Bourdon Tube Gages.

Because of the

excessive length of tube required, gages of the

manometer type are not practical for measuring

pressures above IS psi and are more or less

inches of mercury (Fig. 1-66).

In many cases,

single gages, known as "compound" gages, are

designed to measure pressures both above and

below atmospheric (Fig. l-6c). Such gages are calibrated to read in psi above atmospheric and

in inches of mercury below atmospheric.

1-9. Absolute and Gage Pressures. Absolute

pressure is understood to be the "total" or "true" pressure of a fluid, whereas gage pressure

<°)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 1-6. Typical bourdon tube gages, (a) Pressure gage, (b) Vacuum gage,

Marsh instrument Company.)

(c) Compound gage. (Courtesy

limited to the measurement of relatively small

pressures in air ducts, etc.

Gages of the bourdon tube type are widely

used to measure

the higher

pressures en-

countered in refrigeration work. The actuating

mechanism of the bourdon tube gage is illus-

trated in Fig. 1-5. The bourdon tube, itself, is a

curved, elliptical-shaped, metallic tube which

tends to straighten as the fluid pressure in the tube increases and to curl tighter as the pressure decreases. Any change in the curvature of the tube is transmitted through a system of gears

to the pointer. The direction and magnitude

of the pointer movement depend on the direc-

tion and magnitude of the change in the curva-

ture of the tube.

Bourdon tube gages are very rugged and will

measure pressures either above or below

atmospheric pressure. Those designed to

measure pressures above atmospheric are known

as "pressure" gages (Fig. l-6a) and are gener- ally calibrated in psi, whereas those designed to

read pressures below atmospheric are called

"vacuum" gages and are usually calibrated in

is the pressure as indicated by a gage.

It is

important to understand that gages are cali-

brated to read zero at atmospheric pressure and

that neither the manometer nor the bourdon

tube gage measures the "total" or "true"

pressure of the fluid in a vessel; both measure

only the difference in pressure between the total

pressure of the fluid in the vessel and the atmos- pheric pressure. When the fluid pressure is

greater than the atmospheric pressure,

the

absolute pressure of the fluid in the vessel is

determined by adding the atmospheric pressure

to

the gage pressure,

and, when the fluid

pressure is less than atmospheric, the absolute pressure of the fluid is found by subtracting the

gage pressure from the atmospheric pressure.

The relationship between absolute pressure and gage pressure is shown graphically is Fig. 1-7.

Example

1-4.

A

pressure

gage

on

a

refrigerant condenser reads 120 psi.

What is

the absolute pressure of the refrigerant in the

condenser?

Solution. Since the barometer reading is not

given,

it is assumed that the atmospheric

PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION

Gage

Absolute

pressure

pressure

45-

59.7

  • 40 54.7

35-

49.7

  • 30 -44.7

25-

39.7

Pressures above

atmospheric in psi

20-

34.7

15-

29.7

10-

24.7

Example 1-6.

During compression the

pressure of a vapor is increased from 10 in. Hg

gage to 125 psi gage. Calculate the total increase

in pressure in psi.

Solution. Since the pressure increases from

10 in. Hg below atmospheric to 125 psi above

atmospheric, the total increase in pressure is

the sum of the two pressures.

Initial pressure

= 10 in. Hg

Initial pressure in psi below

1

x 0.491

atmospheric

= 4.91 psi

Final pressure in psi above

atmospheric

=125 psi

Total increase in pressure

= 129.91 psi

Absolute pressure in psi is abbreviated psia,

  • 5- •19.7

whereas gage pressure in psi is abbreviated psig.

1-10. Work. Work is done when a force

Atmospheric pressure

29.92 in. Hg

  • 5- (14.7 psi)

acting on a body moves the body through a

distance.

The amount of work done is the

-Pressures below-

  • 10 product of the force and the distance through

15-

- atmospheric in—

  • 20 in. Hg

which the force acts. This relationship is shown

(14.7 psi) 25

29.92 in. Hg~~

by the following equation:

W= Fx 1

(1-4)

Fig. 1-7. Relationship between absolute and gage pressures.

pressure is normal at sea level, 14.696 psi, and,

since the pressure of the refrigerant is above

atmospheric,

the

absolute pressure

of

the

refrigerant is equal to the gage pressure plus

the atmospheric pressure.

Gage pressure in psi

Atmospheric pressure in psi

=120

=

14.696

Absolute pressure of

refrigerant

= 134.696 psi

Example 1-5.

A compound gage on the

suction side of a vapor compressor reads 5 in. Hg, whereas a barometer nearby reads

29.6 in. Hg. Determine the absolute pressure of the vapor entering the compressor.

Solution.

Since the pressure of the vapor

entering the compressor is less than atmospheric,

the absolute pressure of the vapor is computed by subtracting the gage pressure from atmos-

pheric pressure.

Atmospheric pressure in

in. Hg

Gage pressure in in. Hg

Absolute pressure in

in. Hg

Absolute pressure

= 29.6

=

5.0

= 24.6 in. Hg 24.6 x 0.491

= 12.08 psi

where F= the force applied in any units of

force

  • 1 = the distance through which the force

acts in any linear unit

W= the work done expressed in units of

force and linear measure

The work done is always expressed in the

same unit terms used to express the magnitude

of the force and the distance.

For instance, if

the force is expressed in pounds and the dis- tance in feet, the work done is expressed in

foot-pounds.

The foot-pound is

the most

frequently used unit of work measure.

Example U7. A ventilating fan weighing

315 lb is hoisted to the roof of a building 200 ft

above the level of the ground.

work is done?

Solution. By applying

How much

Equation 1-4, the weight of

the fan

= 315 lb

Distance through which

the fan is hoisted

Work done

=

200 ft 315 x 200

= 63,000 ft-lb

I -I I. Power.

Power is the rate of doing

work. That is, it is the work done divided by the time required to do the work. The unit ofpower

PRESSURE, WORK, POWER, ENERGY

7

is the horsepower. One horsepower is defined as the power required to do work at the rate of

33,000 ft-lb per minute or (33,000/60) 550 ft-lb

per second. The power required in horsepower may be found by either of the following equa-

tions:

^-TSMTT,

(1

"

5)

where Hp = the horsepower

W= the work done in foot-pounds t = the time in minutes

or

W

Hp =

550 x t where t = the time in seconds

(1-6)

Example 1-8.

In Example 1-7, if the time

required to hoist the fan to the roof of the building is 5 minutes, how much horsepower

is required?

Solution. Total work done

=63,000 ft-lb

Time required to do the

work

= 5 min

Horsepower required

.

J

63,000

33,000 x5 = 0.382 hp

1-12. Energy.

In order to do work or to

cause motion of any kind, energy is required.

A body is said to possess energy when it has

the capacity for doing work. Hence, energy is

described as the ability to do work.

The

amount of energy required to do a given amount

of work is always equal to the amount of work done and the amount of energy a body possesses is equal to the amount of work a body can do

in passing from one condition or position to another. Energy may be possessed by a body in either

or both of two basic kinds: (1) kinetic and (2)

potential.

1-13. Kinetic Energy.

Kinetic energy is the

energy a body possesses as a result of its motion

or velocity. For instance, a hammer swinging

through an arc, a bullet speeding toward a

target, and the moving parts of machinery all

have kinetic energy by virtue of their motion.