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GENEX U-Net V300R008C00

User Guide
Issue Date 03 2012-12-25

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

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and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information, and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind, either express or implied. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address: Huawei Industrial Base Bantian, Longgang Shenzhen 518129 People's Republic of China http://www.huawei.com support@huawei.com

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GENEX U-Net User Guide

About This Document

About This Document


This document provides the guides for installing and using the GENEX U-Net.

Related Versions
The following table lists the product versions related to this document. Product Name GENEX U-Net Version V300R008C00

Intended Audience
The intended audience of this document is network plan engineers.

Change History
03 (2012-12-25)
This is the third release of V300R008C00. Compared with issue 02 (2012-11-09), this issue incorporates the following changes. Content Parameters for Setting LTE-FDD Base Station Templates Parameters for Setting LTE-TDD Base Station Templates Parameters for Setting the Parameters of LTE-FDD Cells Description The content descriptions are changed.

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02 (2012-11-09)
This is the second release of V300R008C00. Compared with issue 01 (2012-08-10), this issue incorporates the following changes. Content Importing Neighbor Relationships Planning PRACH Managing the Result of Neighboring Cell Planning 5.11.2 Managing the TSC Planning Result 6.9.6 Checking and Optimizing Neighboring Cell Configuration 6.10.3 Checking and Optimizing Scrambling Code Configuration 7.8.2 Planning PN Codes Parameters for Setting PCI Display Properties Parameters for Planning Neighboring LTE-FDD Cells 5.10.2 Parameters for Planning GSM Neighboring Cells 6.13.2 Parameters for Planning Neighboring UMTS Cells 7.9.4 Parameters for Planning CDMA Neighboring Cells 10.15 Importing BCP Data Whole document New. The content of the document is optimized. Description The content descriptions are changed.

01 (2012-08-10)
This is the first release of V300R008C00. Compared with issue Draft A (2012-06-30), this issue incorporates the following changes. Content 1.3 Main Window of the U-Net 2.3 Installing a License Description The content descriptions are changed.

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Content Parameters for Importing Satellite Maps Viewing Capacity Simulation Results of a Single-Mode Network Parameters for Viewing Capacity Simulation Results of a Single-Mode Network 3.5.6 Parameters for Creating Antennas Viewing the Capacity Simulation Result in a Single Snapshot Parameters for Filtering and Auditing PCI Planning Results 5.6.3 Setting GSM Receivers 7.8.3 Checking PN Code Planning Results 6.11 UMTS Measurement Reports Analysis 6.11.1 Creating a Measurement Report Analysis Group 6.11.2 Geographically Displaying Measurement Report Analysis Results 6.13.10 Parameters for Creating a Measurement Report Analysis Group 6.13.11 Parameters for Geographically Displaying Measurement Report Analysis Results Parameters for Viewing the Properties of Lines Parameters for Setting the Cost231 Walfish-Ikegami Propagation Model Parameters for Setting the Clutter Related Hata Propagation Model Viewing Capacity Simulation Results of an Entire Network Parameters for Viewing Capacity Simulation Results of a Single User Parameters for Viewing Capacity Simulation Results of the Entire Network

Description

New.

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Content 8.7.3 Setting a Multi-Mode Base Station Template 8.8.5 Analyzing Prediction Results Setting Parameters for TRXs in GSM Cells Parameters for Setting Parameters of TRXs in a GSM Cell Whole document

Description

Delete.

The content of the document is optimized.

Organization
1 Introduction to the U-Net The GENEX U-Net is a professional tool that fully supports the planning of wireless networks. It supports the planning of single-system network and the planning of multi-system network. For example, the U-Net can be used to plan the network using both the GSM technology and UMTS technology or the network using the GSM technology, UMTS technology, and LTEFDD technology. During the entire network life cycle, the U-Net helps operators to complete the initial network design, network simulation, coverage prediction, and network optimization. 2 Installing the U-Net Software This section describes how to install the U-Net software. To complete the installation of the UNet, you only need to run the installation program and then perform operations as prompted by the installation wizard. After the software is installed, you need to load the license and then you can use relevant functions provided by the U-Net. If you need not use the U-Net, you can uninstall it. 3 LTE-FDD Network Planning The U-Net supports the planning of an LTE-FDD network. You can model the actual network environment by importing geographic data, assigning propagation models, and creating base stations based on the imported geographic data. Then, you can plan the parameters such as the neighboring cells, and EARFCNs of the network, predict the network coverage range, and evaluate the network capacity to meet your network planning requirements. 4 LTE-TDD Network Planning The U-Net supports data planning for networks in the LTE-TDD mode. You can model the actual network environment by importing geographic data, assigning propagation models, and creating base stations based on the imported geographic data. Moreover, you can plan network parameters and predict the network coverage range. In this way, the system can meet the requirements on network planning in different scenarios. 5 GSM Network Planning The U-Net supports the planning of the GSM network. You can model the actual network environment by importing geographic data, assigning propagation models, and creating base stations based on the imported geographic data. Then, you can plan the neighboring cell
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parameters, predict the network coverage range, and evaluate the network capacity to meet your network planning requirements. 6 UMTS Network Planning The U-Net supports the planning of the UMTS network. You can model the actual network environment by importing geographic data, assigning propagation models, and creating base stations based on the imported geographic data. Then, you can plan the neighboring cells and scrambling codes, predict the network coverage range, and evaluate the network capacity to meet you network planning requirements. 7 CDMA Network Planning This section describes the CDMA network planning. On the CDMA network, the U-Net supports only the function of planning neighboring cells and PN codes. 8 Multi-Mode Network Planning The U-Net supports the planning of the multi-mode network. You can model the actual network environment by importing geographic data, assigning propagation models, and creating base stations based on the imported geographic data. Then you can plan neighboring cells on the hybrid network consisting of the GSM, UMTS, and LTE-FDD, and predict both GSM and UMTS network coverage range to meet your network planning requirements. 9 FAQ This section provides the frequently asked questions (FAQs) related to the U-Net. 10 U-Net Auxiliary Functions The U-Net provides functions in addition to network planning, such as moving a map, zooming in or out a map, measuring distances on a map, and setting NE display. 11 Acronyms and Abbreviations This section describes the acronyms and abbreviations involved in the U-Net.

Conventions
Symbol Conventions The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Symbol Description Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk, which if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury. Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss, performance degradation, or unexpected results. Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time.
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Symbol

Description Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.

General Conventions The general conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Convention Times New Roman Boldface Italic Courier New Description Normal paragraphs are in Times New Roman. Names of files, directories, folders, and users are in boldface. For example, log in as user root. Book titles are in italics. Examples of information displayed on the screen are in Courier New.

Command Conventions The command conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Convention Boldface Italic [] { x | y | ... } [ x | y | ... ] { x | y | ... }* Description The keywords of a command line are in boldface. Command arguments are in italics. Items (keywords or arguments) in brackets [ ] are optional. Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by vertical bars. One item is selected. Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by vertical bars. One item is selected or no item is selected. Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by vertical bars. A minimum of one item or a maximum of all items can be selected. Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by vertical bars. Several items or no item can be selected.

[ x | y | ... ]*

GUI Conventions The GUI conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

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Convention Boldface >

Description Buttons, menus, parameters, tabs, window, and dialog titles are in boldface. For example, click OK. Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">" signs. For example, choose File > Create > Folder.

Keyboard Operations The keyboard operations that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Format Key Key 1+Key 2 Key 1, Key 2 Description Press the key. For example, press Enter and press Tab. Press the keys concurrently. For example, pressing Ctrl+Alt +A means the three keys should be pressed concurrently. Press the keys in turn. For example, pressing Alt, A means the two keys should be pressed in turn.

Mouse Operations The mouse operations that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Action Click Double-click Drag Description Select and release the primary mouse button without moving the pointer. Press the primary mouse button twice continuously and quickly without moving the pointer. Press and hold the primary mouse button and move the pointer to a certain position.

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Contents
About This Document.....................................................................................................................ii 1 Introduction to the U-Net.............................................................................................................1
1.1 Overview............................................................................................................................................................2 1.2 System Structure.................................................................................................................................................4 1.3 Main Window of the U-Net................................................................................................................................5

2 Installing the U-Net Software...................................................................................................15


2.1 Preparation for the Installation.........................................................................................................................16 2.2 Installing the U-Net Main Program..................................................................................................................17 2.3 Installing a License...........................................................................................................................................20 2.4 Starting the U-Net.............................................................................................................................................22 2.5 Uninstalling the U-Net Main Program.............................................................................................................23

3 LTE-FDD Network Planning....................................................................................................24


3.1 Process of LTE-FDD Network Planning..........................................................................................................26 3.2 Creating a Project.............................................................................................................................................28 3.3 Importing Geographic Data..............................................................................................................................29 3.3.1 Basic Knowledge of Geographic Data....................................................................................................29 3.3.2 Importing Geographic Data in Planet Format Quickly...........................................................................33 3.3.3 Importing Sub-graphic Layer Data Files Manually.................................................................................35 3.3.4 Selecting Geographic Data of a Proper Resolution Level.......................................................................37 3.3.5 Setting Display Parameters of Geographic Data.....................................................................................38 3.3.6 Setting Clutter Layer Parameters.............................................................................................................40 3.3.7 Configuring the Projection Mode and Spheroid Data.............................................................................41 3.3.8 Configuring the Coordinate Display Mode.............................................................................................43 3.3.9 Creating Vector Objects..........................................................................................................................44 3.3.10 Interface Reference for Geographic Data..............................................................................................51 3.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands............................................................................................................63 3.4.1 Basic Knowledge of Propagation Models...............................................................................................63 3.4.2 Configuring Propagation Models............................................................................................................67 3.4.3 Assigning Propagation Models................................................................................................................69 3.4.4 Setting Bands...........................................................................................................................................70 3.4.5 Interface Reference for Propagation Models...........................................................................................71 3.5 Adding a Device...............................................................................................................................................94 Issue 03 (2012-12-25) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ix

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3.5.1 Importing Antenna Data..........................................................................................................................94 3.5.2 Setting Antennas......................................................................................................................................98 3.5.3 Setting a TMA.......................................................................................................................................100 3.5.4 Setting Feeders......................................................................................................................................101 3.5.5 Creating Base Stations...........................................................................................................................101 3.5.6 Parameters for Creating Antennas.........................................................................................................102 3.6 Setting LTE-FDD Traffic Parameters............................................................................................................104 3.6.1 Setting MCS Types................................................................................................................................105 3.6.2 Setting LTE-FDD Service Types..........................................................................................................106 3.6.3 Setting LTE-FDD Receivers.................................................................................................................108 3.6.4 Setting LTE-FDD Terminal Types........................................................................................................110 3.6.5 Setting Environment Types...................................................................................................................111 3.6.6 Setting User Types.................................................................................................................................114 3.6.7 Setting Mobility Types..........................................................................................................................116 3.7 Setting LTE-FDD NE Parameters..................................................................................................................117 3.7.1 Importing Base Station Information......................................................................................................117 3.7.2 Creating a Single Site............................................................................................................................118 3.7.3 Setting an LTE-FDD Base Station Template........................................................................................120 3.7.4 Creating Base Stations in Batches.........................................................................................................122 3.7.5 Creating Repeaters.................................................................................................................................123 3.7.6 Creating a Transceiver...........................................................................................................................123 3.7.7 Setting LTE-FDD Cell Parameters........................................................................................................125 3.7.8 Interface Reference for Setting LTE-FDD NE Parameters...................................................................126 3.8 LTE-FDD Prediction......................................................................................................................................151 3.8.1 Basic Knowledge of Prediction.............................................................................................................151 3.8.2 Calculating Path Loss............................................................................................................................157 3.8.3 Setting Shadow Fading Standard Deviation..........................................................................................159 3.8.4 Creating LTE-FDD Prediction Groups..................................................................................................160 3.8.5 Predicting Performance of a Single Cell...............................................................................................162 3.8.6 Managing the Prediction Result............................................................................................................163 3.8.7 Viewing the Prediction Result...............................................................................................................165 3.8.8 Analyzing the Prediction Result............................................................................................................168 3.8.9 Exporting and Printing Prediction Results............................................................................................172 3.8.10 Verifying the Feature Database Based on DT Data.............................................................................175 3.8.11 Exporting DT Feature Data.................................................................................................................175 3.8.12 Interface Reference for LTE-FDD Prediction.....................................................................................178 3.9 LTE-FDD Capacity Simulation......................................................................................................................182 3.9.1 Basic Knowledge of Capacity Simulation.............................................................................................182 3.9.2 Creating LTE Traffic Maps...................................................................................................................193 3.9.3 Creating a Traffic Simulation Group.....................................................................................................196 3.9.4 Viewing the Capacity Simulation Result...............................................................................................198 3.9.5 Exporting Capacity Simulation Results in Batches...............................................................................206 Issue 03 (2012-12-25) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. x

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3.9.6 Interface Reference for LTE-FDD Capacity Simulation.......................................................................207 3.10 Planning LTE-FDD Network Parameters.....................................................................................................231 3.10.1 LTE PCI Planning...............................................................................................................................231 3.10.2 LTE PRACH Planning........................................................................................................................236 3.10.3 LTE-FDD Neighboring Cell Planning................................................................................................238 3.10.4 LTE Frequency Planning.....................................................................................................................245 3.10.5 Automatically Planning LTE Cells......................................................................................................248 3.10.6 Interface Reference to LTE-FDD Network Parameter Planning.........................................................253

4 LTE-TDD Network Planning..................................................................................................274


4.1 Process of LTE-TDD Network Planning........................................................................................................276 4.2 Creating a Project...........................................................................................................................................278 4.3 Importing Geographic Data............................................................................................................................279 4.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands..........................................................................................................279 4.5 Adding a Device.............................................................................................................................................279 4.6 Setting LTE-TDD Traffic Parameters............................................................................................................280 4.6.1 Setting MCS Types................................................................................................................................280 4.6.2 Setting LTE-TDD Service Types..........................................................................................................281 4.6.3 Setting LTE-TDD Receiver Types........................................................................................................283 4.6.4 Setting the LTE-TDD Terminal Type...................................................................................................285 4.6.5 Setting Environment Types...................................................................................................................286 4.6.6 Setting User Types.................................................................................................................................287 4.6.7 Setting Mobility Types..........................................................................................................................287 4.7 Setting LTE-TDD NE Parameters..................................................................................................................287 4.7.1 Importing Base Station Information......................................................................................................287 4.7.2 Creating a Single Site............................................................................................................................287 4.7.3 Setting an LTE-TDD Base Station Template........................................................................................288 4.7.4 Creating Base Stations in Batches.........................................................................................................289 4.7.5 Creating Repeaters.................................................................................................................................289 4.7.6 Creating a Transceiver...........................................................................................................................290 4.7.7 Setting LTE-TDD Cell Parameters........................................................................................................290 4.7.8 Interface Reference for Setting LTE-TDD NE Parameters...................................................................291 4.8 LTE-TDD Prediction......................................................................................................................................308 4.8.1 Basic Knowledge of LTE-TDD Prediction...........................................................................................308 4.8.2 Calculating Path Loss............................................................................................................................314 4.8.3 Setting Shadow Fading Standard Deviation..........................................................................................316 4.8.4 Creating an LTE-TDD Prediction Group..............................................................................................317 4.8.5 Predicting Performance of a Single Cell...............................................................................................318 4.8.6 Viewing Coverage Prediction Results...................................................................................................319 4.8.7 Analyzing the Prediction Result............................................................................................................319 4.8.8 Exporting and Printing Prediction Results............................................................................................319 4.8.9 Verifying the Feature Database Based on DT Data...............................................................................320 4.8.10 Exporting the Feature Database Data..................................................................................................320 Issue 03 (2012-12-25) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xi

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4.8.11 Parameters for Creating LTE-TDD Prediction Groups.......................................................................320 4.9 LTE-TDD Capacity Simulation......................................................................................................................322 4.10 Planning LTE-TDD Network Parameters....................................................................................................322 4.10.1 LTE PCI Planning...............................................................................................................................323 4.10.2 LTE PRACH Planning........................................................................................................................323 4.10.3 LTE-TDD Neighboring Cell Planning................................................................................................323 4.10.4 LTE Frequency Planning.....................................................................................................................323 4.10.5 LTE Cell Automatic Planning.............................................................................................................323

5 GSM Network Planning..........................................................................................................325


5.1 Process of GSM Network Planning................................................................................................................327 5.2 Creating a Project...........................................................................................................................................328 5.3 Importing Geographic Data............................................................................................................................330 5.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands..........................................................................................................330 5.5 Adding a Device.............................................................................................................................................330 5.6 Setting GSM Traffic Parameters....................................................................................................................331 5.6.1 Setting MOS..........................................................................................................................................331 5.6.2 Setting GSM Service Types..................................................................................................................332 5.6.3 Setting GSM Receivers.........................................................................................................................334 5.6.4 Setting GSM Terminal Types................................................................................................................336 5.6.5 Setting Mobility Types..........................................................................................................................337 5.7 Setting GSM NE Parameters..........................................................................................................................337 5.7.1 Importing Base Station Information......................................................................................................337 5.7.2 Creating a Single Site............................................................................................................................338 5.7.3 Setting a GSM BTS Template...............................................................................................................338 5.7.4 Creating a Base Station Automatically..................................................................................................339 5.7.5 Creating a Repeater...............................................................................................................................339 5.7.6 Creating a Transceiver...........................................................................................................................340 5.7.7 Setting GSM Cell Parameters................................................................................................................340 5.7.8 Interface Reference for Setting GSM NE Parameters...........................................................................341 5.8 GSM Prediction..............................................................................................................................................347 5.8.1 Basic Knowledge of GSM Prediction...................................................................................................347 5.8.2 Calculating Path Loss............................................................................................................................352 5.8.3 Setting Shadow Fading Standard Deviation..........................................................................................354 5.8.4 Creating a GSM Prediction Group........................................................................................................355 5.8.5 Viewing the Prediction Result...............................................................................................................356 5.8.6 Analyzing Prediction Results................................................................................................................357 5.8.7 Exporting GSM Planning Results..........................................................................................................358 5.8.8 Verifying the Feature Database Based on DT Data...............................................................................362 5.8.9 Exporting the Feature Database Data....................................................................................................362 5.9 GSM Neighboring Cell Planning ..................................................................................................................362 5.9.1 Basic Knowledge of Neighboring Cell Planning..................................................................................362 5.9.2 Importing Neighboring Relations..........................................................................................................363 Issue 03 (2012-12-25) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xii

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5.9.3 Planning GSM Neighboring Cells.........................................................................................................364 5.9.4 Managing the Result of Neighboring Cell Planning.............................................................................366 5.10 Interface Reference to GSM Network Planning...........................................................................................370 5.10.1 Parameters for Creating GSM Prediction Groups...............................................................................370 5.10.2 Parameters for Planning GSM Neighboring Cells..............................................................................372 5.10.3 Parameters for Setting the Display Properties of Neighboring Cells..................................................376 5.10.4 Parameters for Setting the Audit and Filter Conditions Based on Neighboring Relations.................377 5.10.5 Parameters for Viewing Neighboring Cell Planning Results..............................................................378 5.11 TSC Planning................................................................................................................................................379 5.11.1 Planning TSC.......................................................................................................................................379 5.11.2 Managing the TSC Planning Result....................................................................................................380 5.11.3 IBCA Interference Neighboring Cell Planning...................................................................................383 5.11.4 Managing the Result of IBCA Interference Neighboring Cell Planning.............................................384 5.12 Interface Reference to TSC Parameter Planning..........................................................................................385 5.12.1 Parameters for TSC Planning..............................................................................................................385 5.12.2 Parameters for Viewing the TSC Planning Result..............................................................................386 5.12.3 Parameters for IBCA Interference Neighboring Cell Planning...........................................................387 5.12.4 Parameters for Viewing the Result of IBCA Interference Neighboring Cell Planning.......................388 5.12.5 Parameters for Setting the TSC Display Effect...................................................................................389

6 UMTS Network Planning........................................................................................................390


6.1 Process of UMTS Network Planning.............................................................................................................392 6.2 Creating a Project...........................................................................................................................................394 6.3 Importing Geographic Data............................................................................................................................395 6.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands..........................................................................................................395 6.5 Adding a Device.............................................................................................................................................395 6.6 Setting UMTS Traffic Parameters..................................................................................................................396 6.6.1 Setting MIMO Types.............................................................................................................................396 6.6.2 Setting UMTS Service Types................................................................................................................397 6.6.3 Setting UMTS Receivers.......................................................................................................................400 6.6.4 Setting UMTS Terminal Types.............................................................................................................401 6.6.5 Setting Mobility Types..........................................................................................................................402 6.6.6 Setting the HSUPA Bearer Table..........................................................................................................403 6.6.7 Setting the HSDPA Bearer Table..........................................................................................................403 6.6.8 Setting the R99 Bearer Table.................................................................................................................404 6.6.9 Setting the HSUPA UE Category Table................................................................................................405 6.6.10 Setting the HSDPA UE Category Table..............................................................................................406 6.7 Setting UMTS NE Parameters........................................................................................................................407 6.7.1 Importing Base Station Information......................................................................................................407 6.7.2 Creating a Single Site............................................................................................................................407 6.7.3 Setting UMTS Base Station Templates.................................................................................................408 6.7.4 Creating Base Stations in Batches.........................................................................................................409 6.7.5 Creating Repeaters.................................................................................................................................409 Issue 03 (2012-12-25) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xiii

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6.7.6 Creating a Transceiver...........................................................................................................................410 6.7.7 Setting UMTS Cell Parameters.............................................................................................................410 6.7.8 Interface Reference for Setting UMTS NE Parameters.........................................................................411 6.8 UMTS Prediction............................................................................................................................................418 6.8.1 Basic Knowledge of UMTS Prediction.................................................................................................418 6.8.2 Calculating Path Loss............................................................................................................................423 6.8.3 Setting Shadow Fading Standard Deviation..........................................................................................425 6.8.4 Creating a UMTS Prediction Group......................................................................................................426 6.8.5 Viewing Coverage Prediction Results...................................................................................................427 6.8.6 Analyzing Prediction Results................................................................................................................428 6.8.7 Exporting UMTS Planning Results.......................................................................................................429 6.8.8 Verifying the Feature Database Based on DT Data...............................................................................434 6.8.9 Exporting the Feature Database Data....................................................................................................434 6.9 Planning UMTS Neighboring Cells...............................................................................................................434 6.9.1 Basic Knowledge of Neighboring Cell Planning..................................................................................434 6.9.2 Importing Neighboring Relations..........................................................................................................435 6.9.3 Initial Neighboring Cell Planning for a New Network..........................................................................436 6.9.4 Neighboring Cell Replanning for a Partially Expanded Network.........................................................438 6.9.5 Replanning of Neighboring Cells from 2G Network to 3G Network...................................................439 6.9.6 Checking and Optimizing Neighboring Cell Configuration..................................................................440 6.10 UMTS Scrambling Code Planning...............................................................................................................446 6.10.1 Basic Knowledge of Scrambling Code Planning................................................................................447 6.10.2 Scrambling Code Planning for a New or Expanded Network.............................................................449 6.10.3 Checking and Optimizing Scrambling Code Configuration................................................................451 6.11 UMTS Measurement Reports Analysis........................................................................................................455 6.11.1 Creating a Measurement Report Analysis Group................................................................................455 6.11.2 Geographically Displaying Measurement Report Analysis Results....................................................456 6.12 UMTS Network Capacity Expansion Analysis............................................................................................458 6.12.1 UMTS Network Capacity Expansion Basics.......................................................................................458 6.12.2 Creating a Capacity Expansion Analysis Group.................................................................................459 6.12.3 Geographically Displaying Capacity Expansion Analysis Results.....................................................460 6.12.4 Checking Network Capacity Expansion Results.................................................................................462 6.13 Interface Reference to UMTS Network Planning........................................................................................463 6.13.1 Parameters for Creating UMTS Prediction Groups.............................................................................464 6.13.2 Parameters for Planning Neighboring UMTS Cells............................................................................465 6.13.3 Parameters for Setting the Display Properties of Neighboring Cells..................................................471 6.13.4 Parameters for Setting the Audit and Filter Conditions Based on Neighboring Relations.................472 6.13.5 Parameters for Viewing Neighboring Cell Planning Results..............................................................473 6.13.6 Parameters for Planning UMTS Scrambling Codes............................................................................474 6.13.7 Parameters for Viewing Planning Results of UMTS Scrambling Codes ...........................................476 6.13.8 Parameters for Filtering and Auditing Scrambling Code Planning Results........................................477 6.13.9 Parameters for Setting Bands..............................................................................................................478 Issue 03 (2012-12-25) 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6.13.10 Parameters for Creating a Measurement Report Analysis Group.....................................................478 6.13.11 Parameters for Geographically Displaying Measurement Report Analysis Results.........................480 6.13.12 Parameters for Creating a Capacity Expansion Analysis Group.......................................................481 6.13.13 Parameters for Geographically Displaying Capacity Expansion Analysis Results...........................484 6.13.14 Parameters for Viewing Network Capacity Expansion Results........................................................484

7 CDMA Network Planning.......................................................................................................487


7.1 Process of CDMA Network Planning............................................................................................................489 7.2 Creating a Project...........................................................................................................................................490 7.3 Importing Geographic Data............................................................................................................................492 7.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands..........................................................................................................492 7.5 Adding a Device.............................................................................................................................................492 7.6 Setting CDMA NE Parameters.......................................................................................................................492 7.6.1 Importing Base Station Information......................................................................................................492 7.6.2 Creating a Single Site............................................................................................................................493 7.6.3 Setting a CDMA Base Station Template...............................................................................................493 7.6.4 Creating Base Stations in Batches.........................................................................................................494 7.6.5 Creating Repeaters.................................................................................................................................494 7.6.6 Creating a Transceiver...........................................................................................................................494 7.6.7 Setting CDMA Cell Parameters............................................................................................................494 7.6.8 Interface Reference for Setting CDMA NE Parameters........................................................................495 7.7 CDMA Neighboring Cells Planning...............................................................................................................499 7.7.1 Basic Knowledge of Neighboring Cell Planning..................................................................................499 7.7.2 Importing Neighboring Relations..........................................................................................................500 7.7.3 Planning CDMA Neighboring Cells......................................................................................................501 7.7.4 Viewing the Planning Result of Neighbor Cells...................................................................................502 7.8 CDMA PN Code Planning.............................................................................................................................506 7.8.1 Basic Knowledge of PN Codes.............................................................................................................506 7.8.2 Planning PN Codes................................................................................................................................507 7.8.3 Checking PN Code Planning Results....................................................................................................507 7.8.4 Setting the Display Properties of PN Codes..........................................................................................510 7.9 Interface Reference to CDMA Network Planning..........................................................................................511 7.9.1 Parameters for Planning PN Codes.......................................................................................................511 7.9.2 Parameters for Viewing PN Code Planning Results.............................................................................512 7.9.3 Parameters for Setting the Display Properties of PN Codes.................................................................512 7.9.4 Parameters for Planning CDMA Neighboring Cells.............................................................................513 7.9.5 Parameters for Setting the Display Properties of Neighboring Cells....................................................515 7.9.6 Parameters for Setting the Audit and Filter Conditions Based on Neighboring Relations...................516 7.9.7 Parameters for Viewing Neighboring Cell Planning Results................................................................517 7.9.8 Parameters for Viewing 1way-2way Checking Results........................................................................518

8 Multi-Mode Network Planning..............................................................................................520


8.1 Process of Multi-Mode Network Planning.....................................................................................................522 8.2 Creating a Project...........................................................................................................................................523 Issue 03 (2012-12-25) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xv

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8.3 Importing Geographic Data............................................................................................................................525 8.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands..........................................................................................................525 8.5 Adding a Device.............................................................................................................................................525 8.6 Managing Traffic Parameters in a Multi-Mode Network...............................................................................526 8.6.1 Setting Environment Types...................................................................................................................526 8.6.2 Setting User Types.................................................................................................................................526 8.6.3 Setting Mobility Types..........................................................................................................................526 8.6.4 Setting Multi-Mode Service Types........................................................................................................526 8.6.5 Setting Multi-Mode Terminal Types.....................................................................................................528 8.7 Setting Multi-Mode NE Parameters...............................................................................................................529 8.7.1 Importing Base Station Information......................................................................................................529 8.7.2 Creating a Single Site............................................................................................................................529 8.7.3 Setting a Multi-Mode Base Station Template.......................................................................................530 8.7.4 Creating Repeaters.................................................................................................................................531 8.7.5 Creating a Transceiver...........................................................................................................................532 8.7.6 Setting Multi-Mode Cell Parameters.....................................................................................................532 8.8 Prediction of a GSM/UMTS Dual-Mode Network........................................................................................532 8.8.1 Basic Knowledge of Prediction in a GSM/UMTS Dual-Mode Network..............................................532 8.8.2 Calculating Path Loss............................................................................................................................535 8.8.3 Creating a Prediction Group in a GSM/UMTS Dual-Mode Network...................................................537 8.8.4 Viewing Coverage Prediction Results...................................................................................................538 8.8.5 Analyzing Prediction Results................................................................................................................538 8.8.6 Exporting Planning Results...................................................................................................................539 8.8.7 Parameters for Creating a Prediction Group in a GSM/UMTS Dual-Mode Network..........................540 8.9 Neighboring Cell Planning in a Multi-Mode Network...................................................................................542 8.9.1 Basic Knowledge of Neighboring Cell Planning..................................................................................542 8.9.2 Importing Neighboring Relations..........................................................................................................543 8.9.3 Planning Neighboring Cells in a Multi-Mode Network........................................................................544 8.9.4 Viewing the Planning Result of Neighbor Cells...................................................................................545 8.9.5 Parameters for Viewing Neighboring Cell Planning Results................................................................549

9 FAQ..............................................................................................................................................551
9.1 How Do I Select the Required Software Before Installing the U-Net............................................................553 9.2 How Do I Select The GENEX U-Net Software Installation Packages At Huawei Support Website............553 9.3 How Do I Check Field Matching in the Field Mapping Area......................................................................554 9.4 How Do I Use the U-Net to Import Data Into or Export Data From an XLS File in Microsoft Office 2007 ..............................................................................................................................................................................556 9.5 How Do I Import a Map in an English Windows 7 Operating System When the Directory of the Map Contains Chinese Characters...............................................................................................................................................557 9.6 How Do I Use the EarthView Function Properly...........................................................................................559 9.7 How Do I Configure the Default Printer to Enable the Progress Bar for Creating a Project to Display Properly ..............................................................................................................................................................................560 9.8 How Do I Draw a Polygon in the Windows XP 64-bit Operating System....................................................561 9.9 How Do I Rectify the ODBC Drive Fault That Results in Project Creation Failure......................................561 Issue 03 (2012-12-25) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xvi

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10 U-Net Auxiliary Functions.....................................................................................................563


10.1 Moving, Centering, and Zooming In/Out on a Map.....................................................................................566 10.2 Measuring Distance on the Map...................................................................................................................567 10.3 Querying the Terrain Profile Between Two Points......................................................................................567 10.4 Querying the Legend Information................................................................................................................568 10.5 Exporting a Map to the Google Earth...........................................................................................................569 10.6 Setting Layer Display Properties..................................................................................................................570 10.7 Saving Display Effect of Map Layers..........................................................................................................573 10.8 Managing Table Windows............................................................................................................................574 10.9 Managing Docked Windows........................................................................................................................576 10.10 Managing the Explorer Window................................................................................................................577 10.11 Setting the Display Properties of NEs........................................................................................................578 10.12 Searching Sites and Cells...........................................................................................................................578 10.13 Grouping Sites and Cells............................................................................................................................579 10.14 Displaying the Cell Hexagon......................................................................................................................582 10.15 Importing BCP Data...................................................................................................................................583 10.16 Printing Planning Results...........................................................................................................................584 10.16.1 Print Suggestions...............................................................................................................................584 10.16.2 Printing Maps....................................................................................................................................584 10.16.3 Customizing a Print Template...........................................................................................................585 10.17 Calibrating Propagation Models.................................................................................................................586 10.17.1 Importing DT Data............................................................................................................................586 10.17.2 Filtering DT Data...............................................................................................................................587 10.17.3 Filtering DT Data in Batches.............................................................................................................588 10.17.4 Calibrating Propagation Models Based on the CW Measurement Data............................................589 10.17.5 Checking the Parameter Settings of the Propagation Model.............................................................591 10.18 Interface Description: U-Net Auxiliary Functions.....................................................................................592 10.18.1 Parameters for Exporting Maps to the Google Earth.........................................................................592 10.18.2 Parameters for Setting Custom Fields...............................................................................................593 10.18.3 Parameters for Searching for Base Stations......................................................................................593 10.18.4 Parameters for Setting NE Display Properties..................................................................................594 10.18.5 Parameters for Importing and Exporting Data...................................................................................597 10.18.6 Parameters for Setting the Print Properties........................................................................................598 10.18.7 Parameters for Importing Drive Test Data........................................................................................600 10.18.8 Parameters for Importing CW Measurement Data..........................................................................603 10.18.9 Parameters for Viewing DT Point Information.................................................................................605 10.18.10 Interface Description: Calibration Results of Propagation Models.................................................606 10.18.11 Parameters for Filtering the DT Data..............................................................................................607 10.18.12 Parameters for Setting the Display Properties of DT Points...........................................................609

11 Acronyms and Abbreviations...............................................................................................610

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1
About This Chapter

Introduction to the U-Net

The GENEX U-Net is a professional tool that fully supports the planning of wireless networks. It supports the planning of single-system network and the planning of multi-system network. For example, the U-Net can be used to plan the network using both the GSM technology and UMTS technology or the network using the GSM technology, UMTS technology, and LTEFDD technology. During the entire network life cycle, the U-Net helps operators to complete the initial network design, network simulation, coverage prediction, and network optimization. 1.1 Overview The U-Net provides comprehensive network planning functions, advanced geographic information system (GIS), and easy-to-use design. These features help you to efficiently plan the network parameters to obtain the optimum planning result regarding network coverage, capacity, and quality. 1.2 System Structure The U-Net provides a series of functions such as the Geographic Information System (GIS), service modeling, NE modeling, propagation modeling, prediction, capacity simulation, parameter planning, and analysis result output. 1.3 Main Window of the U-Net This section describes the main window of the U-Net, including the menu bar, toolbar, explorer window, operation GUIs, and entries to related operations using the U-Net when the LTE-FDD network system is selected.

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1.1 Overview
The U-Net provides comprehensive network planning functions, advanced geographic information system (GIS), and easy-to-use design. These features help you to efficiently plan the network parameters to obtain the optimum planning result regarding network coverage, capacity, and quality.

Positioning
Figure 1-1 shows the position of the U-Net on the network. Figure 1-1 Position of the U-Net on the network

Entity Probe

Description The Probe is a type of DT software developed by Huawei. It is used for collecting air interface parameters on the wireless network. The DT data and CW data collected by the Probe can be imported to the U-Net for calibrating propagation models and comparing the actual network coverage and predicted network coverage during network planning. The Configuration Management Express (CME) is used to configure and manage the data of NEs. The U-Net is a type of network planning software developed by Huawei. It supports the LTE-FDD, LTE-TDD, GSM, UMTS, and CDMA network systems.

CME U-Net

Product Features
The U-Net provides comprehensive network planning functions, a flexible software architecture, an advanced geographic information system (GIS), rich data resources, and user-friendly GUIs. These features enable network planning engineers to improve the work efficiency significantly. l
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Advanced LTE planning simulation technology


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The U-Net supports the planning of neighboring cells, frequency, Physical Cell ID (PCI) codes, and Physical Random Access Channels (PRACHs). In addition, it provides professional LTE network optimization by incorporating the rich experience and advanced technologies of both Huawei and leading operators. l Advanced planning algorithms The U-Net helps users flexibly perform co-planning of GSM, UMTS, and LTE-FDD networks, thus appropriately making use of existing site resources. This accelerates the product delivery and shortens the network deployment period. l Advanced semi-dynamic simulation technology By providing high-accuracy network prediction, the U-Net helps to accurately estimate network investment and provide a low-cost solution, thus effectively reducing the overall costs of network deployment. l Powerful and easy-to-use network planning function The U-Net provides mature algorithms for inter-RAT neighboring cell planning and easy settings of planning parameters. This improves work efficiency effectively by reducing the technical requirements on network optimization and ensures the quality of network planning.

Application Scenario
The U-Net is applicable in network deployment, network optimization, and network expansion. During the network deployment, the U-Net helps you to properly plan the engineering parameters, neighboring cell data, and frequency data of the network, thus providing guidance for the actual project implementation. During the optimization and expansion of the network, the U-Net helps you to optimize the network parameters and verify the optimization by comparing the network performance before and after the optimization. Table 1-1 describes the functions provided by the U-Net. Table 1-1 Functions provided by the U-Net in different scenarios Function Site deployment Description After the area for deploying a site is specified, the site can be quickly deployed on the map by using the base station template. By performing point analysis, the U-Net can analyze the altitude height and clutter height along the profile of the propagation path to adjust the site deployment. The propagation model can be adjusted manually or automatically on the basis of the CW data. The U-Net displays the model on the GIS to analyze the error in the model-based calculation. The U-Net helps users plan configuration parameters of the network, such as parameters related to the neighboring cells, frequency, PCIs, PRACHs, and TAs. The U-Net starts the prediction after importing the map and configuring network data, service model, and propagation model. By analyzing the prediction result, it evaluates the network performance.

Propagation model calibration Network parameter planning Prediction

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Function Capacity simulation

Description After the traffic parameters are configured and the traffic map is set according to the planning, the U-Net performs the simulation calculation based on the traffic map. In capacity simulation, the U-Net analyzes the throughput of the cell and the user. In addition, it analyzes the coverage of common channels and traffic channels based on the specific network load provided in the simulation calculation results. You can obtain configuration parameters from the CME and then import them to the U-Net for prediction and analysis. The analysis results provided by the U-Net can be imported to the CME and then be delivered to the network.

Interaction with the CME

1.2 System Structure


The U-Net provides a series of functions such as the Geographic Information System (GIS), service modeling, NE modeling, propagation modeling, prediction, capacity simulation, parameter planning, and analysis result output. Figure 1-2 shows the software architecture of the U-Net. Figure 1-2 Software architecture of the U-Net

The U-Net system consists of the following parts:


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Platform This part provides the data management function and the basic common functions, such as project management, GIS, NE modeling, service modeling, and propagation modeling. The U-Net manages all the platform functions by using the project management function. In addition, the project management function provides interfaces to support service functions of different network systems.

System application This part provides service functions for the actual network system, including parameter planning, capacity simulation, prediction, and result analysis. The parameter planning mainly involves the planning of neighboring cells, PCIs, frequency and PRACHs.

1.3 Main Window of the U-Net


This section describes the main window of the U-Net, including the menu bar, toolbar, explorer window, operation GUIs, and entries to related operations using the U-Net when the LTE-FDD network system is selected. Figure 1-3 shows the main window after you start the U-Net. Table 1-2 lists the items in the main window. Figure 1-3 Main window of the U-Net

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Table 1-2 Description of the main window No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Name Menu bar Standard toolbar Task toolbar Explorer window Event window Map window System status bar Description Provides the main menu of the system. For details, see Menu Bar. Provides the shortcut icons for common operations related to projects. For details, see Standard Toolbar. Provides the shortcut icons for common operations related to tasks. For details, see Task Toolbar. Provides the entries to main operations using a navigation tree. For details, see Explorer Window. Displays the information about the progress of operation tasks when the U-Net is running. Displays the map. Displays the information about the system status.

Menu Bar
The menu bar of the U-Net provides the main menu of the system, which is organized based on the main functions of the U-Net to facilitate your operations. Table 1-3 describes the menu bar of the U-Net and the corresponding functions. Table 1-3 Description of the menu bar Main Menu File Edit Window Help Description Provides entries to operations related to project management and print management. For details, see Table 1-4. Provides entries for viewing analysis GUIs. For details, see Table 1-5. Provides entries to common map-related operations. For details, see Table 1-6. Provides entries to U-Net Help and license management. For details, see Table 1-7.

Table 1-4 Description of the File menu Menu Item New Open
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Description Create a project. Open an existing project.


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Menu Item Close Save Save As Print Setting Print Preview Print Import Excel

Description Close a project. Save the current project. Save the current project as another one. Set print properties. Preview a print task. Start a print task. l Import Excel > Engineering Parameters: Import engineering parameters. l Import Excel > Configuration Package: Import the BCP data. l Import Excel > Import New Cell Planning: Import the new cell data. The preceding function currently applies only to GSM and UMTS.

Export

Export > Engineering Parameters: Export engineering parameters. The preceding function currently applies only to GSM and UMTS.

Generate Template

Create an engineering parameter template. 1. Click Generate Template. In the displayed dialog box, select a network type in the Select Network Type area. 2. Select required engineering parameters for the selected network type in the Select Specific Parameters area and select engineering parameters under the Site and Transceiver nodes in the navigation tree. 3. Specify the export path and click Export. The settings are saved as an engineering parameter template.

Recent File

View the names of the five projects that are opened recently. This menu item provides shortcut operation entries to the five projects.

Exit

Exit the U-Net.

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Table 1-5 Description of the Edit menu Menu Item Undo Description Undo an operation. You can undo the modifications in the GIS window. Note that you can perform a maximum of three undo operations at a time. You cannot undo the modifications in the property window. Resource Usage Show Grid Line Find View the resource usage. Whether to display grid lines. Search NEs.

Table 1-6 Description of the Window menu Menu Item Project Information Standard Toolbar Status Bar Event Description Display or hide the explorer window. Display or hide the standard toolbar. Display or hide the status bar. Display or hide the event window. When network planning, coverage prediction, or capacity simulation is performed, the Event Viewer window automatically docks at the lower left part of the main window. Legend Simulation Curve Point Analysis Tool Display or hide the legend window. Display or hide the capacity simulation process window. Display or hide the point analysis window.

Table 1-7 Description of the Help menu Menu Item Help Topics Apply License for self Apply License for others View ESN About License Update License Description View the U-Net Help. Apply for a license for yourself. Apply for a license for others. View the electronic serial number (ESN). View the remaining valid days of a license. Update a license locally.

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Menu Item About U-Net

Description View the U-Net software information.

Standard Toolbar
You can click an icon on the standard toolbar to perform the corresponding project-related operation quickly. Figure 1-4 shows the icons on the standard toolbar. Table 1-8 describes the icons shown in Figure 1-4. Figure 1-4 Standard toolbar

NOTE

You can choose Window > Standard Toolbar and determine whether to display the standard toolbar.

Table 1-8 Description of the standard toolbar Icon Description Create a project. Open a project. Save a project. Perform a print task. View the U-Net software information.

Task Toolbar
You can click an icon on the task toolbar to quickly perform the operations related to the map and point analysis. Figure 1-5 shows the icons on the task toolbar. Table 1-9 describes the icons shown in Figure 1-5. Figure 1-5 Task toolbar

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Table 1-9 Description of the task toolbar Icon Description Calculate the path loss. Forcibly calculate the path loss. Stop calculating the path loss. Start the point analysis. Select a base station template. Create base stations in batches. Create a base station. Create a repeater. Whether to display hexagons indicating cell coverage. Select a rectangular area. Center the map. Refresh the map. Select one item at a time. Move a map. Select a scaling. Zoom in or zoom out on the map. Zoom out on an area. Measure the distance. Draw a polygon. Draw a line. Draw a point. Combine polygons.

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Icon

Description Export a map to the Google Earth. View detailed results. For example, after performing the coverage prediction, you can select a coverage prediction counter in the explorer window, click , and move the pointer to the map window to view detailed results of the counter. Draw a clutter analysis line.

Explorer Window
The Explorer window is in the left pane the main window. The Explorer window has four tab pages: GEO, Data, Network, and Operation. Figure 1-6 GEO tab page

Table 1-10 Description of the GEO tab page Navigation Tree Special Polygons Polygons Points
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Description Operation tasks related to special polygons. Operation tasks related to polygons. Operation tasks related to points.

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Navigation Tree Lines Map

Description Operation tasks related to lines. Operation tasks related to maps.

NOTE

In normal cases, if you select or clear the check box of a node in the navigation tree, the information about the node is displayed or hidden accordingly in the GIS window. For example, if you select the check box of Polygons as shown in , polygons are displayed in the GIS window.

Figure 1-7 Data tab page

Table 1-11 Description of the Data tab page Navigation Tree Propagation Models CW Measurement Drive Test Antennas Antenna Groups Traffic Parameters Traffic Map Description Operation tasks related to propagation models. Operation tasks related to the CW measurement data. Operation tasks related to the drive test data. Operation tasks related to antennas. Operation tasks related to antenna groups. Operation tasks related to traffic parameters. Operation tasks related to traffic maps.

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Figure 1-8 Network tab page

Table 1-12 Description of the Network tab page Navigation Tree Site Transceiver Description Operation tasks related to sites. Operation tasks related to transceivers.

Figure 1-9 Operation tab page

Table 1-13 Description of the Operation tab page Navigation Tree Predictions Simulations Neighbor Planning LTE PCI Planning Description Operation tasks related to predictions. Operation tasks related to capacity simulation. Operation tasks related to neighboring cell planning. Operation tasks related to PCI planning.

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Navigation Tree LTE PRACH Planning LTE Frequency Planning LTE TAC Planning LTE Cell Planning

Description Operation tasks related to PRACH planning. Operation tasks related to frequency planning. Operation tasks related to TAC planning. Operation tasks related to LTE cell planning.

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2
About This Chapter

Installing the U-Net Software

This section describes how to install the U-Net software. To complete the installation of the UNet, you only need to run the installation program and then perform operations as prompted by the installation wizard. After the software is installed, you need to load the license and then you can use relevant functions provided by the U-Net. If you need not use the U-Net, you can uninstall it. 2.1 Preparation for the Installation Before installing the U-Net software, you need to ensure that the installation conditions are met. For example, you need to ensure that the U-Net software package is prepared, the environment components are installed, and the configuration of the PC meets the requirements. 2.2 Installing the U-Net Main Program This section describes how to install the U-Net main program. You can install the U-Net main program through an automatic installation wizard. The wizard helps you successfully install the U-Net. During the installation, the system automatically displays prompt dialog boxes. 2.3 Installing a License This section describes how to install a license. The operation rights on the U-Net are controlled by a license. You need to load a valid license to ensure that the U-Net runs properly. 2.4 Starting the U-Net You can start the U-Net software through the Start menu or the shortcut icon on the desktop. If the prompted message indicates that no license file is loaded, load the license file as prompted. 2.5 Uninstalling the U-Net Main Program This section describes how to uninstall the U-Net main program.

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2.1 Preparation for the Installation


Before installing the U-Net software, you need to ensure that the installation conditions are met. For example, you need to ensure that the U-Net software package is prepared, the environment components are installed, and the configuration of the PC meets the requirements.

Hardware Requirements
Table 2-1 lists the hardware requirements of the PC. Table 2-1 Hardware requirements Config uration Item CPU Memor y Hard Disk Monitor Miscell aneous Recommended Configuration Minimum Configuration

Intel dual-core 2.0 GHz 2 GB 15 GB at least 1280 x 1024 resolution DVD-ROM drive, mouse, and keyboard

P3 1GHz 512 MB 1 GB at least 1024 x 768 resolution DVD-ROM drive, mouse, and keyboard

Software Requirements
Table 2-2 lists the software requirements of the PC. Table 2-2 Software requirements Configurati on Item Operating system (OS) Environment components How to Obtain Recommended Configuration Microsoft Windows XP Professional SP2 or higher l Microsoft .NET Framework4.0 or higher l Microsoft Windows Installer3.1 or higher Operating software Microsoft Office 2003 or higher Mandatory Remarks Mandatory Mandatory

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Configurati on Item GENEX UNet software installation package

How to Obtain l Download the software package from http:// support.huawei.com. l Obtain the GENEX UNet installation DVDROM.

Recommended Configuration l You have a user account at http:// support.huawei.com and have the permission to download the GENEX UNet software installation package. l You have obtained the GENEX U-Net software.

Remarks Mandatory

License

Contact Huawei technical support engineers to obtain the license.

Mandatory

2.2 Installing the U-Net Main Program


This section describes how to install the U-Net main program. You can install the U-Net main program through an automatic installation wizard. The wizard helps you successfully install the U-Net. During the installation, the system automatically displays prompt dialog boxes.

Prerequisites
NOTE

l The U-Net installation program is ready. The PC meets the installation requirements. For details, see 2.1 Preparation for the Installation. l You have logged in to the operating system by using an administrator account because the U-Net software must be installed by using an administrator account.

Context
The support website of Huawei provides the U-Net installation package. The installation package is classified into four types. l If you use a 32-bit OS and have installed a plug-in whose version is equal to or later than Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0, select Huawei.UNet32 (exclude framework). Otherwise, select Huawei.UNet32. If you use a 64-bit OS and have installed a plug-in whose version is equal to or later than Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0, select Huawei.UNet64 (exclude framework). Otherwise, select Huawei.UNet64.

Before installing the U-Net main program, you are advised to close all the running programs to ensure successful installation of the U-Net main program. This section takes a 32-bit operating system as an example to describe the installation procedure of the U-Net.

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Procedure
Step 1 Download the installation package at the support website of Huawei. Read the background information carefully and download the correct installation package. Step 2 Double-click Huawei.UNet32.exe to display the setup wizard. Step 3 Click Next. Step 4 In the confirmation dialog box, select I accept the terms of the License Agreement. Step 5 Click Next. Step 6 In the user information dialog box, enter the User Name and Company Name. Step 7 Click Next. Step 8 In the displayed dialog box, select the required feature components. Step 9 Click Next. Step 10 In the displayed dialog box, click Browse to set the installation path. Step 11 After confirmation, click Install. If you want to... Then...

Display the Installer setup wizard Follow the prompts to install the software. After the installation is complete, it is recommended that you restart the PC. Then, perform Step 13 to check whether the U-Net is installed successfully. Display the .NET Framework setup wizard Follow the prompts to install the software.

Step 12 After the installation is complete, click Finish. Step 13 Check whether the U-Net main program is installed successfully. Choose Start > All Programs > Huawei GENEX > U-Net 3.8 to check whether the information about the U-Net software exists. If... The U-Net software information exists Then... The U-Net main program is successfully installed. Repeat Step 1 through Step 13 until the U-Net main program is successfully installed.

The U-Net software information does not exist

Table 2-3 describes the structure of the U-Net installation folder generated after the U-Net main program is installed.
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Table 2-3 U-Net installation folder structure Directory Adjust Antenna config CoMP IRC iScript Measure Report Data Gis NbrPlanning License Prediction Propagation RF RuleStore Simulation ToolInfo TSCPlannin g NetEntity Network Expansion Help Resource Resources Log Temp Description Saves rectification parameters for the radio propagation model. Saves antenna data. Saves the configuration file. Saves the configuration parameters of the CoMP gain. Saves the configuration parameters of the IRC gain. Saves the environment configuration parameters for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Saves the configuration parameters for geographic display of MR data. Saves the default configuration parameters of the project. Saves the default configuration parameters of the GIS. Saves various parameter templates for neighbor cell planning. Saves the license file. Saves the default configuration parameters of the prediction. Saves the default configuration parameters of the propagation model. Saves the parameter template for LTE Cell planning. Saves the environment configuration parameters for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Saves the default configuration parameters of the capacity simulation. Saves the interface configuration information for domain verification. Saves the parameter template information for TSC planning. Saves the related network information. Saves the parameters for six-sector expansion of UMTS. Saves the Help files of the U-Net. Saves the template files required by the U-Net. Saves the resource files required by the U-Net. Saves operation logs. Saves the calculation results of path loss, prediction, and capacity simulation.
NOTE The two folders are generated only after the U-Net software runs.

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----End

2.3 Installing a License


This section describes how to install a license. The operation rights on the U-Net are controlled by a license. You need to load a valid license to ensure that the U-Net runs properly.

Procedure
l Apply for a license for yourself. 1. In the main window of the U-Net, choose Help > Apply License for self. The Domain Authentication dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 2-1. Figure 2-1 Domain Authentication

2. 3.

Enter the domain account information. Click OK.


NOTE

If the entered domain account is valid, the U-Net will automatically update the license.

4. l 1.

After the license loading is complete, restart the U-Net. In the main window of the U-Net, choose Help > Apply License for others. The Offline License Application dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 2-2.

Apply for a license for others.

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Figure 2-2 Off-line License Application

2.

In the displayed dialog box, set parameters. Table 2-4 describes the parameters. Table 2-4 Parameters in the Off-line License Application dialog box Parameter Set the save path of License file Input the ESNs of authorized computers Description Save path of the license file. ESN of your PC.
NOTE You can choose Help > View ESN in the main window of the U-Net to learn the ESN.

Select tools and versions to authorize by License 3. 4. 5. 6. Click Next.

U-Net version for domain authentication.

Enter the domain account information in the displayed Domain Authentication dialog box. Click OK. After domain authentication succeeds, click Submit.
NOTE

After the license application succeeds, the U-Net automatically saves the license file to a specified local path.

7.

Update a license locally. a. In the main window of the U-Net, choose Help > Update License. The Update License dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 2-3.
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Figure 2-3 Update License

b. c. 8. ----End

Click Browse, and choose the save path of the license file. Click Update License.

After the license loading is complete, restart the U-Net.

Follow-up Procedure
After loading the license, restart the U-Net and choose Help > About License to view the remaining valid days of the license.

2.4 Starting the U-Net


You can start the U-Net software through the Start menu or the shortcut icon on the desktop. If the prompted message indicates that no license file is loaded, load the license file as prompted.

Prerequisites
When the U-Net is running, the read and write operations are performed on the U-Net installation directory. Therefore, you must have complete read and write rights to the installation directory before starting the U-Net. Select the folder where the installation directory resides, right-click, and then choose Properties from the shortcut menu. In the displayed dialog box, view the permission information on the Security tab page.

Procedure
l Double-click the U-Net 3.8 shortcut icon on the desktop to start the U-Net software. Alternatively, you can start the U-Net software through the Start menu or by doubleclicking U-Net software installation path/Huawei.UNet.exe. If ... A correct license file is loaded Then ... The U-Net is started.

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If ... No license file is loaded

Then ... A message is displayed, indicating that no license file is loaded. Obtain the license file and then load the license file. For details, see 2.3 Installing a License. After loading the license file, restart the U-Net.

An incorrect license file is loaded A message is displayed, indicating that the license file is incorrect. Obtain the correct license file and then load the license file. For details, see 2.3 Installing a License. After loading the license file, restart the U-Net. ----End

2.5 Uninstalling the U-Net Main Program


This section describes how to uninstall the U-Net main program.

Context
The license file, log files, temporary files, and saved U-Net project files are retained when the U-Net is being uninstalled.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Control Panel window, double-click Add or Remove Programs. Step 2 Select U-Net 3.8. Step 3 Click Uninstall/Change. The interface for uninstalling the U-Net main program is displayed. Step 4 In the displayed dialog box, select Remove, and click Next >. Then, click Uninstall. Step 5 After the U-Net main program is successfully uninstalled, click Finish. You can restart the PC as required. ----End

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3
About This Chapter

LTE-FDD Network Planning

The U-Net supports the planning of an LTE-FDD network. You can model the actual network environment by importing geographic data, assigning propagation models, and creating base stations based on the imported geographic data. Then, you can plan the parameters such as the neighboring cells, and EARFCNs of the network, predict the network coverage range, and evaluate the network capacity to meet your network planning requirements. 3.1 Process of LTE-FDD Network Planning This section describes the process of LTE-FDD network planning. You can refer to this section when planning an LTE-FDD network by using the U-Net. 3.2 Creating a Project This section describes how to create a project. You can select different project templates for different network systems. The U-Net creates the project based on the selected template. Currently, the U-Net provides project templates for the following network systems: GSM, UMTS, CDMA, LTE-FDD, and LTE-TDD. 3.3 Importing Geographic Data You can import geographic data in various vector and grid formats and set coordinate systems. You can also add points, lines, or polygons to create vector objects.The method for importing geographic data for different network systems to the U-Net is the same. 3.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands The U-Net enables you to calculate path loss between a transmitter and a receiver based on a propagation model. Then you can use the calculated path loss matrix to perform prediction.The method for setting propagation models and frequency bands for different network systems on the U-Net is the same. 3.5 Adding a Device You can import or create antennas, create TMAs, feeders, or site equipment.The method for creating site equipment for different network systems on the U-Net is the same. 3.6 Setting LTE-FDD Traffic Parameters The U-Net obtains the average load of the network based on the simulation calculation of the detailed user distribution and therefore calculates various counters of the radio network. Traffic parameters refer to the parameters related to the user type, mobility, terminal, service, environment, MCS, and receiving devices. They are the basic data related to user distribution.
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Traffic parameters can be used to generate a specific traffic map. You must ensure that the traffic parameters are defined before capacity prediction. 3.7 Setting LTE-FDD NE Parameters You can import existing base station data to create base stations or use a base station template to automatically create base stations. You can also create sites, transmitters, or repeaters separately. 3.8 LTE-FDD Prediction By calculating counters, U-Net can estimate network performance, such as cell coverage and channel quality. 3.9 LTE-FDD Capacity Simulation Capacity is important for radio network planning. The process of capacity simulation is as follows: The U-Net generates a certain number of subscribers based on the traffic map and allocate network resources to the generated subscribers. Then, the U-Net analyzes the overall network performance and collects the final capacity simulation results. Finally, the U-Net generates a statistical report. 3.10 Planning LTE-FDD Network Parameters You can plan the neighboring cells, EARFCNs, PCIs, and PRACHs of an LTE-FDD network through the U-Net.

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3.1 Process of LTE-FDD Network Planning


This section describes the process of LTE-FDD network planning. You can refer to this section when planning an LTE-FDD network by using the U-Net. Figure 3-1 shows the process of LTE-FDD network planning. Figure 3-1 Process of LTE-FDD network planning

Table 3-1describes the detailed information about Figure 3-1.


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Table 3-1 Description of the LTE-FDD network planning process No. 1 2 Procedure Creating a project Importing geographic data Description For details, see 3.2 Creating a Project. You can import geographic data in various vector and grid formats and set coordinate systems. You can also add points, lines, or polygons to create vector objects.The method for importing geographic data for different network systems to the U-Net is the same.For details, see 3.3 Importing Geographic Data. The U-Net enables you to calculate path loss between a transmitter and a receiver based on a propagation model. Then you can use the calculated path loss matrix to perform prediction.The method for setting propagation models and frequency bands for different network systems on the U-Net is the same.For details, see 3.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands. You can import or create antennas, create TMAs, feeders, or site equipment.For details, see 3.5 Adding a Device. Set traffic parameters related to terminals and services, which are to be used during prediction.For details, see 3.6 Setting LTE-FDD Traffic Parameters. You can import existing base station data to create base stations or use a base station template to automatically create base stations. You can also create sites, transmitters, or repeaters separately.For details, see 3.7 Setting LTE-FDD NE Parameters. For details, see 3.8.2 Calculating Path Loss. For details, see 3.8 LTE-FDD Prediction. For details, see 3.10 Planning LTE-FDD Network Parameters. The planning results can be applied to NEs. For details, see 3.9.2 Creating LTE Traffic Maps. For details, see 3.9 LTE-FDD Capacity Simulation. The capacity simulation results can be applied to prediction. For details, see Prediction and Neighboring Cell Planning.

Managing propagation models and bands

4 5

Adding a device Setting traffic parameters Setting NE parameters

7 8 9

Calculating the path loss Predicting network performance Planning PCI/ frequency/ neighboring cells/ PRACH/TAC Creating a traffic map Performing capacity simulation

10 11

12

Exporting network planning results

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3.2 Creating a Project


This section describes how to create a project. You can select different project templates for different network systems. The U-Net creates the project based on the selected template. Currently, the U-Net provides project templates for the following network systems: GSM, UMTS, CDMA, LTE-FDD, and LTE-TDD.

Context
l l Only one project can run on the U-Net at a time. In normal cases, one project corresponds to the network planning for an area or a city. One U-Net project may correspond to the network planning of multiple network systems. For example, a U-Net project can be created for the planning of a GSM/UMTS hybrid network.

Procedure
Step 1 Choose File > New. The Project Templates dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 3-2. Figure 3-2 Project Templates

Step 2 Select a project template. l Different network systems correspond to different project templates. You need to select an appropriate project template based on the actual network system. l If multiple network systems are involved, you need to select the required templates. For example, If you need to create a project for a GSM/UMTS hybrid network, you need to select project templates for both the GSM and the UMTS networks. l LTE-TDD and CDMA do not support hybrid networking with other network systems. Step 3 Click OK. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
l Save a project file. Choose File > Save or click file.
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You can save project files in .ipl format: .ipl or .ipl (with all data). In the former format, only NE's parameter planning configuration for the project is saved; in the latter format, all the planning calculation results are saved. The former format is selected by default. The U-Net automatically creates an .ipl project file and a project name.losses folder for saving the information about the path loss matrix and calculation results of capacity simulation, coverage prediction, and neighboring cell planning in the specified save path.
NOTE

Based on the save format, the U-Net determines whether to add the calculation result data in the project name.losses path to the project file in .ipl format.

Open an existing project file. Choose File > Open to open an existing .ipl project file.
NOTE

Alternatively, double-click an .ipl project file to start and open the project.

3.3 Importing Geographic Data


You can import geographic data in various vector and grid formats and set coordinate systems. You can also add points, lines, or polygons to create vector objects.The method for importing geographic data for different network systems to the U-Net is the same.

3.3.1 Basic Knowledge of Geographic Data


This section describes the basic knowledge of the geographic data, such as data type, data format, and coordinate system.

Geographic Data
The U-Net uses two types of geographic data for planning and analysis, that is, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data and Digital Terrain Model (DTM) data. Currently, the U-Net can import geographic data files in Planet, Shape, MIF, or Vertical Mapper format. The two types of geographic data are described as follows: l DEM data: It is the data about the ground elevation, including the plane coordinates and the value of the ground elevation. l DTM data: It is the data about the altitude, including the plane coordinates and the value of the altitude. The DTM data is similar to the DEM data. The difference is that the DEM data represents the above-the-sea height, including the terrain height and the clutter height, whereas the DTM data represents only the terrain height.

Geographic Data in Planet Files


Planet files save the data about the altitude, clutter class, clutter height, vector, point layer, and geographic projection. Table 3-2 shows the relationship between the Planet file types and the layer types. Each layer corresponds to several Planet file types.
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Table 3-2 Relationship between the Planet file types and the layer types Planet File Type Point Layer File Layer Type Text Layer (Point Layer) Description Point layer files save the identification data of each typical land mark (such as a town). Point layer files consist of the following types of files: l Index file: saves the geographic location information about each land mark. l Menu file: saves land mark numbers and names. l Text file: saves the information about a land mark. Vector File Vector Layer Vector files save the information about terrain features such as roads, railways, streets, and streams. Vector files consist of the following types of files: l Index file: saves the geographic location information about each vector. l Menu file: saves vector numbers and names. l Terrain feature file: saves the information about each terrain feature. The information about each terrain feature must be saved in an individual vector file. Clutter Height File Buildings Layer (Layer of Clutter and Building Heights) Clutter height files consist of the following types of files: l Index file: saves the geographic location information about each binary data file. l Binary data file: saves the clutter heights at each geographic location on the map. Clutter Class File Clutter Layer (Clutter Class Layer) Clutter class files consist of the following types of files: l Index file: saves the geographic location information about each clutter. l Menu file: saves clutter class numbers and names. l Binary data file: saves the information about the terrain (such as forests, lakes, flat open areas, urban areas, and high buildings) for calculating the path loss.

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Planet File Type Altitude File

Layer Type Heights Layer (Altitude Layer)

Description Altitude files consist of the following types of files: l Index file (ASCII text file): saves the geographic location information about each binary data file. l Binary data file: saves the data about the height (excluding the height of the building) above the sea level of each geographic location in the map.

Geographic Projection File

Generally, the geographic projection file is stored in the folder of altitude files. The file name is projection.

The geographic projection file is in .txt format. It includes the required projection information, such as the projection mode, information about the ellipsoid, and information about the coordinate offset.

Geographic Data in Shape Files


Shape files save the information about the geographic location and relevant geographic features in binary mode. Shape file is a map file format developed by the ESRI company. Shape files save space data and can be opened by using the ArcExplorer. Shape files consist of .shp, .shx and .dbf files. l l l The .shp file saves the geographic data. The .shx file saves the index information about the geographic data in the .shp file. The .dbf (dBASE) file saves the feature information about each record.

Geographic Data in Vertical Mapper Files


Vertical Mapper file is a type of charting file for satellite remote sensing. Vertical Mapper files save the information about the geographic location and relevant geographic features. The U-Net supports the Vertical Mapper files in the same way as it supports the Planet files. Vertical Mapper files consist of .grc files and .grd files. l l The .grc file corresponds to the raster map with discrete values, such as the raster map of clutter classes. The .grd file corresponds to the raster map with continuous values, such as the raster map of altitudes.

Geographic Data in MIF Files


MIF files save the information about the geographic location and relevant geographic features in ASCII format. MIF files can be imported to the U-Net and can be displayed on the U-Net as a type of Shape data.
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MIF file is a map file format developed by the MapInfo company. MIF files can be used on all the platforms supported by the MapInfo software. MIF files consist of .mif files and .mid files. l The .mif file consists of the file header and the data. The file header contains the information about projection and boundary. The data contains all the space data records and the coloring scheme for each record. l The .mid file records the index information about the space data in the .mif file. The .mid file is optional. Not all the MIF files have .mid files.

Geographic Data in .bil Files


l l l The .bil files save the binary DEM data. The .hdr file is the header file of a .bil file and saves the information about a .bil file such as the number of bytes, storage mode, number of rows, and number of columns. The save path of a .bil file must contain an .hdr file that has the same prefix name as the .bil file.

Geographic Data in .tab Files (Grid Format)


l A .tab file in grid format specifies the table structure of map attribute data, including the number of fields, field names, field types, field widths, index fields, and key space information about corresponding layers. The save path of a .tab file in grid format must contain the .grc or .grd file specified in the .tab file. You can open a .tab file in .txt format and query the name of the .grc or .grd file specified in the .tab file.

l l

Geographic Data in .tab Files (Vector Format)


l l The .tab file in vector format is a type of map file developed by the MapInfo company. The save path of a .tab file in vector format must contain the .dat, .id, and .map files that have the same prefix name as the .tab file. For example, the save path of the River.tab file must contain the River.dat, River.id, and River.map files.Otherwise, the U-Net cannot successfully import the geographic data in this format.

Coordinate Systems
This section describes the basic concepts about projection, ellipsoid, and coordinate systems.

Projection and Ellipsoid


A map or a geographic database is a flat representation of data collected from a curved surface. A projection is a means for presenting all or part of a spheroid on a plane. The projection cannot be done without distortion. Therefore, you must choose the characteristic (distance, direction, scale, area, or shape) to be presented accurately at the expense of the other characteristics or make a compromise between several characteristics. Then, different projection methods are formed. The ellipsoid is the pattern used to model the earth. It is defined by its geometric parameters.
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Classification of Coordinate Systems


To determine a geographic location, you need to identify the location by using coordinates. In different coordinate systems, however, the coordinates for the same location are different. Currently, the U-Net uses two types of coordinate systems, that is, the geodetic coordinate system and the longitude/latitude coordinate system. l Geodetic coordinate system Considering the Earth as a plane, you can create a right-angle coordinate system by taking a point of the Earth as the origin, the east direction as the positive direction of the X-axis, and the north direction as the positive direction of the Y-axis. All the points of the plane are in the first quadrant of the coordinate system. Then, a geographic location can be identified by a pair of coordinates (x, y). This pair of coordinates is called geodetic coordinates. Geodetic coordinates are continuous values. The unit is meter. l Longitude/Latitude coordinate system The spherical location can be identified by using the longitude/latitude coordinate system. Values on the longitude and latitude coordinates are continuous. The longitude of a point refers to the angle between the local meridian and the prime meridian. The east of the prime meridian is the east longitude (180 degrees) and the west of the prime meridian is the west longitude (180 degrees). The latitude of a point refers to the angle between the normal line of the corresponding geographic point on the ellipsoid and the equator. The north of the equator is called north latitude (90 degrees) and the south of the equator is called south latitude (90 degrees).

3.3.2 Importing Geographic Data in Planet Format Quickly


This section describes how to import geographic data in planet format quickly. By using this method, you can import multiple graphic layer files in batches at a time.

Prerequisites
l l In the digital e-map folder, there are one or more sub-graphic layer folders including Text, Vector, Building, Clutter, and Heights. After including complete file types, a sub-graphic layer can be automatically recognized by the system and then successfully imported. For example, the Heights graphic layer must include an index file and the corresponding binary file.For the file types included in each graphic layer, see Geographic Data. After a projection file is put in the Heights folder, it can be automatically recognized by the system.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Map. Step 3 Choose Quick Import from the shortcut menu. See Figure 3-3.

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Figure 3-3 Quick Import

Step 4 In the displayed dialog box, select a digital e-map folder. Step 5 Click OK. The Import Map dialog box is displayed. The system automatically recognizes and matches the data files in the digital e-map folder, as shown in Figure 3-4.

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Figure 3-4 Import Map Dialog Box

to modify the file path or reStep 6 Optional: You can select a parameter in Figure 3-4 and click set the parameter.For parameter description, see Parameters for Importing Geographic Data in Planet Format. Step 7 Click OK. The import of the geographic data is complete. The imported map files are displayed in the map window. On the GEO tab page, you can also choose Map > Sub-graphic Layer on the navigation tree to view the imported graphic layer data. ----End

3.3.3 Importing Sub-graphic Layer Data Files Manually


This section describes how to manually import each sub-graphic layer data file.
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Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Map > sub map layer. Step 3 Choose Import from the shortcut menu. Step 4 In the displayed dialog box, select the file type and the file to be imported.

CAUTION
Before selecting a file type, read the description in Table 3-3 carefully. Otherwise, you may fail to import the file.

Table 3-3 Description of Sub-Graphic Layer File Types Graphic Layer Type Satellitic (navigation map) Available File Type l .png l .bmp l .jpg Geometry l .shp l .mif Text Vector Index File l Index File l .tab Buildings l Index File l .bil Clutter l Index File l .bil l .grc l .tab Description l When you select a .shp file, there must be a .dbf file with the same prefix name under the file path. Otherwise, you cannot view geographic feature information. l If an Index file is selected, the folder where the selected file is located must contain other related files.For the files included in each layer, see Geographic Data in Planet Files. l When you select a .bil file, there must be a .hdr file with the same prefix name under the file path. If you import a .bil file in the Clutter layer, you need to import a .mnu file with the same prefix name. l When you select a .tab file and meanwhile import it in the Vector layer, there must be .dat, .id, and .map files with the same prefix name under the file path. For details, see Geographic Data in .tab Files (Vector Format). l If a TAB file is selected and the data is imported to the clutter layer, the folder where the selected file is located must contain a GRC file. For details, see Geographic Data in .tab Files (Grid Format).

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Graphic Layer Type Heights

Available File Type l Index File l .bil l .grd l .tab

Description l When you select a .tab file and meanwhile import it in the Heights layer, there must be a .grd file under the file path. For details, see Geographic Data in .tab Files (Grid Format).

You can import .grc, .grd, .bil, .shp, and .mif files in batches. Step 5 Click Open. Step 6 If you import a data file of Satellitic layer, do as follows to set the geographic parameters. 1. 2. For parameter description, see Parameters for Importing Satellite Maps. Click Import.

----End

3.3.4 Selecting Geographic Data of a Proper Resolution Level


When geographic data in the calculation area has multiple resolution levels, you must select the geographic data of a proper resolution level to ensure the accuracy of service planning.

Prerequisites
Multiple geographic data files are imported to the U-Net.

Context
On the U-Net, the geographic area for calculation is defined as follows: l l l If only one geographic data file is imported, the U-Net performs calculation based on only the geographic area corresponding to this file. If multiple geographic data files are imported, geographic data of multiple resolution levels is available for the overlapped geographic area. When geographic data of multiple resolution levels is available for a geographic area, UNet selects the appropriate resolution level according to the display sequence of the geographic data in the Clutter/Heights/Buildings layers. This section describes how to select the appropriate resolution level in the Heights layer.
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In this case, the overlapped geographic data has multiple levels of resolution. In this case, select the geographic data of a proper resolution level for service calculation.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, click before Map > Heights to expand the node. The imported geographic data is displayed under Heights. Step 3 Drag the layer of a resolution level to be used as the data source to top. ----End

Example
For example, the geographic data of multiple resolution levels (from 5 m to 40 m) have been imported to the Heights layer. If the geographic data of three resolution levels (5 m, 10 m, and 20 m) are available for a calculation area and you want to use the top resolution level (5 m), drag the layer of 5 m to the top, as shown in Figure 3-5. Figure 3-5 Heights layer

3.3.5 Setting Display Parameters of Geographic Data


This section describes how to set the display parameters of various geographic data. The U-Net enables you to set the color, the transparency, and the shading effect of clutters of different heights to clearly and vividly display the geographic data.
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Prerequisites
The geographic data is imported.

Procedure
l Set the display parameters of each layer. This section takes the clutter layer as an example to describe how to set the display parameters. The settings of the display parameters for other layers are similar to the settings for the clutter layer. For details about the parameters, see Parameters for Setting Display Parameters of Geographic Data. 1. 2. 3. In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. In the navigation tree, choose Map > Clutter > map name. Right-click and choose Properties from the shortcut menu, as shown in Figure 3-6. The Clutter dialog box is displayed. Figure 3-6 Properties

4.

Click the Display tab, and set the display parameters for each clutter.
NOTE

For the heights layer, you can set three-dimensional effect by moving the Contrast slider in the lower left corner.

5.

Click OK. After the setting is complete, the map window is refreshed automatically. Then, you can view the refreshed window.

Display the heights layer in plastic mode. 1. 2. In the navigation tree, choose Map > Heights. Choose Relievo Style from the shortcut menu.

----End
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3.3.6 Setting Clutter Layer Parameters


This section describes how to set radio propagation parameters for the clutter layer, such as penetration loss, spatial multiplexing factor, and standard deviation of shadow fading. These parameters can be used for coverage prediction and capacity simulation calculation.

Prerequisites
The geographic data has been imported.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. Step 2 Choose Map > Clutter in the navigation tree. Then, right-click Clutter and choose Parameter Management from the shortcut menu. The Clutter Parameters Display dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 3-7. Figure 3-7 Clutter Parameters Display

Step 3 Set radio propagation parameters for each clutter. l Actual Value tab page: displays the parameters related to the imported map. l Default Value tab page: displays the default parameters when no map is imported. For details about the parameters, see Parameters for Setting the Clutter Class Layer. Step 4 Click OK. ----End
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3.3.7 Configuring the Projection Mode and Spheroid Data


On the U-Net, each project corresponds to only one projection mode and one type of spheroid data. The projection mode and spheroid data have impacts on service analysis. This section describes two methods for setting the projection mode and spheroid data.

Procedure
l Use the projection mode and spheroid data in the Planet geographic data file. Planet geographic data folder generally contains the geographic projection file. After Planet geographic data is imported, the U-Net automatically identifies the projection mode and spheroid data in the projection file. For details, see 3.3.2 Importing Geographic Data in Planet Format Quickly.
NOTE

If the Planet geographic data folder does not contain the projection file or if the U-Net fails to identify and import the projection file, set the projection mode and spheroid data by referring to the following operations.

Use an existing projection mode and spheroid data in the coordinate system group. 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. In the navigation tree, choose Map. Choose Coordinate from the shortcut menu. In the dialog box displayed, select the projection parameters and spheroid data file. For details about the parameters, see Parameters for Setting Coordinate Systems. If... The required projection mode and spheroid data are available Then... 1. Select a coordinate system group from the Find in drop-down list. 2. Select a required file from multiple projection configuration files in this group. 3. Click Apply. The names of the current projection system and spheroid data are displayed in the Current Coordinate Setting window, as shown in Figure 3-8.

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If... The required projection mode and spheroid data are unavailable

Then... 1. Select the favorite coordinate system group from the Find in drop-down list. If the existing coordinate system groups cannot meet your requirement, click New Group to create a required coordinate system group. 2. Click New. The Create dialog box is displayed. 3. Set parameters related to the projection mode and spheroid data. 4. Click Create. After the projection mode and spheroid data are created, the Coordinate Systems dialog box is displayed. 5. Select the new projection configuration file in the dialog box. 6. Click Apply.

Figure 3-8 Coordinate Systems dialog box

----End

Follow-up Procedure
You must manually modify related parameters after setting the projection mode and spheroid data. 1. 2.
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In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. In the navigation tree, choose Map.
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3. 4. 5.

Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. Set parameters related to the projection mode and spheroid data in the displayed dialog box. Click OK.

3.3.8 Configuring the Coordinate Display Mode


The U-Net supports four modes for displaying coordinates. You can select the proper display mode of coordinates as required.

Prerequisites
The geographic data is imported.

Context
On the U-Net, information about the coordinates is displayed in the status bar and the ruler. Table 3-4 describes the four display modes of coordinates. Table 3-4 Display modes of coordinates Display Mode xy reference frame xxdxxmxx.xxsS Meaning Indicates the display mode of geodetic coordinates. Indicates the display mode of longitude/latitude coordinates in the format of xx degree.xx minute.xx second. Indicates the ESWN display mode of longitude/latitude coordinates. Indicates the negative/ positive display mode of longitude/latitude coordinates. Example 442472.51 1161945E

xx.xxxxxS

116.32E

-xx.xxxxx

116.32

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Map. Step 3 Choose Map Setting from the shortcut menu. If the geographic data is not properly imported, the right-click menu is not available. Step 4 Select a proper coordinate display mode in Coordinate Style in the displayed dialog box. BL Style Precision indicates the display precision of coordinates.
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l When the coordinate display mode is xy reference frame and xxdxxmxx.xxsS, the value of this parameter is 2 by default and cannot be changed. l In other coordinate display modes, the value of this parameter is 6 by default and can be changed as required. Step 5 Click OK. ----End

3.3.9 Creating Vector Objects


You can either import or create vector objects, such as points, lines, and polygons. Vectors are mainly used for display and service calculation. As a type of vector, polygons can be used as filters, computation zones, and print zones.

Basic Knowledge of Calculation Areas


This section describes the relations between a created calculation area and the base stations that are actually involved in the prediction.

Common Polygonal Areas


This section takes Figure 3-9 as an example. Figure 3-9 Example of a calculation area

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In Figure 3-9, the polygon drawn by users are in blue; the propagation area of each activated base station is in green. Propagation areas are square, and the side length of the square is twice the cell radius. The green areas that intersect with the blue rectangle are considered in the prediction. For example, though sites 11 and 9 are not included in the polygon, they are considered in the prediction because their propagation areas intersect with the blue rectangle; sites 10 and 8 are not considered in the prediction because their propagation areas do not intersect with the blue rectangle.

Linear Polygonal Areas


This section takes Figure 3-10 as an example. Figure 3-10 Example of a calculation area

In Figure 3-10, the lines drawn by users are in purple; the external polygon of the lines is in blue and the width of the polygon is set by users; the propagation area of each activated base station is in green. The propagation areas are square, and the side length of the square is twice the cell radius. The green areas that intersect with the blue polygon are considered in the prediction. For example, though sites 4 and 2 are not included in the external polygon of the lines, they are considered in the prediction because their propagation areas intersect with the blue rectangle; sites 0 and 3 are not considered in the prediction because their propagation areas do not intersect with the blue rectangle.

Importing and Exporting a Polygon


You can import polygon files in different formats, such as .xml, .mif, .tab, .kml, and .kmz. You can also export an existing polygon from the system.
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Prerequisites
To import a polygon represented by longitude/latitude, you must set the longitude/latitude coordinate. For details, see 3.3.7 Configuring the Projection Mode and Spheroid Data.

Context
You can import an existing polygon or draw a new polygon.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Polygons. Step 3 Choose Import from the shortcut menu. See Figure 3-11. Figure 3-11 Import

Step 4 In the displayed dialog box, select the file type, saving path, and the file to the imported. Step 5 Click Open and then import a polygon. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
l Export a polygon. 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. In the navigation tree, choose Polygons > a polygon. Choose Export from the shortcut menu. In the displayed dialog box as shown in Figure 3-12, select a coordinate type and then click OK.

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Figure 3-12 Exporting Polygon dialog box

NOTE

If you have not set the coordinate system, Longitude / Latitude grays out.

5.

In the displayed dialog box, select the file type, saving path, and file name., and then export a polygon. If... Select the .mif format. Then... Two files are displayed under the saving path with the suffix names of .mif and .mid. The exported file contains projection information. Four files are displayed under the file path with the suffixes of .id, .dat, .map, and .tab. The exported file contains projection information. An .xml file is displayed under the saving path. An .xml or .kml file is displayed under the saving path. When you perform the operation in 4, select Longitude/ Latitude as the coordinate type. After that, the system can export the polygon in such format.

Select the .tab format.

Select the .xml format. Select the .kmz or .kml format.

Export polygons in batches. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. In the navigation tree, choose Polygons. Choose Export from the shortcut menu. In the displayed dialog box, select the coordinate system and export type. Click OK. In the displayed dialog box, select a path to save the exported polygon files.

Drawing Polygons Directly


This section describes how to draw polygons. You can draw new polygons, or export and edit the existing polygons.

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Procedure
Step 1 Click on the toolbar. Alternatively, right-click in the map window and choose Add Polygon from the shortcut menu. Step 2 Click the workspace to add points to the polygon one by one. l If only one point of a line in the polygon is determined, the line is displayed as a dotted line, indicating that you are drawing this line. l If two points of a line are determined, the line is displayed as a continuous line, indicating that you have finished drawing this line. l You can right-click to exit. Step 3 Double-click the last point to finish the creation of the polygon. In the displayed U-Net dialog box, the geographic area covered by the polygon is displayed. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
View the clutter statistics of a polygon. After importing geographic data, you can choose Polygons > A polygon in the navigation tree. Then, right-click A polygon and choose Statistic from the shortcut menu to view the clutter statistics of this polygon.

Creating Polygons Based on Lines


This section describes how to create polygons based on lines. You can draw a line and create a polygon based on the line.

Procedure
Step 1 Draw a line. 1. 2. on the toolbar. Alternatively, right-click in the map window and choose Add Click Line from the shortcut menu. Click in the workspace to draw a straight line or a polygonal line. l If only one point of a line in the polygon is determined, the line is displayed as a dotted line, indicating that you are drawing this line. l If two points of a line are determined, the line is displayed as a continuous line, indicating that you have finished drawing this line. l You can right-click to exit. 3. Double-click the point where you want to finish the drawing.
NOTE

You can also click on the toolbar to create an independent point. Alternatively, right-click in the map window and choose Add Point from the shortcut menu.

4.

Optional: Move or delete a line. Select a line in the map window and drag it to a new position.

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Select a line in the map window and press Del to delete the line. 5. Optional: Add, delete, or edit a point of a line. Right-click a point of a line and choose Add Point, Delete Point, or Edit Point from the shortcut menu to add, delete, or edit the point. Step 2 Set the extended polygon of a line. 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. Choose Lines > A line in the navigation tree. Right-click the line and choose Create Strip Polygon from the shortcut menu. In the displayed dialog box, set the width of the extended polygon in the Strip Width area. The width ranges from 0 to 1000 meters. 5. Click OK. Two lines are automatically extended to Strip Width/2 away from the drawn line on the two sides of the drawn line, and these lines form an extended polygon. Alternatively, you can right-click a line and choose Create Strip Polygon from the shortcut menu to set the extended polygon of the line. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
View the clutter statistics of a polygon. After importing geographic data, you can choose Polygons > A polygon in the navigation tree. Then, right-click A polygon and choose Statistic from the shortcut menu to view the clutter statistics of this polygon.

Editing Polygons
You can edit and combine polygons and modify their properties.

Procedure
l Edit a polygon. 1. 2. Click on the toolbar. The map window is selected.

Edit a polygon. If you need to... Move a point Then... 1. Select a point of a polygon. 2. Drag this point to a new position. Alternatively, rightclick the point and choose Edit Point from the shortcut menu to change the coordinates as required.

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If you need to... Add a point to a side

Then... 1. Select a side. 2. Right-click a position on the side where a point needs to be added. 3. Choose Add Point. A point is added to the side.

Delete a point

1. Right-click a point in a polygon. 2. Choose Delete Point.

Move a polygon

1. Select a polygon. 2. Drag the polygon to a new position.

Delete a polygon

1. Select a polygon. 2. Press Del. Alternatively, right-click a polygon and choose Delete Polygon from the shortcut menu. If the polygon is referenced, for example it is referenced by a vector-based traffic map, the system prompts that the polygon cannot be deleted.

NOTE

l You can press Ctrl+Z, or choose Edit > Undo in the U-Net main interface to undo the preceding operation. l The modifications in the map window can be undone at most for three steps. The modifications on the property page, however, cannot be undone.

Query and modify the properties of a polygon. 1. 2. 3. Select a polygon in the map window. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. Query and modify the polygon properties on various tab pages in the Polygon Properties dialog box. Query and modify the names of polygons on the Region Properties tab page. Query and modify the point coordinates of polygons on the Points List tab page. Query and modify the font color and character size on the Font tab page. Query and modify the fill color and line color of polygons on the Color&Line tab page. 4. Click OK.

Combine polygons. 1. 2. on the toolbar. Alternatively, click the Geo tab in the Explorer window, Click right-click Polygons and choose Polygon Operator from the shortcut menu. Select the polygons to be combined and the combination mode in the Polygon Operator dialog box.

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If you need to... Combine the overlapped areas of multiple polygons as a new polygon Combine the combination areas of multiple polygons as a new polygon Exclude the overlapped area of two polygons from one polygon to form a new polygon based on the remaining area of this polygon. 3. 4. Click Run.

Then... 1. In the Current Polygons box on the left, select the polygons to be combined. 2. Select Intersect in Polygon Operator. 1. In the Current Polygons box on the left, select the polygons to be combined. 2. Select Intersect in Polygon Operator. 1. Select one polygon from the left area in the Current Polygons window. 2. Select Exclude. 3. Select another polygon from the right area in the Current Polygons window.

You can preview the polygon in the Preview area. Optional: Select the new polygon in the Output area. Click Rename to change the name of the polygon. After typing a new name, press Enter to change the name or Esc. 5. l Click OK. The combined polygon is displayed in the map window. Then... 1. In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. 2. In the navigation tree, choose Polygons. 3. Choose Display Setting from the shortcut menu. 4. Set the font, fill color, and line color of polygons in batches in the Display dialog box. Show/hide names of polygons in batches 1. In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. 2. In the navigation tree, choose Polygons. 3. Choose Show/Hide All Polygon's Name from the shortcut menu.
TIP You can right-click a polygon in the map window and choose Show Polygon Name from the shortcut menu to show/hide the name of the polygon.

Set polygons in batches. If you need to... Modify the properties of polygons in batches

----End

3.3.10 Interface Reference for Geographic Data


This section describes the interfaces and parameters for managing geographic data.
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Parameters for Importing Geographic Data in Planet Format


This section describes the parameters that are involved in the manual and quick import of geographic data in Planet format. You can refer to this section when importing geographic data in Planet format through the Import Map dialog box. Parameter Map File Path: Indicates the path of map files. Clutter Height Vector Building Projection File Path: Indicates the path of the projection file. Projection Parameter Projection Path Projection File Valid Description Indicates the file path of clutter-layer data. Indicates the file path of altitude-layer data. Indicates the file path of vector-layer data. Indicates the file path of clutter-height-layer data. Indicates the path of the projection file. Indicates whether the projection file is valid.

Benchmark Longitude

Indicates the central longitudinal line in the projection zone. The default value is 117. The value range is from 0 to 360. The difference between the central longitudinal line in the coordinate system and the longitude of each site must be less than 6 degrees.

Benchmark Latitude

Indicates the central latitudinal line in the projection zone. The default value is 0. The value range is from -90 to 90. The difference between the central latitudinal line in the coordinate system and the latitude of each site must be less than 6 degrees.

Offset in Y Direction Offset in X Direction Projection type Spheroid Projection type Spheroid

Indicates the offset in the Y direction. Indicates the offset in the X direction. Indicates the projection mode. Selects a type of spheroid.

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Parameters for Importing Satellite Maps


This section describes the parameters for importing satellite maps. You can refer to this section when importing satellite maps in the Import Satellite Map dialog box. Parameter Geographic Information: indicates the settings related to the position of a satellite map in the map window. Bound Type Description Indicates the boundary mode. l Long/Lat indicates that the coordinates at the boundary are longitude/ latitude coordinates. This option is available only when geographic data is imported. l X/Y indicates that the coordinates at the boundary are geodetic coordinates. West North East South Indicates the western boundary of a satellite map. Indicates the northern boundary of a satellite map. Indicates the eastern boundary of a satellite map. Indicates the southern boundary of a satellite map.
NOTE l The value of the eastern boundary must be greater than the value of the western boundary; the value of the northern boundary must be greater than the value of the southern boundary. l You can also drag the preview graph in the map window to change the graph position.

Value If no geographic data is imported, the value can only be X/Y.

Transparency Source File

Indicates the transparency of The default value is 33%. a satellite map. Indicates the path of the satellite map file. -

Parameters for Setting Display Parameters of Geographic Data


This section describes the parameters for setting the display properties of geographic data. You can refer to this section when setting the properties for displaying the Clutter layer, Heights layer, Buildings layer, Vector layer, and geographic projection layer.

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Parameters in the Clutter Dialog Box


Parameter Color Description Indicates the color of a clutter. Value The system maps the default color of each clutter based on the keyword. If the mapping fails, the clutter color is blue by default. You can click Color of each clutter to change the coloring scheme. Value Legend Add To Legend Indicates the name of a clutter. Indicates the name of a clutter in the legend. Indicates whether to add the coloring scheme of the clutter class to the legend. Indicates the transparency of a layer. The value depends on the geographic data. The value depends on the geographic data. This option is not selected by default. The default value is 40%.

Transparency

Parameter in the Building Dialog Box


Parameter Color Description Indicates the color of a height range. Value By default, the system supports 11 height ranges. One height range corresponds to one color. The number of height ranges can be any number from 2 to 225. You can click Color of each clutter to change the coloring scheme. Min Value Max Value Legend Indicates the minimum value of a height range. Indicates the maximum value of a height range. Indicates the name of a height range in the legend. Indicates whether to add the coloring scheme of the altitude to the legend. The unit is meter. The unit is meter. The name of a height range consists of its maximum value and minimum value. This option is not selected by default.

Add To Legend

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Parameter Transparency

Description Indicates the transparency of a layer.

Value The default value is 21%.

Parameter in the Height Dialog Box


Parameter Color Description Indicates the color of a height range. Value By default, the system supports 14 height ranges. One height range corresponds to one color. You can click Color of each clutter to change the coloring scheme. Min Value Max Value Legend Indicates the minimum value of a height range. Indicates the maximum value of a height range. Indicates the name of a height range in the legend. Indicates whether to add the coloring scheme of the clutter height to the legend. Indicates the transparency of a layer. Indicates the threedimensional display contrast. The unit is meter. The unit is meter. The name of a height range consists of its maximum value and minimum value. This option is not selected by default. The default value is 0%. The default value is 7.
NOTE l If the slider is moved to 10, it indicates the maximum contrast effect. l If the slider is moved to 1, it indicates there is no three-dimensional effect.

Add To Legend

Transparency Contrast

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Parameters in the Vectors Dialog Box


Parameter Color Description Indicates the line pattern and color of each vector (such as the street and railway) in display. Value The system maps the default color of each clutter based on the keyword. If the mapping fails, the clutter color is orange by default. You can click Color of each vector to change the coloring scheme. Legend Add To Legend Indicates the name of a vector in the legend. Indicates whether to add the coloring scheme of the vector layer to the legend. The value depends on the geographic data. This option is not selected by default.

Parameters in the Text Dialog Box


Parameter Symbol Description Indicates the pattern, color, and size of a point layer. Indicates the name of a point layer in the legend. Indicates whether to add the coloring scheme of the point layer to the legend. Value You can click Symbol of each point layer to change the coloring scheme. The value depends on the geographic data. This option is not selected by default.

Legend Add To Legend

Parameters for Setting the Clutter Class Layer


This section describes the parameters for setting the clutter class layer. You can refer to this section when setting the clutter class layer parameters in the Clutter Parameters Display dialog box. Parameter Code Clutter Class Clutter Height Description Indicates the number of a clutter class. Indicates the name of a clutter class. Indicates the height of a clutter. Value The value depends on the geographic data. The value depends on the geographic data. The default value is 0 and the unit is meter.
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Parameter Spatial Multiplex Factor Penetration Loss

Description Indicates the spatial multiplexing factor. Indicates the penetration loss.

Value The default value is 1. The default value is 0 and the unit is dB. The penetration loss varies according to the propagation environment.

Model Standard Deviation

Indicates the standard deviation of the slow fading margin.

The default value is 7 and the unit is dB. The standard deviation varies according to the propagation environment.

Shadow Corr

Indicates the factor of shadow fading.

The default value is 0.5. The factor varies according to the propagation environment. The default value is 8 and the unit is dB.

C/(I+N)Standard Deviation

Indicates the standard deviation based on C/(I + N).

Parameters for Setting Coordinate Systems


This section describes the parameters for setting the projection mode and spheroid data. You can refer to this section when setting the projection mode and spheroid data in the Coordinate Systems dialog box.

Parameters in the Coordinate Systems dialog box


Parameter Find in Description Selects a coordinate system group from the drop-down list. Creates a coordinate system group. Click this button. The New Group dialog box is displayed. Enter the name of the new coordinate system group. Value The default value is favorite. The name of a coordinate system group contains a maximum of 248 characters including only numerals, letters, and underscores.

New Group

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Parameter Delete Group

Description Deletes a coordinate system group.

Value You can delete custom coordinate system groups but cannot delete predefined coordinate system groups. That is, deleting favorite coordinate system groups is not allowed. -

List of existing coordinate systems in the selected group

Name

Indicates the name of an existing coordinate system. Indicates the projection mode of a coordinate system. Indicates the spheroid data of a coordinate system. Indicates a region.

Projection

Spheroid Region

The value is determined by the projection mode and spheroid data. You do not need to set this parameter. For details about the parameters, see Parameters in the Create dialog box.

New

Creates a coordinate system. Click this button. The Create dialog box is displayed. Enter the name of the new coordinate system. Then, set the project mode and spheroid data.

Property

Checks the properties of the selected coordinate system. Deletes the selected coordinate system.

Delete

Parameters in the Create dialog box


Parameter General Name Description Indicates the name of a coordinate system. Value The default value is NewSystem.

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Parameter Projection Parameter


NOTE The projection parameters vary according to the projection mode.

Description Benchmark Longitude Indicates the central longitudinal line in the projection zone.

Value The default value is 117. The value range is from 0 to 360.
NOTE The difference between the central longitudinal line in the coordinate system and the longitude of each site must be less than 6 degrees.

Benchmark Latitude

Indicates the central latitudinal line in the projection zone.

The default value is 0. The value range is from -90 to 90.


NOTE The difference between the central latitudinal line in the coordinate system and the latitude of each site must be less than 6 degrees.

Offset in Y Direction

Indicates the offset in the Y direction.

The default value is 0 and the unit is meter. The value range is from 0 to 1,000,000. The default value is 500,000 and the unit is meter. The value range is from 0 to 600,000. The default value is 0. The default value is 0. The default value is 0.

Offset in X Direction

Indicates the offset in the X direction.

First Parallel Second Parallel AzCentralLin e RectifiedToS kew Longitude Zone Projection type Spheroid Projection type Spheroid

Indicates the first standard latitudinal line. Indicates the second standard latitudinal line. Indicates the azimuth of the central line in the projection. Indicates the rectified angle of the oblique angle. Indicates the longitudinal zone. Indicates the projection mode. Selects a type of spheroid.

The default value is 0. The default value is 0 and the value range is from 0 to 60. -

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Parameters for Viewing the Properties of Lines


This section describes the parameters for viewing the properties of lines. You can refer to this section when viewing the properties of lines in the Line Properties dialog box. Table 3-5 Parameters on the Line Properties Tab Page Parameter Name Description Indicates the name of a line. The default value is Line_*. Show Line Name Indicates whether to show the name of a line in the map window. By default, this option is selected. Length(m) Indicates the length of a line. Unit: m. Line Width(px) Indicates the width of a line. The default value is 2. The unit is pixel. Line Type Line Color Comments Indicates the type of a line. Indicates the color of a line. Indicates the comments on the line.

Table 3-6 Parameters on the Points List Tab Page Parameter Point Type Description Indicates the display mode of the coordinates at the points of a line. The default value is X/ Y. l X/Y: displayed as geodetic coordinates. l Longitude/Latitude: displayed as longitude/latitude coordinates.
NOTE If projection parameters are not set, Longitude/ Latitude is unavailable.

X Y

Indicates the X coordinate of a point. Indicates the Y coordinate of a point.

Parameters for Viewing the Properties of Polygons


This section describes the parameters for viewing the properties of polygons or viewing the clutter information about polygons. You can refer to this section when viewing the properties
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of polygons in the Polygon Properties dialog box or viewing the clutter information about polygons in the Clutter Statistics of XXX dialog box.

Parameters in the Polygon Properties Dialog Box


Table 3-7 Parameters displayed on the Region Properties tab page Parameter Name Show Polygon Information Description Indicates the name of a polygon. The default value is Polygon_Draw_*. Indicates whether to show the name of a polygon in the map window. By default, this option is selected. Indicates the area of a polygon. The unit is square kilometer. Indicates the comments on a polygon.

Area Comments

Table 3-8 Parameters displayed on the Points List tab page Parameter Point Type Description Indicates the display mode of the coordinates at the points of a polygon. The default value is X/Y. l X/Y: displayed as geodetic coordinates. l Longitude/Latitude: displayed as longitude/latitude coordinates.
NOTE If projection parameters are not set, Longitude/ Latitude is unavailable.

Polygon Order

Indicates the number of a polygon. The default value is 1. This parameter is set to 1 for simple polygons by default. Indicates the X coordinate of a point. Indicates the Y coordinate of a point. Indicates the longitude of a point. Indicates the latitude of a point.

X Y Longitude Latitude

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Table 3-9 Parameters displayed on the Font tab page Parameter Color Font Size Style Example Description Color. Font. Size. Style. Example of words.

Table 3-10 Parameters displayed on the Color&Line tab page Parameter Color Transparency Lines Color Lines Type Line Width Description Color for filling. Transparence. Indicates the color of lines in a polygon. The default color is blue. Indicates the display mode of lines in a polygon. The default value is solid. Indicates the display width of lines in a polygon. The default value is 2 and the unit is pixel.

Parameters in the Clutter Statistics of XXX Dialog Box


Parameter ID Description Indicates the ID of a clutter class on the U-Net. Value The value depends on the geographic data. The value depends on the geographic data. The value depends on the size of the polygon and the geographic data. The unit is square kilometer.

Clutter Class

Indicates the name of a clutter class.

Area(sq.km.)

Indicates the size of a clutter in the polygon.

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Parameter Percent

Description Indicates the percentage of a clutter in the polygon.

Value The value depends on the size of the polygon and the geographic data. The unit is %.

3.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands


The U-Net enables you to calculate path loss between a transmitter and a receiver based on a propagation model. Then you can use the calculated path loss matrix to perform prediction.The method for setting propagation models and frequency bands for different network systems on the U-Net is the same.

3.4.1 Basic Knowledge of Propagation Models


Every propagation model provided by the U-Net is applicable to a certain situation, frequency, and radio technology. Table 3-11 describes the bands, required geographic data, factors, configuration requirements, and application scenarios of propagation models.

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Table 3-11 Characteristics of propagation models Propagatio n Model Band Factor Configuration Requirement l Whether to calculate the diffraction. l Limited by the free space loss. l Loss in municipal areas. Recommended Application Scenario 1 km < Cell radius < 20 km Applicable to the GSM1800, UMTS, and LTE technologies. Not applicable to highly populated urban areas but applicable to common urban areas, suburbs, and villages. In addition, the antenna of the base station must be higher than the surrounding buildings. Usually used for prediction and rarely used for capacity simulation.

Cost-Hata 1500 MHz to model 2000 MHz (including the Cost-Hata HW model)

l Terrain condition. l Clutter statistics. l A formula corresponds to a clutter.

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Propagatio n Model

Band

Factor

Configuration Requirement l Whether to calculate the diffraction. l Limited by the free space loss. l Loss in municipal areas.

Recommended Application Scenario 1 km < Cell radius < 20 km Applicable to the GSM900, CDMA 2000, and LTE technologies. Not applicable to highly populated urban areas but applicable to common urban areas, suburbs, and villages. In addition, the antenna of the base station must be higher than the surrounding buildings. Usually used for prediction and rarely used for capacity simulation.

Okumura 150 MHz to Hata model 2000 MHz (including the Okumura Hata HW model)

l Terrain condition. l Clutter statistics. l A formula corresponds to a clutter.

SPM model 150 MHz to (including the 2000 MHz SPM900 and SPM2G models)

l Terrain condition. l Clutter statistics. l Effective antenna height. There are six methods of calculating the effective antenna height.

l The diffraction weight is differentiated in the case of LOS or NLOS. l Limited by the free space loss. l Loss and weight of each type of clutter. l Clearance area of the receiver

0.5 km < Cell radius < 20 km Applicable to the GSM900, GSM1800, UMTS, CDMA 2000, WiMAX, and LTE technologies. Compared with the Hata models, the SPM models are widely applicable to the scenarios of macro cells. Widely used for capacity simulation.

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Propagatio n Model ITURP model (that is, 1238 model)

Band

Factor

Configuration Requirement l Propagation scenarios are classified into LOS and NLOS scenarios. l The margin of slow fading depends on the requirement on the coverage probability and the standard deviation of indoor slow fading. l In the cases of residential buildings, office buildings, and malls, N is 28, 30, and 22, respectively.

Recommended Application Scenario Indoor scenarios. Used for only prediction.

1800 MHz to 2000 MHz

l Distance (LOS and NLOS) and frequency. l Margin of slow fading. l NLOS considers the loss in penetration through floors in different environments . The loss depends on the number of penetrated floors. l NLOS considers the distance loss coefficient N.

COST231WIM

800 MHz to 2000 MHz

l Terrain condition. l Clutter statistics.

Three parts are Urban areas with involved: free a lot of high space propagation buildings. loss, rooftop-tostreet diffraction and scattering loss, and multishielding loss. Configure parameters for each part.

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Propagatio n Model KeenanMotley

Band

Factor

Configuration Requirement -

Recommended Application Scenario Indoor scenarios. Used for only prediction.

Around 2000 MHz

l Distance and frequency. l Loss in penetration through walls. l Number of walls. l The impact of multipath propagation is not considered. The penetration loss of each wall is the same.

Volcano Urban

2G, 3G, and 4G frequency bands

NOTE l The Volcano model is a third-party model. To install this model, you need to purchase the corresponding software. Volcano 3.1.2 or later needs to be installed for U-Net 3.8 or a later version. l After the Volcano model is installed, you need to run the U-Net again. The U-Net automatically detects the installed Volcano model and loads the Volcano model. l For details about the Volcano model and how to install the Volcano model, see the user guide of the Volcano model software.

Densely populated urban areas with many buildings. Suburbs and rural areas. Indoor scenarios.

Volcano Rural Volcano Indoor

3.4.2 Configuring Propagation Models


By default, the U-Net provides multiple common propagation models. You can directly modify the properties of a propagation model or duplicate a propagation model and modify the properties of the duplicated propagation model.

Context
Propagation model of different types has different properties, which, however, are configured in the same way. This section takes the Cost Hata (default) propagation model as an example to describe how to configure a propagation model.
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Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Propagation Models > Cost231 Hata > Cost Hata (default). Step 3 Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. See Figure 3-13. Figure 3-13 Properties

NOTE

If you do not want to directly modify the properties of the propagation model, choose Duplicate from the shortcut menu and modify the properties of the duplicated propagation model.

Step 4 Set the properties of the propagation model in the displayed dialog box. For detailed description of parameters, see Parameters for Setting the Cost231 Hata Propagation Model. 1. 2. 3. On the General tab page, change the name and description of the propagation model. On the Parameters tab page, configure the parameters related to the propagation model and set the formula. Click OK.

Step 5 Optional: You can set the parameters related to the propagation model in a centralized mode by exporting and importing the parameters. 1. 2. Select the propagation model from the navigation tree. Right-click and choose Export from the shortcut menu to export the parameters related to the propagation model as an .xls file.
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3. 4. 5.

Open the .xls file. You can set and modify the parameters. Select the propagation model from the navigation tree. Right-click and choose Import from the shortcut menu to import the parameters related to the propagation model. If the parameters are successfully imported, the system prompts that the import is successful and updates the parameters based on the imported file. If the parameters fail to be imported, check whether the information about the .xls file, such as the heading, is correct and complete.

----End

Follow-up Procedure
l l To delete a propagation model, choose Delete from the shortcut menu. After the propagation model is configured, you can assign it to cells for calculating the path loss. For details, see 3.4.3 Assigning Propagation Models.
NOTE

If you have set the Volcano propagation model for a cell, you need to manually import the map data on the Setting tab page of the corresponding model (the map data imported from U-Net does not take effect for the Volcano propagation model). Otherwise, path loss calculation cannot proceed.

3.4.3 Assigning Propagation Models


This section describes how to assign propagation models. You need to select a proper propagation model for each cell based on the technical and engineering conditions. You can assign the same propagation model to all cells or assign different propagation models to each cells.

Prerequisites
l l Propagation models are available in the project. Cells exist in the project.

Context
To shorten the calculation time, the U-Net enables users to assign the following propagation models to each cell: l l Main propagation model: high calculation accuracy and short calculation radius Extended propagation model: low calculation accuracy and long calculation radius

If the calculation accuracy of the main propagation model is not defined, the U-Net calculates the main propagation model based on the calculation accuracy of the imported geographic data. In addition, the U-Net can calculate the extended propagation model only when the propagation model, calculation radius, and calculation precision of the extended propagation model are defined.

Procedure
l
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Assign a propagation model to a group of cells.


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In normal cases, cells with the same parameters and in the same environment use the same propagation model. You can group these cells together and assign a propagation model to the cell group. 1. 2. 3. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. Right-click the cell group and choose Cells > Open Table from the shortcut menu. The table of the selected cell group is displayed. The property values of all the cells in the cell group are displayed in the table. 4. Modify the values in each column (such as the Main Propagation Model column) to ensure that parameter values of all the cells are the same.
TIP

You can set the parameters in the first row. Then, press Ctrl+D so that the parameter values in the following rows are the same as those in the first row. In this way, parameter values of all the cells are the same.

Assign a propagation model to a single cell. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver > Sitex_x. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. Click the cell property tab in the displayed dialog box. For example, for the LTE-FDD network, click the LTE-FDDCell tab. Click following Propagation Model.

Set propagation model parameters in the displayed Propagation dialog box. For details, see Parameters on the Propagation Tab Page in the Repeater Properties Dialog Box. For a multi-mode network, you need to set Propagation Model on the tab pages corresponding to each RAT.

----End

3.4.4 Setting Bands


Before performing frequency planning, you must set bands. The U-Net provides multiple predefined bands. You can modify the properties of the predefined bands. When the predefined bands cannot meet your requirements, you can define bands.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. Step 3 Right-click and choose Frequency Bands > Open Table from the shortcut menu.
NOTE

If the project is about a hybrid network, the Open Table menu has a submenu.

Step 4 Set bands in the window containing a band table. For detailed description of parameters, see Parameters for Setting Bands.
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You can also double-click the heading in the table, and set properties of all bands in the Bandwidth Configuration dialog box. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
l Assign the band to a cell. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. l In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver > Sitex_x. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. Click the cell property tab in the displayed dialog box. Click GSMTRX for a GSM network and LTE-FDDCell for an LTE-FDD network. Set the value of Frequency Band on the tab page to assign the band to a cell. You can also import and export band information in the window that contains a band table. For detailed description of parameters, see 10.8 Managing Table Windows.

3.4.5 Interface Reference for Propagation Models


This section describes the interfaces and parameters involved in the management of propagation models.

Parameters for Setting Bands


This section describes the parameters involved in band settings. You can refer to this section when setting bands in the Frequency Bands dialog box. Table 3-12 Parameters in the LTE-FDD/LTE-TDD/CDMA network Parameter Name Bandwidth(MHz) Description Indicates the name of a band. Indicates the bandwidth. Value l LTE-FDD and LTE-TDD networks: 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20. l CDMA network: 1.25. Start Channel Index Indicates the start index of the available frequencies corresponding to a band. Indicates the end index of the available frequencies corresponding to a band. l LTE-FDD and LTE-TDD networks: from 0 to 128. l CDMA network: from 0 to 2 The value of Start Channel Index must be less than or equal to the value of End Channel Index.

End Channel Index

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Parameter Excluded Channels

Description Indicates the index of an excluded channel.

Value The default value is null. Multiple values can be entered. Use commas to separate the values. The default value is 30 and the unit is dB. The value range is from 0 to 231. The value range is from 1 to 40. A parameter for LTE-FDD/ CDMA. A parameter for LTE-FDD/ CDMA. A parameter for LTE-TDD. A parameter for LTE-FDD. A parameter for LTE-FDD.

ACIR

Indicates the adjacent channel signal-tointerference ratio.

Band Number Frequency(DL)(MHz) Frequency(UL)(MHz) Frequency(MHz) Actual Bandwidth(MHz) Useable RB Num

Indicates the number of a band. Indicates the downlink frequency. Indicates the uplink frequency. Indicates the uplink or downlink frequency. Indicates the actual bandwidth. Indicates the number of RBs available for use.

Table 3-13 Parameters in the GSM network Parameter Name ARFCN Description Frequency band name. Absolute radio frequency channel number. Value For example, 512-885 indicates that the range is [512,885]. 975-1023;0-124 indicates that the range is [975,1023];[0,124]. Unit: MHz. Value range: real numbers, separated by semicolons. The number is consistent with that of UARFCN(UL)s. For example, if ARFCN is set to 975-1023;0-124, you need to set Frequency(UL) (MHz) to 880.2;890.

Frequency(UL)(MHz)

Uplink start frequency.

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Parameter Frequency(DL)(MHz)

Description Downlink start frequency.

Value Unit: MHz. Value range: real numbers, separated by semicolons. The number is consistent with that of UARFCN(DL)s. For example, if ARFCN is set to 975-1023;0-124, you need to set Frequency(DL) (MHz) to 925.2;935.

ACIR

Adjacent channel interference ratio.

Unit: dB. Value range: real number that is greater than 0.

Table 3-14 Parameters in the UMTS network Parameter Name UARFCN(UL) Description Frequency band name. Uplink UTRA absolute radio frequency channel number. Value For example, 9612-9888 indicates that the range is [9612,9888]. 9262-9538;12 indicates that the range is [9262,9538];[12,12]. For example, 9612-9888 indicates that the range is [9612,9888]. 9262-9538;12 indicates that the range is [9262,9538];[12,12]. Unit: MHz. Value range: real numbers, separated by semicolons. The number is consistent with that of UARFCN(UL)s. Frequency(DL)(MHz) Downlink start frequency. Unit: MHz. Value range: real numbers, separated by semicolons. The number is consistent with that of UARFCN(DL)s. ACIR Adjacent channel interference ratio. Unit: dB. Value range: real number that is greater than 0.

UARFCN(DL)

Downlink UTRA absolute radio frequency channel number.

Frequency(UL)(MHz)

Uplink start frequency.

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Parameters for Setting the Cost231 Hata Propagation Model


This section describes the parameters related to the Cost231 Hata propagation model. You can refer to this section when setting the Cost231 Hata propagation model.

Parameters Related to the Cost231 Hata Propagation Model


Parameter Diffraction Calculate: Sets the parameters for calculating the diffraction. Diffraction Loss Method Description Indicates whether to consider diffraction during path loss calculation. Value Available algorithms are as follows: l None l Atlas l Bullington l Deygout l Epstein Effect Tx Height Calculate Method Indicates the algorithm for calculating the effective height of the transmitter antenna. Available algorithms are as follows: l AbsSpot l Height above the ground l Height above the average ground l Spot Hr l Slope At Receiver l Enhanced Slope at receiver General: Sets the parameters for common calculation. Formula Limitation to free space loss Indicates whether to limit the loss in the free space. The default value is True.

For the description of parameters in the formula, see Formula of the Cost231 Hata Propagation Model.

For the parameter values, see Values of the Parameters of the Cost231 Hata Propagation Model in Typical Scenarios.

Formula of the Cost231 Hata Propagation Model


The formula is as follows: l l
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Urban: Total = Lu - a(Hm) Suburban: Total = Lu - a(Hm) - 2 x (lg(f/28))2 - K13


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Rural: Total = Lu - a(Hm) - K14 x lg(f)2 + K15 x lg(f) - K16

Parameters in the formula are described as follows: Parameter Lu a(Hm) Description Lu = K1 + K2 x lg(f) - K3 x lg(Hb) + (K4 - K5 x lg(Hb)) x lg(d) Indicates the factor for correcting the effective antenna and also a function of the size of the coverage area. l In the large city scenario: a(Hm) = K10 x [lg(K11 x Hm)]2 - K12 l In the Rural/Small city scenario: a(Hm) = (K6lg(f) - K7) x Hm - (K8 x lg(f) - K9) Cm Indicates the factor for central calibration in large cities. The value varies according to the scenario. The value is already calculated in K1, and thus is not presented in this formula. Indicates the frequency range. The value rang is from 1,500 MHz to 2,000 MHz. Indicates the height of the base station antenna. The value range is from 30 m to 200 m. Indicates the distance between the base station and the mobile station. The unit is kilometer. Indicates the height of the mobile station. The value range is from 1 m to 10 m.

f Hb d Hm

Values of the Parameters of the Cost231 Hata Propagation Model in Typical Scenarios
Sc en ar io De ns e ur ba n Ur ba n/ Su bu rb K 1 K 2 K 3 K 4 K 5 K 6 K 7 K 8 K 9 K 10 K 11 K 12 K 13 K 14 K 15 K 16

49 .3

33 .9

13 . 82

44 .9

6. 55

1. 11

0. 7

1. 56

0. 8

5. 4

4. 78

18 . 33

40 . 94

46 .3

33 .9

13 . 82

44 .9

6. 55

1. 11

0. 7

1. 56

0. 8

5. 4

4. 78

18 . 33

40 . 94

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Sc en ar io Ru ral Hi gh wa y/ Hi gh sp ee d rai lw ay

K 1

K 2

K 3

K 4

K 5

K 6

K 7

K 8

K 9

K 10

K 11

K 12

K 13

K 14

K 15

K 16

46 .3 46 .3

33 .9 33 .9

13 . 82 13 . 82

44 .9 44 .9

6. 55 6. 55

1. 11 1. 11

0. 7 0. 7

1. 56 1. 56

0. 8 0. 8

18 . 33 18 . 33

35 . 94 40 . 94

5. 4 5. 4

4. 78 4. 78

18 . 33 18 . 33

35 . 94 40 . 94

Parameters for Setting the Cost231 Hata HW Propagation Model


This section describes the parameters related to the Cost231 Hata HW propagation model. You can refer to this section when setting the Cost231 Hata HW propagation model.

Parameters Related to the Cost231 Hata HW Propagation Model


Parameter Diffractio n Calculate : parameter s for diffractio n calculatio n Diffraction Loss Method Description Indicates whether to consider diffraction during path loss calculation. Value Available algorithms are as follows: l None l Atlas l Bullington l Deygout l Epstein

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Parameter Effect Tx Height Calculate Method

Description Indicates the algorithm for calculating the effective height of the transmitter antenna.

Value Available algorithms are as follows: l AbsSpot l Height above the ground l Height above the average ground l Spot Hr l Slope At Receiver l Enhanced Slope at receiver

General: common calculatio n parameter s Formula

Limitation to free space loss

Indicates whether to limit the loss in the free space.

The default value is True.

For the description of parameters in the formula, see Formula of the Cost231 Hata HW Propagation Model.

For the parameter values, see Values of the Parameters of the Formula in Typical Scenarios.

Formula of the Cost231 Hata HW Propagation Model


The formula is as follows: l l l Urban: Total = Lu - a(Hm) Suburban: Total = Lu - a(Hm) - 2 x (lg(f/28))2 - K13 Rural: Total = Lu - a(Hm) - K14 x lg(f)2 + K15 x lg(f) - K16

Parameters in the formula are described as follows: Parameter Lu a(Hm) Description Lu = K1 + K2 x lg(f) - K3 x lg(Hb) + (K4 - K5lg(Hb)) x lg(d) Indicates the factor for correcting the effective antenna and also a function of the size of the coverage area. l In the large city scenario: a(Hm) = K10 x [lg(K11 x Hm)]2 - K12 l In the rural or small city scenario: a(Hm) = (K6 x lg(f) - K7) x Hm - (K8 x lg(f) - K9) Cm Indicates the factor for central calibration in large cities. The value varies according to the scenario. The value is already calculated in K1, and thus is not presented in this formula.
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Parameter f Hb d Hm

Description Indicates the frequency range. The value ranges from 1500 MHz to 2000 MHz. Indicates the height of the base station antenna. The value range is from 30 m to 200 m. Indicates the distance between the base station and the mobile station. The unit is kilometer. Indicates the height of the mobile station. The value range is from 1 m to 10 m.

Values of the Parameters of the Formula in Typical Scenarios


Scen ario Dens e urban Urba n Subur b Rural High way Highspeed railw ay K1 49.3 K2 33.9 K3 13.82 K4 44.9 K5 6.55 K6 1.1 K7 0.7 K8 1.56 K9 0.8 K10~ K16 0

46.3 46.3 46.3 46.3 46.3

33.9 33.9 33.9 33.9 33.9

13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82

44.9 44.9 44.9 44.9 44.9

6.55 6.55 6.55 6.55 6.55

1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

1.56 1.56 1.56 1.56 1.56

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0 0 0 0 0

Parameters for Setting the SPM2G Propagation Model


This section describes the parameters related to the SPM2G propagation model. You can refer to this section when setting the SPM2G propagation model.

Parameters Related to the SPM2G Propagation Model


Parameter Diffra ction Calcul
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Description Indicates whether to consider building height.

Value The default value is False.

Add building height

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Parameter ate: parame ters for diffract ion calcula tion Clutter Loss Calculate Method

Description Indicates the algorithm for calculating the clutter loss.

Value Available algorithms are as follows: l None l Uniform l Triangular l Logarithmic l Exponential

Diffraction Loss Method

Indicates whether to consider diffraction during path loss calculation.

Available algorithms are as follows: l None l Atlas l Bullington l Deygout l Epstein

Effect Tx Height Calculate Method

Indicates the algorithm for calculating the effective height of the transmitter antenna.

Available algorithms are as follows: l AbsSpot l Height above the ground l Height above the average ground l Spot Hr l Slope At Receiver l Enhanced Slope at receiver

Receiver on top clutter Gener al: comm on calcula tion parame ters Param eters: calcula tion parame ters Limitation to free space loss

Indicates whether the receiver is on the top of the clutter. Indicates whether to limit the loss in the free space.

The default value is True.

The default value is False.

K1 - K7

For the description of parameters in the formula, see Formula of the SPM2G Propagation Model.

For the parameter values, see Values of the Parameters of the Formula in Typical Scenarios.

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Formula of the SPM2G Propagation Model


Formula: PathLoss (dB) = K1 + K2 x lg(d) + K3 x lg(HTxeff) + K4 x DiffractionLoss + K5 x lg(d) x lg(HTxeff) + K6 x (HRxeff) + K7 x f(clutter) Parameters in the formula are described as follows: Parameter K1 K2 Description Indicates a constant. Its unit is dB and its value depends on the frequency. Indicates the multiplying factor for lg(d), that is, the distance factor. The value of this parameter reflects the variation of the field strength that changes with the distance. Indicates the horizontal distance between the transmitter antenna and the receiver antenna. The unit is meter. Indicates the multiplying factor for lg(HTxeff). The value of this parameter reflects the variation of the field strength that changes with the height of the transmitter antenna. Indicates the effective height of the transmitter antenna. The unit is meter. Indicates the multiplying factor for diffraction loss. The value of this parameter indicates the diffraction status. Indicates the diffraction loss that is caused by obstruction. The unit is dB. Indicates the multiplying factor for lg(d) x lg(HTxeff). Indicates the multiplying factor for HRxeff. The value of this parameter reflects the variation of the field strength that changes with the height of the receiver antenna. Indicates the effective height of the receiver antenna. The unit is meter. Indicates the multiplying factor for f(clutter). The value of this parameter indicates the weight of clutter loss. Indicates the average of weighted loss due to clutter.

d K3

HTxeff K4 DiffractionLoss K5 K6

HRxeff K7 f(clutter)

Values of the Parameters of the Formula in Typical Scenarios


Scenari o Dense urban Urban K1 27.425 23.455 K2 44.9 44.9 K3 5.83 5.83 K4 1 1 K5 -6.55 -6.55 K6 0 0 K7 1 1

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Scenari o Suburb Rural Highway Highspeed railway

K1 11.955 3.065 -3.455 -3.455

K2 44.9 44.9 44.9 44.9

K3 5.83 5.83 5.83 5.83

K4 1 1 1 1

K5 -6.55 -6.55 -6.55 -6.55

K6 0 0 0 0

K7 1 1 1 1

Parameters for Setting the SPM900 Propagation Model


This section describes the parameters related to the SPM900 propagation model. You can refer to this section when setting the SPM900 propagation model.

Parameters Related to the SPM900 Propagation Model


Parameter Diffracti on Calculat e: paramete rs for diffracti on calculati on Add building height Clutter Loss Calculate Method Description Indicates whether to consider building height. Indicates the algorithm for calculating the clutter loss. Value The default value is False. Available algorithms are as follows: l None l Uniform l Triangular l Logarithmic l Exponential Diffraction Loss Method Indicates whether to consider diffraction during path loss calculation. Available algorithms are as follows: l None l Atlas l Bullington l Deygout l Epstein

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Parameter Effect Tx Height Calculate Method

Description Indicates the algorithm for calculating the effective height of the transmitter antenna.

Value Available algorithms are as follows: l AbsSpot l Height above the ground l Height above the average ground l Spot Hr l Slope At Receiver l Enhanced Slope at receiver

Receiver on top clutter General : common calculati on paramete rs Paramet ers: calculati on paramete rs Limitation to free space loss

Indicates whether the receiver is on the top of the clutter. Indicates whether to limit the loss in the free space.

The default value is True. The default value is True.

K1~K7

For the description of parameters in the formula, see Formula of the SPM900 Propagation Model.

For the parameter values, see Values of the Parameters of the Formula in Typical Scenarios.

Formula of the SPM900 Propagation Model


Formula: PathLoss (dB) = K1 + K2 x lg(d) + K3 x lg(HTxeff) + K4 x DiffractionLoss + K5 x lg(d) x lg(HTxeff) + K6 x (HRxeff) + K7 x f(clutter) Parameters in the formula are described as follows: Parameter K1 K2 Description Indicates a constant. Its unit is dB and its value depends on the frequency. Indicates the multiplying factor for lg(d), that is, the distance factor. The value of this parameter reflects the variation of the field strength that changes with the distance. Indicates the horizontal distance between the transmitter antenna and the receiver antenna. The unit is meter.

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Parameter K3

Description Indicates the multiplying factor for lg(HTxeff). The value of this parameter reflects the variation of the field strength that changes with the height of the transmitter antenna. Indicates the effective height of the transmitter antenna. The unit is meter. Indicates the multiplying factor for diffraction loss. The value of this parameter indicates the diffraction status. Indicates the diffraction loss that is caused by obstruction. The unit is dB. Indicates the multiplying factor for lg(d) x lg(HTxeff). Indicates the multiplying factor for HRxeff. The value of this parameter reflects the variation of the field strength that changes with the height of the receiver antenna. Indicates the effective height of the receiver antenna. The unit is meter. Indicates the multiplying factor for f(clutter). The value of this parameter indicates the weight of clutter loss. Indicates the average of weighted loss due to clutter.

HTxeff K4 DiffractionLoss K5 K6

HRxeff K7 f(clutter)

Values of the Parameters of the Formula in Typical Scenarios


Scenari o Dense urban Urban Suburb Rural Highway Highspeed railway K1 12.13 12.12 2.17 -11.39 -16.39 -16.39 K2 44.9 44.9 44.9 44.9 44.9 44.9 K3 5.83 5.83 5.83 5.83 5.83 5.83 K4 1 1 1 1 1 1 K5 0 0 0 0 0 0 K6 0 0 0 0 0 0 K7 1 1 1 1 1 1

Parameters for Setting the Okumura Hata Propagation Model


This section describes the parameters related to the Okumura Hata propagation model. You can refer to this section when setting the Okumura Hata propagation model.
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Parameters Related to the Okumura Hata Propagation Model


Parameter Diffra ction Calcul ate: param eters for diffrac tion calcula tion Diffraction Loss Method Description Indicates whether to consider diffraction during path loss calculation. Value Available algorithms are as follows: l None l Atlas l Bullington l Deygout l Epstein The default value is None. Effect Tx Height Calculate Method Indicates the algorithm for calculating the effective height of the transmitter antenna. Available algorithms are as follows: l AbsSpot l Height above the ground l Height above the average ground l Spot Hr l Slope At Receiver l Enhanced Slope at receiver The default value is None. Gener al: comm on calcula tion param eters Formula Limitation to free space loss Indicates whether to limit the loss in the free space. The default value is True.

For the description of parameters in the formula, see Formula of the Okumura Hata Propagation Model.

For the parameter values, see Values of the Parameters of the Formula in Typical Scenarios.

Formula of the Okumura Hata Propagation Model


The formula is as follows: l l l Urban: Total = Lu - a(Hm) Suburban: Total = Lu - a(Hm) - 2 x (lg(f/28))2 - K13 Rural: Total = Lu - a(Hm) - K14 x lg(f)2 + K15 x lg(f) - K16

Parameters in the formula are described as follows:


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Parameter Lu a(Hm)

Description Lu = K1 + K2 x lg(f) - K3 x lg(Hb) + (K4 - K5 x lg(Hb)) x lg(d) Indicates the factor for correcting the effective antenna and also a function of the size of the coverage area. l In the large city scenario: a(Hm) = K10 x [lg(K11 x Hm)]2 - K12 l In the rural or small city scenario: a(Hm) = (K6 x lg(f) - K7) x Hm - (K8 x lg(f) - K9)

Cm

Indicates the factor for central calibration in large cities. The value varies according to the scenario. The value is already calculated in K1, and thus is not presented in this formula. Indicates the frequency range. The value ranges from 150 MHz to 1500 MHz. Indicates the height of the base station antenna. The value range is from 30 m to 200 m. Indicates the distance between the base station and the mobile station. The unit is kilometer. Indicates the height of the mobile station. The value range is from 1 m to 10 m.

f Hb d Hm

Values of the Parameters of the Formula in Typical Scenarios


Sc en ar io Hi gh sp ee d rai lw ay De ns e ur ba n K 1 K 2 K 3 K 4 K 5 K 6 K 7 K 8 K 9 K 10 K 11 K 12 K 13 K 14 K 15 K 16

64 . 77

26 . 16

13 . 82

44 .9

6. 55

1. 1

0. 7

1. 56

0. 8

-4. 78

18 . 33

40 . 94

4. 78

18 . 33

40 . 94

69 . 55

26 . 16

13 . 82

44 .9

6. 55

1. 1

0. 7

1. 56

0. 8

3. 2

11 . 75

4. 97

4. 78

18 . 33

40 . 94

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Sc en ar io Ur ba n Su bu rb Ru ral

K 1

K 2

K 3

K 4

K 5

K 6

K 7

K 8

K 9

K 10

K 11

K 12

K 13

K 14

K 15

K 16

69 . 55 67 . 55 64 . 77

26 . 16 26 . 16 26 . 16

13 . 82 13 . 82 13 . 82

44 .9 44 .9 44 .9

6. 55 6. 55 6. 55

1. 1 1. 1 1. 1

0. 7 0. 7 0. 7

1. 56 1. 56 1. 56

0. 8 0. 8 0. 8

4. 78 4. 78 4. 78

18 . 33 18 . 33 18 . 33

40 . 94 40 . 94 40 . 94

-2

5. 4 18 . 33

-4. 78

35 . 94

Parameters for Setting the Okumura Hata HW Propagation Model


This section describes the parameters related to the Okumura Hata HW propagation model. You can refer to this section when setting the Okumura Hata HW propagation model.

Parameters Related to the Okumura Hata HW Propagation Model


Parameter Diff ract ion Cal cula te: para met ers for diffr acti on calc ulati on Diffraction Loss Method Description Indicates whether to consider diffraction during path loss calculation. Value Available algorithms are as follows: l None l Atlas l Bullington l Deygout l Epstein The default value is None. Effect Tx Height Calculate Method Indicates the algorithm for calculating the effective height of the transmitter antenna. Available algorithms are as follows: l AbsSpot l Height above the ground l Height above the average ground l Spot Hr l Slope At Receiver l Enhanced Slope at receiver

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Parameter Gen eral : com mon calc ulati on para met ers Limitation to free space loss

Description Indicates whether to limit the loss in the free space.

Value The default value is True.

Formula

For the description of parameters in the formula, see Formula of the Okumura Hata HW Propagation Model.

For the parameter values, see Values of the Parameters of the Formula in Typical Scenarios.

Formula of the Okumura Hata HW Propagation Model


The formula is as follows: l l l Urban: Total = Lu - a(Hm) Suburban: Total = Lu - a(Hm) - 2 x (lg(f/28))2 - K13 Rural: Total = Lu - a(Hm) - K14 x lg(f)2 + K15 x lg(f) - K16

Parameters in the formula are described as follows: Parameter Lu a(Hm) Description Lu = K1 + K2 x lg(f) - K3 x lg(Hb) + (K4 - K5lg(Hb)) x lg(d) Indicates the factor for correcting the effective antenna and also a function of the size of the coverage area. l In the large city scenario: a(Hm) = K10 x [lg(K11 x Hm)]2 - K12 l In the rural or small city scenario: a(Hm) = (K6 x lg(f) - K7) x Hm - (K8 x lg(f) - K9) Cm Indicates the factor for central calibration in large cities. The value varies according to the scenario. The value is already calculated in K1, and thus is not presented in this formula. Indicates the frequency range. The value ranges from 150 MHz to 1500 MHz. Indicates the height of the base station antenna. The value range is from 30 m to 200 m. Indicates the distance between the base station and the mobile station. The unit is kilometer.
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f Hb d

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Parameter Hm

Description Indicates the height of the mobile station. The value range is from 1 m to 10 m.

Values of the Parameters of the Formula in Typical Scenarios


Scen ario Dens e urban Urba n Subur b Rural High way Highspeed railw ay K1 72.55 K2 26.16 K3 13.82 K4 44.9 K5 6.55 K6 1.1 K7 0.7 K8 1.56 K9 0.8 K10~ K16 0

69.55 61.55 54.55 54.55 54.55

26.16 26.16 26.16 26.16 26.16

13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82 13.82

44.9 44.9 44.9 44.9 44.9

6.55 6.55 6.55 6.55 6.55

1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

1.56 1.56 1.56 1.56 1.56

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0 0 0 0 0

Parameters for Setting the ITURP Propagation Model


This section describes the parameters related to the ITURP propagation model. You can refer to this section when setting the ITURP propagation model.

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Parameters Related to the ITURP Propagation Model


Parameter Diffrac tion Calcul ate: parame ters for diffract ion calculat ion Effect Tx Height Calculate Method Description Indicates the algorithm for calculating the effective height of the transmitter antenna. Value Available algorithms are as follows: l AbsSpot l Height above the ground l Height above the average ground l Spot Hr l Slope At Receiver l Enhanced Slope at receiver Gener al: commo n calculat ion parame ters Formula Limitation to free space loss Indicates whether to limit the loss in the free space. The default value is True.

For the description of parameters in the formula, see Formula of the ITURP Propagation Model.

For the parameter values, see Values of the Parameters of the Formula in Typical Scenarios.

Formula of the ITURP Propagation Model


Formula: Total = K2 + K1 x lg(f) + N x lg(d x 1000) + Lf Parameters in the formula are described as follows: Parameter K2 K1 f N d Lf Description Indicates an empirical coefficient. It is a constant. Indicates a coefficient corresponding to lg(f). It is a constant. Indicates the frequency range. Indicates a coefficient corresponding to lg(d x 1000). It is a constant. Indicates the distance between the base station and the mobile station. The unit is kilometer. Indicates the logarithm of the frequency range. The value varies according to the scenario.

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Values of the Parameters of the Formula in Typical Scenarios


Scenari o NLOS house NLOS office NLOS store LOS Lf K4 + K5 x K6 K4 + K5 x (K6-1) K4 + K5 x (K6-1) 0 K2 -28 -28 -28 -28 K1 20 20 20 20 N 28 30 22 20 K4 0 15 6 0 K5 4 4 3 0 K6 2 2 2 0

Parameters for Setting the Cost231 Walfish-Ikegami Propagation Model


This section describes the parameters related to the Cost231 Walfish-Ikegami propagation model. You can refer to this section when setting the Cost231 Walfish-Ikegami propagation model.

Parameters Related to the Cost231 Walfish-Ikegami Propagation Model


Parameter Diffraction Calculate: Sets the parameters for calculating the diffraction. Effect Tx Height Calculate Method Description Indicates the algorithm for calculating the effective height of the transmitter antenna. Value Available algorithms are as follows: l AbsSpot l Height above the ground l Height above the average ground l Spot Hr l Slope At Receiver l Enhanced Slope at receiver Parameters: Sets the parameters for common calculation. Angel between incident-wave and road Building height Indicates the angle between the road and the incident wave. Indicates the average height of surrounding buildings. The default value is 30. Unit: degree. The default value is 12. Unit: m.

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Parameter Distance between buildings

Description Indicates the distance between buildings. Indicates the road width.

Value The default value is 50. Unit: m. The default value is 25. Unit: m.

Road Width

Formula of the Cost231 Walfish-Ikegami Propagation Model


The formula is as follows: l l l In the Los scenario: Total = K1 + K2 * lg(d) + K3 In the NLoss scenario and PLrts + PLmsd <=0: Total = PL0 In the NLoss scenario and PLrts + PLmsd >0: Total = PL0 + PLrts + PLmsd

Parameters in the formula are described as follows: Parameter PL0 Description Indicates the free space propagation loss. Unit: dB. PL0 =NK1 + NK2*lg(d) + NK3*lg(f) PLrts Indicates the rooftop-to-street diffraction and scattering loss. PLrts = NK4 NK5*lg(w) +NK6*lg(f) + NK7*lg(Hroof -Hue) +Lcri PLmsd Indicates the multi-shielding loss. PLmsd =Lbsk+ Ka + Kd*lg(d) + Kf*lg(f) - NK6*lg(b) Lcri Indicates the directional loss. l -10<= < 35 deg: Lcri = NKL1 + NKL2* l 35 <= <55deg: Lcri = NKL3 + NKL4(-35) l 55<= <90deg: Lcri = NKL4 NKL5(-55) Lbsk l Hbs>Hroof: Lbsk = NKL5*lg(1+Hbs -Hroof) l Hbs<=Hroof: Lbsk = 0 Ka l Hbs>Hroof: Ka = NKL6 l Hbs<=Hroof And d>=0.5 km: Ka = NKL7 NKL8*(Hbs Hroof) l Hbs<=Hroof And d<0.5 km: Ka = NKL9-NKL10*(Hbs Hroof)*(d/0.5) Kd l Hbs>Hroof: Kd = NKL11 l Hbs<=Hroof: Kd = NKL12 NKL13*((Hbs -Hroof)/Hroof)
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Parameter Kf f

Description Kf = NKL14 + NKL15 * (f/925 -1) Indicates the carrier frequency. Unit: MHz.

Indicates the distance between the base station and a terminal's antenna. Unit: km.

Indicates the road width. Unit: m.

Hroof

Indicates the height of surrounding buildings. Unit: m.

Hbs

Indicates the height of the base station antenna. Unit: m.

Hue

Indicates the height of the mobile station antenna. Indicates the angle between the road and the incident wave. Unit: degree.

K1 K2 K3

Indicates a constant item. Indicates a coefficient corresponding to Lg(d). It is a constant. Indicates a coefficient corresponding to Lg(f). It is a constant.

Default Parameter Values of the Cost Walfish-Ikegami Propagation Model


Para mete r Defa ult Valu e K1 K2 K3 NK1 NK2 NK3 NK4 NK5 NK6 NK7

42.6

26

20

32.4

20

20

-16.9

10

10

20

Parameters for Setting the Keenan-Motley Propagation Model


This section describes the parameters related to the Keenan-Motley propagation model. You can refer to this section when setting the Keenan-Motley propagation model.

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Parameters Related to the Keenan-Motley Propagation Model


Parameter Diffraction Calculate: parameters for diffraction calculation Effect Tx Height Calculate Method Description Indicates the algorithm for calculating the effective height of the transmitter antenna. Value Available algorithms are as follows: l AbsSpot l Height above the ground l Height above the average ground l Spot Hr l Slope At Receiver l Enhanced Slope at receiver General: common calculation parameters Parameters : calculation parameters Limitation to free space loss Indicates whether to limit the loss in the free space. For the description of parameters in the formula, see Formula of the Keenan-Motley Propagation Model. The default value is True.

K1-K5

For the parameter values, see Values of the Parameters of the Formula in Typical Scenarios.

Formula of the Keenan-Motley Propagation Model


Formula: Total = K1 + K2 x lg(f) + K3 x lg(d) + K4 x K5 Parameters in the formula are described as follows: Parameter K1 d f K2 K3 K4 K5 Description Indicates an empirical coefficient. It is a constant. Indicates the distance between the base station and the mobile station. The unit is kilometer. Indicates the frequency range. Indicates a coefficient corresponding to log(f). It is a constant. Indicates a coefficient corresponding to log(d). It is a constant. Indicates an empirical coefficient. It is a constant. Indicates an empirical coefficient. It is a constant.

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Values of the Parameters of the Formula in Typical Scenarios


Scenario KeenanMotley K1 32.5 K2 20 K3 20 K4 20 K5 2

Parameters for Setting the Clutter Related Hata Propagation Model


This section describes the parameters related to the Clutter Related Hata propagation model. You can refer to this section when setting the Clutter Related Hata propagation model.

Parameters Related to the Clutter Related Hata Propagation Model


Parameter Clutter Propagation Model Loss Description Clutter. Indicates the Hata propagation model related to the clutter. Path loss.

3.5 Adding a Device


You can import or create antennas, create TMAs, feeders, or site equipment.The method for creating site equipment for different network systems on the U-Net is the same.

3.5.1 Importing Antenna Data


This section describes how to import antenna data as .txt and .msi files.

Context
l l The U-Net allows you to import and export antenna data, including 2D and 3D data, as .txt and .msi files. Before importing antenna files, you can manually set the value of each parameter in the antenna files. If a value in the antenna file is not within the specified value range, the antenna file may fail to be imported.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Antennas. Step 3 Choose Import from the shortcut menu., as shown in Figure 3-14.
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Figure 3-14 Import

Step 4 In the displayed dialog box, select the file type, saving path, and the file to the imported.. l If data of a single antenna is imported, select the .txt or .msi file corresponding to the antenna. l If data of multiple antennas is imported, select .txt or .msi files in batches. l If an imported antenna name is the same as the name of an existing antenna, the U-Net adds a number to the imported antenna name to distinguish the two antennas. Step 5 Click Open. The Import Antenna File dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 3-15. Figure 3-15 Import Antenna File

l In the U-Net main window, a message is displayed in the Event Viewer window in the lower part indicating whether the antenna files are successfully imported. l You can view the imported antenna data under the Antennas node.
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Step 6 In the displayed dialog box, configure antenna parameters. For details about the parameters, see Table 3-15. Table 3-15 Parameters for importing antenna files Parameter File Name Field Separator Description File name used for identifying the user antenna attribute name in the antenna file. Field separator used by a file. A .txt file uses the Tab separator, and an .msi file uses the space separator. User antenna attribute name parsed based on FileName. Indicates the parsing reference. l Use the separator specified by the file format to parse file fields. l If the current row has only one piece of data, the data is the antenna attribute name. The next row is the field information.
NOTE This rule is executed from the first row of the file.

Source

l If the current row has several pieces of data (separated by separators), the first piece of data is the attribute name. l Data rows ranging from 0 to 359 have no field name.
NOTE The purpose is to avoid the angle information displayed after fields such as Horizontal or Vertical.

l If the user antenna data does not comply with the preceding rules, you will be prompted that the user antenna attribute name cannot be identified.
NOTE When antenna data files are imported in batches, user antenna and U-Net antenna attribute names in other antenna data files are mapped based on the attribute name mapping in the Import Antenna Filedialog box.

Destination

Standard antenna field name used by the UNet. You can switch cell values in the dropdown list to configure the mapping between user antenna attribute names and U-Net antenna attribute names. <IGNORE> indicates that the corresponding field information is ignored.
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Step 7 After the configuration, click Import to import the antenna file to the project.
NOTE

l In the U-Net main window, a message is displayed in the Event Viewer window in the lower part indicating whether the antenna files are successfully imported. l You can view the imported antenna data under the Antennas node.

----End

Follow-up Procedure
l You can export data of a single antenna. 1. 2. 3. 4. l In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. In the navigation tree, choose Antennas > an antenna. Choose Export from the shortcut menu. In the displayed dialog box, select the file type, saving path, and file name.. Then, export the antenna data. In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. In the navigation tree, choose Antennas. Right-click antennas and choose Export > Export File Type from the shortcut menu. Then, export antenna data to files in batches. In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Choose Antennas > an antenna from the navigation tree. Right-click an antenna and choose Properties from the shortcut menu. The Antenna Properties dialog box is displayed. View the antennas in the window on the Horizontal Pattern and Vertical Pattern tab pages.

You can export the antenna data in batches. 1. 2. 3.

You can view antennas in the window. 1. 2. 3. 4.

If you have imported 3D data of an antenna, you can drag the slider in the lower left corner of the Horizontal Pattern and Vertical Pattern tab pages to change the value of Attenuation, as shown in Figure 3-16.

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Figure 3-16 scroll bar

3.5.2 Setting Antennas


Each U-Net project contains multiple defined antennas of specific technologies. You can create an antenna either directly or copy an existing antenna file and modify the related parameters to create an antenna.

Procedure
l Create an antenna 1. Select a method for creating an antenna. If... Create an antenna directly Then... 1. In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. 2. In the navigation tree, choose Antennas. 3. Choose New from the shortcut menu. The Antenna Properties dialog box is displayed.

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If... Copy an existing antenna file to create an antenna

Then... 1. In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. 2. In the navigation tree, choose Antennas > an antenna. 3. Choose Duplicate from the shortcut menu. 4. Select the copied antenna. 5. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu.

2. 3. l

In the antenna property dialog box, set the parameters. For parameter description, see Parameters in the Antenna Property Setting Dialog Box. Click OK.

Create an antenna group. When an antenna group supports multiple carriers, the U-Net can automatically match the antenna gains with different bands to perform calculations. The antenna group supports smart antenna. 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. In the navigation tree, choose Antennas Groups. Choose Add Group from the shortcut menu. The New Antenna Group dialog box is displayed. Set the property parameters of the antenna group. For parameter description, see Parameters in the Antenna Group Property Setting Dialog Box.

----End

Follow-up Procedure
l Modifying antenna properties 1. 2. 3. 4. l In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. In the navigation tree, choose Antennas. Choose Open Table from the shortcut menu. The Antenna Table dialog box is displayed. Double-click the target cell, and then modify the antenna properties in the displayed dialog box.

Allocating antennas to cells You can perform this operation after creating or importing cells. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver > Sitex_x. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. On the Antenna Config tab page, select an antenna type from the Antenna dropdown list. Click OK.
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3.5.3 Setting a TMA


Tower mounted amplifiers (TMAs) are used to reduce the overall noise figure of base stations. You can assign configured TMAs to cells for calculating the total loss.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. Step 3 Right-click and choose Equipment > TMA Equipment from the shortcut menu. The TMA Equipment dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Click a blank row (marked with *) to create a TMA. For detailed description of parameters, see Table 3-16.
NOTE

l After you set the TMA parameters in the blank row, the system automatically adds a new blank row for setting other TMAs. l You can modify the original TMA parameter settings by referring to Table 3-16.

Table 3-16 TMA parameters Parameter Name NoiseFigure(dB) Gain(UL)(dB) Loss(DL)(dB) Meaning Indicates the name of a TMA. Indicates the noise figure. The unit is dB. Indicates the uplink gain. The unit is dB. Indicates the downlink loss. The unit is dB.

----End

Follow-up Procedure
You can assign the TMAs to cells after creating or importing the cells. If you do not assign the configured TMA, by default, the system does not consider the TMA during the calculation of total loss. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
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In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver > Sitex_x. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. next to On the Antenna Config tab page in the displayed dialog box, click Equipment. The Equipment Configuration dialog box is displayed. Clear Input Total Loss. Select a TMA in TMA. Click OK.
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3.5.4 Setting Feeders


Feeders are used to connect TMAs to base stations (eNodeBs, BTSs, or NodeBs). You can assign configured feeders to cells for calculating the total loss.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. Step 3 Right-click and choose Equipment > Feeder Equipment from the shortcut menu. The Feeders dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Click a blank row (marked with *) to create a feeder. For detailed description of parameters, see Table 3-17.
NOTE

l After you set the feeder parameters in the blank row, the system automatically adds a new blank row for setting other feeders. l You can modify the original feeder parameter settings by referring to Table 3-17.

Table 3-17 Feeder parameters Parameter Name dB/100m Meaning Indicates the name of a feeder. Indicates the loss of every 100 meters.

----End

Follow-up Procedure
You can assign the feeders to cells after creating or importing the cells. If you do not assign the configured feeder, by default, the system does not consider the feeder during the calculation of total loss. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver > Sitex_x. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. On the Antenna Config tab page in the displayed dialog box, click next to Equipment. The Equipment Configuration dialog box is displayed. Clear Input Total Loss. Select a feeder in Feeder. Set the feeder length of the transmitter and the receiver in Feeder Length(m). Click OK.

3.5.5 Creating Base Stations


You can create base stations and assign the base stations to cells.
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Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. Step 3 Right-click and choose Equipment > Site Equipment from the shortcut menu. The Site Equipment dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Click a blank row (marked with *) to create a base station. For details about the parameters, see Table 3-18.
NOTE

l After you set the base station parameters in the blank row, the system automatically adds a new blank row for setting other sites. l You can modify the original base station parameter settings by referring to Table 3-18.

Table 3-18 Base station parameters Parameter Name NoiseFigure(dB) Description Indicates the name of a base station. Indicates the noise figure.

----End

Follow-up Procedure
You can assign the base stations to all cells after creating or importing the cells. If you do not assign the configured base station, the system calculates the total loss based on the default base station. 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver > Sitex_x. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. In the Antenna Config area of the displayed Transceiver Properties dialog box, click following the Equipment parameter. The Equipment Configuration dialog box is displayed. 5. 6. Select a base station from the Site drop-down list. Click OK.

3.5.6 Parameters for Creating Antennas


This section describes the parameters for creating or modifying antennas or antenna groups. You can refer to this section when setting antenna properties in the antenna property setting dialog box or setting antenna group properties in the antenna group property setting dialog box.

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Parameters in the Antenna Property Setting Dialog Box


Table 3-19 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Name Description Indicates the name of an antenna, which uniquely identifies the antenna. The U-Net automatically fills in a default name for each new antenna. Manufacturer Gain Pattern Electrical Tilt: (For information only) Indicates the vendor of an antenna. Indicates the antenna gain. The value range is from 0 to 100 and the unit is dBi. Indicates the electrical downtilt of an antenna. The value range is from -90 to 90 and the unit is degree. Indicates the comments on an antenna. A maximum of 128 bytes are allowed.

Comments

Table 3-20 Parameters on the Horizontal Pattern tab page Parameter Angle() Description Indicates the horizontal angle of an antenna. The value range is from 0 to 359 and the unit is degree. Indicates the attenuation value at the horizontal angle of an antenna. The unit is dB.

Attenuation(dB)

Table 3-21 Parameters on the Vertical Pattern tab page Parameter Angle() Description Indicates the vertical angle of an antenna. The value range is from 0 to 359 and the unit is degree. Indicates the attenuation value at the vertical angle of an antenna. The unit is dB.

Attenuation(dB)

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Table 3-22 Parameters on the Other Properties tab page Parameter Beamwidth Max Frequency Description Indicates the antenna beamwidth. The value range is from 0 to 360 and the unit is degree. Indicates the maximum frequency of an antenna. The value range is from 0 to 32767 and the unit is MHz. Indicates the minimum frequency of an antenna. The value range is from 0 to 32767 and the unit is MHz. The value of Min Frequency must be smaller than or equal to the value of Max Frequency.

Min Frequency

Parameters in the Antenna Group Property Setting Dialog Box


Table 3-23 Parameters in the New Antenna Groupdialog box Parameter Group Name No. Antenna Name Description Indicates the name of an antenna group. Indicates the number of an antenna group. Indicates the name of an existing antenna, that is, the name of an antenna in the antenna group. After an antenna is selected, a bland row is added automatically for users to add a new antenna. Minimum Frequency Indicates the minimum transmit frequency of an antenna. Minimum Frequency must be less than or equal to Maximum Frequency. Maximum Frequency Comments Indicates the maximum transmit frequency of an antenna. Indicates the comments on the antenna group.

3.6 Setting LTE-FDD Traffic Parameters


The U-Net obtains the average load of the network based on the simulation calculation of the detailed user distribution and therefore calculates various counters of the radio network. Traffic parameters refer to the parameters related to the user type, mobility, terminal, service, environment, MCS, and receiving devices. They are the basic data related to user distribution. Traffic parameters can be used to generate a specific traffic map. You must ensure that the traffic parameters are defined before capacity prediction.

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3.6.1 Setting MCS Types


This section describes how to set an MCS. You can modify the parameters (mainly the demodulation mode and coding rate) of an existing MCS type. When the existing MCS types do not meet your requirements, you can create a new MCS type.

Context
The U-Net provides multiple default MCS types, corresponding to three demodulation modes (QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM) and different coding rate.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Services > LTE-FDD. Step 3 Choose PUSCH MCS or PDSCH MCS. The MCS table is displayed. Step 4 Click a blank line marked with * in the table to set an MCS type, as shown in Figure 3-17. For the detailed description of parameters, see Table 3-24. Figure 3-17 MCS

Table 3-24 Parameters for Setting the MCS Parameter Index Highest modulation Description Indicates the index of an MCS. Indicates a modulation scheme, which can any of the following: l QPSK l 16QAM l 64QAM Modulation Order Coding Rate Indicates a modulation exponent. Indicates the coding rate. The value range is from 0 to 2.
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Parameter Bearer Efficiency(bits/RE)

Description Indicates the bearer efficiency. Bearer efficiency = Coding rate x Modulation exponent

Step 5 Click ----End

to close the table.

3.6.2 Setting LTE-FDD Service Types


Set the service type such as the voice service and data service. You can modify the parameters of existing service types. If the existing service types do not meet the requirements, you can create service types.

Context
For an LTE-FDD network, the U-Net provides four default service types: LTEFTP, LTEVideo Conferencing, LTEVoIP, and LTEWeb Browsing.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 Set service type parameters. If you need to... Create a service type Then... 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Services > LTE-FDD. 2. Choose New from the shortcut menu. See Figure 3-18. 3. Set parameters for the new service type by referring to Table 3-25. Modify an existing service type 1. Choose Traffic Parameters > Services > LTE-FDD > the existing service type in the navigation tree. 2. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. 3. Change parameter values for the existing service type by referring to Table 3-25.

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Figure 3-18 New

Table 3-25 Description of service parameters Parameter Name Type Description Name of a service type. Service type. l Voice: CS services. l Data: PS services. GBR Priority GBR service. Service priority weighting factor, which is used to adjust the service priority for subscribers in capacity simulation. 1 indicates the lowest priority. Activity Factor Uplink/downlink activation factor. This parameter is required only for CS services. l Uplink: uplink activation factor. The value ranges from 0 to 1. l Downlink: downlink activation factor. The value ranges from 0 to 1. AMR Rate(kbit/s) Rate of CS services. The unit is kbit/s. Value range: 4.75, 5.15, 5.9, 6.7, 7.4, 7.95, 10.2, and 12.2. MAC PDU(kbit) Size of a packet for transmitting CS service data at the MAC layer.

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Parameter Max Throughput (kbit/s)

Description Maximum uplink/downlink throughput. l Uplink: maximum uplink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 107. l Downlink: maximum downlink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 107.
NOTE Minimum throughput Average throughput Maximum throughput.

Min Throughput (kbit/s)

Minimum uplink/downlink throughput. l Uplink: minimum uplink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 107. l Downlink: minimum downlink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 107.
NOTE Minimum throughput Average throughput Maximum throughput.

Average Throughput (kbit/s)

Average uplink/downlink throughput. l Uplink: average uplink throughput. l Downlink: average downlink throughput.

Transmission Efficiency

Uplink/downlink transmission rate. l Uplink: uplink transmission rate. The value ranges from 0 to 1. l Downlink: downlink transmission rate. The value ranges from 0 to 1.

Offset(kbit/s)

Fixed uplink/downlink overhead, which is the length added to an encapsulated packet during the transmission at the MAC or RLC layer. l Uplink: fixed uplink overhead. The value ranges from 0 to 107. l Downlink: fixed downlink overhead. The value ranges from 0 to 107.

IBLER(%) Body Loss(dB)

Block error rate. The value ranges from 0 to 100. Body loss.

Step 3 Click OK. ----End

3.6.3 Setting LTE-FDD Receivers


You can modify the parameters of existing receiver types. If the existing receiver types do not meet the requirements, you can create receiver types.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab.
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Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > LTE-FDD. Step 3 Choose Reception Equipment from the shortcut menu. Step 4 Set the name of a receiver. If... Create a receiver type. Then... In a blank row marked with *, type the name of the new receiver and select type of MCS Table. Perform Step 5.

Modify an existing receiver type.

Step 5 Double-click the column heading corresponding to the receiver type, and then set parameters for the receiver type by referring to Table 3-26. If data in a row becomes unavailable in the dialog box, the data in this row cannot be changed. Step 6 Click OK. Table 3-26 Parameters for setting LTE-FDD receivers Parameter Name MCS Table Mobility MIMO IBLER(%) Channel Relativity Transmission Mode Description Indicates the name of a receiver. Indicates the modulation and coding scheme. Indicates the mobility type of a receiver. Indicates the efficiency of adjusting codes by the receiver. Indicates the block error rate. The value range is from 0 to 100. Indicates the channel relativity. Indicates the transmission mode. This parameter is valid only when the MCS Table is set to PDSCH MCS. MCS Threshold Indicates the MCS bearer table of a receiver. You can double-click a cell and then view the detailed MCS bearer information in the Demodulation area. l SINR: indicates the threshold of the SINR required during demodulation. l Spectrum Efficiency: indicate the efficiency of the spectrum. l The chart in the right pane shows the demodulation thresholds.

----End
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3.6.4 Setting LTE-FDD Terminal Types


Set the terminal types used when a service is performed. You can modify the parameters of existing terminal types. If the existing terminal types do not meet the requirements, you can create terminal types.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 Set parameters of the terminal type. If you want to... Then... Create a terminal 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > LTE-FDD. type 2. Choose New from the shortcut menu. 3. Set parameters for the new terminal type by referring to Table 3-27. Modify an 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > existing terminal LTE-FDD > the existing terminal type. type 2. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. 3. Modify the parameters of the existing terminal type by referring to Table 3-27.

Table 3-27 Parameters for setting terminal types Parameter Name UE Category Description Indicates the name of a terminal type. Indicates the category of a terminal. The terminals are classified into five categories ranging from 1 to 5. UL Peak Throughput(Kbps) DL Peak Throughput(Kbps) Support UL 64 QAM Maximum Layer Number Min Tx Power(dBm) Max Tx Power(dBm) Noise Figure(dB) Cable Loss(dB) UL RS Offset(dB) Indicates the peak throughput in the uplink direction. Indicates the peak throughput in the downlink direction. Indicates that 64 QAM is supported in the uplink direction. Indicates the maximum number of layers. Indicates the minimum transmit power of a terminal. Indicates the maximum transmit power of a terminal. Indicates the noise figure of a terminal. Indicates the feeder loss of a terminal. Indicates the reference signal (RS) offset in the uplink direction.
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Parameter RB Number Reception Equipment Gain(dBi) Number of Transmission Antenna Ports Number of Reception Antenna Ports

Description Indicates the number of resource blocks (RBs) supported by the terminal. This parameter is only applicable to prediction. Indicates the type of the receiver for a terminal. Indicates the antenna gain. Indicates the number of antennas at the transmitter for a terminal. Indicates the number of antennas at the receiver for a terminal.

Step 3 ClickOK. ----End

3.6.5 Setting Environment Types


This section describes how to set environment types. You can modify the parameters of existing environment types, such as user, mobility type, and user density. If the existing environment types do not meet the requirements, you can create environment types.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 Perform the following operations as required. If you need to... Then...

Create an 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Environments. environment type 2. Choose New from the shortcut menu. 3. Set parameters for the new environment type by referring to Table 3-28 and Table 3-29. Modify an 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Environments existing > the existing environment type. environment type 2. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. 3. Modify the parameters of the existing environment type by referring to Table 3-28 and Table 3-29.

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If you need to... Compare attributes of multiple traffic environments

Then... 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Environments. 2. Right-click and choose Compare Environment Elements from the shortcut menu. The Environment Compare dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 3-19.
NOTE You can select two traffic environments or more to compare in the Select Environments area and select the comparison items in the Environment Items area.

3. Click Compare. In the displayed Environment Compare Result dialog box, check the attributes of the compared traffic environments, as shown in Figure 3-20. 4. Compare attributes of multiple traffic environments by referring to Table 3-28 and Table 3-29.

Table 3-28 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Name User Mobility Density(Subscribers/km2) Description Indicates the name of an environment type. Indicates a user type. Indicates a mobility type. Indicates the user density (number of users in each square kilometer). The unit is n/km 2, where n indicates the number of users.

Table 3-29 Parameters on the Clutter Weight tab page Parameter Clutter Class Description Indicates the name of a surface feature. The names are relevant to the imported geographical data. Indicates the weight occupied by each surface feature. This parameter is used for calculating the number of users allocated to each surface feature. This parameter is available only when Clutter map data exists. % Indoor Indicates the proportion of indoor users of a surface feature.

Weight

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Figure 3-19 Environment Compare

Figure 3-20 Environment Compare Result

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Step 3 Click OK. ----End

3.6.6 Setting User Types


You can modify the parameters of existing user types, such as user priority, service type, and user type. If the existing user types do not meet the requirements, you can create user types.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 Perform the following operations as required. If you want to... Then... Create a user type 1. Under the Data tab in the Explorer window, right-click and then choose Traffic Parameters > User Profiles from the shortcut menu. 2. Set parameters for the new user type by referring to Table 3-30. Modify an 1. Under the Data tab in the Explorer window, choose Traffic existing user type Parameters > User Profiles > An existing user type; right-click and then choose Properties from the shortcut menu. 2. Modify the parameters of the existing user type by referring to Table 3-30. Compare 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > User Profiles. attributes of user 2. Right-click and choose Compare User Profiles Elements from the types shortcut menu. The User Profiles Compare dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 3-21.
NOTE You can select two user types or more to compare in the Select User Profiles area.

3. Click Compare. In the displayed User Profiles Compare Result dialog box, check the attributes of the compared user types, as shown in Figure 3-22. 4. Compare attributes of user types by referring to Table 3-30.

Table 3-30 Parameters for Setting User Types Parameter Name Priority Description Indicates the name of a user. Indicates the priority of a user. The value 1 indicates the lowest priority. The larger the number, the higher the priority. Service
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Parameter Terminal Calls/hour Duration(s) Volume(DL)(Kbyte) Volume(UL)(Kbyte)

Description Indicates a terminal type. Indicates the number of calls per hour. Indicates the duration of a call. Indicates the downlink data volume. Indicates the uplink data volume.

Figure 3-21 User Profiles Compare

Figure 3-22 User Profiles Compare Result

Step 3 Click OK. ----End


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3.6.7 Setting Mobility Types


This section describes how to set mobility types for terminals. You can modify the parameters of existing mobility types, such as the velocity. If the existing mobility types do not meet the requirements, you can create mobility types.

Context
The U-Net provides six default mobility types: 30 km/h, 50 km/h, 60 km/h, 90 km/h, Fixed, and Pedestrian.

Procedure
Step 1 Create or modify a mobility type. If you want to... Create a mobility type Then... 1. Under the Data tab in the Explorer window, right-click Traffic Parameters > Mobility Types, and then choose New from the shortcut menu. The Mobility Properties dialog box is displayed. 2. Set parameters for the new mobility type by referring to Table 3-31. 3. Click OK. Modify an existing mobility 1. Under the Data tab in the Explorer window, choose Traffic type Parameters > Mobility Types > An existing mobility type; right-click and then choose Properties from the shortcut menu. The Mobility Properties dialog box is displayed. 2. Modify the parameters for the existing mobility type by referring to Table 3-31. 3. Click OK.

Table 3-31 Parameters for Setting Mobility Types Parameter Name Average Speed(km/h) Description Indicates the name of a mobility type. Indicates the mobility speed.

Step 2 Click OK. ----End

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3.7 Setting LTE-FDD NE Parameters


You can import existing base station data to create base stations or use a base station template to automatically create base stations. You can also create sites, transmitters, or repeaters separately.

3.7.1 Importing Base Station Information


You can import a data file of base station to the U-Net. After that, the system automatically creates sites, cells, and transceivers according to the base station data. You can also export base station data in a project for easy viewing of site information, cell information, and transceiver information. For networks with different modes, the U-Net imports base station information in the same way.

Context
l Not all the base station data files can be imported to the U-Net. The U-Net has certain requirements on the format of the data files (site data, cell data, or transceiver data) to be imported. Generally, you can export base station data and the corresponding configuration file from the U-Net, modify the relevant parameters, and then import the data to the U-Net for analysis.

Procedure
Step 1 After exporting base station data and the corresponding configuration file, save or edit the data for future use. 1. 2. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Select the objects to be exported. If... Export site data. Then... a. In the navigation tree, choose Site. b. Choose Export from the shortcut menu. Export transceiver data. Export cell data. a. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. b. Choose Export from the shortcut menu. a. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. b. Choose Cells > Export from the shortcut menu.

3.

In the Data Export dialog box, set the parameters. For parameter description, see Parameters in the Data Export Dialog Box.
TIP

l You can click Save to save the current parameter configuration in the dialog box as a configuration file. l You can also click Load to load an existing configuration file. The U-Net exports data based on the parameter configuration in the configuration file.

4.
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Click Export.
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5.

Set the file type, saving path, and file name. Then, save the settings. After the data export is complete, you can open the exported file, and view or modify the base station data of the current project.

Step 2 Import the base station data and the corresponding configuration file into the U-Net to automatically create base stations. 1. 2. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Select the objects to be imported. If... Import site data. Then... a. In the navigation tree, choose Site. b. Choose Import from the shortcut menu. c. Select the file to be imported, and open the Data Import dialog box. Import transceiver data. a. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. b. Choose Import from the shortcut menu. c. Select the file to be imported, and open the Data Import dialog box. a. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. b. Choose Cells > Import from the shortcut menu. c. Select the file to be imported, and open the Data Import dialog box.

Import cell data.

3. 4. 5.

To ensure that the data is successfully exported, see 9.3 How Do I Check Field Matching in the Field Mapping Area to check field matching. Optional: In the Data Import dialog box, set the parameters. For parameter description, see Parameters in the Data Import Dialog Box. Click Import. l After the data import is complete, the system creates base stations based on the base station data and displays the base stations in the map window. l If a file fails to be imported, modify the file based on the error information displayed in the system.

----End

3.7.2 Creating a Single Site


This section describes how to create a single site. You can create a site or modify the properties of an existing site to obtain a new one. For networks using different radio access technologies (RATs), you can use the U-Net to create a single site in the same way.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Site.
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Step 3 Choose New from the shortcut menu. Step 4 Set site parameters on the General tab page of the displayed dialog box. For details, see Parameters for Creating Sites. Step 5 Click OK. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
l You can view or modify site properties. In addition, you can move or delete a single site. 1. 2. Select the site in the map window. Perform the following operations as required. If... You want to view or modify site properties Then... 1. Choose Site Properties from the shortcut menu. 2. In the displayed dialog box, view or modify site properties such as site name and coordinate values. Directly drag the mouse to move the position of the selected site. Choose Delete from the shortcut menu.

You want to move a site You want to delete a site

The preceding operations can be performed in both the Explorer window and the map window. This section describes the operations performed in only the map window. l You can also rank or group sites, audit the distance between two sites, and set the display effect of a site. 1. 2. 3. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. In the navigation tree, choose Site. Perform the following operations as required. If... You want to group sites You want to rank sites You want to audit the distance between two sites Then... Choose Group By > group dimension from the shortcut menu. Choose Order from the shortcut menu. 1. Right-click and choose Distance Audit from the shortcut menu. 2. In the displayed dialog box, set Distance(m)<=, which specifies the audit distance. 3. Click Audit. The names of sites whose distances are within the distance specified by the preset value and their actual distances are displayed in the main window of the UNet.
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If... You want to set the display effect of a base station

Then... 1. Choose Display Setting from the shortcut menu. 2. In the displayed dialog box, set parameters such as the display field and color.
NOTE When Display Type is set to GroupBy, you can select or clear the check boxes after the group information to control the display effect of base station information. For overlapped areas upon base station grouping, the base station display effect is determined by the sequence when you select the check boxes. Provided that area 1 and area 2 overlap for example, if you select area 1 and then area 2, then the base station display effect in the overlapped area is the same as that in area 2.

3. Click OK. You want to enable the display or hiding of property columns of basic site parameters 1. Right-click and choose Open Table from the shortcut menu. The Sites table is displayed. 2. Right-click a point in the Sites table and choose Display Columns from the shortcut menu. 3. In the displayed Columns to be displayed dialog box, view the basic site parameters in the Sites table and select or clear the check boxes of columns that need to be displayed or hidden in the Sites table. For details, see Basic Parameters of a Site. 4. Close the Columns to be displayed dialog box. The Sites table is updated and displays property columns based on the preceding settings.

3.7.3 Setting an LTE-FDD Base Station Template


This section describes how to manage base station templates. You can create base stations by using the predefined templates of the U-Net. If the predefined templates do not meet your requirements, you can customize a base station template.

Procedure
l View base station templates. 1. On the toolbar, select Template Management from the dropdown list. The Station Template Properties dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 3-23.

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Figure 3-23 Station Template Properties

The name of the default base station template will be displayed on the toolbar of the U-Net main window. The names of other base station templates are available in the drop-down list. For example, 2. l .

The Available Templates area displays the currently available base station templates. Select the default template from the drop-down list next to Default. Click Add. The Station Template Properties dialog box is displayed. Alternatively, click Duplicate to duplicate the selected base station template. Then, a new base station template is generated on the basis of the selected template.

Create a base station template. 1.

2. 3. l 1. 2. 3. 4. ----End
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Set the properties in the LTE-FDD base station template. For details, see Parameters for Setting LTE-FDD Base Station Templates. Click OK. Select a base station template in the Available Templates area. Click Properties. The Station Template Properties dialog box is displayed. View and modify the properties in the base station template. For details, see Parameters for Setting LTE-FDD Base Station Templates. Click OK.

View and modify properties of the base station template.

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Follow-up Procedure
You can create base stations based on a predefined base station template or a customized base station template. When a base station template is not required, you can select the template in the Station Template Properties dialog box and then click Delete to delete it. You cannot delete the last base station template.

3.7.4 Creating Base Stations in Batches


The system supports creating a single site automatically or creating a series of base stations with the same property in batches. For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a base station automatically in the same way.

Prerequisites
The required base station template is created.

Procedure
l Create a single site in batches. 1. 2. 3. 4. l On the toolbar, select a base station template from the down list. Click on the toolbar. drop-

Move the mouse pointer to the target position in the map window. Click the target position. A base station is created.

Create sites in batches. 1. On the toolbar, select a base station template from the down list. Click on the toolbar. drop-

2.

(a hexagon-shaped icon), you can create a batch of base stations by By clicking using the same base station template. 3. Draw the area where the base stations are to be placed. The U-Net places a batch of base stations in the area. In the meantime, sites and cells of the base stations are created. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
l View and modify site properties. You can right-click a site in the Explorer window or in the map window and then choose the corresponding menu item to view and modify site properties. l
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Move the site.


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When modifying site properties, you can change the position of the site by changing coordinates. Alternatively, you can drag the site to a new position in the map window. l Delete the site. You can right-click the site in the explorer window or in the map window and then choose Delete from the shortcut menu. Alternatively, you can select the site in the map window and then press the Delete key. l Export, search for, and group the site, set display properties of the base station.

3.7.5 Creating Repeaters


This section describes how to create repeaters. A repeater receives, amplifies, and forwards the RF carriers launched or transmitted in the uplink and downlink. A repeater includes two sides, that is, the donor side and the serving cell side. The donor side of a repeater receives signals from the donor transmitter. The signals may be carried by links of different types, such as radio links or microwave links. The serving cell side forwards the received signals. For networks of different types, the U-Net creates a repeater in the same way.

Prerequisites
Base stations (including sites and cells) are available.

Procedure
Step 1 Create repeater equipment. 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. Choose Equipment > Repeater Equipment from the shortcut menu. The Repeater Equipment window is displayed. To set the parameters of the new repeater equipment in the blank row, see Parameters for Creating Repeaters. l Enter the name of the new repeater equipment. After you enter the name, the system creates a blank row to configure other repeater equipment. l Click a property cell to change the value of the property. Step 2 Create a repeater. 1. 2. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. Choose Repeaters > New from the shortcut menu. The Repeater Properties dialog box is displayed. Alternatively, select the transceiver to which a repeater is added and then click toolbar. Then, you can add a repeater directly in the map window. 3. 4. Click OK. on the

To configure the properties of the repeater, see Parameters for Creating Repeaters.

----End

3.7.6 Creating a Transceiver


This section describes how to create a transceiver. The U-Net combines the transceiver with cells. Before setting a cell, you must set the transceiver parameters. A transceiver supports a
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multi-mode network, that is, a transceiver can cover multiple cells. For networks using different radio access technologies (RATs), you can use the U-Net to create a transceiver in the same way.

Prerequisites
A site has been created on the U-Net.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. Step 3 Choose New from the shortcut menu. Step 4 In the displayed dialog box, set the transceiver parameters. For details, see Parameters for Creating Transceivers. Step 5 Click OK.
NOTE

If an independent site exists, you can click on the toolbar and move the cursor to the site. When a square frame appears around the site, click the left mouse key. After that, the system automatically creates a transceiver and corresponding cells for the site.

----End

Follow-up Procedure
l You can group transceivers. 1. 2. 3. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. Right-click Transceiver and choose Group By > Grouping Mode. The U-Net automatically groups the transceivers based on the selected grouping mode. Two levels of grouping are supported. Table 3-32 lists the default grouping modes of transceivers.
NOTE

You can choose Group By > More and set to display the grouping dimension in Group By.

Table 3-32 Group By Grouping Mode None Polygon Network Type Comments Site Equipment
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Description No grouping mode is applied. Calculation area. RAT. Indicates the description information. Indicates the site equipment.
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Grouping Mode Active Frequency Band Scene BSC ID RNC Name

Description Indicates whether a cell is activated or not. Indicates the frequency band of a cell. Indicates the scenario of a cell. Indicates the BSC ID of a GSM or CDMA cell. Indicates the RNC Name of a UMTS cell.

Alternatively, you can view common properties of a transceiver in the transceiver table and manually set the property columns to be displayed in the table. 1. 2. 3. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. Right-click Transceiver and choose Open Table from the shortcut menu. The Transceiver table table is displayed.
NOTE

Common engineering parameters such as Total loss DL, Total loss UL, Number of Transmission Antenna Ports, Number of Transmission Antennas, Number of Reception Antennas, and Input Total Loss are displayed in the Transceiver table table by default to reduce the time required for selection.

4. 5.

Right-click in the Transceiver table table and choose Display Columns from the shortcut menu. In the displayed Columns to be displayed dialog box, view the basic site parameters in the Sites table and select or clear the check boxes of columns that need to be displayed or hidden in the Sites table. Close the dialog box. The Transceiver table table is updated and displays the property columns based on the preceding settings.

6.

3.7.7 Setting LTE-FDD Cell Parameters


This section describes how to set LTE-FDD cell parameters. After a transceiver is set, the UNet automatically assigns a cell to the transceiver. After setting transceiver parameters, you can set cell parameters.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver > Sitex_x. Step 3 Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. Step 4 On the LTE-FDDCell tab page, set LTE-FDD cell parameters, as shown in Figure 3-24. Parameters for Setting the Parameters of LTE-FDD Cells describes the parameters. l Table 3-42 describes the Transmission Mode parameter.
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l Table 3-43 describes the Advance Parameters parameter. l Table 3-44 describes the Neighbours list parameter. l Table 3-45 describes the Propagation Models parameter. Figure 3-24 LTE-FDDCell

Step 5 Click OK. ----End

3.7.8 Interface Reference for Setting LTE-FDD NE Parameters


This section describes the parameters for setting LTE-FDD NE parameters by using the U-Net.

Parameters for Creating Sites


This section describes the parameters for creating a site or modifying the properties of a site. You can refer to this section when viewing the properties of a site in the Site Properties dialog box. Parameter Name Description Indicates the name of a site. This parameter uniquely identifies a site. The U-Net specifies the default name of each new site.
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Parameter Support Type

Description Indicates the base station type. Macro indicates a macro base station, and Micro indicates a micro base station.

Position
NOTE If no map is imported, parameters in this area are X and Y. If a map is imported, parameters in this area are Longitude and Latitude.

X Y Longitude Latitude Real

Indicates a geodetic coordinate X (X coordinate). Indicates a geodetic coordinate Y (Y coordinate). Indicates a longitudinal coordinate. Indicates a latitudinal coordinate. Indicates the real altitude. l If no map is imported, the default value is 0. l If a map is imported, the default value is the altitude at the center of the map.

Altitude(m)

DTM

Indicates the altitude obtained from the DTM map. l If no map is imported, the default value is 0. l If a map is imported, the default value is the altitude at the center of the map.

Use Altitude For Calculation

Indicates whether to manually enter the altitude of a site for calculation. If this option is selected, you enter the altitude of a site manually for calculation. Displays the comments on the corresponding site.

Comments

Parameters for Creating Transceivers


This section describes the parameters used for creating transceivers. You can refer to this section when setting transceiver parameters on the General and Antenna Config tab pages in the Transceiver Properties dialog box or in the Antenna Config table. Table 3-33 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Name Description Name of a transceiver. This parameter uniquely identifies a transceiver.

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Parameter Site

Description Name of the site that a transceiver belongs to. You can click New to create a site.

Hexagon Radius(m)

Radius of the hexagon indicating the cell coverage. The value ranges from 1 to 100000. l If a transceiver is directly added in the main window, the radius of the hexagon is the value of Hexagon Radius (m) in the current site template by default. l If a transceiver is added under the Transceiver node in the navigation tree, the value of this parameter is empty by default.

Transmission in the Number of Antennas area Reception in the Number of Antennas area Transmission in the Number of Antenna Ports area Comments

Number of transmission antennas on a base station. Number of receive antennas on a base station. Number of transmission antenna ports. Comments on a transceiver.

Table 3-34 Parameters on the Antenna Config tab page Parameter Antenna ID Description ID of an antenna for a transceiver. The ID of each antenna must be unique for a transceiver. Power Ratio Sector ID Dx(m) Dy(m) Longitude Latitude Main Antenna Power allocation ratio. The value ranges from 0 to 1. ID of a sector. This parameter uniquely identifies an antenna. Offset of the antenna relative to the site that the antenna belongs to in the X direction. The unit is meter. Offset of the antenna relative to the site that the antenna belongs to in the Y direction. The unit is meter. Longitude of an antenna. Latitude of an antenna. Main antenna of a transceiver. Each cell has only one main antenna. Azimuth Antenna azimuth. The value ranges from 0 to 360. The unit is degree.

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Parameter Antenna

Description Type of an antenna. The default value is determined based on the configuration of the system antennas. In normal cases, the default antenna type is the type of the first antenna.

Mechanical Downtilt Electrical Downtilt Height(m) RRU ID

Mechanical downtilt of an antenna. The unit is degree. Electrical downtilt of an antenna. The unit is degree. Height of an antenna. The unit is meter. l ID of a remote radio unit (RRU). l The value ranges from 0 to 100. The default value is 0. l If the value of RRU ID differs among the antennas for a transceiver, the cell served by the transceiver is a single frequency network (SFN) cell. In this case, you can configure only one cell for this transceiver.

Equipment

Equipment properties. For details, see Table 3-35.

Table 3-35 Parameters in the Equipment Configuration dialog box Parameter Input Total Loss Description l If you select the check box, you need to manually type the total loss. l If you clear the check box, the U-Net calculates the total loss. Site Equipment TMA Indicates the site equipment. Tower-mounted amplifier (TMA). You can click modify its properties. Antenna feeder. You can click to

Feeder Feeder Length(m) Miscellaneous Loss(dB) JumpLoss Ant-TMA(dB) JumpLoss Ant-BS(dB)

to modify its properties.

Length of a feeder. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Miscellaneous loss. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Jumper loss between the TMA and the antenna port. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Jumper loss between the top of cabinet and the antenna port. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink.

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Parameter JumpLoss TMA-BS(dB) Total Loss(dB)

Description Jumper loss between the TMA and the top of cabinet. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Total loss, including the TMA, feeder, jumper, and miscellaneous loss. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink.

Parameters for Creating Repeaters


This section describes the parameters for creating repeaters or repeater equipment. You can refer to this section when viewing the properties of repeaters in the Repeater Properties dialog box or the properties of repeater equipment in the Repeater Equipment dialog box.

Parameters in the Repeater Equipment Dialog Box


Parameter Name Description Indicates the name of repeater equipment. This parameter uniquely identifies repeater equipment. Indicates the noise figure of the repeater equipment. The value range is from 0 to 32767 and the unit is dB. Min AMP Gain(dB) Indicates the minimum amplification gain of the repeater equipment. The value range is from 0 to 32767 and the unit is dB. Max AMP Gain(dB) Indicates the maximum amplification gain of the repeater equipment. The value range is from 0 to 32767 and the unit is dB. Max Output Power(UL)(dBm) Indicates the maximum uploaded transmit power of the repeater equipment. The value range is from 0 to 32767 and the unit is dBm. Max Output Power(DL)(dBm) Indicates the maximum downloaded transmit power of the repeater equipment. The value range is from 0 to 32767 and the unit is dBm.

Noise Figure(dB)

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Parameter Time Delay(ms)

Description Indicates the time delay of the repeater equipment. The value range is from 0 to 32767 and the unit is ms.

Parameters in the Repeater Properties Dialog Box


Table 3-36 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Name Description Indicates the name of a repeater. This parameter uniquely identifies a repeater. The U-Net enters the default name of each new site. Donor Equipment Dx Dy Comments Indicates the donor cell of the repeater. Indicates the repeater equipment. Indicates the offset of the repeater to the site in the X direction. Indicates the offset of the repeater to the site in the Y direction. Displays the comments on the repeater.

Table 3-37 Parameters on the Donor Side tab page Parameter Link Type Air Description Indicates the loss of a radio link. The unit is dB. Microwave Indicates the loss of a microwave link. The unit is dB. Optical Fibre Indicates the loss of an optical cable link. The unit is dB. Antenna Model Height(m) Indicates the model of the antenna on the donor side. Indicates the height of the antenna on the donor side.

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Parameter Azimuth

Description Indicates the azimuth of the antenna on the donor side. The unit is degree. Mechanical Downtilt Indicates the mechanical downtilt of the antenna on the donor side. The unit is degree. Electrical Downtilt Indicates the electrical downtilt of the antenna on the donor side. The unit is degree.

Feeder

Type

Indicates the type of the feeder on the donor side. You can select a feeder type, click ..., and then modify the properties of the feeders.

Length(m)

l Transmission: Indicates the feeder length on the donor side. l Reception: Indicates the feeder length of the reception equipment on the donor side.

Table 3-38 Parameters on the Coverage Side tab page Parameter Active Power(dBm) Total Gain Downlink Uplink Antenna Model Height(m) Azimuth Description Indicates whether the repeater is active. Indicates the transmit power. Indicates the total gain on the downlink. Indicates the total gain on the uplink. Indicates the model of the antenna on the coverage side. Indicates the height of the antenna on the coverage side. Indicates the azimuth of the antenna on the coverage side. The unit is degree. Mechanical Downtilt Indicates the mechanical downtilt of the antenna on the coverage side. The unit is degree.

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Parameter Electrical Downtilt

Description Indicates the electrical downtilt of the antenna on the coverage side. The unit is degree.

Feeder

Type

Indicates the type of the feeder on the coverage side. You can select a feeder type, click ..., and then modify the properties of the feeders.

Length(m)

l Transmission: Indicates the feeder length on the coverage side. l Reception: Indicates the feeder length of the reception equipment on the coverage side.

Table 3-39 Parameters on the Propagation tab page Parameter Main Matrix Main Matrix Propagation Model Radius(m) Resolution(m) Extended Matrix Extended Matrix Propagation Model Radius(m) Resolution(m) Description Indicates the main propagation model. Indicates the calculation radius of the main propagation model. Indicates the calculation resolution of the main propagation model. Indicates the extended propagation model. Indicates the calculation radius of the extended propagation model. Indicates the calculation resolution of the extended propagation model.

Parameters for Setting LTE-FDD Base Station Templates


This section describes the parameters for creating base station templates or modifying the properties of base station templates. You can refer to this section when managing base station templates in the Station Template Properties dialog box.

Site Tab Page


Parameter Name Description Indicates the name of a base station template.

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Parameter Support Type

Description Indicates the base station type. Macro indicates a macro base station, and Micro indicates a micro base station.

Use Altitude For Calculation

Indicates whether to manually enter the altitude of a site for calculation. If this option is selected, you manually enter the altitude of a site for calculation. Indicates the radius of a cell. Description.

Hexagon Radius Comments

Transceiver area on the LTE-FDD tab page


Parameter Transceivers Model Site Equipment Mechanical Downtilt Electrical Downtilt Height/Ground(m) First Sector Azimuth Transmission in the Number of Antennas area Reception in the Number of Antennas area Transmission in the Number of Antenna Ports area Total Loss(DL) Total Loss(UL) Comments Description Indicates the number of transceivers in a site. Indicates the type of an antenna. Indicates the site equipment. Indicates the mechanical tilt angle. Indicates the electrical tilt angle. Indicates the height of an antenna. Indicates the azimuth of the first sector. Number of transmission antennas on a base station. Number of receive antennas on a base station. Number of transmission antenna ports.

Indicates the total downlink loss. Indicates the total uplink loss. Description.

General tab page in the Cell area of the LTE-FDD tab page
Parameter Max Power(dBm)
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Description Indicates the maximum transmit power. The unit is dBm.


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Parameter RS Power(dBm) Actual Load(DL) Actual Load(UL) Target IoT(UL)(dB) Actual IoT(UL)(dB) CCU IoT(dB)

Description Indicates the power of the reference signal on a subcarrier. The unit is dBm. Indicates the actual load on the downlink. The value ranges from 0 to 1. Indicates the actual load on the uplink. The value ranges from 0 to 1. Indicates the target ratio of the sum of interference and noise to the volume of increased noise on the uplink. Indicates the actual Interface Over Thermal (IoT) on the uplink. Indicates the IoT of users in the cell center. The value ranges from -100 to 100. The default value is 12.5.

CEU IoT(dB)

Indicates the IoT of users at the cell edge. The value ranges from -100 to 100. The default value is 10.5.

Frequency Band Channel Index Reception Transmission Mode

Indicates a frequency band. Indicates a channel index. Indicates a receiver. Indicates the transmission mode. For details about parameter values, see Table 3-40.

Priority Channel Relativity

Indicates the cell priority. The smaller the value of a cell is, the higher the priority of the cell is. Indicates whether channel relativity is considered. By default, this option is not selected.

COMP

Indicates whether the macro diversity gain function is enabled on the base station. Enable the macro diversity gain function on the uplink for the base station to increase cell edge capacity and average cell throughput. By default, this option is not selected.

IRC

Indicates whether the interference rejection combining (IRC) function is enabled. If colored interference is strong, enable the IRC to suppress combining signal interference and increase uplink gain. By default, this option is not selected.

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Advance tab page in the Cell area of the LTE-FDD tab page
Parameter Downlink Description Indicates the downlink parameters. You can set downlink parameters in the text boxes in this area. Uplink Indicates the uplink parameters. You can set uplink parameters in the text boxes in this area. Frequency Selectivity Schedule Indicates whether to enable the frequency scheduling function. If this option is selected, the system allocates the proper network resources to users during capacity simulation. ICIC(UL) Indicates whether to perform inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) in the uplink. l If inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) is not enabled, the U-Net uses Actual IoT(UL) in the cell properties. l If ICIC is enabled, CCU IoT is used for the cell center and CEU IoT is used for the cell edge. ICIC(DL) Indicates whether to perform ICIC in the downlink. l When this parameter is set to ICIC Off, the PA value set in cell attributes is used. l When this parameter is set to Static ICIC, ICIC is enabled. In this case, the CCU PA value is used for the cell center and the CEU PA value for the cell edge. l When this parameter is set to Adaptive ICIC, ICIC can be enabled automatically and edge band mode can be configured automatically. Users can plan the edge band modes and then deliver the band modes without having to configure the parameter for the cells one by one. Edge Frequency Style(UL) Indicates the method of allocating frequencies to edge users in the uplink. The Reuse3 state is supported (Style1, Style2, or Style3).

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Parameter Edge Frequency Style(DL)

Description Indicates the method of allocating frequencies to edge users in the downlink. l When ICIC(DL) is set to Static ICIC, the Reuse3 state is supported (Style1, Style2, or Style3). l When ICIC(DL) is set to Adaptive ICIC, the following 4 states and 11 modes are supported: Reuse3 (Style1, Style2, or Style3), Reuse6 (Style1a, Style1b, Style2a, Style2b, Style3a, or Style3b), full power Reuse1 (AllPowerReuse1), and low power Reuse1 (LowPowerReuse1). l When the parameter is set to the Reuse3 or Reuse6 state, the CCU PA value is used for the cell center for all users and the CEU PA value for cell edge. When the parameter is set to AllPowerReuse1, the PA value for all users in the cell is set to the value of PA. When the parameter is set to LowPowerReuse1, the PA value for all users in the cell is set to the value of CCU PA.

Power Control Target Load Control Channel Overhead

Indicates the power control in the downlink. Indicates the target load. l Uplink area: Indicates the number of resource blocks (RBs) on the uplink control channels. The value range is from 1 to N-1. The unit is RB. N indicates the number of RBs of the entire bandwidth. l Downlink area: Indicates the number of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) on the downlink PDCCH.

Max Schedule Users RS SINR Access Threshold (DL)(dB) Schedule Policy

Indicates the maximum number of scheduled subscribers on the uplink and downlink. Indicates the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) access threshold of the downlink reference signal. The unit is dB. Indicates a scheduling policy. l RR: Indicates that the scheduling is based on the polling algorithm. l PF: Indicates that the scheduling is based on the polling algorithm and the maximum signal to interference ratio. l MAX_CI: Indicates that the scheduling is based on the maximum signal to interference ratio.

TTI Bundling VMIMO

Indicates whether TTI Bundling is considered. Indicates whether the virtual multiple-input multiple-output (VMIMO) is considered. By default, this option is not selected.

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Power Offset tab page in the Cell area of the LTE-FDD tab page
Parameter PBCH to RS(dB) Description Indicates the offset of the PBCH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value ranges from -15 to 15 and the unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the SCH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value ranges from -15 to 15 and the unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the downlink PCFICH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value range is from -15 to 15. The unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the downlink PDCCH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value range is from -15 to 15. The unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the PHICH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value range is from -15 to 15. The unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the transmit power on the PDSCH RE relative to that on the RS RE. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The default value is -3. CCU PA(dB) Indicates the offset of the class A signal power received by users in the cell center on the PDSCH relative to the RS power. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The default value is -6. CEU PA(dB) Indicates the offset of the class A signal power received by users at the cell edge on the PDSCH relative to the RS power. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The default value is -1.77. PB(dB) Indicates the index for the offset of A symbols and B symbols of the RE relative to the RSRE power. The value can be 0, 1, 2, or 3.

SCH to RS(dB)

PCFICH to RS(dB)

PDCCH to RS(dB)

PHICH to RS(dB)

PA(dB)

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Propagation Models tab page in the Cell area of the LTE-FDD tab page
Parameter Propagation Model Description Indicates a propagation model. l When the parameter is present in the Main Matrix area, it indicates the main propagation model. l When the parameter is present in the Extended Matrix area, it indicates the extended propagation model. Radius(m) Resolution(m) Indicates the calculation radius of a propagation model. Indicates the calculation resolution of a propagation model.

Table 3-40 Description of Transmission Mode Values Value TM1 TM2 TM3 TM4 TM6 TM7 Description Indicates a single antenna port for eNodeBs. Indicates the open-loop transmit diversity, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R/8T8R configuration. Indicates the open-loop space reuse, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R configuration. Indicates the closed-loop space reuse, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R configuration. Indicates the closed-loop transmit diversity, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R configuration. Indicates the signal-stream beamforming. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network. TM8 Indicates the signal-stream and dual-stream beamforming. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network. OL_Adaptive CL_Adaptive OL_CL_Adaptive Indicates the open-loop adaptive handover between TM2 and TM3. Indicates the closed-loop adaptive handover between TM4 and TM6. Indicates the open-loop adaptive handover between TM2, TM3, TM4, and TM6.

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Value TM7_MIMO_Adaptive

Description Indicates beamforming or MIMO adaptive. UEs that are compatible with the 3GPP R8 specification and do not support the selection of uplink transmit antenna can perform adaptive handovers between TM2, TM3, and TM7. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network.

TM8_MIMO_Adaptive

Indicates beamforming or MIMO adaptive. UEs that are compatible with the 3GPP R9 specification and support the selection of uplink transmit antenna can perform adaptive handovers between TM2, TM3, and TM8. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network.

Parameters for Setting the Parameters of LTE-FDD Cells


This section describes the parameters for creating an LTE-FDD cell or modifying the properties of an LTE-FDD cell.

LTE-FDDCell Tab Page


Table 3-41 LTE-FDDCell tab page Parameter GCI Name Description Indicates the global cell identity of a cell. Indicates the name of a carrier. The U-Net enters the default name for each new carrier. Active Frequency Band Channel Index Target Load(UL) Target Load(DL) Actual Load(UL) Actual Load(DL) RS Power(dBm) Indicates whether to activate the current carrier. Indicates a frequency band. Indicates a channel index. Indicates the target load on the uplink. The value ranges from 0 to 1. Indicates the target load on the downlink. The value ranges from 0 to 1. Indicates the actual load on the uplink. The value ranges from 0 to 1. Indicates the actual load on the downlink. The value ranges from 0 to 1. Indicates the power of the reference signal on a subcarrier. The unit is dBm.
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Parameter PBCH to RS(dB) SCH to RS(dB) PCFICH to RS(dB)

Description Indicates the offset of the PBCH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the SCH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the downlink physical control format indicator channel (PCFICH) power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the downlink PDCCH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the downlink physical HARQ indicator channel (PHICH) power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The unit is dB. Indicates the maximum transmit power. The unit is dBm. Indicates the actual Interface Over Thermal (IoT) on the uplink. Indicates the speed in a cell. This parameter can be set to one of the following values: l LowSpeed l HighSpeed l HighwaySpeed

PDCCH to RS(dB)

PHICH to RS(dB)

Max Power(dBm) Actual IoT(UL)(dB) High Speed

Radius(m) Min Root Sequence Index Prach Reuse Tier(Neighbor)

Indicates the radius of a cell. Indicates the minimum ZC sequence of a cell. Indicates the number of PRACH reuse tiers (depends on the neighbor relationship). The value of this parameter must be an integer larger than 0.

Reception RS SINR Access Threshold (DL)(dB) Priority PB(dB)

Indicates a receiver. Indicates the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) access threshold of the downlink reference signal. The unit is dB. Indicates the cell priority. The smaller the value of a cell is, the higher the priority of the cell is. Indicates the index for the offset of A symbols and B symbols of the RE relative to the RSRE power. The value can be 0, 1, 2, or 3.

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Parameter Schedule Policy

Description Indicates a scheduling policy. l RR: Indicates that the scheduling is based on the polling algorithm. l PF: Indicates that the scheduling is based on the polling algorithm and the maximum signal to interference ratio. l MAX_CI: Indicates that the scheduling is based on the maximum signal to interference ratio.

PCI PCI Reuse Distance(Km) PCI Reuse Tier(Neighbor) Scene MCC MNC CI DlEarfcn UlEarfcn TAC Local Cell ID Reselect Priority PA(dB)

Indicates the physical ID of a cell. Indicates the minimum PCI reuse distance. Indicates the minimum PCI reuse tiers (depends on the neighbor relationship). Indicates the scenario of a cell. Indicates the mobile country code (MCC). Indicates the mobile network code (MNC). Indicates the ID of a cell. Indicates a downlink ARFCN. Indicates an uplink ARFCN. Indicates the tracking area code (TAC). Indicates the internal code of a cell for differentiating the cell from other cells under the same eNodeB. Indicates the cell reselection priority. Indicates the offset of the transmit power on the PDSCH RE relative to that on the RS RE. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The default value is -3.

CCU PA(dB)

Indicates the offset of the class A signal power received by users in the cell center on the PDSCH relative to the RS power. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The default value is -6.

CEU PA(dB)

Indicates the offset of the class A signal power received by users at the cell edge on the PDSCH relative to the RS power. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The default value is -1.77.

CCU IoT(dB)

Indicates the IoT of users in the cell center. The value ranges from -100 to 100. The default value is 12.5.

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Parameter CEU IoT(dB)

Description Indicates the IoT of users at the cell edge. The value ranges from -100 to 100. The default value is 10.5.

Alpha Po(dBm) TTI Bundling

This is an open loop power control parameter and indicates the path loss compensation coefficient. This is an open loop power control parameter. Indicates whether TTI Bundling is considered. By default, this option is not selected.

VMIMO

Indicates whether the virtual multiple-input multiple-output (VMIMO) is considered. By default, this option is not selected.

IRC

Indicates whether the interference rejection combining (IRC) function is enabled. If colored interference is strong, enable the IRC to suppress combining signal interference and increase uplink gain. By default, this option is not selected.

COMP

Indicates whether the macro diversity gain function is enabled on the base station. Enable the macro diversity gain function on the uplink for the base station to increase cell edge capacity and average cell throughput. By default, this option is not selected.

Channel Relativity

Indicates whether channel relativity is considered. By default, this option is not selected.

Transmission Mode

Indicates the transmission mode. For the details of the value, see Table 3-42.

VIP

For a VIP cell, the value of some LTE Cell parameters cannot be changed, including the azimuth, electrical tilt, and pilot power. Uplink throughput of a single subscriber. The value ranges from 0 to int.Max. The default value is 0.

Throughput(UL)

Throughput(DL)

Downlink throughput of a single subscriber. The value ranges from 0 to int.Max. The default value is 0.

Cell Throughput(UL)

Uplink throughput of a cell. The value ranges from 0 to int.Max. The default value is 0.

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Parameter Cell Throughput(DL)

Description Downlink throughput of a cell. The value ranges from 0 to int.Max. The default value is 0.

Density

Density of subscribers. The value ranges from 0 to int.Max. The default value is 800.

Azimuth Locked Azimuth Min. Value

Whether the azimuth is locked. Minimum adjustment angle of the azimuth. The value ranges from -360 to 360. The default value is -20.

Azimuth Max. Value

Maximum adjustment angle of the azimuth. The value ranges from -360 to 360. The default value is 20.

Electronic Downtilt Locked Electronic Downtilt Min. Value

Whether the electrical tilt is locked. Minimum adjustment angle of the electrical tilt. The value ranges from -90 to 90. The default value is -10.

Electronic Downtilt Max. Value

Maximum adjustment angle of the electrical tilt. The value ranges from -90 to 90. The default value is 14.

RsPower Locked RsPower Min. Value(dB)

Indicates whether the pilot power is locked. Minimum adjustment range of the pilot power. The value ranges from 0 to 46. The default value is 10.

RsPower Max. Value(dB)

Maximum adjustment range of the pilot power. The value ranges from 0 to 46. The default value is 20.

Fitness Threshold(%)

Fitness threshold. The value ranges from 0 to 100. The default value is 90.

State

Cell status, which is used to determine a cell in outage. The value can be Working or Outage. The default value is Working.

Status

Indicates the swapping status. l NONE: Indicates there is no cell in swapping state. l NEW: Indicates a new cell. l EXISTED: Indicates a live network cell. The default value is NONE.

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Parameter Advance Parameters

Description Sets advanced parameters by clicking this button. For details, see Table 3-43.

Neighbors list

Sets the list of neighboring cells by clicking this button. For details, see Table 3-44.

Propagation Models

Sets the propagation model by clicking this button. For details, see Table 3-45.

Table 3-42 Description of Transmission Mode Values Value TM1 TM2 TM3 TM4 TM6 TM7 Description Indicates a single antenna port for eNodeBs. Indicates the open-loop transmit diversity, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R/8T8R configuration. Indicates the open-loop space reuse, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R configuration. Indicates the closed-loop space reuse, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R configuration. Indicates the closed-loop transmit diversity, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R configuration. Indicates the signal-stream beamforming. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network. TM8 Indicates the signal-stream and dual-stream beamforming. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network. OL_Adaptive CL_Adaptive OL_CL_Adaptive TM7_MIMO_Adaptive Indicates the open-loop adaptive handover between TM2 and TM3. Indicates the closed-loop adaptive handover between TM4 and TM6. Indicates the open-loop adaptive handover between TM2, TM3, TM4, and TM6. Indicates beamforming or MIMO adaptive. UEs that are compatible with the 3GPP R8 specification and do not support the selection of uplink transmit antenna can perform adaptive handovers between TM2, TM3, and TM7. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network.

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Value TM8_MIMO_Adaptive

Description Indicates beamforming or MIMO adaptive. UEs that are compatible with the 3GPP R9 specification and support the selection of uplink transmit antenna can perform adaptive handovers between TM2, TM3, and TM8. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network.

Table 3-43 Advance Parameters tab page Parameter Frequency Selectivity Schedule Description Indicates whether to enable the frequency scheduling function. If this option is selected, the system allocates the proper network resources to users during capacity simulation. ICIC(UL) Indicates whether to perform inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) on the uplink. l If inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) is not enabled, the U-Net uses Actual IoT(UL) in the cell properties. l If ICIC is enabled, CCU IoT is used for the cell center and CEU IoT is used for the cell edge. ICIC(DL) Indicates whether to perform ICIC in the downlink. l When this parameter is set to ICIC Off, the PA value set in cell attributes is used. l When this parameter is set to Static ICIC, ICIC is enabled. In this case, the CCU PA value is used for the cell center and the CEU PA value for the cell edge. l When this parameter is set to Adaptive ICIC, ICIC can be enabled automatically and edge band mode can be configured automatically. Users can plan the edge band modes and then deliver the band modes without having to configure the parameter for the cells one by one. Edge Frequency Style(UL) Indicates the method of allocating frequencies to edge users in the uplink. The Reuse3 state is supported (Style1, Style2, or Style3).

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Parameter Edge Frequency Style(DL)

Description Indicates the method of allocating frequencies to edge users in the downlink. l When ICIC(DL) is set to Static ICIC, the Reuse3 state is supported (Style1, Style2, or Style3). l When ICIC(DL) is set to Adaptive ICIC, the following 4 states and 11 modes are supported: Reuse3 (Style1, Style2, or Style3), Reuse6 (Style1a, Style1b, Style2a, Style2b, Style3a, or Style3b), full power Reuse1 (AllPowerReuse1), and low power Reuse1 (LowPowerReuse1). l When the parameter is set to the Reuse3 or Reuse6 state, the CCU PA value is used for the cell center for all users and the CEU PA value for cell edge. When the parameter is set to AllPowerReuse1, the PA value for all users in the cell is set to the value of PA. When the parameter is set to LowPowerReuse1, the PA value for all users in the cell is set to the value of CCU PA.

Power Control Edge Frequency Style Control Channel Overhead

Indicates the power control on the downlink. Indicates the method of allocating frequencies to edge users on the uplink and downlink. l Uplink area: Indicates the number of resource blocks (RBs) on the uplink control channels. The value range is from 1 to N-1. The unit is RB. N indicates the number of RBs of the entire bandwidth. l Downlink area: Indicates the number of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) on the downlink PDCCH.

Max Schedule Users Target IoT(UL)(dB)

Indicates the maximum number of scheduled subscribers on the uplink and downlink. Indicates the target ratio of the sum of interference and noise to the volume of increased noise on the uplink.

Table 3-44 Cell Neighbors tab page Parameter Intra-frequency Neighbors Inter-frequency Neighbors Inter-RAT Neighbors Description Indicates a list of intra-frequency neighboring cells. Indicates a list of inter-frequency neighboring cells. Indicates a list of inter-RAT neighboring cells.

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Table 3-45 Propagation tab page Parameter Propagation Model Radius(m) Resolution(m) Propagation Model Radius(m) Resolution(m) Description Indicates the main propagation model. Indicates the calculation radius of the main propagation model. Indicates the calculation precision of the main propagation model. Indicates the extension propagation model. Indicates the calculation radius of the extended propagation model. Indicates the calculation precision of the extended propagation model.

General Tab Page


Table 3-46 Parameters on the Antenna Config tab page Parameter Antenna ID Description ID of an antenna for a transceiver. The ID of each antenna must be unique for a transceiver. Power Ratio Sector ID Dx(m) Dy(m) Longitude Latitude Main Antenna Power allocation ratio. The value ranges from 0 to 1. ID of a sector. This parameter uniquely identifies an antenna. Offset of the antenna relative to the site that the antenna belongs to in the X direction. The unit is meter. Offset of the antenna relative to the site that the antenna belongs to in the Y direction. The unit is meter. Longitude of an antenna. Latitude of an antenna. Main antenna of a transceiver. Each cell has only one main antenna. Azimuth Antenna Antenna azimuth. The value ranges from 0 to 360. The unit is degree. Type of an antenna. The default value is determined based on the configuration of the system antennas. In normal cases, the default antenna type is the type of the first antenna. Mechanical Downtilt
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Mechanical downtilt of an antenna. The unit is degree.


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Parameter Electrical Downtilt Height(m) RRU ID

Description Electrical downtilt of an antenna. The unit is degree. Height of an antenna. The unit is meter. l ID of a remote radio unit (RRU). l The value ranges from 0 to 100. The default value is 0. l If the value of RRU ID differs among the antennas for a transceiver, the cell served by the transceiver is a single frequency network (SFN) cell. In this case, you can configure only one cell for this transceiver.

Equipment

Equipment properties. For details, see Table 3-47.

Antenna Config Tab Page


Table 3-47 Parameters on the Antenna Config tab page Parameter Antenna ID Description ID of an antenna for a transceiver. The ID of each antenna must be unique for a transceiver. Power Ratio Sector ID Dx(m) Dy(m) Longitude Latitude Main Antenna Power allocation ratio. The value ranges from 0 to 1. ID of a sector. This parameter uniquely identifies an antenna. Offset of the antenna relative to the site that the antenna belongs to in the X direction. The unit is meter. Offset of the antenna relative to the site that the antenna belongs to in the Y direction. The unit is meter. Longitude of an antenna. Latitude of an antenna. Main antenna of a transceiver. Each cell has only one main antenna. Azimuth Antenna Antenna azimuth. The value ranges from 0 to 360. The unit is degree. Type of an antenna. The default value is determined based on the configuration of the system antennas. In normal cases, the default antenna type is the type of the first antenna. Mechanical Downtilt Electrical Downtilt
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Mechanical downtilt of an antenna. The unit is degree. Electrical downtilt of an antenna. The unit is degree.
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Parameter Height(m) RRU ID

Description Height of an antenna. The unit is meter. l ID of a remote radio unit (RRU). l The value ranges from 0 to 100. The default value is 0. l If the value of RRU ID differs among the antennas for a transceiver, the cell served by the transceiver is a single frequency network (SFN) cell. In this case, you can configure only one cell for this transceiver.

Equipment

Equipment properties. For details, see Table 3-35.

Table 3-48 Parameters in the Equipment Configuration dialog box Parameter Input Total Loss Description l If you select the check box, you need to manually type the total loss. l If you clear the check box, the U-Net calculates the total loss. Site Equipment TMA Indicates the site equipment. Tower-mounted amplifier (TMA). You can click modify its properties. Antenna feeder. You can click to

Feeder Feeder Length(m) Miscellaneous Loss(dB) JumpLoss Ant-TMA(dB) JumpLoss Ant-BS(dB) JumpLoss TMA-BS(dB) Total Loss(dB)

to modify its properties.

Length of a feeder. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Miscellaneous loss. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Jumper loss between the TMA and the antenna port. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Jumper loss between the top of cabinet and the antenna port. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Jumper loss between the TMA and the top of cabinet. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Total loss, including the TMA, feeder, jumper, and miscellaneous loss. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink.

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3.8 LTE-FDD Prediction


By calculating counters, U-Net can estimate network performance, such as cell coverage and channel quality.

3.8.1 Basic Knowledge of Prediction


This chapter describes the basic knowledge of prediction, including the formula for calculating link loss, method for determining the calculation area, meaning of prediction counters, and prediction algorithm. You can develop a better understanding of the prediction function by learning the basic knowledge.

Basic Knowledge of LTE-FDD Prediction Counters


This section describes the LTE-FDD prediction counters supported by the U-Net.
NOTE

Certain counters are not displayed by default. To enable the U-Net to display these counters, select the corresponding network technology, right-click a counter type and then choose More Coverage from the shortcut menu.

Table 3-49 lists the LTE-FDD prediction counters supported by the U-Net. Table 3-49 Description of LTE-FDD prediction counters Category Coverage by Signal Level (DL) Counter Best Server DL RSRP DL BandWidth RSRP DL RSSI Description Cell with the highest DL RSRP among the cells that receive downlink signals. Strength of single downlink reference signal (RS) received from the primary serving cell. Strength of downlink reference signals on the entire bandwidth. Total power received by a UE on the entire bandwidth. The power includes the receive power of the serving cell, interference power of other cells, and the noise power of the UE. Power received on the PDSCH on a resource element (RE). Whether an area is a handover area. PBCH signal strength on an RE. PCFICH signal strength on an RE.

DL PDSCH Signal Level Handover Area DL PBCH Signal Level DL PCFICH Signal Level
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Category

Counter DL PDCCH Signal Level DL PHICH Signal Level DL SCH Signal Level DL ICIC Zone

Description Downlink PDCCH signal strength. PHICH signal strength on an RE. SCH signal strength on an RE. Downlink ICIC area, that is, the downlink central area and edge area that meet the downlink ICIC threshold. Number of cells in a coverage spot. Determines whether a point has pilot pollution and checks the number of points having pilot pollution. To obtain a more accurate result, you are advised to select With Shadow.
NOTE By analyzing the number of cells covering each spot that reaches the pilot pollution threshold, you can learn about pilot pollution in areas such as the poor coverage area intuitively.

Overlapping Zones Pilot Pollution

Coverage by C/(I+N) Level(DL)

DL RS SINR

Signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) of the downlink reference signal that a UE receives. This counter reflects the quality of the downlink reference signal. SINR of the downlink PDSCH. This counter reflects the quality of the downlink PDSCH. Quality of the received downlink reference signals. Difference between the power of the strongest signal that a UE receives on the entire bandwidth and the power of the interference and noise that the UE receives on the entire bandwidth. Downlink PBCH SINR. Downlink PCFICH SINR. Downlink PDCCH SINR. Downlink PHICH SINR. Downlink SCH SINR. Strength of the uplink reference signal on an RE. Uplink transmit power on a resource block (RB). Uplink transmit power on the user bandwidth.

DL PDSCH SINR DL RSRQ Geometry

DL PBCH SINR DL PCFICH SINR DL PDCCH SINR DL PHICH SINR DL SCH SINR Coverage by Signal Level (UL) UL RSRP UL User RB Txpower UL User Band Txpower

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Category

Counter UL PUSCH Signal Level PRACH Signal Level UL ICIC ZONE PUCCH Signal Level

Description Power that a cell receives on the PUSCH RE. PRACH signal strength on an RE. Uplink ICIC area, that is, the uplink central area and edge area that meet the uplink ICIC threshold. PUCCH signal strength on an RE. SINR of the uplink reference signal. SINR of the uplink PUSCH. This counter reflects the quality of the uplink PUSCH. PRACH SINR. PUCCH SINR. The highest MCS supported by the downlink PDSCH. Downlink peak throughput on the MAC layer. Downlink peak throughput on the application layer. The highest MCS supported by the uplink PUSCH. Uplink peak throughput on the MAC layer. Predicting IRC gain is supported if Actual IoT(UL) (dB) is set and the IRC.xml file is modified. Uplink peak throughput on the application layer.

Coverage by C/(I+N) Level(UL)

UL RS SINR UL PUSCH SINR PRACH SINR PUCCH SINR

Coverage by MCS(DL) Coverage by Throughput (DL)

PDSCH MCS DL MAC Peak Throughput DL Application Peak Throughput PUSCH MCS UL MAC Peak Throughput

Coverage by MCS(UL) Coverage by Throughput (UL)

UL Application Peak Throughput

Procedure for Performing Prediction


This section describes the procedure for performing prediction through the U-Net. Figure 3-25 shows the procedure for performing prediction through the U-Net.

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Figure 3-25 Procedure of prediction

LTE-FDD Prediction Algorithm


By calculating counters, U-Net can estimate network performance, such as cell coverage and channel quality. This section describes the LTE-FDD prediction algorithm through a schematic diagram. Figure 3-26 shows the schematic diagram of the LTE-FDD prediction algorithm.

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Figure 3-26 LTE-FDD prediction algorithm

Table 3-50 describes the processes shown in Figure 3-26. Table 3-50 Description of the LTE-FDD prediction algorithm Procedur e 1 Operation Traversing all the cells Description Determine whether the cells in the calculation area are activated. If a cell is not activated, the prediction counters of this cell are not calculated. l If the path loss matrix does not exist, calculate the path loss matrix. l If the path loss matrix exists, it can be obtained directly. 3 Querying the antenna gain, equipment loss, and penetration loss You can enable the U-Net to consider the antenna gain, equipment loss, and penetration loss during the calculation of link loss.

Obtaining the path loss matrix

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Procedur e 4

Operation Predicting slow fading by using the shadowing margin

Description To ensure that a base station can cover cell edges with a certain probability. Certain power of the base station is reserved to prevent shadow fading. The reserved power is called shadowing margin. You can enable the U-Net to take the shadowing margin into account during the calculation of link loss.

Calculating the DL RSRP to determine the primary serving cell Calculating the power of interference noises to determine the handover area Calculating counters of the traffic channel and common channel based on the BIN

The DL RSRP indicates the receive level at the downlink and it is a key counter in prediction. You can determine the primary serving cell based on this counter. You can calculate the power of interference noises and determine the handover area.

Calculate the DL RSSI, DL RS SINR, and traffic channel counters. The U-Net calculates the PUSCH SINR when the uplink throughput reaches the maximum value. When the PUSCH SINR is calculated, the PUSCH MCS and PUSCH Peak Throughput are also calculated. The U-Net displays the prediction results in different colors in the window and provides a prediction report.

Displaying prediction results

Basic Knowledge of Link Loss


Link loss refers to the loss on the entire link from the transmitter to the receiver. When calculating link loss, the U-Net considers various loss factors such as path loss, equipment loss, and shadow fading. Loss factors of the uplink are different from loss factors of the downlink. The formulas for calculating uplink loss and downlink loss are as follows: l Uplink loss = Loss caused by the human body + Feeder loss of the terminal - Antenna gain of the terminal + Path loss + Shadow fading + Penetration loss - Antenna gain of the base station + Total loss of the base station Downlink loss = Loss caused by the human body + Feeder loss of the terminal - Antenna gain of the terminal + Path loss + Shadow fading + Penetration loss - Antenna gain of the base station + Total loss of the base station

The difference between the two formulas are as follows: The uplink has TMA gains which are included into the antenna gain of the base station in calculation. The downlink has TMA loss which is included into the total loss of the base station. Table 3-51 describes the meanings of factors in the formulas.

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Table 3-51 Meanings of factors in the formulas Factor Loss caused by the human body Feeder loss of a terminal Antenna gain of a terminal Path loss Shadow fading Meaning Loss of transmit or receive power of the mobile station (MS) due to the shielding or absorption of the human body. Loss of the feeder on a terminal. Gain of the antenna on a terminal. Loss on the path between the transmit antenna and the receive antenna, which excludes the antenna gain and shadow fading. When an electromagnetic wave is blocked by fluctuant terrains, buildings, or vegetation areas in the propagation path, the shadow of the magnetic field exits. When an MS travels through the shadow of different barriers, the received signal strength decreases, and the field strength at the receiving antenna changes. In this case, fading is generated. This fading is called shadow fading. Penetration loss Antenna gain of a base station Total loss of the base station Loss that is caused when signals travel through buildings, vehicles, and leaves. Gain of the antenna on a base station. Power loss that is caused when signals travel through all the TMAs, feeders (including the main feeder, jumpers, and lightning arresters), and connectors

3.8.2 Calculating Path Loss


The path loss refers to the loss of strength of signals transmitted from a TX end to an RX end. You must calculate the path loss because it is an input required for prediction. The U-Net automatically calculates the path loss and generates a .loss file for each cell. Alternatively, you can manually calculate the path loss before performing the prediction. This section describes how to manually calculate the path loss.

Prerequisites
l l Base stations (sites and cells) are available. Propagation models are assigned to cells.

Context
You can manually calculate the path loss in calculation or force calculation mode. l Calculation

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If you calculate the path loss for the first time, that is, if no path loss matrix file is available, the U-Net calculates the path loss matrix of each cell. Afterwards, the U-Net checks the validity of calculation results and updates the results. If path loss matrices are available but the parameters related to radio data and calculation area are modified, the path loss matrices of some cells may become invalid. In this case, the U-Net calculates only these invalid path loss matrices again. l Force calculation If path loss matrices are available, the U-Net deletes all the matrices regardless of the validity and calculates the path loss matrix of each cell again. Afterwards, the U-Net checks the validity of calculation results and updates the results.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. Step 3 Select a calculation mode to calculate the path loss of all cells on the Transceiver node. If you need to... Calculate Then... Right-click and choose Calculation > Calculate Path Loss Matrices from the shortcut menu. Right-click and choose Calculation > Force Calculate Path Loss Matrices from the shortcut menu.

Calculate forcibly

Step 4 If you have not saved the project file, save it as prompted. The U-Net automatically creates a Project Name.losses folder that saves the information about the path loss matrix and an .ipl project file in the specified save path. Afterwards, the U-Net starts calculating the path loss. Step 5 Query the calculation results After the calculation is complete, the calculation results will be automatically saved in the Project Name.losses folder that saves the project file. Click to stop ongoing calculations.

Step 6 Optional: Check the progress of path loss calculation In the Event Viewer docked window, query the start time and end time of path loss on the Event Viewer tab page and the progress of the path loss calculation on the Task tab page, as shown in Figure 3-27.

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Figure 3-27 Event Viewer

----End

Follow-up Procedure
The MCL with the default value of 70 dB indicates the minimum path loss between the base station and the terminal or between one terminal and another terminal. If you want to change the default value of the MCL, modify the LinkLossConfig.xml file in the U-Net installation directory.

3.8.3 Setting Shadow Fading Standard Deviation


During the network prediction, the standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for certain prediction counters.

Context
l In the LTE-FDD network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: DL RS SINR, DL RSRQ, Geometry, PBCH SINR, PCFICH SINR, PDCCH SINR, PRACH SINR, PUCCH SINR, SCH SINR, PDSCH SINR, PUSCH SINR, PHICH SINR, and UL RS SINR. l In the LTE-TDD network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: DL RS SINR, DL RSRQ, PDCCH SINR, PDSCH SINR, PUSCH SINR, UL RS SINR. In the GSM network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: Geometry, DL BCCH CIR, DL Service CIR, and UL Service CIR. l In the UMTS network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: CPICH Ec/Io, DL DPCH Eb/Nt, HS PDSCH Ec/Nt, UL DPCH Eb/Nt, and E DPDCH Ec/ Nt. l In the GSM/UMTS network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: Coverage By CIR.
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Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Map > Clutter. Step 3 Choose Parameter Management from the shortcut menu. The Clutter Parameters Display dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Perform the following operations as required. If ... The map information is not imported Then ... Click Default Value to change the default values of parameters under Model Standard Deviation and C/(I + N) Standard Deviation. Click Actual Value to change the actual values of parameters under Model Standard Deviation and C/(I + N) Standard Deviation.

The map information is imported

NOTE

For the meanings of parameters under Model Standard Deviation and C/(I + N) Standard Deviation, see Parameters for Setting the Clutter Class Layer.

Step 5 Click OK. ----End

3.8.4 Creating LTE-FDD Prediction Groups


The U-Net calculates the prediction as per prediction group. Each prediction group consists of one or more prediction items. You can create prediction groups and modify the properties.

Prerequisites
l l l A U-Net project is already created. The geographic data is imported. The calculation area is created. For details about calculation area knowledge and the method for creating a calculation area, see 3.3.9 Creating Vector Objects.

Procedure
Step 1 Optional: Setting common properties for prediction groups. Before creating coverage prediction groups, you need to set common properties for prediction groups so that new prediction groups have the common properties. 1. 2. 3.
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In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu.
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4.

In the displayed dialog box, set the precision of prediction on the Predictions tab page. You are advised to set the precision of prediction to be the same as that of the propagation model.

5. 6.

Set the height of receiver on the Receiver tab page. Click OK.

Step 2 Skip this step if you have set the power offset of the PBCH channel relative to the RS channel in the cell properties. Otherwise, proceed with the following steps. 1. 2. 3. Select a transceiver in the map window. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. Set the related parameters on the cell property tab. For example, to calculate the DL PBCH Signal Level prediction indicator, you need to set the PBCH to RS parameter. Step 3 In the navigation tree, choose Predictions. Step 4 Choose New from the shortcut menu. See Figure 3-28. Figure 3-28 New

Step 5 In the displayed dialog box, set prediction group name, whether to calculate immediately, and select prediction counters.For indicator description, see Basic Knowledge of LTE-FDD Prediction Counters. Step 6 Click Next. Step 7 In the displayed dialog box, set the prediction group properties.See Figure 3-29 For parameter description, see Parameters for Creating LTE-FDD Prediction Groups.

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Figure 3-29 Group Properties

Step 8 Click OK Step 9 Optional: If you deselect Calculate Now in creating prediction groups, right-click the prediction group, and then choose Calculate from the shortcut menu after creating a prediction group. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
After the prediction calculation is complete, you can recalculate KPIs, add or delete KPIs, and view detailed KPI result reports. For details, see 3.8.6 Managing the Prediction Result.

3.8.5 Predicting Performance of a Single Cell


The U-Net can predict the performance of a single cell in a specified area. In this case, other cells are deactivated by default. The single cell prediction enables you to effectively observe the prediction results of each cell in batches in the case that no interference to cells is caused.

Prerequisites
l
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The geographic data is imported.


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l l

Base stations (sites and cells) are available. The calculation area is created.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Predictions. Step 3 Choose New Single Cell Prediction from the shortcut menu. The New Prediction Group dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Set the name of a prediction group by referring to Parameters in the New Prediction Group Dialog Box, and select prediction items for the prediction group. Step 5 Click Next. Then, set properties such as calculation area, prediction conditions, prediction bands for new prediction groups by referring to Parameter in the LTE Group Properties Dialog Box. Step 6 Click OK. Step 7 Optional: If you clear Calculate Now in Step 4, right-click the prediction group and choose Calculate from the shortcut menu after creating a prediction group. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
The number of prediction groups generated after a single-cell prediction is equal to the number of cells in the map window. You can expand the Predictions node in the navigation tree to view details.

3.8.6 Managing the Prediction Result


After the prediction calculation is complete, you can recalculate KPIs, add or delete KPIs, and view detailed KPI result reports.

Prerequisites
The prediction calculation is complete.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 Perform the following operations as required.

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Option Re-calculate counters.

Description 1. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx > counter item. 2. Choose Unlock from the shortcut menu. This counter is in the unlocked state. If Lock is displayed in the shortcut menu, this counter is in the unlocked state. 3. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx. 4. Choose Calculate from the shortcut menu. All the unlocked counters in this group will be used for calculation. If all the counters are in the locked state, Calculate is unavailable.

Add or delete a counter.

1. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx. 2. Choose Edit Studies from the shortcut menu. 3. In the displayed dialog box, select or clear the check box of the counter to be added or deleted. 4. Click OK. 5. Perform the following operations as required. l if a counter is added, the system displays the new counter under the prediction group node in the navigation tree. In this case, you need to re-calculate counters. For detailed operations, see Re-calculate counters. l If a counter is deleted, the system deletes the counter from the prediction group node in the navigation tree. In addition, the corresponding rendering color is removed. If the deleted counter is Best Server and a traffic map uses this prediction group, data of this prediction group will also be deleted from the traffic map.

View detailed report on a counter.

1. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx > counter item. 2. Right-click and choose Generate Report from the shortcut menu. 3. In the displayed dialog box, view detailed information about the counter. For detailed operations, see Parameters for Viewing Detailed Prediction Result Reports.
NOTE You can select a hot spot from the drop-down list box in the Statistics Zone area to view information about the specified hot spot.

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Option

Description

Set the properties of a counter. 1. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx > counter item. 2. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. 3. In the displayed dialog box, set parameters such as display color on the Display tab page. Lock or unlock counters in batches. 1. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx. 2. Right-click and select or clear the check box of Studies Locked from the shortcut menu. 1. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions. 2. Choose Calculate from the shortcut menu.

All the unlocked counters in the prediction group are calculated in batches. ----End

3.8.7 Viewing the Prediction Result


You can view the prediction result in the map window or view the statistics on various indicators by using the PDF or CDF diagram.

Querying Prediction Statistical Results (on a Map)


After calculating the prediction, you can query the prediction results in different legend colors in the map window.

Prerequisites
The prediction calculation is complete.

Procedure
Step 1 Optional: Set the legend information and display properties of prediction. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx > counter item. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. The Study Properties dialog box is displayed. Click the Display tab. Set items such as counter range, display color, and transparency. Select the ranges to be displayed in the Legend window. See Figure 3-30.

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Figure 3-30 Display tab

7. 8. 9.

Select Add to legend. The selected ranges are displayed in the Legend window. Optional: Select Show Statistic. The statistics on the selected ranges are displayed in the Legend window. Click OK.

Step 2 Query the legend information. Choose Window > Legend on the menu bar. The Legend window is displayed. In the displayed window, you can query the name and color corresponding to each range. If you have selected Show Statistic, you can also query the coverage area corresponding to a range and the percentage of the area to the whole calculation area. Step 3 Query the prediction results of each cell. The map displays the cell coverage according to the preset legend color and transparency. In addition, the Legend window displays the size and percentage of coverage areas, helping you to query the coverage and perform relevant analysis. ----End

Viewing Coverage Prediction Statistical Results (in a PDF/CDF Chart)


After performing a coverage prediction, you can view each coverage prediction counter in the cumulative distribution function (CDF) chart, inverse CDF chart, and probability distribution function (PDF) chart based on coverage prediction groups.
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Prerequisites
The coverage prediction calculation is complete.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 Choose Predictions > Groupx in the navigation tree. Then, right-click Groupx and choose Statistics(CDF) or Statistics(PDF) from the shortcut menu. The Statistics dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 3-31. The following takes the CDF chart for example. Figure 3-31 Statistics

Step 3 Select a prediction counter, hot spot area, statistical area, and display mode from the Study, Zone, Statistics Area, and Figure Style drop-down list boxes respectively. The CDF, inverse CDF, or PDF chart of the selected counter is displayed in the Statistics dialog box.

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l You can select a hot spot from the Zone drop-down list box to view the information about the selected hot spot. l For the LTE-FDD and LTE-TDD networks, the coverage prediction statistics on the counters Best Server, Handover Area, DL ICIC Zone, UL ICIC Zone, Pilot Pollution, PDSCH MCS, and PUSCH MCS cannot be displayed in a PDF or CDF chart because their results are discrete values. You can select DL MAC Peak Throughput, UL MAC Peak Throughput, DL Application Peak Throughput, and UL Application Peak Throughput to view the average throughput and cell edge throughput. l For the GSM network, the coverage prediction statistics on the counters Best Server, Handover Area, Coverage Area, and Coding Scheme cannot be displayed in a PDF or CDF chart because their results are discrete values. l For the UMTS network, the coverage prediction statistics on the counters Best Server, Handover Area, HSDPA CQI, Pilot Pollution, and Number Of Service cannot be displayed in a PDF or CDF chart because their results are discrete values.

----End

Follow-up Procedure
l Right-click the PDF or CDF chart and choose Save Image As from the shortcut menu to save the chart in the Statistics dialog box. The chart can be saved in .emf, .png, .gif, .jpg, .tif, or .bmp format. Right-click the PDF or CDF chart and choose Print from the shortcut menu to print the chart in the Statistics dialog box. Right-click the PDF or CDF chart and choose Copy from the shortcut menu to copy the chart in the Statistics dialog box to the clipboard.

l l

3.8.8 Analyzing the Prediction Result


After calculation on prediction, you can further analyze the prediction result. For example, after improving network parameters, you can re-analyze the prediction result and compare the prediction results before and after parameter adjustment. Based on the overall result of prediction analysis, you can use the point-based analysis function to further analyze a focus object.

Analyzing Prediction Results


The U-Net supports the function of comparing similar predictions to identify the differences. This helps you to quickly know the impact of changes on the network.

Procedure
Step 1 Create and calculate a prediction group. Step 2 View the prediction result and check whether any counter needs to be optimized. Step 3 Adjust the setting of the counter that needs to be optimized to improve the coverage. Step 4 Duplicate the prediction group. 1. 2. 3. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > first prediction group. Choose Duplicate from the shortcut menu.

Step 5 Calculate the duplicate prediction group.


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1. 2. 1. 2. 3.

In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > copied prediction group. Choose Calculate from the shortcut menu. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions. Choose Compare from the shortcut menu. The CDF Compare window is displayed. Select the counters from the drop-down list on the left.
NOTE

Step 6 Compare the original prediction result and the new prediction result.

l Coverage Area: The area that is actually covered by the counters. It is the area rendered by colors on the map window. l Calculate Area: The Polygon area that you select when creating a new prediction group

4. 5.

Select the prediction groups from the pane on the left and the corresponding display colors. View the CDF comparison chart in the pane on the right.

----End

Example
This section takes the antenna downtilt as an example to describe the function of comparison. The coverage of a cell in a prediction group is not good. Based on the analysis, the antenna downtilt may be improperly set. Perform the following steps to adjust the antenna downtilt. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver > Sitex_x. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. Click Antenna Config tab Page. Modify the value of Mechanical Downtilt or Electrical Downtilt.

After the downtilt is adjusted, you can recalculate the prediction group but cannot compare the two coverage predictions, that is, the prediction before and the prediction after the adjustment. Therefore, duplicate the existing prediction group before the recalculation. After the recalculation, you can view the coverage change in the map window. To know the detailed change, compare the change of counters by referring to Step 6.

Follow-up Procedure
l l l To save the CDF comparison chart, right-click the chart and choose Save Image As from the shortcut menu. The chart can be saved in .emf, .png, .gif, .jpg, .tif, or .bmp format. To print the CDF comparison chart, right-click the chart and choose Print from the shortcut menu. To copy the CDF comparison chart, right-click the chart and choose Copy from the shortcut menu.

Analyzing Terrain Profiles by Using Point Analysis


This section describes how to analyze terrain profiles by using the point analysis function. You can analyze the signal receive status between a cell and a terminal on the terrain profile by using the point analysis function. A terrain profile is calculated through the propagation model in real time. Therefore, you can analyze any selected point on the terrain profile. After a propagation
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model is allocated to a cell, the U-Net provides the profile terrain and calculates the path loss between the cell and the receive point and the receive level of the corresponding terminal based on the NE data and geographic data.

Prerequisites
l l The geographic data has been imported. Base stations are available.

Procedure
Step 1 Click on the toolbar. The Point Analysis Tool dialog box is displayed.

Step 2 On the Profile tab page, select a cell and a carrier from the Transceiver and Cell drop-down list boxes respectively. Step 3 Optional: On the Profile tab page, set cell edge coverage probability in the Cell Edge Coverage Probability(%) text box. If Indoor Coverage is selected, penetration loss will be taken into account. Step 4 On the Signal Analysis tab page, select a capacity simulation group, terminal type, service type, and mobility type from the Simulation Group, Terminal, Service, and Mobility drop-down list boxes, respectively. Then, set neighboring cell PDSCH load and neighboring cell PDCCH load in the Neighbour PDSCH Load and Neighbour PDCCH Load text boxes respectively. Step 5 Switch back to the Profile tab page and click a point on the map. The point changes to , which represents a terminal. Then, a line connecting the terminal and cursor.

the selected cell is displayed on the map. You can drag the pointer to move the
NOTE

The preceding operations can also be performed on other tab pages including the Reception tab page. The cursor, however, moves slowly on these tab pages. Therefore, you are advised to switch to the Profile tab page to perform the operation.

Step 6 On the Profile tab page, view the terrain profile analysis information. l The grey area indicates the terrain condition between the cell and the receive point. The X-coordinate indicates the geographic distance between the cell and the receive point. The Y-coordinate indicates the altitude. l The blue ellipse indicates the Fresnel region of diffraction. l The green straight line indicates the line-of-sight distance. l Select DL RSRP to view the receive level of the terminal. l Select Path Loss to view the path loss between the cell and the receive point. l Propagation model used by the cell. l Geographic distance between the cell and the terminal. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
l
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Right-click the profile and choose Link Budget from the shortcut menu. The Link Budget dialog box is displayed. For details about the parameters, see Parameter Description of the Link Budget Window. l View detailed information about the propagation model. You can perform this operation only when the propagation model is SPM. Right-click the profile and choose Model Details from the shortcut menu. The Model Details dialog box is displayed. For details about the parameters, see Parameter Description of the Model Details Window. l Copy a profile. Right-click the profile and choose Copy from the shortcut menu. The profile is copied to the clipboard of the operating system. l You can move the cursor to dynamically view the profile analysis information about any point.

Analyzing Prediction Results by Using the Point Analysis Function


After prediction is complete, you can further analyze the prediction of certain positions by using the point analysis function. For example, you can check the list of cells that receive signals and analyze the strength of received signals.

Prerequisites
l l The geographic data is imported. Base stations are available.

Procedure
Step 1 Click on the toolbar. The Point Analysis Tool dialog box is displayed.

Step 2 On the Profile tab page, select a cell in the Transceiver field and a carrier in the Cell field. Step 3 Optional: On the Profile tab page, set the cell edge coverage probability in Cell Edge Coverage Probability(%). Step 4 Click a point on the map. The point changes to , which represents a terminal. Then, a line connecting the terminal and cursor.

the selected cell is displayed on the map. You can drag the mouse to move the

Step 5 On the Reception tab page, check the list of cells from which signals can be received and check the strength of the received signal. The prediction results of the signal strength of different cells are displayed in descending order from top to bottom in a bar chart on the Reception tab page. The cell that has the highest signal strength is the best serving cell at the selected point on the map. Keep the cursor at the selected point. Then, you can check the received signal strength of each cell. Step 6 Query the statistical information about the selected point on the Results tab page. The statistics are related to the following items:
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l Longitude, latitude, and altitude l Clutter class l List of cells from which signals can be received, and the received signal strength ----End

3.8.9 Exporting and Printing Prediction Results


You can export and print prediction results in batches or export the detailed prediction result by Bin point.

Exporting Prediction Results in Batches


After the prediction calculation is complete, you can select one or more counters and then export a statistical report on the prediction as a .csv file and a prediction map in .mif or .jpg format.

Prerequisites
The prediction calculation is complete.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx. Step 3 Choose Export Results from the shortcut menu. Step 4 In the Export Results dialog box, set the parameters. For parameter description, see Parameters for Exporting Prediction Results in Batches. Step 5 Optional: You can also select the detailed export contents (such as the name, coverage area, current coverage percentage, and cumulative coverage percentage) of each counter in Select Statistics Data. Step 6 Click Export. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
You can navigate to the export path to view the exported contents. The file is named in the following format: Name of the prediction group_Name of the counter.Export format.

Exporting the Detailed LTE-FDD Prediction Result by Bin Point


After the prediction calculation is complete, you can export detailed prediction results of the Bin points in a specified area. The prediction results include the information about the longitudinal and latitudinal coordinates and counter values of the Bin points.

Procedure
l Export the detailed prediction results of Bin points according to the specified area. You can specify a calculation area and export the detailed prediction results of all Bin points in this area.
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1. 2.

In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Select the objects to be exported. If... Export the detailed prediction results of a prediction group Export the detailed prediction results of a single counter in a prediction group Then... In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx.

In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx > counter item.

3. 4. 5. l

Choose Export BIN By > Polygon from the shortcut menu. In the displayed dialog box, select the area to be exported. Click Export.

The U-Net exports the detailed prediction results of Bin points based on the pilot power. This function supports the single-mode network only. You can specify the range of receive level and just export the detailed prediction results of Bin points in the specified range. 1. 2. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Select the objects to be exported. If... Export the detailed prediction results of a prediction group Export the detailed prediction results of a single counter in a prediction group Then... In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx.

In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx > DL RSRP.

NOTE

You can set ranges in the property dialog box corresponding to the DL RSRP.

3.

Choose Export BIN By > DL RSRP from the shortcut menu. When you do not select the DL RSRP indicator when performing prediction calculation, you cannot export the result of a Bin point by pilot power. The dialog box displayed lists the value segments of the selected KPI, the coverage area of the selected value segment, the percentage of the coverage area, and the cumulative percentage of the coverage area.

4.

Select the range of the DL RSRP. The U-Net only exports the detailed prediction results of the Bin points whose DL RSRP is within the selected range.

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5. ----End

Click Export.

Follow-up Procedure
You can navigate to the export path to view the exported contents. By default, the file is saved on the desktop of the PC and the default file name is PredictionData.csv. The following contents are exported: l l l BINID: It is automatically identified by the U-Net. X-coordinate and Y-coordinate: If no geographic data is imported, the geodetic coordinates are exported. Counter value: indicates the value of selected counter.

Printing Prediction Results in Batches


After the prediction calculation is complete, you can print the prediction results of counters in batches. The results include a prediction chart, geographic data, and base station data.

Prerequisites
l l The prediction calculation is complete. The printer is properly set. Choose File > Print Setting. In the displayed Print Setting dialog box, click Printer....

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx. Step 3 Select counters to be printed from the prediction group, as shown in Figure 3-32. Figure 3-32 Select counters to be printed

Step 4 In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx. Step 5 Choose Batch Print from the shortcut menu. The Batch Print dialog box is displayed. Step 6 In Select Polygon, select the target area for print. If you select a polygon, the external rectangle of this polygon is the target area for print.
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Step 7 In Prediction, select the counters to be printed. Step 8 Click Print. The coverage prediction results of all the selected counters are printed. ----End

3.8.10 Verifying the Feature Database Based on DT Data


After a coverage prediction group is calculated, you can use DT data to adjust the group to improve the accuracy of feature data and positioning. If no DT data is to be adjusted, you can skip this section.

Prerequisites
l l l Base station information (including site, transceiver, and cell information) has been imported or created. Coverage prediction about the DL RSRP counter has been completed. A DT data file has been imported.

Procedure
Step 1 In the browser window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 Choose Predictions > Groupx > DL RSRP from the navigation tree. Step 3 Right-click DL RSRP and choose DT Adjust Feature Database from the shortcut menu. The DT Adjust Feature Database dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 3-33. Figure 3-33 DT Adjust Feature Database

Step 4 Set related parameters in the displayed dialog box. For details about parameters, see Parameters for Adjusting the DT Feature Database. Step 5 Click Adjust. ----End

3.8.11 Exporting DT Feature Data


This section describes how to export data from the feature database after the prediction is performed to implement geographical positioning.
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Context
Feature data indicates the geographical distribution of network signals. On an actual network, a geographical location may be covered by signals from multiple cells. The cell signal strength and cell information are the signal features of this geographical location. The feature database contains information about the signal features of all geographical locations on a network. The MR positioning technology determines the geographical information about the actual measurement points by matching the actual network coverage information and the feature database. This function exports Top N data of all received levels within each lattice and applies only to single-mode networks.

Procedure
Step 1 In the browser window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 Choose Predictions > Groupx > DL RSRP from the navigation tree. Step 3 Right-click DL RSRP and choose Export BIN By > Top Signal Level from the shortcut menu. The dialog box shown in Figure 3-34 is displayed. Figure 3-34 Export By Top Signal Level

Step 4 Set the minimum value and the top N maximum receive levels to be exported. Step 5 Click Export. Step 6 Set the save path, file name, and file type. Then, export the preset information.
NOTE

l To use this function successfully, you must select the DL RSRP counter when creating a prediction group, as shown in Figure 3-35. l To export top N receive levels within the lattice, you must set TopNSignalLevel when creating a prediction group. This parameter indicates that the top N maximum receive levels will be calculated, as shown in Figure 3-36.

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Figure 3-35 New_Prediction_Group

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Figure 3-36 TopNSignalLevel

----End

3.8.12 Interface Reference for LTE-FDD Prediction


This section describes the interfaces and parameters for creating prediction groups and exporting prediction results by using the U-Net.

Parameters for Creating LTE-FDD Prediction Groups


This section describes the parameters for creating a prediction group and setting the properties of a prediction group. You can refer to this section when creating a prediction group in the New Prediction Group dialog box or setting the properties of a prediction group in the Group Properties dialog box.

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Parameters in the New Prediction Group Dialog Box


Parameter Group Name Description Name of a prediction group. This parameter uniquely identifies a prediction group. The U-Net provides a default name for each created prediction group in this parameter field. Prediction Type Study Selected Calculate Now Prediction type. Prediction counter. Whether to calculate each prediction counter immediately.

Parameter in the LTE Group Properties Dialog Box


Table 3-52 Parameters on the General tab Page Parameter Name Resolution(m) Intra-Frequency Handover(dB) Description Name of a prediction group. Precision of the prediction. Handover threshold of intra-frequency cells. This parameter is valid only after Handover Area and Overlapping Zones are set. Inter-Frequency Handover(dB) Handover threshold of inter-frequency cells. This parameter is valid only after Handover Area and Overlapping Zones are set. Polygon Neighbour PDSCH Load Calculation area for the prediction. Whether the load on the neighboring cell is taken into account in the calculation. The value ranges from 0 to 100. Neighbour PDCCH Load Whether the PDCCH load on the neighboring cell is taken into account in the calculation. The value ranges from 0 to 100. With Shadow Cell Edge Coverage Probability Whether the shadow fading is taken into account in the calculation. Probability of cell edge coverage, that is, the probability that the receive signal strength is stronger than the specified threshold at the edge of a cell. Whether the penetration loss is taken into account.

Indoor Coverage

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Table 3-53 Parameters on the Condition tab Page Parameter Signal Level(DL)(dBm) Signal Level(UL)(dBm) Interferer Reception Threshold(dBm) Terminal Service Mobility Description Receive threshold of the downlink reference signal. Receive threshold of the uplink reference signal. Interference threshold. Terminal type. Service type. Mobility type.

Table 3-54 Parameters on the Advanced tab Page Parameter Frequency Name Channel Index TopNSignalLevel Description Name of a frequency band. Frequency corresponding to a frequency band. TopN maximum receive levels to be calculated.

Parameters for Exporting Prediction Results in Batches


This section describes the parameters for exporting prediction results in .csv, .mif, or .jpg format in batches. You can refer to this section when exporting prediction results from the Export Results dialog box. Parameter Path Select Export Content Select Polygon Prediction Group Study MIF Description Indicates the path to save the data to be exported. You can click Browse to specify a save path. Selects the contents to be exported. Selects an area where counters are to be exported. Indicates the name of a prediction group. Indicates the object to be exported, that is, the prediction counter items in each prediction group. Exports the prediction chart in .mif format. The exported file contains projection information. JPG Statistics Exports the prediction chart in .jpg format. Exports the prediction report in .csv format.

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Parameter Select Statistics Data Name Area(km2) Percentage(%) Cumulate(%)

Description Indicates the name of an exported prediction counter. Indicates the coverage area of an exported prediction counter. Indicates the percentage of the coverage area of an exported prediction counter. Indicates the cumulative percentage of the coverage area of an exported prediction counter.

Parameters for Viewing Detailed Prediction Result Reports


This section describes the parameters for viewing detailed prediction result reports. You can refer to this section when viewing the detailed prediction result reports in the Export Data window.

Parameters in the Export Data Window


Parameter Name Description Indicates the name of a KPI. The value segments of the KPI are listed under the KPI name. Coverage Area(km2) % of Calculate Area Indicates the coverage area. Indicates the percentage of the calculation area. Indicates the percentage of the calculation area within the value segment to the total coverage area of this KPI. % of Cumulate Calculate Area Indicates the cumulative percentage of the calculation area. For example, the cumulative percentage value in row 3 in a list sorted in ascending order is the sum of the value in row 3 and the values in all the subsequent rows. Click % of Coverage Area or to sort the list in ascending or descending order.

Indicates the percentage of the coverage area. For example, the value in row 3 is the percentage of the coverage area of row 3 to the total coverage area.

% of Cumulate Coverage Area

Indicates the cumulative percentage of the coverage area. For example, the cumulative percentage value in row 3 in a list sorted in ascending order is the sum of the percentage of row 3 and the percentages in all the subsequent rows. Indicates the default name.

DefaultName

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Parameters for Adjusting the DT Feature Database


This section describes the parameters for adjusting the DT feature database in the DT Adjust Feature Database dialog box. Parameter Drive Test File Description DT data file. Selected from a drop-down list. The default value is All. Clutter Resolution(m) Clutter Shift Threshold(%) Indicates the clutter resolution. The default value is 300. Indicates the clutter shift threshold. The default value is 50.

3.9 LTE-FDD Capacity Simulation


Capacity is important for radio network planning. The process of capacity simulation is as follows: The U-Net generates a certain number of subscribers based on the traffic map and allocate network resources to the generated subscribers. Then, the U-Net analyzes the overall network performance and collects the final capacity simulation results. Finally, the U-Net generates a statistical report.

3.9.1 Basic Knowledge of Capacity Simulation


This chapter describes the basic knowledge of capacity simulation, including the relations between traffic parameters and the capacity simulation algorithm. You can develop a better understanding of the capacity simulation function by learning the basic knowledge.

Process of Capacity Simulation


This section describes the process for performing capacity simulation through the U-Net. Figure 3-37 shows the process of capacity simulation.

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Figure 3-37 Process of capacity simulation

Table 3-55 describes the process of capacity simulation. Table 3-55 Description of the capacity simulation process Procedure 1 2 3 4 5 Operation 3.6 Setting LTE-FDD Traffic Parameters 3.9.2 Creating LTE Traffic Maps 3.9.3 Creating a Traffic Simulation Group Choose Calculate from the corresponding shortcut menu. 3.9.4 Viewing the Capacity Simulation Result

Basic Knowledge of Traffic Parameters


The U-Net obtains the information about the average load status of the network by means of simulation based on specific UE distribution. Traffic parameters, which reflect the basic information about UE distribution, include the UE type, mobility type, terminal type, service type, environment type, MCS, and receiver. Traffic parameters can be used to generate specific traffic map. Figure 3-38 shows the relationship between traffic parameters.
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Figure 3-38 Relationship between traffic parameters

Table 3-56 describes the meanings of and relationship between traffic parameters. Table 3-56 Meanings of and relationship between traffic parameters Traffic Parameter MIMO Meaning Describes the number of transmit and receive antennas working in multiple input multiple output (MIMO) mode and the gains brought on the capacity by spatial multiplexing. Bearing efficiency of the receiver. Describes the moving speed of a terminal. Relationship with Other Parameters Used to set properties of the receiver.

MCS Mobility Type Service Type Receiver

Used to set properties of the receiver. Used to set the receiver, environment type, and vector-based traffic map. Used to set the user service type and the traffic map that is based on cell coverage. l Depends on the mobility, MIMO, bit error rate (BER), transmission mode, and channel information. l Used to set the terminal type.

Describes information about the service model.

Describes the demodulation capability of the receiver.

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Traffic Parameter Terminal Type

Meaning Describes information about the terminal, such as the maximum transmit power.

Relationship with Other Parameters l Depends on the information about the receiver. l Used to set the UE type.

UE Type

Describes information about the UE type (common UE or VIP UE).

l Depends on the terminal type and the service type. l Used to set the environment type and vector-based traffic map.

Environme nt Type

Describes the information about the environment.

l Depends on the mobility type and the UE type. l Used to set the environment-based traffic map.

Capacity Simulation Algorithm


This section describes the capacity simulation algorithm. The U-Net uses the Monte Carlo algorithm for the capacity simulation of the LTE-FDD system. That is, the U-Net obtains the information about the network through a series of snapshots.

Overall Process of Capacity Simulation


The Monte Carlo algorithm is applicable to static simulation. By using the Monte Carlo algorithm, you can obtain statistics and evaluation results of a network through a great number of random and instant samples. By processing the statistics obtained through multiple snapshots, you can learn about the overall performance of the network. Figure 3-39 shows the overall process of capacity simulation.

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Figure 3-39 Overall process of capacity simulation

Table 3-57 describes the overall process of the simulation shown in Figure 3-39. Table 3-57 Description of the overall process of capacity simulation Procedur e 1 Operation Initializing cell information Description Initialize cell information, which involves determining the cell calculation area, calculating the RS RE power, assigning RB data power, calculating noises, and determining activated cells. If the number of current snapshots is greater, the simulation result can truly reflect the network performance but the simulation takes a longer time. When the number of current snapshots is not greater than the total number of snapshots, the system starts to calculate the current snapshots. Otherwise, the system collects the statistics of the final simulation result. A snapshot refers to a snapshot captured for a network. You can collect the statistics of a snapshot by referring to Process of the Simulation Within a Snapshot and save the statistical result for the final simulation.

Determining whether the number of current snapshots is not greater than the total number of snapshots Collecting the statistics of a snapshot

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Procedur e 4

Operation Number of current snapshots++ Processing simulation results

Description After the calculation within a snapshot is complete, calculation of the next snapshot starts. After the simulation of all the snapshots is complete, the UNet starts to process the simulation results and generates a statistical report.

Process of the Simulation Within a Snapshot


To work efficiently, the U-Net cannot dynamically simulate the instantaneous change of the radio network for a long time. Therefore, it can only statically simulate the network through a series of snapshots. The network information at different time is different but relevant. The UNet adopts the semi-dynamic simulation to obtain the instantaneous network information according to transmission time interval (TTI) within a snapshot. The unit of the TTI is millisecond. When a snapshot is complete, the U-Net calculates the average value of all the TTI instantaneous information within the snapshot and uses the average value as the statistical result of the snapshot. Figure 3-40 shows the simulation within a snapshot.

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Figure 3-40 Process of the simulation within a snapshot

Table 3-58 describes the process of the simulation shown in Figure 3-40. Table 3-58 Description of the simulation within a snapshot Procedur e 1 Operation Generating UEs Description UEs are generated one time for each snapshot and distribute a certain number of UEs to the specified areas.
NOTE The UE number and areas are determined by the traffic map.

Querying path loss Calculating relevant counters

Query the existing path loss matrix based on the UE geographical location and obtain the path loss values between the UE and each cell. The U-Net determines the primary serving cell based on the highest DL RSRP of each UE. The U-Net also initializes the SINR and noise information about the PDSCH and PUSCH.
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Procedur e 4

Operation Determining whether the number of current TTIs is not greater than the total number of TTIs

Description A larger number of TTIs indicates a more stable network and more accurate simulation result. The simulation, however, may take a longer time. If the number of TTIs exceeds the threshold, no operation will be performed for the exceeded TTIs. When the number of current TTIs is not greater than the total number of TTIs, the U-Net starts the calculation of the current TTIs. Otherwise, the system collects the statistics of the final snapshot result. You can calculate the instantaneous statistical results of a TTI by referring to Process of the Simulation Within a TTI and save the statistical result for the final processing of the snapshot. After the calculation within a TTI is complete, calculation of the next TTI starts. After the calculation of all the TTIs is complete, the U-Net starts to calculate the average value of all the TTIs within the snapshot.

Collecting the statistics of a TTI Number of current TTIs++ Processing statistical results within a snapshot

6 7

Process of the Simulation Within a TTI


You can collect the statistics of the instantaneous simulation result of each TTI by using the resource allocation algorithm. The U-Net performs admission control, scheduling, interference coordination, and power control for UEs within each TTI. Figure 3-41 shows the simulation within a TTI.

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Figure 3-41 Process of the simulation within a TTI (LTE-FDD)

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Figure 3-42 Process of the simulation within a TTI (LTE-TDD)

Table 3-59 describes the process of the simulation within a TTI.

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Table 3-59 Description of the simulation within a TTI Operation Admission load control on the uplink and downlink Description On an actual network, UEs may initiate service requests at any time. When resources are insufficient and the service satisfaction rate is low, UEs cannot connect to the network. When resources are sufficient and the service satisfaction rate is high, UEs can connect to the network after the resources are successfully allocated. In admission control, the system determines whether a UE enters the scheduling queue or suspending queue based on the RB resource usage of the system, the packet loss rate of voice services, and the service satisfaction rate. Uplink and downlink scheduling Uplink and downlink inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC). In scheduling, the U-Net allocates time and frequencies resources for each UE based on the SINR of the UE channel, requirement on the service rate, and terminal power. The LTE system uses the 1 x 3 x 1 frequency reuse mode. All the cells can use all the bandwidths supported by the system. Therefore, intercell interference is unavoidable, especially for UEs at the border of a cell. In ICIC, the edge band of a cell is separated from that of the adjacent cell by means of frequency domain coordination. This reduces interference between adjacent cells and improves performance of UEs at the border of a cell. l In power control on the uplink, the transmit power of UEs is adjusted to control the network interference at a certain level, ensuring the throughput of UEs at the border of a cell. l Downlink power control is to adjust the transmit power the eNodeB sends frequency resources to the UEs. Uplink and downlink measurement Processing of statistical results within a TTI The U-Net obtains the predicted channel status value based on the scheduling, ICIC, and power control results. Then, the U-Net calculates the SINR and uses it as the input value for the next TTI. The U-Net starts to process the statistical result of the current TTIs only when the number of current TTIs exceeds the threshold on the number of TTIs.
NOTE When the network is started, it is not stable. At this time, the instantaneous result obtained by the U-Net cannot be used to evaluate the network performance. The period from the time when the network is started to the time when the network works stably is called the warm-up period of the network, which can be automatically identified by the simulation function. To obtain accurate and stable statistical data, collect statistics after the warm-up period ends. Threshold on the number of TTIs = Warm-up period/Duration of the TTI = Warm-up period.

Power control on the uplink and downlink

Capacity Simulation Feature Description


If each antenna under a transceiver has a unique RRU ID, the cell for the transceiver is a single frequency network (SFN) cell.
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The SFN is supported only when the antenna configuration is 2T2R or 4T4R.
NOTE

In LTE-TDD mode, the MU_BF feature is not selected.

l l

When the antenna configuration is 2T2R, VMIMO is not supported. When the antenna configuration is 4T4R, VMIMO is supported. If the serving cell for a user is an SFN cell, the target RRUs of the paring users must be the same. If the target RRU of any user is changed, the user exits the paring.

3.9.2 Creating LTE Traffic Maps


After setting traffic parameters, you need to create a traffic map for the capacity simulation calculation. During the calculation of capacity simulation, the U-Net generates users based on the traffic map, and the number of users is determined by the traffic parameters.

Creating a Traffic Map Based on Environment


You can set the traffic of each area based on the type of the geographic environment, such as an urban area, a suburb area, or a densely populated area.

Prerequisites
l l Traffic parameters are configured. Polygons are created.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Map > Traffic Map(User). Step 3 Choose New from the shortcut menu. The Select Map Type dialog box is displayed. See Figure 3-43. Figure 3-43 Select Map Type

Step 4 Choose Create The Map Based on Environment. Step 5 Click Create Map. The New Environment Traffic Map Properties dialog box is displayed. Step 6 Set relevant parameters of the environment-based traffic map, such as the environment types of each area.
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For detailed description of parameters, see Parameters for Creating Traffic Maps Based on Environments. Step 7 Click OK. The created traffic map is displayed under the Traffic Map node. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
When setting a capacity simulation group, you can select the created traffic map for the capacity simulation calculation.

Creating a Traffic Map Based on Vectors


You can set the traffic of special geographic conditions such as railways, highways, and densely populated areas.

Prerequisites
l l Traffic parameters are configured. Vector objects are created.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Map. Step 3 Choose New from the shortcut menu. The Select Map Type dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Choose Create The Map Based on Vector. Step 5 Click Create Map. The Vector Traffic Map Properties dialog box is displayed. Step 6 Set relevant parameters of the vector-based traffic map, such as the number of subscribers for each service, traffic characteristics, and weight of each clutter. For detailed description of parameters, see Parameters for Creating Traffic Maps Based on Vectors. Step 7 Click OK. The created traffic map is displayed under the Traffic Map node. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
When setting a capacity simulation group, you can select the created traffic map for the capacity simulation calculation.

Creating a Traffic Map Based on Cell Coverage


You can set the service usage and traffic volume or throughput of each cell based on the actual coverage of the cells. Before creating a traffic map, you must obtain the coverage prediction results of each cell.
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Prerequisites
l l Traffic parameters are configured. The calculation of the Best Server counter is complete.

Context

CAUTION
Users that are generated on the basis of the cell coverage are distributed in the areas specified by the calculated Best Server of each cell. Therefore, before creating a traffic map based on the cell coverage, create the prediction group and complete the calculation of the Best Server counter.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Map. Step 3 Choose New from the shortcut menu. The Select Map Type dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Choose Create The Map Based on Transceiver Coverage. Step 5 Click Create Map. The New Transceiver Coverage Traffic Map Properties dialog box is displayed. Step 6 Set relevant parameters of the cell coverage-based traffic map. For detailed description of parameters, see Parameters for Creating Traffic Maps Based on Cell Coverage. Step 7 Click OK. The created traffic map is displayed under the Traffic Map node. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
When setting a capacity simulation group, you can select the created traffic map for the capacity simulation calculation.

Creating a Traffic Map Based on User Location


You can set the traffic based on user location.

Prerequisites
Traffic parameters are configured.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab.
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Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Map. Step 3 Choose New from the shortcut menu. The Select Map Type dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Select Create The Map Based on User Location. Step 5 Click Create Map to open the New User Location Traffic Map Properties dialog box. Step 6 Set the traffic map parameters based on user location. For parameter description, see Parameters for Creating Traffic Maps Based on User Locations. Step 7 Click OK. After the setting is complete, the traffic map is displayed under the Traffic Map node. ----End

3.9.3 Creating a Traffic Simulation Group


This section describes how to create a traffic simulation group. The U-Net calculates capacity simulation based on traffic simulation groups. Therefore, ensure that simulation groups are created and related parameters for the simulation calculation are set before performing the capacity simulation.

Prerequisites
l l l l l The geographic data has been imported. Base stations (sites and cells) are available. A calculation area has been created. Traffic parameters have been set. A traffic map has been configured.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Simulations. Step 3 Choose New from the shortcut menu. The Simulation Group Properties dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Set properties for the simulation group. For details, see Parameters for Creating Traffic Simulation Groups. Step 5 Determine whether to calculate the capacity simulation immediately.

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If you need to... Then... Calculate the 1. Select Calculate Now on the General tab page. capacity 2. Click OK. simulation immediately after the simulation group is created Calculate the Click OK. capacity After the simulation group is created, right-click it and choose Calculate simulation manually after from the shortcut menu, as shown in Figure 3-44. the simulation group is created

Figure 3-44 Calculate

NOTE

l The simulation group is automatically locked after the calculation is complete, as shown in Figure 3-45. l If you right-click the simulation group and choose Stop from the shortcut menu during the calculation, the simulation group will not be automatically locked. l The simulation group is automatically unlocked after its properties are modified. l You can right-click a certain simulation group and choose Group Locked from the shortcut menu to manually lock the simulation group. In this case, you need to manually unlock the simulation group before performing capacity simulation again.

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Figure 3-45 Group Locked

----End

Follow-up Procedure
After the simulation group is created, you can set display properties of this group. 1. 2. 3. In the navigation tree, choose Simulations > a simulation group > RAT. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. Set the display color for each traffic status and determine whether to display the traffic status in the legend window.

3.9.4 Viewing the Capacity Simulation Result


You can view the calculation result of capacity simulation in the map window or view the statistics on various indicators by using the PDF or CDF diagram.

Viewing Capacity Simulation Results of an Entire Network


You can view the capacity simulation results of each radio access system of the entire network after completing the capacity simulation calculation.

Prerequisites
The capacity simulation calculation is complete.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Simulations > a simulation group. Step 3 Choose Average Result from the shortcut menu. The Group Results dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 3-46.

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Figure 3-46 Group Results

Step 4 View the capacity simulation statistics results for each radio access system in the displayed dialog box. For details about the parameters, see Parameters for Viewing Capacity Simulation Results of the Entire Network. ----End

Viewing Capacity Simulation Results of a Single-Mode Network


This section describes how to view the capacity simulation result of an entire network, including the statistics in the entire network, sites, cells, and hot spots.

Prerequisites
The capacity simulation calculation is complete.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Simulations > a simulation group > RAT. Step 3 Choose Average Result from the shortcut menu. A dialog box for the average statistical result of the entire network is displayed.. See Figure 3-47.

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Figure 3-47 Group Result

Step 4 On the Statistics tab page, view statistics on the service requirements and the actual services in the entire network. For details, see Parameters on the Statistics Tab Page.
NOTE

l You can select a hot spot from the Statistics Zone drop-down list box to view the capacity simulation result of the specified hot spot. l If a new hot spot is added on the map, you need to collect statistics on the simulation group again before viewing the capacity simulation result of the new hot spot.

Step 5 On the Sites(Average) tab page, view the simulation statistics on the sites in the entire network. For details, see Parameters on the Sites(Average) Tab Page. Step 6 On the Cells(Average) tab page, view the simulation statistics on the cells in the entire network. For details, see Parameters on the Cells(Average) Tab Page. Step 7 Click Close. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
l To easily view the target result, choose Action > Display Columns on the Sites (Average) and Cells(Average) tab pages respectively to filter the statistical results.
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l l

To export the simulation statistics on the sites and cells to a .txt, .xls, or .csv file, choose Action > Export on the Sites(Average) and Cells(Average) tab pages respectively. To apply the simulation result to NEs, click Commit Result on the Cells(Average) tab page. Then, you can perform the coverage prediction based on the capacity simulation result. For detailed operations, see Performing Coverage Prediction Based on Capacity Simulation Results.

Viewing the Capacity Simulation Result in a Single Snapshot


You can view the capacity simulation result in a single snapshot, including the statistics on the snapshot and corresponding sites, cells, users, and hot spots.

Prerequisites
The capacity simulation calculation is complete.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Simulations > a simulation group > RAT > a snapshot. Step 3 Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. A dialog box for the average statistical result of a single snapshot is displayed. Step 4 On the Statistics tab page, view the statistics on the service requirements and actual services in a single snapshot. For details, see Parameters on the Statistics tab page.
NOTE

l You can select a hot spot from the Statistics Zone drop-down list box to view the capacity simulation result of the specified hot spot. l If a new hot spot is added on the map, you need to collect statistics on the simulation group again before viewing the capacity simulation result of the new hot spot.

Step 5 On the Sites tab page, view the simulation statistics on the sites in a single snapshot. For details, see Parameters on the Sites tab page. Step 6 On the Cells tab page, view the simulation statistics on the cells in a single snapshot. For details, see Parameters on the Cells tab page. Step 7 On the Mobiles tab page, view the simulation statistics on subscribers in a single snapshot. For details, see Parameters on the Mobiles tab page.
NOTE

l You can also double-click a user icon on the map window to open the User Properties dialog box and view the simulation statistics of a single subscriber. For details about the parameters, see Parameters for Viewing Capacity Simulation Results of a Single User. l Red indicates subscribers who are not satisfied with the network (offline, not connected, or no uplink coverage). Green indicates subscribers who are satisfied with the network.

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Step 8 Click Close. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
l l l To easily view the target result, choose Action > Display Columns on the Sites, Cells, and Mobiles tab pages to filter the statistical results. To export the simulation statistics on the sites, cells, or subscribers to a .txt, .xls, or .csv file, choose Action > Export on the Sites, Cells, and Mobiles tab pages. To apply the simulation result to NEs, click Commit Result on the Cells tab page. Then, you can perform the prediction based on the capacity simulation result. For details, see Performing Coverage Prediction Based on Capacity Simulation Results.

Querying Capacity Simulation Statistical Results on a Map


After the capacity simulation calculation is complete, you can query the capacity simulation results in different legend colors on the map.

Prerequisites
l The capacity simulation calculation is complete.

Context
l l U-Net classifies simulation users by user status, user type, and mobility type. U-Net can display different types of simulation users in different shapes and colors on map.

Procedure
Step 1 Set legends and display properties of capacity simulation. 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Simulations > a simulation group > RAT. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. The Simulation Symbol dialog box is displayed. Select the dimension for classifying the simulation users from the Field Type drop-down list box, as shown in Figure 3-48.

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Figure 3-48 Simulation Symbol

5.

Set the legend information for different types of simulation users, such as the shape and color. l Table 3-60 classifies the simulation users by user status. Table 3-60 Simulation users in different states State Satisfied Description Users that are satisfied with the network quality, that is, users that are not in any of the following states: ULNoCover, DLNoCover, NoAccess, and Offline. Indicates the user that is not covered in the uplink direction. Indicates the user that is not covered in the downlink direction. Indicates the user that is not accessed. Offline users.

ULNoCover DLNoCover NoAccess OffLine

l Table 3-61 classifies the simulation users by service type. Table 3-61 Simulation users of different service types Service LTEVideo Conferencing
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Description Indicates the users corresponding to the video conferencing service.


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Service LTEVoIP LTEWeb Browsing LTEFTP

Description Indicates the users corresponding to the VoIP service. Indicates the users corresponding to the Web browsing service. Indicates the users corresponding to the FTP service.

l Classify simulation users based on user attributes. l Classify simulation users based on user mobility rates. l Classify simulation users based on terminal types.
NOTE

When simulation users are classified based on user attributes, mobility rates, service types, or terminal types, you can customize service types.

6.

Select Add to Legend. If the option is selected, the legend information is displayed in the Legend window.

7.

Click OK.

Step 2 In the navigation tree, select the checkbox before Simulations > A simulation group > Network System > A snapshot > User type. The map window displays the distribution of users in different states according to the preset legend shapes and colors in a map.
NOTE

When you move the cursor pointer to a point representing a simulation user, a pop-up message is displayed, where you can query the detailed information about the simulation user.

Step 3 Query the legend information. Choose Window > Legend. The Legend window is displayed. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
You can select an area by drawing a polygon and print the capacity simulation result of this area.

Querying Coverage Prediction Results in a PDF or CDF Chart


After the capacity simulation calculation is complete, you can query the CDF or PDF charts of simulation counters by each simulation group. By checking the charts, you can know and analyze the capacity simulation results.

Prerequisites
The capacity simulation calculation is complete.
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Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Simulations > a simulation group > RAT. Step 3 Choose Graphics Result from the shortcut menu. Step 4 In the displayed dialog box, select a counter in the Item area and a display mode in the Figure Style area. The CDF or PDF chart corresponding to the selected counter is displayed in the right pane.
NOTE

You can query the PDF or CDF chart of the following 21 counters: IoT(UL), IoT(DL), Load(UL), Load(DL), Cell MAC Throughput(UL), Cell MAC Throughput(DL), Application Throughput(UL), Application Throughput(DL), RS SINR(DL), Geometry, User MAC Throughput(UL), User MAC Throughput(DL), User Application Throughput(UL), User Application Throughput(DL), User Service Time(UL), User Service Time (DL), User Actual Power, Cell Actual Power, PUSCH SINR, PDSCH SINR, and Throughput.

----End

Follow-up Procedure
l l l l To save a PDF or CDF chart in the right pane, right-click the chart and choose Save Image As from the shortcut menu. To print a PDF or CDF chart in the right pane, right-click the chart and choose Print from the shortcut menu. To copy a PDF or CDF chart in the right pane, right-click the chart and choose Copy from the shortcut menu. To export the statistical results of a PDF or CDF chart as a .txt file, click Export Data.

Analyzing Capacity Simulation Results by Using the Point Analysis Function


The point analysis function is mainly used to analyze the signal status at a point. After selecting a terminal or service, you can learn about the signal quality, signal strength, and uplink or downlink status of a certain point based on the capacity simulation results.

Prerequisites
The capacity simulation calculation is complete.

Procedure
Step 1 Click on the toolbar. The Point Analysis Tool dialog box is displayed.

Step 2 On the Profile tab page, select a cell in the Transceiver field and a carrier in the Cell field. Step 3 Click a point on the map. The point changes to , which represents a terminal. Then, a line connecting the terminal and cursor.
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the selected cell is displayed on the map. You can drag the mouse to move the
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Step 4 On the Signal Analysis tab page, check the list of cells that can receive signals, strength of received signals, and uplink or downlink status of the selected position based on the capacity simulation results. l In Simulation Group, select a capacity simulation group to simulate the uplink load and downlink power of the network. l In Terminal, select a terminal type. l In Service, select a service type. l In Mobility, select a mobility type. The prediction results of the signal strength of different cells are displayed in descending order from top to bottom in a bar chart on the Reference Signal Reception tab page. The cell that has the highest signal strength is the best serving cell at the selected point on the map. The uplink and downlink status of the selected point is displayed on the right of the tab page. l The l The icon indicates that the current channel meets the demodulation requirements. icon indicates that the current channel does not meet the demodulation requirements.

Double-click the two icons, you can query the detailed link information. For detailed description of parameters, see Parameter Description of the Analysis Detail Window. ----End

Performing Coverage Prediction Based on Capacity Simulation Results


If capacity simulation is not conducted, the U-Net performs prediction based on the preset parameters of the cells. If capacity simulation is conducted, you can apply the capacity simulation results to NEs and the U-Net performs prediction based on the capacity simulation results In this case, the prediction considers the actual transmit power, load, and interference of the NEs. Therefore, the prediction results are more accurate.

Prerequisites
The capacity simulation calculation is complete.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Simulations > a simulation group > RAT. Step 3 Choose Average Result from the shortcut menu. A dialog box for the average statistical result of the entire network is displayed. Step 4 To apply the simulation results to NEs, click Commit Result on the Cells(Average) tab page. Step 5 Perform the prediction by referring to LTE-FDD Prediction. ----End

3.9.5 Exporting Capacity Simulation Results in Batches


After the capacity simulation calculation is complete, you can export the capacity simulation results of the entire network, a snapshot, or all simulation groups.
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Procedure
l Export capacity simulation results of all simulation groups 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. l 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. l 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ----End In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Simulations. Choose Export Result from the shortcut menu. In the Path area of the displayed dialog box, click Browse, and select a path. Select Simulation in Select Export Content to export the capacity simulation results. Select the export objects in Simulation. Click Export. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Simulations > a simulation group > RAT. Choose Average Result from the shortcut menu. Select Cells(Average) tab page. Click Action. Select Export. After selecting export fields, export the statistics result. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Simulations > a simulation group > RAT > a snapshot. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. Select Cells tab page. Click Action. Select Export. After selecting export fields, export the statistics result.

Export capacity simulation results of the entire network

Export capacity simulation results of a snapshot

3.9.6 Interface Reference for LTE-FDD Capacity Simulation


This section describes the interfaces and parameters for LTE-FDD capacity simulation by using the U-Net.

Parameters for Creating Traffic Maps Based on Environments


This section describes the parameters for creating traffic maps based on environments or modifying the properties of such traffic maps. You can refer to this section when creating traffic maps in the New Environment Traffic Map Properties dialog box. Parameter Traffic Map Name Description Indicates the name of a traffic map created according to the environment.
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Parameter Polygon regions Add Polygon regions in the list Environments in the list

Description Indicates all created polygons. Adds a selected polygon to the environment list. Indicates an added polygon. Indicates the environment type corresponding a polygon.

Parameters for Creating Traffic Maps Based on Vectors


This section describes the parameters for creating traffic maps based on vectors or modifying the properties of such traffic maps. You can refer to this section when creating traffic maps in the Vector Traffic Map Properties dialog box. Table 3-62 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Name Description Name of a traffic map created based on vectors.

Table 3-63 Parameters on the Vector tab page Parameter Add Description Adds a vector object. You can click Add and select a vector object to be added in the displayed Select Vector dialog box. Delete Name Density Deletes a vector object. Name of an added vector object. User density on a vector object.

Table 3-64 Parameters on the Traffic tab page Parameter User Profile Mobility Description User type. Mobility type.

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Parameter Density

Description User density.


NOTE The value of this parameter determines the user density on the Vector tab page.

ID Clutter Class Weight

Number of a clutter type. Name of a clutter type. Weight of a clutter type. This parameter is displayed when clutter layer data is provided.

% Indoor

Percentage of indoor users for a clutter type. Number of indoor users for a clutter type = Percentage of indoor users x Total number of users for the clutter type.

Parameters for Creating Traffic Maps Based on Cell Coverage


This section describes the parameters for creating traffic maps based on cell coverage or modifying the properties of such traffic maps. You can refer to this section when creating traffic maps in the New Transceiver Coverage Traffic Map Properties dialog box. Table 3-65 Parameters on the General tab page and Transceiver tab page Parameter Transceiver Coverage Traffic Map Name Prediction Group Generate user number based on Poisson Users Per Service Tx_ID LTEFTP(UL) LTEFTP(DL) LTEVideo Conferencing(UL) Description Indicates the name of a traffic map created according to cell coverage. Selects a prediction group. Indicates whether to generate a user map based on Poisson distribution. Sets the number of users corresponding to each service type for each cell. Indicates the name of a cell. Indicates the number of uplink users corresponding to the FTP service. Indicates the number of downlink users corresponding to the FTP service. Indicates the number of uplink users corresponding to the video conferencing service.

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Parameter LTEVideo Conferencing(DL)

Description Indicates the number of downlink users corresponding to the video conferencing service. Indicates the number of uplink users corresponding to the VoIP service. Indicates the number of downlink users corresponding to the VoIP service. Indicates the number of uplink users corresponding to the Web browsing service. Indicates the number of downlink users corresponding to the Web browsing service.

LTEVoIP(UL) LTEVoIP(DL) LTEWeb Browsing(UL) LTEWeb Browsing(DL)

Table 3-66 Parameters on the Traffic tab page Parameter Terminals area-Terminal Terminals area-% Description Indicates a terminal type. Indicates the percentage of users corresponding to each terminal type. Number of users corresponding to a terminal type = Percentage of the users corresponding to the terminal type x Total number of users Mobility area-Mobility Mobility area-% Indicates a mobility type. Indicates the percentage of users corresponding to each mobility type. Number of users corresponding to a mobility type = Percentage of the users corresponding to the mobility type x Total number of users Clutters area-ID Clutters area-Clutter Class Clutters area-% Indoor Indicates the number of a clutter class. Indicates the name of a clutter class. Indicates the percentage of indoor users corresponding to a clutter class. Number of indoor users corresponding to a clutter class = Percentage of indoor users x Total number of users corresponding to the clutter class

Parameters for Creating Traffic Maps Based on User Locations


This section describes the parameters for creating a traffic map based on user locations or modifying the properties of such traffic maps. You can refer to this section when creating a
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traffic map in the New User Location Traffic Map Properties dialog box or modifying parameters for an existing traffic map based on user locations. Parameter Genera l tab page User Locati on tab page User Location Traffic Map Name Use as X and Y Use as Longitude and Latitude Import Description Indicates the name of a traffic map based on user locations. Indicates that the geodetic coordinates are used. Indicates that the longitudinal and latitudinal coordinates are used. You can import files if user data files are available. To import a user data file successfully, ensure that the column headings of the user data file match the fields such as UserID and coordinates on the U-Net. UserID X Y Longitude Latitude Priority Indicates the ID of a user. Indicates the X coordinate. Indicates the Y coordinate. Indicates the longitude. Indicates the latitude. Indicates a priority. The value is an integer. The larger the value, the higher the priority. Service Indicates a service type. l The service type must be defined in the traffic parameters. l For details about service types in an LTE-FDD network, see 3.6.2 Setting LTE-FDD Service Types. l For details about service types in an LTE-TDD network, see 4.6.2 Setting LTE-TDD Service Types. Terminal Indicates a terminal type. l The terminal type must be defined in the traffic parameters. l For details about terminal types in an LTEFDD network, see 3.6.4 Setting LTE-FDD Terminal Types. l For details about terminal types in an LTETDD network, see 4.6.4 Setting the LTETDD Terminal Type.
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Parameter Mobility

Description Indicates a mobility type. l The mobility type must be defined in the traffic parameters. l For details, see 3.6.7 Setting Mobility Types.

LinkType IsIndoor

Indicates the uplink or downlink type. Indicate whether the user is indoor user. The value can be True or False.

Parameters for Creating Traffic Simulation Groups


This section describes the parameters for creating a traffic simulation group. You can refer to this section when creating a traffic simulation group in the Simulation Group Properties dialog box or in the corresponding attribute dialog box. Table 3-67 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Name Site Corr UL FSS Environment Number of Simulations Description Name of a traffic simulation group. Shadow fading factor on the base station side. Gain table used for modifying the UL frequency selection gain. Number of simulations. A larger number of simulations indicates a more precise simulation result, but a longer time is required for calculation. Calculate Now Whether to perform simulation calculation immediately.

Table 3-68 Parameters on the Source Traffic tab page Parameter Select Traffic Maps to be Used Select Polygon Description Traffic map. Calculation area.

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Table 3-69 Parameters on the Advance tab page Parameter Number of TTI Description Number of transmission time intervals (TTIs). The U-Net adopts the semi-dynamic simulation to obtain instantaneous network information by TTI. A larger number of TTIs indicates a more precise simulation result, but a longer time is required for calculation. UL IoT Convergence Threshold DL Throughput Convergence Threshold(%) Uplink IoT convergence threshold used for checking whether a network is converged. Downlink throughput convergence threshold used for checking whether a network is converged. Uplink throughput convergence threshold used for checking whether a network is converged. Downlink load convergence threshold used for checking whether a network is converged. Uplink load convergence threshold used for checking whether a network is converged. Ratio of cell edge users used for calculating the number of cell edge users.

UL Throughput Convergence Threshold(%)

DL Load Convergence Threshold(%) UL Load Convergence Threshold(%) Edge User Ratio (%)

Parameters for Viewing Capacity Simulation Results of the Entire Network


This section describes the parameters for viewing capacity simulation results of the entire network.

Parameters on the LTE Tab Page


Parameter NetVersion FailedSingleModeUserCount SuccessSingleModeUserCount SingleModeUserCount SuccessMultiModeUserCount Description Indicates the network technology. Indicates the number of single-mode users who fail to access the network. Indicates the number of single-mode users who successfully access the network. Indicates the number of single-mode users. Indicates the number of multi-mode users who successfully access the network.

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Parameter Load(UL) Load(DL) Throughput(UL)(Kbps) Throughput(DL)(Kbps)

Description Indicates the uplink load. Indicates the downlink load. Indicates the uplink throughput of the entire network. Indicates the downlink throughput of the entire network.

Parameters for Viewing Capacity Simulation Results of a Single-Mode Network


This section describes the parameters for viewing capacity simulation results of the entire network.

Parameters on the Statistics Tab Page

CAUTION
l The Request pane lists the total number of users attempted to access and the relevant throughput, and the number of users attempted to access for each service and the relevant throughput. l The Result pane lists the total number of actually accessed users and the actual throughput, and the number of actually accessed users for each service and the relevant throughput. l If the throughput is less than 1 MB, the unit is kbit/s. If the throughput is greater than or equal to 1 MB, the unit is Mbit/s. Parameter Requ est area Number of TTI Description Number of transmission time intervals (TTIs). The U-Net adopts the semi-dynamic simulation to obtain instantaneous network information by TTI. A larger number of TTIs indicates a more precise simulation result, but a longer time is required for calculation. Total Users Trying to Connect Average Users Indicates the average total number of users attempting to gain access to the network.
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Parameter Standard Deviation Average Throughput Demand(DL)

Description Indicates the standard deviation. Indicates the average required downlink throughput on the entire network. Indicates the average required uplink throughput on the entire network. Indicates the number of users attempting to gain access to each service. Indicates the number of uplink users attempting to gain access to each service. Indicates the number of downlink users attempting to gain access to each service.

Average Throughput Demand(UL)

LTEFTP/LTEVoIP/ LTEWeb Browsing/ LTEVideo Conferencing


NOTE The system collects the number of users attempted to access and relevant throughput for services such as LTEFTP, LTEVOiP, and LTEWeb Browsing. This section generally describes theses parameters because they are the same for all services.

Users

Uplink

Downlink

Max Throughput Demand Indicates the maximum (UL) uplink throughput of each service required for users on the entire network. Min Throughput Demand (UL) Indicates the minimum uplink throughput of each service required for users on the entire network. Indicates the average uplink throughput of each service required for users on the entire network.

Average Throughput Demand(UL)

Max Throughput Demand Indicates the maximum (DL) downlink throughput of each service required for users on the entire network. Min Throughput Demand (DL) Indicates the minimum downlink throughput of each service required for users on the entire network.

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Parameter Average Throughput Demand(DL)

Description Indicates the average downlink throughput of each service required for users on the entire network. Indicates the average total number and percentage of users that actually gain access to the entire network. Indicates the actual average throughput at the MAC layer for uplink users on the entire network. Indicates the standard deviation of the actual average throughput at the MAC layer for uplink users on the entire network. Indicates the actual average throughput at the application layer for uplink users on the entire network. Indicates the standard deviation of the actual average throughput at the application layer for uplink users on the entire network. Indicates the actual average throughput at the MAC layer for downlink users on the entire network. Indicates the standard deviation of the actual average throughput at the MAC layer for downlink users on the entire network.

Resul ts area

Total Connected Users

Average Users

Actual MAC Throughput (UL)

Actual MAC Throughput Standard Deviation(UL)

Actual Application Throughput(UL)

Actual Application Throughput Standard Deviation(UL)

Actual MAC Throughput (DL)

Actual MAC Throughput Standard Deviation(DL)

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Parameter Actual Application Throughput(DL)

Description Indicates the actual average throughput at the application layer for downlink users on the entire network. Indicates the standard deviation of the actual average throughput at the application layer for downlink users on the entire network. Indicates the number and percentage of users that successfully gain access to each service. Indicates the number of downlink users that gain access to each service. Indicates the standard deviation of the downlink users that gain access to each service. Indicates the number of uplink users that gain access to each service. Indicates the standard deviation of the uplink users that gain access to each service. Indicates the number and percentage of offline users corresponding to each service. Indicates the number and percentage of failed users corresponding to each service. Indicates the actual throughput at the MAC layer for uplink users of each service on the entire network.

Actual Application Throughput Standard Deviation(DL)

Breakdown per service: LTEFTP/LTEVoIP/ LTEWeb Browsing// LTEVideo Conferencing


NOTE The system collects the number of accessed users and relevant throughput for services such as LTEFTP, LTEVOiP, and LTEWeb Browsing. This section generally describes theses parameters because they are the same for all services.

Service User

Downlink

Downlink Standard Deviation

Uplink

Uplink Standard Deviation

Offline User

Failed User

Actual MAC Throughput (UL)

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Parameter Actual MAC Throughput Standard Deviation(UL)

Description Indicates the standard deviation of the actual throughput at the MAC layer for uplink users of each service on the entire network. Indicates the actual throughput at the application layer for uplink users of each service on the entire network. Indicates the standard deviation of the actual throughput at the application layer for uplink users of each service on the entire network. Indicates the actual throughput at the MAC layer for downlink users of each service on the entire network. Indicates the standard deviation of the actual throughput at the MAC layer for downlink users of each service on the entire network. Indicates the actual throughput at the application layer for downlink users of each service on the entire network. Indicates the standard deviation of the actual throughput at the application layer for downlink users of each service on the entire network.

Actual Application Throughput(UL)

Actual Application Throughput Standard Deviation(UL)

Actual MAC Throughput (DL)

Actual MAC Throughput Standard Deviation(DL)

Actual Application Throughput(DL)

Actual Application Throughput Standard Deviation(DL)

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Parameter Edge User MAC Statistic Throughput(UL)

Description For the entire network, this parameter is the statistical throughput at the MAC layer for uplink edge users. The value of this parameter for the entire network is the average statistical throughput at the MAC layer for uplink edge users in multiple snapshots. For the entire network, this parameter is the statistical throughput at the MAC layer for downlink edge users. The value of this parameter for the entire network is the average statistical throughput at the MAC layer for downlink edge users in multiple snapshots.

Edge User MAC Statistic Throughput(DL)

Parameters on the Sites(Average) Tab Page


Parameter Site Total MAC Throughput (UL)(kbps) Total Application Throughput(UL)(kbps) Total MAC Throughput (DL)(kbps) Total Application Throughput(DL)(kbps) LTEFTP(UL MAC) (kbps) LTEFTP(UL Application)(kbps) LTEFTP(DL MAC) (kbps) Description Indicates a site name. Indicates the total throughput at the MAC layer on the uplink of a site. Indicates the total throughput at the application layer on the uplink of a site. Indicates the total throughput at the MAC layer on the downlink of a site. Indicates the total throughput at the application layer on the downlink of a site. Indicates the throughput at the MAC layer on the uplink of the FTP service at a site. Indicates the throughput at the application layer on the uplink of the FTP service at a site. Indicates the throughput at the MAC layer on the downlink of the FTP service at a site.

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Parameter LTEFTP(DL Application)(kbps) LTEVoIP(UL MAC) (kbps) LTEVoIP(UL Application)(kbps) LTEVoIP(DL MAC) (kbps) LTEVoIP(DL Application)(kbps) LTEWebBrowsing(UL MAC)(kbps) LTEWebBrowsing(UL Application)(kbps) LTEWebBrowsing(DL MAC)(kbps) LTEWebBrowsing(DL Application)(kbps) LTEVideoConferencing (UL MAC)(kbps) LTEVideoConferencing (UL Application)(kbps) LTEVideoConferencing (DL MAC)(kbps) LTEVideoConferencing (DL Application)(kbps)

Description Indicates the throughput at the application layer on the downlink of the FTP service at a site. Indicates the throughput at the MAC layer on the uplink of the VoIP service at a site. Indicates the throughput at the application layer on the uplink of the VoIP service at a site. Indicates the throughput at the MAC layer on the downlink of the VoIP service at a site. Indicates the throughput at the application layer on the downlink of the VoIP service at a site. Indicates the throughput at the MAC layer on the uplink of the Web Browsing service at a site. Indicates the throughput at the application layer on the uplink of the Web Browsing service at a site. Indicates the throughput at the MAC layer on the downlink of the Web Browsing service at a site. Indicates the throughput at the application layer on the downlink of the Web Browsing service at a site. Indicates the throughput at the MAC layer on the uplink of the Video Conferencing service at a site. Indicates the throughput at the application layer on the uplink of the Video Conferencing service at a site. Indicates the throughput at the MAC layer on the downlink of the Video Conferencing service at a site. Indicates the throughput at the application layer on the downlink of the Video Conferencing service at a site.

Parameters on the Cells(Average) Tab Page


Parameter Site Transceiver Cell Tx Power(dBm) IoT(UL)(dB) Description Indicates a site name. Indicates a transceiver name. Indicates a cell name. Indicates the TX power for a cell. The unit is dBm. Indicates the ratio of the sum of interference noise to the noise on the uplink of a cell. The unit is dB.

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Parameter Load(UL)

Description Indicates the cell uplink load. Uplink load = Overhead of traffic channels/(System bandwidth Overhead of the control channel)

Average Used RB(UL)

Indicates the number of uplink RBs in use for a cell. Number of RBs used in the uplink direction = Overhead of traffic channels + Overhead of the control channel Indicates the cell downlink load. Downlink load = Overhead of traffic channels/System bandwidth

Load(DL)

Average Used RB(DL)

Indicates the number of downlink RBs in use for a cell. Number of downlink RBs in use = Total number of RBs within the bandwidth x Downlink load

MAC Throughput(UL) (kbps) Application Throughput (UL)(kbps) MAC Throughput(DL) (kbps) Application Throughput (DL)(kbps) Service User Offline User

Indicates the uplink average throughput at the MAC layer for a cell. Indicates the uplink average throughput at the application layer for a cell. Indicates the downlink average throughput at the MAC layer for a cell. Indicates the downlink average throughput at the application layer for a cell. Indicates the number of users that can gain access to cell services. Indicates the number of users involved in call drops in a cell.

Parameters for Viewing the Capacity Simulation Result in a Single Snapshot


This section describes the parameters for viewing the capacity simulation result in a single snapshot. You can refer to this section when viewing the capacity simulation result in the XXX Properties dialog box.

Parameters on the Statistics tab page


Parameter Reque st area Total Users Trying to Connect Users Description Total number of subscribers attempting to gain access in a single snapshot. Number of downlink subscribers attempting to gain access to services in a single snapshot.

Downlink

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Parameter Uplink

Description Number of uplink subscribers attempting to gain access to services in a single snapshot. Maximum throughput required by downlink subscribers in a single snapshot. Minimum throughput required by downlink subscribers in a single snapshot. Average throughput required by downlink subscribers in a single snapshot. Maximum throughput required by uplink subscribers in a single snapshot. Minimum throughput required by uplink subscribers in a single snapshot. Average throughput required by uplink subscribers in a single snapshot. Number of subscribers attempting to gain access to each service in a single snapshot. Number of downlink subscribers attempting to gain access to each service in a single snapshot. Number of uplink subscribers attempting to gain access to each service in a single snapshot. Maximum throughput of each service required by downlink subscribers in a single snapshot. Minimum throughput of each service required by downlink subscribers in a single snapshot. Average throughput of each service required by downlink subscribers in a single snapshot.

Max Throughput Demand(DL) Min Throughput Demand (DL) Average Throughput Demand(DL) Max Throughput Demand(UL) Min Throughput Demand (UL) Average Throughput Demand(UL) Breakdown per service LTEFTP/ LTEVoIP/ LTEWeb Browsing/ LTEVideo Conferencing Users

Downlink

Uplink

Max Throughput Demand(DL) Min Throughput Demand (DL) Average Throughput Demand(DL)

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Parameter
NOTE The system collects the number of subscribers attempting to gain access and relevant throughput for services such as LTEFTP, LTEVoIP, LTEWeb Browsing, and LTEVideo Conferencing respectively. This section generally describes theses parameters because they are the same for all services.

Description Max Throughput Demand(UL) Min Throughput Demand (UL) Average Throughput Demand(UL) Maximum throughput of each service required by uplink subscribers in a single snapshot. Minimum throughput of each service required by uplink subscribers in a single snapshot. Average throughput of each service required by uplink subscribers in a single snapshot.

Result area

Number of TTI

Number of TTIs when the calculation within a snapshot is complete. The U-Net adopts the semidynamic simulation to obtain instantaneous network information by TTI. A larger number of TTIs indicates a more precise simulation result, but a longer time is required for calculation.

Stat Start Time IsConvergence Total Connected Users Users

TTI at which statistics starts. Whether a snapshot is converged. Average total number and percentage of subscribers that actually gain access to services in a single snapshot. Actual average throughput on the MAC layer for downlink subscribers in a single snapshot. Actual average throughput on the application layer for downlink subscribers in a single snapshot. Actual average throughput on the MAC layer for uplink subscribers in a single snapshot.

Actual MAC Throughput (DL) Actual Application Throughput(DL) Actual MAC Throughput (UL)

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Parameter Actual Application Throughput(UL) Breakdown per service: LTEFTP/ LTEVoIP/ LTEWeb Browsing/ LTEVideo Conferencing
NOTE The system collects the number of accessed subscribers and relevant throughput for services such as LTEFTP, LTEVoIP, LTEWeb Browsing, and LTEVideo Conferencing respectively. This section generally describes theses parameters because they are the same for all services.

Description Actual average throughput on the application layer for uplink subscribers in a single snapshot. Number and percentage of subscribers that successfully gain access to each service in a single snapshot. Number of downlink subscribers that gain access to each service in a single snapshot. Number of uplink subscribers that gain access to each service in a single snapshot. Actual throughput of each service on the MAC layer for downlink subscribers in a single snapshot. Standard deviation of each service on the MAC layer for downlink subscribers in a single snapshot. Actual throughput of each service on the application layer for downlink subscribers in a single snapshot. Standard deviation of each service on the application layer for downlink subscribers in a single snapshot. Actual throughput of each service on the MAC layer for uplink subscribers in a single snapshot. Standard deviation of each service on the MAC layer for uplink subscribers in a single snapshot. Actual throughput of each service on the application layer for uplink subscribers in a single snapshot.

Users

Downlink

Uplink

Actual MAC Throughput (DL)

Standard Deviation

Actual Application Throughput(DL)

Standard Deviation

Actual MAC Throughput (UL)

Standard Deviation

Actual Application Throughput(UL)

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Parameter Standard Deviation

Description Standard deviation of each service on the application layer for uplink subscribers in a single snapshot. Number of subscribers that are not covered in the downlink direction. Number of subscribers that are not covered in the uplink direction. Number of subscribers that fail to gain access to services. Number of subscribers involved in call drops. Statistical throughput on the MAC layer for uplink cell edge subscribers. The value of this parameter for a single snapshot is the first top 5% throughput among all throughput ranked in ascending order on the MAC layer for all uplink subscribers in the snapshot. Statistical throughput on the MAC layer for downlink cell edge subscribers. The value of this parameter for a single snapshot is the first top 5% throughput among all throughput ranked in ascending order on the MAC layer for all downlink subscribers in the snapshot. Distribution of user throughput in a single snapshot. Distribution of downlink RS SINR. Distribution of downlink PDSCH SINR.

Breakdown per unsuccessful reason

DLNoCover User

ULNoCover User

NoAccess User Offline User Edge User MAC Statistic Throughput(UL)

Edge User MAC Statistic Throughput(DL)

User Throughput Distribution User DL RS SINR Distribution User PDSCH SINR Distribution

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Parameters on the Sites tab page


The parameters on this tab page for a single snapshot are similar to those on the same tab page for the whole network. Therefore, you can see the parameter description for the whole network.. For details, see Parameters on the Sites(Average) Tab Page.

Parameters on the Cells tab page


The parameters on this tab page for a single snapshot are similar to those on the same tab page for the whole network. Therefore, you can see the parameter description for the whole network.. For details, see Parameters on the Cells(Average) Tab Page.

Parameters on the Mobiles tab page


Parameter ID X Y Group Name SnapShot Name User Profile Service Terminal Mobility Connection State Description ID of a user. The x-coordinate of a user on the map. The y-coordinate of a user on the map. Name of a simulation group. Name of a snapshot. User type. Service type. Terminal type. Mobility type. Connection status. There are five user states: Satisfied, ULNoCover, DLNoCover, NoAccess, and OffLine. The best serving cell. After load control is performed, the value of BestServer changes. Link Type Indoor Link Loss(UL)(dB) Link Loss(DL)(dB) RSRP(UL)(dBm) RSRP(DL)(dBm) Link type (uplink and downlink). Whether the terminal is used indoors. Uplink link loss. Downlink link loss. Uplink reference signal received power. Downlink reference signal received power.

Best Server

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Parameter IoT(DL)(dB)

Description Downlink interference over thermal. The unit is dB. Simulate the last measurement value.

PDSCH MCS PUSCH MCS MIMO Mode Tx Power(dBm)

Downlink modulation coding scheme (MCS). Uplink MCS. Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) type. Transmit power of a terminal. The downlink user is empty.

PUSCH MAC Throughput(kbps) PDSCH MAC Throughput(kbps) PUSCH Application Throughput(kbps) PDSCH Application Throughput(kbps) Average Used RB Number RS SINR(DL)(dB)

Throughput of the PUSCH channel on the MAC layer. The unit is kbit/s. Throughput of the PDSCH channel on the MAC layer. The unit is kbit/s. Throughput of the PUSCH channel on the application layer. The unit is kbit/s. Throughput of the PDSCH channel on the application layer. The unit is kbit/s. Average number of used RBs. Signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) of the downlink reference signal. The unit is dB. Simulate the last measurement value.

PUSCH SINR(dB) PDSCH SINR(dB)

SINR of the PUSCH channel. The unit is dB. SINR of the PDSCH channel. The unit is dB.

Parameters for Viewing Capacity Simulation Results of a Single User


This section describes the parameters for viewing capacity simulation results of a single user. Parameter Layer ID X Y Link Type
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Description Snapshot location of a user. ID of a user. The x-coordinate of a user on the map. The y-coordinate of a user on the map. Link type (uplink and downlink).
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Parameter Indoor Mobility Service Terminal Best Server

Description Whether the terminal is used indoors. Mobility type. Service type. Terminal type. The best serving cell. After load control is performed, the value of BestServer changes.

Link Loss(UL)(dB) Link Loss(DL)(dB) RSRP(UL)(dBm) RSRP(DL)(dBm) IoT(DL)(dB)

Uplink link loss. Downlink link loss. Uplink reference signal received power. Downlink reference signal received power. Downlink interference over thermal. The unit is dB. Simulate the last measurement value.

PDSCH MCS PUSCH MCS MIMO Mode Tx Power(dBm)

Downlink modulation coding scheme (MCS). Uplink MCS. Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) type. Transmit power of a terminal. The downlink user is empty.

PUSCH MAC Throughput(kbps) PDSCH MAC Throughput(kbps) PUSCH Application Throughput(kbps) PDSCH Application Throughput(kbps) RS SINR(DL)(dB)

Throughput of the PUSCH channel on the MAC layer. The unit is kbit/s. Throughput of the PDSCH channel on the MAC layer. The unit is kbit/s. Throughput of the PUSCH channel on the application layer. The unit is kbit/s. Throughput of the PDSCH channel on the application layer. The unit is kbit/s. Signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) of the downlink reference signal. The unit is dB. Simulate the last measurement value.

PUSCH SINR(dB) PDSCH SINR(dB)

SINR of the PUSCH channel. The unit is dB. SINR of the PDSCH channel. The unit is dB.

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Parameters for Viewing Point Analysis Statistics


This section describes the parameters for viewing point analysis statistics. You can refer to this section when viewing the detailed information about propagation models in the Model Details window, detailed information about the link budget in the Link Budget window, or analysis results of uplink and downlink signals in the Analysis Detail window.

Parameter Description of the Model Details Window


The following parameters are valid only when the propagation model is SPM. Parameter Number Pts Dist. Alt. Tot.H. Clut. Effective Tx Height Receiver Height Antenna Gain Diffraction Loss Effective Rx Height Clutter Loss Description Indicates the number of Bin points involved in the statistics. Indicates the distance from a point to the transmitter. Indicates the altitude of a point. Indicates the total height of a point. Indicates the clutter ID of a point. Indicates the effective antenna height of the transmitter. Indicates the receiver height of a point. Indicates the antenna gain. Indicates the diffraction loss. Indicates the effective antenna height of the receiver. Indicates the clutter loss.

NOTE

Some parameters in the Model Details window are not described in this table. They are calculated according to the propagation model.

Parameter Description of the Link Budget Window


Parameter Transceiver Receiver Distance Max Power Reference Signal Power
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Description Indicates the name of a cell. Indicates the coordinates of a point. Indicates the distance from a point to the transmitter. Indicates the maximum transmit power of the carrier. Indicates the power of a single reference signal of the carrier.
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Parameter Path Loss Shadow Fading Margin Penetration Loss Equipment Loss Reference Signal Level

Description Indicates the path loss. Indicates the margin of shadow fading. Indicates the penetration loss. Indicates the equipment loss on the base station side, including the feeder loss, jumper loss, and TMA loss. Indicates the strength of the reference signal.

Parameter Description of the Analysis Detail Window


Parameter Down link Received Reference Signal Level PDSCH Total Noise(I +N) Reference Signal C/(I +N) PDSCH C/(I+N) Bearer PDSCH Peak Throughput Uplin k Received PUSCH Power Transmission Power PUSCH Total Noise(I +N) PUSCH C/(I+N) Bearer PUSCH Peak Throughput Description Indicates the strength of the reference signal received by the terminal. Indicates the sum of the interference power received by the terminal and the noise power of the terminal. Indicates the signal-to-noise ratio of the reference signal. Indicates the signal-to-noise ratio of the downlink traffic channel. Indicates the modulation and demodulation mode used by the terminal. Indicates the peak throughput of the downlink traffic channel. Indicates the strength of the signal received by the cell. Indicates the transmit power of the terminal. Indicates the sum of the interference power received by the cell and the noise power of the cell. Indicates the signal-to-noise ratio of the uplink traffic channel. Indicates the demodulation and modulation mode used by the cell. Indicates the peak throughput of the uplink traffic channel.

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3.10 Planning LTE-FDD Network Parameters


You can plan the neighboring cells, EARFCNs, PCIs, and PRACHs of an LTE-FDD network through the U-Net.

3.10.1 LTE PCI Planning


The physical cell IDs (PCIs) of an LTE network is limited. Therefore, reuse of PCIs is unavoidable in LTE networking. To reduce the downlink interference of intra-frequency and co-PCI cells, you must assign a proper PCI to each cell. On the U-Net, you can enable the system to automatically plan PCIs or you can manually plan a PCI for each cell. After the PCI planning is complete, you can check whether the PCI planning results are proper.

Basic Knowledge of PCI Planning


In PCI planning, the U-Net assigns proper IDs to cells. This ensures that no interference is generated between the downlink signals of intra-frequency and co-PCI cells and terminals can properly synchronize and decode the pilot channels of normal serving cells. The PCI planning function can be used to create and expand networks.

Principles
In LTE-FDD mode, you can search for cells according to cell groups. That is, you can determine the ID of the corresponding cell group based on the SSCH and determine the specific cell ID based on the PSCH. Considering the networking capability, a large number of cell IDs is preferred. In the case of a large number of cell IDs, sufficient and high-performance SCHs are required to support quick and accurate query of cell IDs. Therefore, in LTE-FDD mode, each cell ID group consists of three cell IDs. Therefore, the number of cell IDs is a multiple of 3. The number of downlink scrambling codes is a multiple of 6. In the case of the WCDMA network, the maximum number of cell IDs is 512. Therefore, to ensure that the number of cell IDs is a multiple of both 3 and 6, the recommended number of cell IDs is 504. The number of PCIs is limited. Therefore, in the actual network, PCI reuse is unavoidable. The reuse of PCIs, however, may result in interference when the distance between the cells sharing the same PCI is excessively small. By using the PCI planning function on the U-Net, you can plan PCIs properly for cells, reducing the interference between intra-frequency and co-PCI cells.

Layer-0 Base Station


This section introduces the definition of layer-0 base station based on the schematic diagram in Figure 3-49.

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Figure 3-49 Schematic diagram of layer-0 base station

In the circle, the line between base station A and base station B, that is, line AB, is the diameter. Line DG and line EF run parallel with line AB. The length of either line OD or OE is one third of the length of line AB. The number of base stations involved in the gray area represents the number of layers between base station A and base station B. If no base station is involved in the gray area, base station A and base station B are called layer-0 base stations.

Mode 3 and Mode 6


l When the PCIs of cells are divided by 6 and the remainders are the same, these cells have the same mode 6. For example, the PCI of cell A is 16 and the PCI of cell B is 10; the remainder of dividing 16 by 6 is 4 and the remainder of dividing 10 by 6 is also 4. Therefore, cell A and cell B have the same mode 6. When the PCIs of cells are divided by 3 and the remainders are the same, these cells have the same mode 3. For example, the PCI of cell A is 8 and the PCI of cell B is 5; the remainder of dividing 8 by 3 is 2 and the remainder of dividing 5 by 3 is also 2. Therefore, cell A and cell B have the same mode 3.

Planning PCIs
The U-Net provides the function of planning PCIs. The planning results can be applied to the cells.

Prerequisites
A base station is created.

Procedure
Step 1 Optional: View the PCIs of existing cells. 1.
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In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab.


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2. 3.

In the navigation tree, choose LTE PCI Planning. Right-click and choose Open PCI Codes from the shortcut menu. The PCI Planning Display window is displayed. View the PCIs of existing cells.

Step 2 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 3 In the navigation tree, choose LTE PCI Planning. Step 4 Choose Automatic Allocation from the shortcut menu. See Figure 3-50. Figure 3-50 Automatic Allocation

Step 5 In the LTE PCI Planning dialog box, set the planning parameters. For parameter description, see Parameters for Planning PCIs. Step 6 Select whether to expand the PCIs based on the existing PCIs. If... Expand the PCIs based on the existing PCIs. Replan all the PCIs. Step 7 Click Run. l During planning, you can right-click LTE PCI Planning on the Operation tab page of the explorer window, and then choose Stop PCI Codes Planning from the shortcut menu to stop the PCI planning. l The planning result is displayed at the lower-part of the U-Net main interface. For parameter description, see Parameters for Viewing PCI Planning Results. ----End Then... Click Load to import the existing PCI cluster configuration file of the network. Perform Step 7.

Follow-up Procedure
After the PCI planning is complete, you can filter, verify, apply, and export the PCI planning result. For details, see Managing the PCI Planning Result.

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Managing the PCI Planning Result


This section describes how to manage PCI planning result. After the PCI planning is complete, you can filter, remove the filter effect on, audit, apply, and export the PCI planning result.

Prerequisites
The PCI planning is complete.

Procedure
l Perform the following operations as required. If... You want to filter PCI planning result Then... 1. Right-click in the PCI Planning Display window and choose Filter from the shortcut menu. For details, see Parameters for Filtering and Auditing PCI Planning Results. 2. Click OK. The filtered cells are displayed in green on the map, as shown in Figure 3-51.
NOTE l You need to select LTE PCI Planning in the navigation tree so that the filtered cells can be displayed in green in the map window. l If you click None in the Filter dialog box or close the PCI Planning Display window, the color of filtered cells in the map window is cleared.

You want to remove the filter effect on the PCI planning result

Right-click in the PCI Planning Display window and choose Remove Filter from the shortcut menu. The PCI Planning Display window switches back to the state when no filter criterion was used, and the color of cells is cleared.
NOTE Remove Filter is available only after filter criteria are used.

You want to Audit the PCI planning result

Right-click in the PCI Planning Display window and choose Audit from the shortcut menu. For details, see Parameters for Filtering and Auditing PCI Planning Results. The audit result is saved as an .xls file.

You want to apply the PCI planning result to each cell

Right-click in the PCI Planning Display window and choose Commit from the shortcut menu. PCI values of cells are updated after the PCI planning result is applied.

You want to export the PCI planning result

1. Right-click in the PCI Planning Display window and choose Export Result from the shortcut menu. 2. Set parameters in the Data Export dialog box. For details, see 10.18.5 Parameters for Importing and Exporting Data. 3. Click Export to export the planning result.

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If... You want to view the PCI values of cells in the map window

Then... 1. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. 2. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. 3. Choose Display Setting from the shortcut menu. 4. In the displayed dialog box, add the PCI field to the Selected Fields area. 5. Click OK. The PCI values of cells will be displayed in the map window. PCI values of cells are updated after the PCI planning result is applied.

You want to enable the map window to display the PCI planning result together with that in the planning result table

1. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. 2. Select LTE PCI Planning in the navigation tree. 3. In the navigation tree, choose LTE PCI Planning. 4. Choose Display Option from the shortcut menu. 5. Set parameters in the displayed dialog box. For details, see Parameters for Setting PCI Display Properties. 6. Click OK. 7. Select a source cell in the map window or click a row heading in the planning result table. The PCI planning result is displayed in the map window and planning result table at the same time.

You want to manually modify PCI configurations

In the PCI Planning Display window, manually modify the value of Confirm Code. Then, right-click in the PCI Planning Display window and choose Commit from the shortcut menu. 1. Select a transceiver in the map window. 2. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. 3. In the displayed dialog box, manually modify the PCI configurations on the LTE-FDDCell tab page.

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Figure 3-51 Filter

----End

3.10.2 LTE PRACH Planning


To ensure successful random access to an LTE-FDD network, you must plan the physical random access channel (PRACH) of each cell on the LTE-FDD network. The planning of PRACHs involves the planning of the Zadoff-Chu Sequence (ZC).

Basic Knowledge of PRACHs


The PRACH planning is also called the ZC sequence planning. During the planning of ZC sequences, proper preamble sequences are assigned to cells to ensure that the high-speed cells or cells with larger radius can be configured with high-performance preamble sequences. Currently, the U-Net supports the PRACH planning of only co-channel cells.

Planning of ZC Sequence Indexes


The PRACH uses the ZC sequence as the root sequence. The number of preamble sequences of each cell is 64. The preamble sequences are generated through cyclic shifts (Ncs, CyclicShifts) of ZC sequences. Preamble sequences used by a UE are allocated by a base station or randomly selected. To reduce the interference of preamble sequences between adjacent cells, you need to plan ZC sequence indexes properly. In LTE FDD mode, the number of ZC sequence indexes is 838, and 16 types of Ncs values are available. The U-Net configures ZC sequence indexes and Ncs values for multiple cells according to the cell properties (such as the cell radius and high speed cell) to ensure that the generated preamble sequences of adjacent cells are different. Thus, the interference caused by the use of the same preamble sequence between adjacent cells is reduced.

Planning PRACH
You can manually plan the PRACH parameters of one or multiple cells.
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Prerequisites
A base station is created.

Procedure
Step 1 Set Prach Reuse Tier(Neighbor) for each cell. The default value of Prach Reuse Tier(Neighbor) is 2 for each cell. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver > Sitex_x. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. Change the value of Prach Reuse Tier(Neighbor). Click OK.

Step 2 Importing the existing neighboring relationships. For details, see Importing Neighbor Relationships. Step 3 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 4 In the navigation tree, choose LTE PRACH Planning. Step 5 Choose Automatic Allocation from the shortcut menu. Step 6 Set parameters in the displayed dialog box. For detailed description of parameters, see Parameters for Planning the PRACH. Step 7 Click Run. The planning results of the PRACH parameters are displayed in a pane under the U-Net main interface. You can check the planning results. For details about the parameters, see Parameters for Viewing PRACH Planning Results. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
If you need to... Export the PRACH planning results Modify the PRACH configurations manually Then... Right-click in the PRACH Parameter Display dialog box and choose Export from the shortcut menu to export the PRACH planning results. In the PRACH Parameter Display dialog box, modify the value of Confirmed Start Root Sequence Index in the table manually. The U-Net will automatically change the value of Confirmed End Root Sequence Index.

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If you need to... The PRACH planning results are displayed in the map window.

Then... 1. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. 2. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. 3. Choose Display Setting from the shortcut menu. 4. In the displayed dialog box, add the Min Root Sequence Index field to the Selected Fields area.

The cells using PRACH reuse are displayed in the map window.

1. In the navigation tree, select the box in front of LTE PRACH Planning. 2. Select a cell in the map window or click the head of a row in the planning result table. The selected cell and the cells using PRACH reuse with the selected cell are displayed in the same color on the map. 1. In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. 2. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. 3. Choose Cells > Open Table from the shortcut menu. 4. Modify the value of Min Root Sequence Index.
NOTE l If you have planned the PRACH parameters of the cell but the planning results are not submitted, the modification of Min Root Sequence Index will be synchronized to Existed Min Root Sequence Index but not to Confirmed Start Root Sequence Index. l The value of Confirmed Start Root Sequence Index is submitted when you submit the PRACH planning results.

Modify the value of Min Root Sequence Index.

3.10.3 LTE-FDD Neighboring Cell Planning


After creating base stations, you must plan neighboring cells for the cells on the LTE network. You can automatically plan neighboring cells in batches or manually plan neighboring cells for each cell one by one.

Basic Knowledge of Neighboring Cell Planning


This section describes basic knowledge of neighboring cell planning. Proper neighbor relationships ensure that a UE at the edge of a serving cell can be handed over in time and that the handover gain is obtained. This helps to reduce intra-RAT interference, improve the QoS of the network, and ensure stable network performance. The purpose of neighboring cell planning is to properly configure neighbor relationships during the construction or expansion of a network. Planning neighboring cells is mandatory during initial construction of a network. Whether neighboring cells are properly planned has direct impacts on the network performance. Traditionally, neighboring cells are manually planned, which features low work efficiency. Currently, neighboring cells are automatically planned, which greatly improves work efficiency, reduces network construction cost, and accelerates network construction. Manual adjustments to the results of automatic planning can be made based on the actual situation.
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The U-Net provides the function of automatically planning neighboring cells. It supports neighboring cell planning for special scenarios that require repeaters or remote RF units. These features of U-Net ensure reliable planning results. The U-Net determines the neighbor relationships of a serving cell from the following aspects: l l l l If a cell is covered by the same base station as the serving cell, it is considered as a neighboring cell of the serving cell. If a cell in the candidate neighboring cells has the highest score, it is considered as a neighboring cell of the serving cell. The existing neighboring cell relationships are not changed. Whether a cell is configured as a neighboring cell of the serving cell to ensure bidirectional neighbor relationship.

The U-Net provides the following neighboring cell planning algorithms: l l l Topology: algorithm based on topology Prediction: algorithm based on coverage prediction Topology + Prediction: algorithm based on topology and coverage prediction The U-Net determines neighboring cells using the algorithm based on coverage prediction. If the neighbor relationships between the serving cell and some cells cannot be determined according to the algorithm based on coverage prediction, the U-Net determines neighboring cells using the algorithm based on topology. Take UMTS as an example, neighboring cell planning and optimization of U-Net applies to the following scenarios: l l l l 6.9.3 Initial Neighboring Cell Planning for a New Network 6.9.4 Neighboring Cell Replanning for a Partially Expanded Network 6.9.5 Replanning of Neighboring Cells from 2G Network to 3G Network 6.9.6 Checking and Optimizing Neighboring Cell Configuration
NOTE

For CDMA networks, the U-Net supports only the algorithm based on topology for planning neighboring cells.

Importing Neighbor Relationships


This section describes how to import neighbor relationships. The U-Net provides the function of importing neighbor relationships, through which the existing neighbor relationships on the network can be imported into the U-Net. This helps to plan neighboring cells according to the actual situation of the network.

Prerequisites
l l Base station information has been created or imported, including sites, transceivers, and cells. The neighbor relationships to be imported must be collected into a neighbor relationship template. You can obtain the neighbor relationship template by exporting neighbor relationships.

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Context
l l l l l Neighbor relationships of an LTE-FDD or LTE-TDD network are matched by the cell name. Neighbor relationships of a GSM network are matched by cell name, LAC, and CI. Neighbor relationships of a UMTS network are matched by cell name, RNC ID, and CI. Neighbor relationships of a CDMA network are matched by MSC ID, BSC ID, BTS ID, Cell ID, Sector ID, ARFCN, and BNDCLS. Neighbor relationships of a multi-mode network must be imported separately by network technology.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose neighbor planning > RAT. Step 3 Choose Import Neighbor Relations from the shortcut menu. The Import Neighbor Relations dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Select Update Blind Handover Flag as required. If Update Blind Handover Flag is selected, blind handover flags of cells are updated when the neighbor relationships are imported.
NOTE

Update Blind Handover Flag is unavailable in GSM/CDMA, and therefore you do not need to select it.

Step 5 Click Browse to choose a neighbor relationship file. Step 6 Click OK. ----End

Planning LTE-FDD Neighboring Cells


The U-Net provides the function of automatically planning neighboring cells. You can enable the U-Net to configure neighboring relationships for each cell automatically to reduce handover problems resulting from inappropriate neighboring cell configuration.

Prerequisites
l l Base station information has been created or imported, including sites, transceivers, and cells. In the case of capacity expansion, the existing neighboring relationships have been imported into the U-Net.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Neighbor Planning > LTE. Step 3 Choose Automatic Allocation from the shortcut menu. See Figure 3-52.
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Figure 3-52 Neighbor Automatic Allocation

Step 4 Set planning parameters in the displayed dialog box. For detailed description of parameters, see Parameters for Planning Neighboring LTE-FDD Cells. Step 5 Click Run. After the planning is complete, the planning results are displayed in the lower pane of the U-Net main window. For detailed description of parameters, see Parameters for Viewing Neighboring Cell Planning Results. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
l Set the mode and colors for displaying neighboring relationships in the map window. 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Neighbor Planning > LTE. Choose Display Option from the shortcut menu. In the displayed dialog box, set the mode and colors for displaying neighboring relationships in the map window. For details about the parameters, see Parameters for Setting the Display Properties of Neighboring Cells. Click OK.

5. l

You can also view, filter, check, and export neighboring cell planning results. For details, see Managing the Result of Neighboring Cell Planning.

Managing the Result of Neighboring Cell Planning


This section describes how to manage the result of neighboring cell planning. After the planning is complete, you can view, filter, remove the filter effect on, audit, export, and modify neighboring cell relationships of all the cells in the network.

Prerequisites
The neighboring cell planning is complete.
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Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose neighbor planning > RAT.
NOTE

You need to select the check box of RAT in the navigation tree so that neighboring cell relationships can be displayed in the map window.

Step 3 Choose Open Neighbor Relations from the shortcut menu. Step 4 Perform the following operations as required. If you need to... View neighboring cell relationships Then... In the main window of the U-Net, click a cell in the Cell area. Alternatively, click a certain cell in the map window, as shown in Figure 3-53. The neighboring cell relationships of the selected cell are displayed in the table in the Cell area and in the map window simultaneously. Filter neighboring cells 1. In the Cell area of the main window, Choose Filter from the shortcut menu.. 2. Set filter criteria in the displayed dialog box. For details, see Parameters for Setting Conditions for Checking Neighbor Relationships and Filtering Neighboring Cells. 3. Select the box in front of Highlighted on Geographic. The filtered cells are displayed in green in the map window, as shown in Figure 3-54.
NOTE If you select the None option in the Filter dialog box, the color of filtered cells in the map window is cleared.

Remove the filter effect on neighboring cells

Right-click in the Cell area of the main window and choose Remove Filter from the shortcut menu. The table in the Cell area switches back to the state when no filter criterion is used, and the color of filtered cells in the map window is cleared.
NOTE Remove Filter is available only after filter criteria are used.

Audit neighboring cell relationships

1. In the Cell area of the main window, right-click the table and choose Statistic from the shortcut menu. 2. Set audit conditions in the displayed dialog box. For details, see Parameters for Setting Conditions for Checking Neighbor Relationships and Filtering Neighboring Cells. 3. Click OK. The check report is exported to an XLS file. The exported file contains multiple sheets, and each sheet shows the result that meets certain audit conditions.

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If you need to... Export the result of neighboring cell planning

Then... 1. In the Cell area of the main window, Choose Export from the shortcut menu.. 2. In the displayed Export Neighbor dialog box, select an export mode. l Incremental Export: Export only the changed neighboring cell relationships. l Full Export: Export all neighboring cell relationships. 3. Click Export.
NOTE In the exported file of neighboring cell relationships, you can refer to the values in the CellPCI and NeighborCellPCI columns for the LTE network when creating MML scripts.

Delete neighboring cell relationships

1. In the Cell area of the main window, select a cell whose neighboring cell relationships need to be adjusted. 2. Clear the check box for the selected cell in the Confirm column of the table in the right pane.

Modify neighboring cell relationships

1. Select a source cell on the map. 2. Hold down Ctrl and click the cells except the source cell to add or delete unidirectional neighboring cell relationships. 3. Hold down Shift and click the cells except the source cell to add or delete bidirectional neighboring cell relationships.
NOTE l If an added or deleted neighboring cell relationship is the same as an existing one, the check box for the selected cell in the Confirm column of the table in the right pane is automatically selected or cleared. l If an added neighboring cell relationship is different from the existing ones, the neighboring cell relationship is added to the neighboring cell list and the value of Cause for the cell is force in the Cause column. l If the number of neighboring cells for a cell reaches the maximum number, a confirmation dialog box is displayed when more neighboring cells are added. You can click Yes to add these neighboring cells, or click No to cancel the operation.

Export the X2 interface relationship data

This function is available only for the LTE-FDD network. The X2 interface relationship data can be exported only after the planning result is applied to each cell. 1. In the navigation tree, choose Neighbor Planning > LTE. 2. Right-click and choose Export X2 Relations from the shortcut menu. The Export X2 Relations dialog box is displayed. 3. In the Area area, set the area whose X2 interface relationship data needs to be exported. 4. Specify an export path. 5. Click OK.

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If you need to... Clear the result of neighboring cell planning

Then... 1. Right-click in the Cell area of the main window and choose Clear Existed Neighbors from the shortcut menu. 2. In the displayed U-Net dialog box, click Y. The existing result of neighboring cell planning is cleared.
NOTE You can clear the existing result of neighboring cell planning so that the planning of neighboring cells next time will not be affected.

Figure 3-53 Clicking a cell in the map window

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Figure 3-54 Filter

----End

3.10.4 LTE Frequency Planning


After base stations are created, you must assign EARFCNs to cells on the network. The U-Net provides three frequency reuse modes: 1x1+ICIC soft frequency, 1x1+ICIC downlink edge six frequency band, and 1x3 frequency reuse modes. When the frequency band is determined, you can enable the U-Net to plan EARFCNs automatically or you can manually plan EARFCNs for each cell.

Frequency Planning Basics


An LTE-FDD broadband network does not have sufficient EARFCNs. However, it supports dense frequency reuse owning to its orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) features. The U-Net provides three frequency reuse modes: 1x1+ICIC soft frequency, 1x1+ICIC downlink six frequency band allocation, and 1x3 frequency reuse modes.

LTE-FDD Network Frequency Planning


The U-Net provides three frequency reuse modes: 1x1+ICIC soft frequency, 1x1+ICIC downlink six frequency band allocation, and 1x3 frequency reuse modes. l 1x1+ICIC soft frequency reuse In this mode, cells of all eNodeBs use the same EARFCN and a site is used as a reuse cluster to implement seamless coverage of the entire network. To reduce the interference between adjacent cells, the center areas of all the sites on the network use partial band of the fullfrequency band, and the edge areas use the rest of the full-frequency band. l 1x1+ICIC downlink edge six frequency band allocation reuse In this mode, cells of all eNodeBs use the same EARFCN and a site is used as a reuse cluster to implement seamless coverage of the entire network. To reduce the interference between
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adjacent cells, the center areas of all the sites on the network use partial band of the fullfrequency band, and the edge areas use the rest of the full-frequency band. l 1x3 frequency reuse In this mode, the network uses three EARFCNs. The three cells in an eNodeB use different EARFCNs. An eNodeB and its three cells are used as a reuse cluster to implement seamless coverage of the entire network.

Planning EARFCNs
The U-Net provides the automatic frequency planning function. You can enable the U-Net to automatically assign EARFCNs to each cell based on different frequency reuse modes to avoid improper frequency configuration, which greatly reduces the interference problems caused by improper frequency configuration.

Prerequisites
The frequency band information is set.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose LTE Frequency Planning. Step 3 Choose Automatic Allocation from the shortcut menu.The Parameter Setting dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 3-55.

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Figure 3-55 Parameter Setting

Step 4 On the General tab page, select the target area in Select Area. l You can select all the cells in an area or click Filter to select only the cells to be planned in the area. l In the Filter dialog box, you can specify the contents to be found, set the search direction, and set whether to match cases. Step 5 Set the minimum interference distance in Min Interference Distance(km). Step 6 Select a frequency reuse mode in Frequency Reuse Pattern. The default reuse mode is 1x1, Static ICIC. Step 7 On the Frequency tab page, select a band in Frequency Band and available ARFCNs in Channel Index. You can select only one ARFCN in 1x1 frequency reuse mode and three ARFCNs in 1x3 frequency reuse mode. Step 8 Click Run. After the frequency planning is complete, open the window of frequency planning results. For detailed description of parameters, see Parameters for Viewing Frequency Planning Results. ----End
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Follow-up Procedure
l l To export the frequency planning results, click Export in the window of frequency planning results. To apply the frequency planning results to the cells, click Commit in the window of frequency planning results.

Checking the Information About Intra-Frequency Cells and Inter-Frequency Cells


You can check the intra-frequency cells and inter-frequency cells of a specified ARFCN or a specified cell. The intra-frequency cells and inter-frequency cells can be displayed in different colors in the map window on the U-Net.

Prerequisites
A base station is deployed. ARFCNs are assigned to each cell under the base station.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose LTE Frequency Planning. Step 3 Choose Frequency Statistics from the shortcut menu. The Frequency Statistics dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Set a band in Frequency Band and ARFCNs in Channel Index. Step 5 Click Find to check the intra-frequency cells and inter-frequency cells of the specified ARFCN. Step 6 Click Geometry to query the intra-frequency cells and inter-frequency cells on the map. Click Color to set the display colors of intra-frequency cells and inter-frequency cells. ----End

3.10.5 Automatically Planning LTE Cells


The LTE cell automatic planning function is used to adjust the mechanical tilt angle, azimuth, and reference signal power of antennas on the network to meet user requirements. This avoids manual interventions and reduces repeated parameter adjustments. The purpose of this function is to improve the network coverage range, control and reduce intercell interference, and expand the network capacity, while ensuring signal receive quality. If the live network coverage does not meet requirements, you can enable this function to automatically adjust cell parameters to optimize the coverage.

Planning the Link Matrix


Before optimizing cells, you need to calculate the link data of each cell to improve cell planning efficiency.

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Prerequisites
l Base station information (including site, transceiver, and cell information) has been imported or created.

Procedure
Step 1 In the browser window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 Choose LTE Cell Planning from the navigation tree. Step 3 Right-click LTE Cell Planning and choose Calculate LinkLoss Matrix from the shortcut menu, as shown in Figure 3-56. Figure 3-56 Calculate LinkLoss Matrix

Step 4 Set related parameters in the Calculate LinkLoss Matrix dialog box. For details about parameters, see Setting Link Matrix Parameters. Step 5 Click Run to start calculating pass loss, as shown in Figure 3-57.

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Figure 3-57 Calculate

----End

Planning Cells
This section describes how to plan cells. Before planning cells, you need to set parameters such as analysis and simulation areas, number of iteration times, weight of each coverage counter (such as RSRP and RS SINR), and maximum adjustment range of the antenna tilt angle, azimuth, and reference signal transmit power.

Prerequisites
l l l Base stations have been created. Analysis and simulation areas have been created. The link matrix planning is complete.

Procedure
Step 1 In the browser window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 Choose LTE Cell Planning from the navigation tree. Step 3 Right-click LTE Cell Planning and choose New from the shortcut menu. The LTE Cell Planning dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 3-58.

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Figure 3-58 LTE Cell Planning

Step 4 Set cell planning parameters in the displayed dialog box. For details about the parameters, see Parameters for Creating an LTE Cell Planning Group. Step 5 Click OK. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
After creating an LTE cell planning group, you can plan LTE cells. 1. 2. 3. In the browser window, click the Operation tab. Choose LTE Cell Planning > Groupx from the navigation tree. Right-click Groupx and choose Calculate from the shortcut menu. The system starts planning LTE cells, as shown in Figure 3-59.

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Figure 3-59 Calculate LTE Cell Planning

NOTE

You can right-click Groupx and choose Stop from the shortcut menu to stop calculating LTE cell groups. When LTE cells are being planned, the Event Viewer window in the lower part of the U-Net main window displays the planning progress.

After LTE cells are planned, you can view the planning result. For details, see Viewing the LTE Cell Planning Result.

Viewing the LTE Cell Planning Result


After LTE cells are planned, you can view the planning result of each iteration and the planning result of the LTE cell parameters for each cell in each iteration. You can also compare the parameter values before and after the planning. In addition, you can view the planning result of each iteration in a line graph. The planning result can apply to actual cells.

Prerequisites
l l Links have been calculated. LTE cell planning groups have been created and calculated.

Procedure
Step 1 In the browser window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 Choose LTE Cell Planning > Groupx from the navigation tree. Step 3 Right-click Groupx and choose Result from the shortcut menu. The LTE Cell Planning: Groupx dialog box is displayed. Step 4 In the displayed dialog box, view the LTE cell planning result, as shown in Figure 3-60. For details about the parameters, see Parameters for Viewing LTE Cell Planning Results.
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Figure 3-60 LTE Cell Planning: Groupx

NOTE

On the Cells tab page in the LTE Cell Planning :Groupx dialog box, click Commit to apply the cell planning result to each cell.

----End

3.10.6 Interface Reference to LTE-FDD Network Parameter Planning


This section describes the interfaces and parameters for LTE-FDD network parameter planning by using the U-Net.

Parameters for Planning Neighboring LTE-FDD Cells


This section describes parameters for planning neighboring LTE-FDD cells.

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Table 3-70 Parameters displayed on the General tab page Parameter Methods Select Description Selects a network planning scenario. l Topology: Plans neighboring cells based on the network topology. l Prediction: Plans neighboring cells based on prediction results. This method is applicable only to outdoor base stations. l Topology + Prediction: Plans neighboring cells based on both the network topology and the prediction results. Max Neighbor Distance(km) Indicates the maximum neighboring cell distance. If the distance between two cells exceeds the specified value, the two cells cannot be planned as neighboring cells. Planning Neighbor based on existed Neighbors Plan neighboring cells based on the existing neighboring relationships. If this option is not selected, the existing neighboring relationships are deleted and neighboring cells are replanned. Force Co-Site As Neighbor Co-Site Distance(m) Forcibly configures internal cells as bidirectional neighboring cells. Configures two cells as bidirectional neighboring cells when the distance between the two cells is less than the value of this parameter. Whether to reference the neighbor relationships of existing cells. Click Reference Rules and configure reference rules in the displayed window. l Source Cell Frequency Band: Indicates the frequency band to be planned. l Neighbor Cell Frequency Band: Indicates the frequency band of the neighboring cell. l Referenced Cell Frequency Band: Indicates the frequency band of the referenced cell. l Reference Neighbor Cell Frequency Band: Indicates the frequency band of the neighboring cell of the referenced cell. Azimuth Difference () Reference Site Distance(m) Indicates the azimuth difference between the cells to be planned and the referenced cells. Sets the distance difference between the cell to be planned and the referenced cell.

Reference Existed Neighbors Reference Rules

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Parameter Resolution(m)

Description Indicates the precision for the calculation. You can set this parameter in the Prediction Parameter Setting window after you click Setting when the network planning scenario is set to Prediction or Topology + Prediction.

Handover Area Percent(%)

Indicates the handover area proportion. You can set this parameter in the Prediction Parameter Setting window after you click Setting when the network planning scenario is set to Prediction or Topology + Prediction.

Compute Shadowing

Indicates whether to impose shadow fading. You can set this parameter in the Prediction Parameter Setting window after you click Setting when the network planning scenario is set to Prediction or Topology + Prediction.

Cell Edge Coverage Probability(%)

Indicates the probability of the cell edge coverage. This parameter is valid only when shadow fading is imposed. The value of the parameter is directly proportional to the value of shadow fading. You can set this parameter in the Prediction Parameter Setting window after you click Setting when the network planning scenario is set to Prediction or Topology + Prediction.
NOTE This parameter is valid when you select Compute Shadowing.

Compute Indoor Loss

Indicates whether to impose penetration loss. You can set this parameter in the Prediction Parameter Setting window after you click Setting when the network planning scenario is set to Prediction or Topology + Prediction.

Min Signal Level(dBm)

Indicates the minimum signal receive level. You can set this parameter in the Prediction Parameter Setting window after you click Setting when the network planning scenario is set to Prediction or Topology + Prediction.

Handover Threshold(dB)

Indicates the handover area threshold. You can set this parameter in the Prediction Parameter Setting window after you click Setting when the network planning scenario is set to Prediction or Topology + Prediction.

Automatic generate Planning Cells

Automatically generates cells to be planned.


NOTE You can select new cells and related cells as cells to be planned.

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Parameter Area

Description Indicates the planning area. l You can select all the cells in an area or click Filter to select only the cells to be planned in the area. l In the Filter dialog box, you can specify the contents to be found, set the search direction, and set whether to match cases.

Table 3-71 Parameters displayed on the Intra-Frequency tab page Parameter Force Symmetry Description Indicates whether to forcibly configure unidirectional neighboring cells as bidirectional neighboring cells. If this option is selected during network capacity expansion, the unidirectional neighboring cells are configured as bidirectional neighboring cells to adjust the original neighboring relationship table. New Cell-Indoor Cell-Max Outdoor Neighbor Number New Cell-Indoor Cell-Max Indoor Neighbor Number New Cell-Outdoor Cell-Max Outdoor Neighbor Number New Cell-Outdoor Cell-Max Indoor Neighbor Number Existed Cell-Indoor Cell-Max Outdoor Neighbor Number Existed Cell-Indoor Cell-Max Indoor Neighbor Number Existed Cell-Outdoor CellMax Outdoor Neighbor Number Existed Cell-Outdoor CellMax Indoor Neighbor Number Indicates the maximum number of outdoor neighboring cells planned for a newly established indoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of indoor neighboring cells planned for a newly established indoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of outdoor neighboring cells planned for a newly established outdoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of indoor neighboring cells planned for a newly established outdoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of outdoor neighboring cells planned for an existing indoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of indoor neighboring cells planned for an existing indoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of outdoor neighboring cells planned for an existing outdoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of indoor neighboring cells planned for an existing outdoor cell.

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Table 3-72 Parameters displayed on the Inter-Frequency tab page Parameter Force Symmetry Description Indicates whether to configure cells as bidirectional neighboring cells. If this option is selected during network capacity expansion, the unidirectional neighboring cells are configured as bidirectional neighboring cells to adjust the original neighboring relationship table. New Cell-Indoor Cell-Max Outdoor Neighbor Number New Cell-Indoor Cell-Max Indoor Neighbor Number New Cell-Outdoor Cell-Max Outdoor Neighbor Number New Cell-Outdoor Cell-Max Indoor Neighbor Number Existed Cell-Indoor Cell-Max Outdoor Neighbor Number Existed Cell-Indoor Cell-Max Indoor Neighbor Number Existed Cell-Outdoor CellMax Outdoor Neighbor Number Existed Cell-Outdoor CellMax Indoor Neighbor Number Indicates the maximum number of outdoor neighboring cells planned for a newly established indoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of indoor neighboring cells planned for a newly established indoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of outdoor neighboring cells planned for a newly established outdoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of indoor neighboring cells planned for a newly established outdoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of outdoor neighboring cells planned for an existing indoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of indoor neighboring cells planned for an existing indoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of outdoor neighboring cells planned for an existing outdoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of indoor neighboring cells planned for an existing outdoor cell.

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Table 3-73 Parameters displayed on the Inter-RAT tab page (available in multi-mode) Parameter Co-Site Distance Description Indicates the co-site distance. The default value is 30 km. If the distance between two base stations is less than or equal to the value of this parameter, the cells under the two base stations are considered as co-site cells. If two base stations in LTE-FDD and GSM/UMTS networks are equipped with multiple antennas (or repeaters), the cells under the two base stations are considered as co-site cells only if the distances between all antennas (or repeaters) of the LTE-FDD base station and antennas (or repeaters) of the GSM/ UMTS base station are less than or equal to the value of this parameter. Co-Transceiver Azimuth Difference Indicates the co-transceiver azimuth difference. The default value is 5o. If the difference between the antenna azimuths of two cells is less than or equal to the co-transceiver azimuth difference, the two cells are considered as co-transceiver cells. If two base stations in LTE-FDD and GSM/UMTS networks are equipped with multiple antennas (or repeaters), the cells under the two base stations are considered as co-transceiver cells only if the azimuth difference between all antennas (or repeaters) of the LTE-FDD base station and antennas (or repeaters) of the GSM/UMTS base station is less than or equal to the value of this parameter. Min Signal Level (dBm) Indicates the minimum signal receive level. The default value is 110 dBm. The signal receive level of the LTE-FDD cell must be less than the preset Min Signal Level(dBm) value. Best Handover Area Percent Indicates the best handover area proportion. The default value is 90%. On multi-mode networks, the LTE-FDD Best Server area may overlap the GSM/UMTS Best Server area. The ratio of the overlapped area to the LTE-FDD Best Server area is the handover area proportion. This value must be greater or equal to the preset Best Handover Area Percent.
CAUTION On the General tab page, if you select a network planning mode (Methods Select), the required conditions must be met so that you can use the cell as a neighboring LTE-FDD cell for blind handover. For details, see Table 3-74.

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Parameter Total Max Number Frequency Band ARFCN Min Signal Level (dBm) Handover Threshold(dB)

Description Indicates the maximum number of neighboring cells. Indicates the frequency band to be handed over when the RAT is switched to GSM. Indicates the UTRA absolute radio frequency channel number (UARFCN) to be handed over when the RAT is switched to UMTS. Indicates the minimum signal receive level of the inter-RAT neighboring cell. Indicates the handover area threshold.

Table 3-74 Conditions for blind neighboring LTE-FDD cell handover If you need to... The Topology mode is selected Then... A cell serving as the neighboring cell for blind handover from an LTEFDD cell must meet the following conditions: l Co-Site Distance l Co-Transceiver Azimuth Difference l Min Signal Level(dBm) The Prediction mode is selected A cell serving as the neighboring cell for blind handover from an LTEFDD cell must meet the following conditions: l Co-Site Distance l Best Handover Area Percent
NOTE If there are repeaters, neighboring cell planning based on predictions is not supported.

Topology + Prediction is selected

The U-Net determines neighboring cells based on prediction. If the neighboring relationships between the serving cell and some cells cannot be determined based on prediction, the U-Net determines neighboring cells based on their topology relationships.

Parameters for Setting the Display Properties of Neighboring Cells


This section describes the parameters for setting the display properties of neighboring cells. Table 3-75 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Display Links
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Description Identifies neighbor relationships by using lines.


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Parameter Display Cell Color Fit Neighbor Cell Visible

Description Identifies neighbor relationships in cell colors. Displays the neighbor relationships of a cell on the map after you select the cell in the neighbor relationship table. Displays the neighboring cells that are available on the live network but are currently deleted from the U-Net. Sets the color of the source cell. Displays intra-frequency neighboring cells. Displays inter-frequency neighboring cells. Displays inter-RAT neighboring cells. Displays intra-RAT neighboring cells.

Display Deleted Existed Neighbor Selected Cell Color Intra Frequency Neighbors Inter Frequency Neighbors Inter-RAT Neighbors Intra Technology Neighbors

Table 3-76 Parameters on the Neighbor Display Color tab page Legend Confirm Intra Frequency Confirm Inter Frequency Confirm Inter-RAT Deleted Intra Frequency Description Sets the display color of unidirectional intra-frequency neighboring cells on the map. Sets the display color of unidirectional inter-frequency neighboring cells on the map. Sets the display color of unidirectional inter-RAT neighboring cells on the map. Sets the display color of unidirectional intra-frequency neighboring cells that are deleted from the live network on the map. Sets the display color of unidirectional inter-frequency neighboring cells that are deleted from the live network on the map. Sets the display color of unidirectional inter-RAT neighboring cells that are deleted from the live network on the map. Displays the neighbor relationships on the map. Sets the transparency of the color.

Deleted Inter Frequency

Deleted Iner-RAT

Add To Legend Transparency

NOTE

The neighboring cell types displayed on the U-Net may be different in different network systems. You can view the meaning of the displayed neighboring cell type.

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Parameters for Setting Conditions for Checking Neighbor Relationships and Filtering Neighboring Cells
This section describes the parameters for setting the conditions for checking neighbor relationships and filtering neighboring cells. Table 3-77 Parameter for setting the conditions for checking neighbor relationships and filtering neighboring cells Parameter Source Cell Intra-Frequency Inter-Frequency Intra-Technology Inter-RAT Average No. of Neighbors Empty List Missing Co-Site Missing Symmetry List > No: Percentage of Reference Neighbors Same PCI With Deleted Existed Neighbor None Highlighted on Geographic Interface Description Selects the source cell. Filters the intra-frequency neighboring cells. Filters the inter-frequency neighboring cells. Filters the intra-RAT neighboring cells. Filters the inter-RAT neighboring cells. Indicates the average number of neighboring cells. Filters the unconfigured neighboring cells. Filters the neighboring cells that belong to different sites. Filters the unconfigured bidirectional neighboring cells. Filters the neighboring cells whose number of neighboring cells is greater than the specified number. Indicates the percentage of UMTS cells that share neighbor relationships with the GSM cells at the same site as the UMTS cells. Filters the neighboring cells that use the same PCI. This parameter is available only for the LTE network. Collects cells whose existing neighboring cells have been deleted. Sets no filter criterion. Determines whether to highlight filtered cells on the map.

This table provides all the parameters for checking neighbor relationships and filtering neighboring cells in each network system. Some parameters may be available only in a specific network system. Check the parameter description based on site conditions.

Parameters for Viewing Neighboring Cell Planning Results


This section describes the parameters for viewing neighbor relationships. You can refer to this section when viewing neighboring cell planning results after the neighboring cell planning is complete.
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Table 3-78 Tab page description Parameter Intra-Frequency Inter-Frequency Inter-RAT Description Indicates intra-frequency neighboring cells. Indicates inter-frequency neighboring cells. Indicates inter-RAT neighboring cells.

The tab page name varies according to the network technology. Read the description on the actual tab page. Table 3-79 Parameter description Parameter Neighbor Name Cause Description Indicates the name of a neighboring cell. Indicates the reason for configuring a cell as the neighboring cell of the serving cell. l existed: Indicates the existing neighbor relationships on the network. l planned: Indicates the planned neighbor relationships. l force: Indicates the neighbor relationships manually added by users. l inherited: Indicates the inherited neighbor relationships. Confirm Indicates whether a cell is configured as the neighboring cell of the serving cell. If the option is selected, the cell is configured as the neighboring cell of the serving cell. If the option is not selected, the cell is not configured as the neighboring cell of the serving cell. Blind Handover Indicates a neighboring cell for blind handover.

Parameters for Viewing Frequency Planning Results


This section describes the parameters for viewing LTE frequency planning results. You can refer to this section when viewing frequency planning results in the 11 Result and 13 Result dialog boxes. Parameter Site Transceiver Frequency Description Indicates the name of a site. Indicates the name of a transmitter. Indicates the frequency band.

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Parameter Bandwidth 11 Result dialog box Edge Frequency (UL)

Description Indicates the bandwidth. Indicates the allocation mode of the uplink edge frequency band. The value can be Style1, Style2, or Style3.
NOTE When the downlink six edge frequency band allocation modes are used, the uplink edge frequency band mode has no output.

Edge Frequency (DL)

When Static ICIC is selected, the downlink three frequency band allocation modes are used. The value can be Style1, Style2, or Style3. When Adaptive ICIC is selected, the downlink six frequency band allocation modes are used. The value can be Style1a, Style1b, Style2a, Style2b, Style3a, or Style3b.

13 Result dialog box

Channel Index

Indicates the ARFCN, which represents an offset of the frequency based on the current frequency band. For example, if the frequency band is 1800 MHz, the bandwidth is 20 MHz, and there are 10 ARFCNs, ARFCN 8 represents 1800 + 20 x 8 (MHz).

Parameters for Planning PCIs


This section describes the parameters for automatically planning PCIs. You can refer to this section when planning PCIs in the LTE PCI Planning dialog box. Table 3-80 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Available PCI Planning With Exist PCI PCI Mod 3 Matching Azimuth order Iteratively General PCI Description Available PCIs. The value ranges from 0 to 503. Whether to conduct planning based on existing PCIs. Allocate PCI Mod 3 based on azimuth order. Sets whether to generate PCIs by iterations. When this option is selected, the PCIs are allocated in the following manner when PCI allocation in a cell fails: The PCIs are allocated by reducing the reuse distance by iterations based on the steps as defined by Distance Descending Percentage(%).

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Parameter Distance Descending Percentage(%) Area Filter

Description Indicates the percentage of the step for reducing the PCI reuse distance. Indicates the PCI planning area. l You can select all the cells in an area or click Filter to select only the cells to be planned in the area. l In the Filter dialog box, you can specify the contents to be found, set the search direction, and set whether to match cases.

Table 3-81 Parameters on the Advanced Parameter tab page Parameter Topology Description Select Topology to plan PCIs based on the network topology such as the cell location and antenna azimuth. Select Prediction to plan PCIs based on the prediction results such as cell coverage area. If the NE parameters are correctly configured, you are advised to plan PCIs based on the prediction results. Resolution(m) Min Signal Level(dBm) Handover area threshold(dB) Shadowing taken into account Indicates the coverage calculation precision. The default value is 50. Indicates the threshold of minimum receive signal level. Indicates the handover area threshold. Select Shadowing taken into account to take into account the shadow fading during the calculation of path loss. Set the cell edge coverage probability in Cell Edge Coverage Probability(%). This parameter is valid only when shadow fading is taken into account. The value of the parameter is directly proportional to the value of shadowing fading. Indoor Coverage Select Indoor Coverage to take into account indoor coverage during the calculation of path loss.

Prediction

Cell Edge Coverage Probability

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Parameters for Viewing PCI Planning Results


This section describes the parameters for viewing PCI planning results. Parameter Cell Name Existing Code Description Indicates the name of a cell. Indicates the existing PCI value. Before you submit PCI results, the PCI value remains unchanged. Suggest Code Confirm Code Indicates the suggested PCI value and also the planned PCI value. Indicates the confirmed PCI value. The default value of this parameter is equal to the planned PCI value. The value of this parameter can be changed manually. When you submit PCI planning results, the value of this parameter is submitted. Min Reuse Distance(m) Min Reuse Tier Indicates the minimum reuse distance of PCI in the current line. No Reuse indicates that the PCI is not reused. Indicates the minimum reuse tier of PCI in the current line. No Reuse indicates that the PCI is not reused.

Parameters for Filtering and Auditing PCI Planning Results


This section describes the parameters for filtering and auditing PCI planning results. Parameter Filter Target Description Indicates the range of cells to be filtered. l All: all cells. l Planning: planned cells. None Reuse Tier <= Reuse Distance(km) <= Highlighted on Geographic Interface No condition is specified. Indicates the maximum number of reuse layers. Indicates the maximum reuse distance. Indicates whether to highlight filtered cells on the map or not.

Parameters for Planning the PRACH


This section describes the parameters for planning the LTE PRACH. You can refer to this section when setting PRACH parameters in the LTE PRACH Planning dialog box.
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Parameter Available Root Sequence Index

Description Available Zadoff-Chu (ZC) sequence indexes. l Preamble Format (0-3): ZC sequence indexes available for the cells whose preamble format is set to 0-3. The maximum value range is from 0 to 837. l Preamble Format (4): ZC sequence indexes available for the cells whose preamble format is set to 4. The maximum value range is from 0 to 137. This parameter is available only for the LTE-TDD network.

Calculate Cell Radius

Whether to calculate the cell radius. If this option is selected, the cell radius needs to be calculated. If this option is not selected, the cell radius set for an NE is used.

Propagation Radius Propagation Radius Factor Coverage Radius Resolution(m) Min Signal Level(dBm) Shadowing taken into account Cell Edge Coverage Probability(%) Indoor Coverage Area

Cell radius is calculated based on the calculation radius of the propagation model. Conversion factor for the Calculation radius of a propagation model. Cell radius is calculated based on the signal coverage of cells. Precision of the coverage calculation. The default value is 50. Minimum receive level of signals for cell coverage. Whether to consider shadow fading when calculating signal coverage of cells. Cell edge coverage probability used for calculating shadow fading. Whether to take penetration loss into account. Area for PRACH planning. l You can select all the cells in an area or click Cell Filter to select only the cells to be planned in the area. l In the Filter dialog box, you can specify the contents to be found, set the search direction, and set whether to match cases.

Parameters for Viewing PRACH Planning Results


This section describes the parameters for viewing or modifying PRACH planning results. You can refer to this section when viewing PRACH planning results in the PRACH Parameter Display dialog box or in the carrier property window.

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Parameter Cell Name HighSpeed

Description Indicates the name of a cell. Indicates whether the cell is a high-speed cell. In PRACH planning, high-speed cells are preferentially planned.

Preamble Format(4) Ncs

Whether the preamble format of the cell is 4. Indicates the cyclic shift, that is, the configuration of zerocorrelated cells allocated for a cell. The value of this parameter is a result of the PRACH planning. The possible values of this parameter are as follows: l High-speed cell: 15, 18, 22, 26, 32, 38, 46, 55, 68, 82, 100, 128, 158, 202, or 237. l Low-speed cell: 0, 13, 15, 18, 22, 26, 32, 38, 46, 59, 76, 93, 119, 167, 279, or 419.

Cell Radius Existed Min Root Sequence Index Suggested Start Root Sequence Index Suggested End Root Sequence Index Confirmed Start Root Sequence Index Confirmed End Root Sequence Index Reuse Tier (Topology) Reuse Distance(m) Reuse Tier (Neighbor) Actual Required Reuse Tier (Neighbor) Lower Reuse Tier (Neighbor)

Indicates the radius of a cell. Indicates the existing start ZC root sequence index of the cell. Indicates the planned start ZC root sequence index of the cell. Indicates the planned end ZC root sequence index of the cell. Indicates the confirmed start ZC root sequence index. Indicates the confirmed end ZC root sequence index. Indicates the minimum number of reuse tiers based on the geographical location. Indicates the PARCH reuse distance, that is, the minimum reuse distance when the same root sequence is reused. Indicates the minimum number of reuse tiers based on neighboring relationship. Indicates the actually required number of reuse tiers when resources are allocated to cells. Indicates whether the number of reuse tiers is reduced when resources are allocated to cells.

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Parameters for Setting PCI Display Properties


This section describes the parameters for setting PCI display properties in the PCI Display Options dialog box. Table 3-82 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Same PCI: PCI Mod3: PCI Mod6: PCI Mod30: Display PCI Links Display PCI Cells Description Indicates the cells with the same PCI. Cells that have the same PCI mod 3 with the specified cell on the corresponding layer-0 base stations Cells that have the same PCI mod 6 with the specified cell on the corresponding layer-0 base stations Cells that have the same PCI mod 30 with the specified cell on the corresponding layer-0 base stations PCI results are marked by different line colors when you select this option. PCI results are marked by different cell colors when you select this option.

Basic Parameters of a Site


This section describes the parameters displayed or hidden in the Sites table. You can refer to this section when viewing basic parameters of a site in the Columns to be displayed dialog box. Parameter Site Name Description Name of a site. This parameter uniquely identifies a site. The U-Net provides a default name for each new site. Site ID X Y Longitude Latitude Altitude(m) Use Altitude For Calculation Site ID. Geodetic coordinate X (X coordinate). Geodetic coordinate Y (Y coordinate). Longitudinal coordinate. Latitudinal coordinate. Altitude. Whether to manually type the altitude of a site for calculation. If this item is selected, you need to type the altitude of a site manually. Comments on a site.
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Parameter Support Type

Description Base station type. Macro indicates a macro base station, Micro indicates a micro base station.

Setting Link Matrix Parameters


This section describes the parameters required for planning LTE cells. You can refer to this section when setting parameters in the Calculate LinkLoss Matrix dialog box. Parameter Resolution (m) With Shadow Cell Edge Coverage Probability Description Indicates the link matrix calculation resolution. The default value is 50. Indicates whether to impose shadow fading. By default, this option is selected. Indicates the cell edge coverage. The default value is 75%.
NOTE This parameter can be set only when shadow fading is imposed.

Indoor Coverage Terminal Service Polygon Region Select DT Data

Indicates whether to impose indoor coverage. By default, this option is not selected. Select a preset terminal type from the dropdown list. Select a preset service type from the dropdown list. Select a polygon region. Select a DT data source.

Parameters for Creating an LTE Cell Planning Group


This section describes the parameters for creating and setting an LTE cell planning group. You can refer to this section when creating or setting an LTE cell planning group in the LTE Cell Planning dialog box.

Parameters on the General Tab Page


Parameter Name Description Indicates the name of an LTE cell planning group.
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Parameter DL RSRP Target Ratio

Description Indicates the percentage of the downlink RSRP that reaches the specified threshold in the selected calculation area. The value ranges from 0% to 100%. Indicates the threshold that the downlink RSRP reaches. Indicates the percentage of the downlink RS SINR that reaches the specified threshold in the selected calculation area. The value ranges from 0% to 100%. Indicates the threshold that the downlink RS SINR reaches. Indicates the percentage of the uplink RSRP that reaches the specified threshold in the selected calculation area. The value ranges from 0% to 100%. Indicates the threshold that the uplink RSRP reaches. Indicates the percentage of the uplink RS SINR that reaches the specified threshold in the selected calculation area. The value ranges from 0% to 100%. Indicates the threshold that the uplink RS SINR reaches. Indicates the weight of the downlink RSRP performance counter of a cell. The value ranges from 0 to 100. Indicates the weight of the downlink RS SINR performance counter of a cell. The value ranges from 0 to 100. Indicates the weight of the uplink RSRP performance counter of a cell. The value ranges from 0 to 100. Indicates the weight of the uplink RS SINR performance counter of a cell. The value ranges from 0 to 100.

DL RSRP Threshold(dBm) DL RS SINR Target Ratio

DL RS SINR Threshold(dBm) UL RSRP Target Ratio

UL RSRP Threshold(dBm) UL RS SINR Target Ratio

UL RS SINR Threshold(dBm) DL RSRP Fitness Weight

DL RS SINR Fitness Weight

UL RSRP Fitness Weight

UL RS SINR Fitness Weight

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Parameters on the Advanced Tab Page


Parameter Angle Limit Between Co-Site Adjacent Cells () Azimuth Step Size() Description Indicates the minimum angle between co-site adjacent cells. Indicates the step length at which the antenna azimuth is adjusted. The value ranges from -360 to 360. Indicates the step length at which the antenna tile angle is adjusted. The value ranges from -90 to 90. Indicates the step length at which the cell transmit power is adjusted. The value ranges from 0 to 46. Indicates the range to be calculated for each optimization during the planning. The value ranges from 1 to 4. A larger parameter value indicates a more accurate planning result but a longer calculation time. Iteration Count Indicates the maximum number of iterations during the whole planning. The value ranges from 1 to 100. A larger parameter value indicates a more accurate planning result but a longer calculation time. Fitness Statistics Based on DT Indicates whether to plan LTE cells based on DT data. l If this parameter is selected, LTE cells are planned based on DT data. l If this parameter is not selected, LTE cells are not planned based on DT data.

Tilt Step Size()

RS Power Step Size(dBm)

Search Range

Parameters on the Area Tab Page


Parameter Analysis Area Description Indicates the analysis area for LTE cell automatic planning. Cells in this area are involved in LTE Cell parameter adjustment.

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Parameter Simulation Area

Description Simulation area for automatic LTE cell planning. This area monitors the entire LTE Cell adjustment effect. During the planning, the system imposes the interference of sites in the simulation area to the sites in the analysis area.
NOTE l If the project contains only one polygon, this polygon is selected in both the analysis and simulation areas. l If the project contains polygons, the simulation area must contain the analysis area.

Parameters for Viewing LTE Cell Planning Results


This section describes parameters for viewing LTE cell planning results. Table 3-83 Parameters on the Cells Tab Page Parameter Iteration Site Name Site ID Cell Name Local Cell ID Description Indicates the number of an iteration. Indicates the name of a site. Indicates the ID of a site. Indicates the name of a cell. Indicates the internal code of a cell for differentiating the cell from other cells under the same eNodeB. Indicates the original antenna azimuth for a cell. Indicates the optimized antenna azimuth for a cell. Indicates the original RS power for a cell. Indicates the optimized RS power for a cell. Indicates the original antenna tilt angle for a cell. Indicates the optimized antenna tilt angle for a cell.

Original Azimuth() Optimized Azimuth() Original RS Power(dBm) Optimized RS Power(dBm) Original Tilt() Optimized Tilt()

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Parameter Original Fitness

Description Indicates the original fitness value of a cell. The fitness value represents cell performance. Indicates the optimized fitness value of a cell.

Optimized Fitness

Table 3-84 Parameters on the Fitness Tab Page Parameter Iteration Fitness Description Indicates the number of an iteration. Indicates the fitness value of each iteration.
NOTE The system automatically calculates the value after each iteration.

Table 3-85 Parameters on the Coverage KPI Tab Page Parameter DL RSRP DL RS SINR UL RSRP UL RS SINR Iteration Compare Iteration Description After DL RSRP is selected, the DL RSRP coverage prediction charts of any two iterations is displayed. After DL RS SINR is selected, the DLRS SINR coverage prediction charts of any two iterations is displayed. After UL RSRP is selected, the UL RSRP coverage prediction charts of any two iterations is displayed. After UL RS SINR is selected, the ULRS SINR coverage prediction charts of any two iterations is displayed. Indicates the first iteration to be compared. Indicates the second iteration to be compared.

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4
About This Chapter

LTE-TDD Network Planning

The U-Net supports data planning for networks in the LTE-TDD mode. You can model the actual network environment by importing geographic data, assigning propagation models, and creating base stations based on the imported geographic data. Moreover, you can plan network parameters and predict the network coverage range. In this way, the system can meet the requirements on network planning in different scenarios. 4.1 Process of LTE-TDD Network Planning This section describes the process of LTE-TDD network planning. You can refer to this section when planning an LTE-TDD network by using the U-Net. 4.2 Creating a Project This section describes how to create a project. You can select different project templates for different network systems. The U-Net creates the project based on the selected template. Currently, the U-Net provides project templates for the following network systems: GSM, UMTS, CDMA, LTE-FDD, and LTE-TDD. 4.3 Importing Geographic Data You can import geographic data in various vector and grid formats and set coordinate systems. You can also add points, lines, or polygons to create vector objects.The method for importing geographic data for different network systems to the U-Net is the same. 4.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands The U-Net enables you to calculate path loss between a transmitter and a receiver based on a propagation model. Then you can use the calculated path loss matrix to perform prediction.The method for setting propagation models and frequency bands for different network systems on the U-Net is the same. 4.5 Adding a Device You can import or create antennas, create TMAs, feeders, or site equipment.The method for creating site equipment for different network systems on the U-Net is the same. 4.6 Setting LTE-TDD Traffic Parameters The U-Net obtains the average load of the network based on the simulation calculation of the detailed user distribution and therefore calculates various counters of the radio network. Traffic parameters refer to the parameters related to the user type, mobility, terminal, service, environment, MCS, and receiving devices. They are the basic data related to user distribution.
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Traffic parameters can be used to generate a specific traffic map. You must ensure that the traffic parameters are defined before capacity prediction. 4.7 Setting LTE-TDD NE Parameters You can import existing base station data to create base stations or use a base station template to automatically create base stations. You can also create sites, transmitters, or repeaters separately. 4.8 LTE-TDD Prediction By calculating counters, U-Net can estimate network performance, such as cell coverage and channel quality. 4.9 LTE-TDD Capacity Simulation Capacity is important for radio network planning. The process of capacity simulation is as follows: The U-Net generates a certain number of subscribers based on the traffic map and allocate network resources to the generated subscribers. Then, the U-Net analyzes the overall network performance and collects the final capacity simulation results. Finally, the U-Net generates a statistical report. 4.10 Planning LTE-TDD Network Parameters This section describes how to properly plan the frequencies, PCIs, and PRACH channels of the LTE-TDD network by using the U-Net.

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4.1 Process of LTE-TDD Network Planning


This section describes the process of LTE-TDD network planning. You can refer to this section when planning an LTE-TDD network by using the U-Net. Figure 4-1 shows the process of LTE-TDD network planning. Figure 4-1 Process of LTE-TDD network planning

Table 4-1describes the detailed information about Figure 4-1.


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Table 4-1 Description of the LTE-TDD network planning process No. 1 2 Procedure Creating a project Importing geographic data Description For details, see 4.2 Creating a Project. You can import geographic data in various vector and grid formats and set coordinate systems. You can also add points, lines, or polygons to create vector objects.The method for importing geographic data for different network systems to the U-Net is the same.For details, see 3.3 Importing Geographic Data. The U-Net enables you to calculate path loss between a transmitter and a receiver based on a propagation model. Then you can use the calculated path loss matrix to perform prediction.The method for setting propagation models and frequency bands for different network systems on the U-Net is the same.For details, see 3.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands. You can import or create antennas, create TMAs, feeders, or site equipment.For details, see 3.5 Adding a Device. Set traffic parameters related to terminals and services, which are to be used during prediction.For details, see 4.6 Setting LTE-TDD Traffic Parameters. You can import existing base station data to create base stations or use a base station template to automatically create base stations. You can also create sites, transmitters, or repeaters separately.For details, see 4.7 Setting LTE-TDD NE Parameters. The method for calculating the path loss for different network systems on the U-Net is the same. For details, see 3.8.2 Calculating Path Loss. For details, see 4.8 LTE-TDD Prediction. For details, see 4.10 Planning LTE-TDD Network Parameters. The planning results can be applied to NEs. The method for creating a traffic map for LTE-FDD and LTE-TDD network on the U-Net is the same. For details, see 3.9.2 Creating LTE Traffic Maps. For details, see 4.9 LTE-TDD Capacity Simulation. The capacity simulation results can be applied to prediction. For details, see Prediction and Neighboring Cell Planning.

Managing propagation models and bands

4 5

Adding a device Setting traffic parameters Setting NE parameters

Calculating the path loss Predicting network performance Planning PCI/ frequency/PRACH/ neighboring cells Creating a traffic map Performing capacity simulation

8 9

10

11

12

Exporting network planning results

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4.2 Creating a Project


This section describes how to create a project. You can select different project templates for different network systems. The U-Net creates the project based on the selected template. Currently, the U-Net provides project templates for the following network systems: GSM, UMTS, CDMA, LTE-FDD, and LTE-TDD.

Context
l l Only one project can run on the U-Net at a time. In normal cases, one project corresponds to the network planning for an area or a city. One U-Net project may correspond to the network planning of multiple network systems. For example, a U-Net project can be created for the planning of a GSM/UMTS hybrid network.

Procedure
Step 1 Choose File > New. The Project Templates dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 4-2. Figure 4-2 Project Templates

Step 2 Select a project template. l Different network systems correspond to different project templates. You need to select an appropriate project template based on the actual network system. l If multiple network systems are involved, you need to select the required templates. For example, If you need to create a project for a GSM/UMTS hybrid network, you need to select project templates for both the GSM and the UMTS networks. l LTE-TDD and CDMA do not support hybrid networking with other network systems. Step 3 Click OK. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
l Save a project file. Choose File > Save or click file.
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to save all the information about the project in a project

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You can save project files in .ipl format: .ipl or .ipl (with all data). In the former format, only NE's parameter planning configuration for the project is saved; in the latter format, all the planning calculation results are saved. The former format is selected by default. The U-Net automatically creates an .ipl project file and a project name.losses folder for saving the information about the path loss matrix and calculation results of capacity simulation, coverage prediction, and neighboring cell planning in the specified save path.
NOTE

Based on the save format, the U-Net determines whether to add the calculation result data in the project name.losses path to the project file in .ipl format.

Open an existing project file. Choose File > Open to open an existing .ipl project file.
NOTE

Alternatively, double-click an .ipl project file to start and open the project.

4.3 Importing Geographic Data


You can import geographic data in various vector and grid formats and set coordinate systems. You can also add points, lines, or polygons to create vector objects.The method for importing geographic data for different network systems to the U-Net is the same.

Context
The method for importing geographic data for different network systems to the U-Net is the same. For details, see 3.3 Importing Geographic Data.

4.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands


The U-Net enables you to calculate path loss between a transmitter and a receiver based on a propagation model. Then you can use the calculated path loss matrix to perform prediction.The method for setting propagation models and frequency bands for different network systems on the U-Net is the same.

Context
The method for setting propagation models and frequency bands for different network systems on the U-Net is the same. For details, see 3.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands. For details about the parameters for setting the frequency band information, see Parameters for Setting Bands.

4.5 Adding a Device


You can import or create antennas, create TMAs, feeders, or site equipment.The method for creating site equipment for different network systems on the U-Net is the same.

Context
The method for creating site equipment for different network systems on the U-Net is the same. For details, see 3.5 Adding a Device.
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4.6 Setting LTE-TDD Traffic Parameters


The U-Net obtains the average load of the network based on the simulation calculation of the detailed user distribution and therefore calculates various counters of the radio network. Traffic parameters refer to the parameters related to the user type, mobility, terminal, service, environment, MCS, and receiving devices. They are the basic data related to user distribution. Traffic parameters can be used to generate a specific traffic map. You must ensure that the traffic parameters are defined before capacity prediction.

4.6.1 Setting MCS Types


This section describes how to set an MCS. You can modify the parameters (mainly the demodulation mode and coding rate) of an existing MCS type. When the existing MCS types do not meet your requirements, you can create a new MCS type.

Context
The U-Net provides multiple default MCS types, corresponding to three demodulation modes (QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM) and different coding rate.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Services > LTE-TDD. Step 3 Choose PUSCH MCS or PDSCH MCS. The MCS table is displayed. Step 4 Click the blank row (marked with *) in the dialog box, as shown in Figure 4-3. For information on how to set a new MCS type, see Table 4-2. Figure 4-3 MCS

Table 4-2 Parameters for Setting the MCS Parameter Index


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Description Indicates the index of an MCS.


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Parameter Highest modulation

Description Indicates a modulation scheme, which can any of the following: l QPSK l 16QAM l 64QAM

Modulation Order Coding Rate Bearer Efficiency(bits/RE)

Indicates a modulation exponent. Indicates the coding rate. The value range is from 0 to 2. Indicates the bearer efficiency. Bearer efficiency = Coding rate x Modulation exponent

Step 5 Click ----End

to close the table.

4.6.2 Setting LTE-TDD Service Types


Set the service type such as the voice service and data service. You can modify the parameters of existing service types. If the existing service types do not meet the requirements, you can create service types.

Context
For an LTE-TDD network, the U-Net provides four default service types: LTEFTP, LTEVideo Conferencing, LTEVoIP, and LTEWeb Browsing.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 Set service type parameters. If... Create a service type Then... 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Services > LTE-TDD. 2. Choose New from the shortcut menu. See Figure 4-4. 3. Set parameters for the new service type by referring to Table 4-3. Modify an existing service type 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Services > LTE-TDD > the existing service type. 2. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. 3. Modify the parameters for the existing service type by referring to Table 4-3.
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Figure 4-4 New

Table 4-3 Description of service parameters Parameter Name Type Description Name of a service type. Service type. l Voice: CS services. l Data: PS services. GBR Priority GBR service. Service priority weighting factor, which is used to adjust the service priority for subscribers in capacity simulation. 1 indicates the lowest priority. Activity Factor Uplink/downlink activation factor. This parameter is required only for CS services. l Uplink: uplink activation factor. The value ranges from 0 to 1. l Downlink: downlink activation factor. The value ranges from 0 to 1. AMR Rate(kbit/s) Rate of CS services. The unit is kbit/s. Value range: 4.75, 5.15, 5.9, 6.7, 7.4, 7.95, 10.2, and 12.2.

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Parameter MAC PDU(kbit) Max Throughput (kbit/s)

Description Size of a packet for transmitting CS service data at the MAC layer. Maximum uplink/downlink throughput. l Uplink: maximum uplink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 107. l Downlink: maximum downlink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 107.
NOTE Minimum throughput Average throughput Maximum throughput.

Min Throughput (kbit/s)

Minimum uplink/downlink throughput. l Uplink: minimum uplink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 107. l Downlink: minimum downlink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 107.
NOTE Minimum throughput Average throughput Maximum throughput.

Average Throughput (kbit/s)

Average uplink/downlink throughput. l Uplink: average uplink throughput. l Downlink: average downlink throughput.

Transmission Efficiency

Uplink/downlink transmission rate. l Uplink: uplink transmission rate. The value ranges from 0 to 1. l Downlink: downlink transmission rate. The value ranges from 0 to 1.

Offset(kbit/s)

Fixed uplink/downlink overhead, which is the length added to an encapsulated packet during the transmission at the MAC or RLC layer. l Uplink: fixed uplink overhead. The value ranges from 0 to 107. l Downlink: fixed downlink overhead. The value ranges from 0 to 107.

IBLER(%) Body Loss(dB)

Block error rate. The value ranges from 0 to 100. Body loss.

Step 3 Click OK. ----End

4.6.3 Setting LTE-TDD Receiver Types


You can modify the parameters of existing receiver types. If the existing receiver types do not meet the requirements, you can create receiver types.

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Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > LTE-TDD. Step 3 Choose Reception Equipment from the shortcut menu. Step 4 Set the name of a receiver. If... Create a receiver type. Then... In a blank row marked with *, type the name of the new receiver and select type of MCS Table. Perform Step 5.

Modify an existing receiver type.

Step 5 Double-click the column heading corresponding to the receiver type, and then set parameters for the receiver type by referring to Table 4-4. If data in a row becomes unavailable in the dialog box, the data in this row cannot be changed. Step 6 Click OK. Table 4-4 Parameters for setting LTE-TDD receivers Parameter Name MCS Table Mobility Description Indicates the name of a receiver. Indicates the modulation and coding scheme. Indicates the mobility type of a receiver. For details, see 3.6.7 Setting Mobility Types. MIMO IBLER(%) Channel Relativity Transmission Mode Indicates the efficiency of adjusting codes by the receiver. Indicates the block error rate. The value range is from 0 to 100. Indicates the channel relativity. Indicates the transmission mode. This parameter is valid only when the MCS Table is set to PDSCH MCS.

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Parameter MCS Threshold

Description Indicates the MCS bearer table of a receiver. You can double-click a cell and then view the detailed MCS bearer information in the Demodulation area. l SINR: indicates the threshold of the SINR required during demodulation. l Spectrum Efficiency: indicate the efficiency of the spectrum. l The chart in the right pane shows the demodulation thresholds.

----End

4.6.4 Setting the LTE-TDD Terminal Type


Set the terminal types used when a service is performed. You can modify the parameters of existing terminal types. If the existing terminal types do not meet the requirements, you can create terminal types.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 Set parameters of the terminal type. If... Then...

Create a terminal 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > type LTE-TDD. 2. Choose New from the shortcut menu. 3. See Table 4-5 to set the parameters of a new terminal type. Modify an 1. On the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > existing terminal LTE-TDD > Existing Terminals. type 2. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. 3. See Table 4-5 to modify the parameters of an existing terminal type.

Table 4-5 Parameter description of a terminal type Parameter Name UE Category Meaning Indicates the name of a terminal type. Indicates the category of a terminal. The terminals are classified into five categories ranging from 1 to 5.
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Parameter UL Peak Throughput(Kbps) DL Peak Throughput(Kbps) Support UL 64 QAM Maximum Layer Number Min Tx Power(dBm) Max Tx Power(dBm) Noise Figure(dB) Cable Loss(dB) Supported BF

Meaning Indicates the peak throughput in the uplink direction. Indicates the peak throughput in the downlink direction. Indicates that 64 QAM is supported in the uplink direction. Indicates the maximum number of layers. Indicates the minimum transmit power of a terminal. Indicates the maximum transmit power of a terminal. Indicates the noise figure of a terminal. Indicates the feeder loss of a terminal. Indicates whether to support the beamforming (BF). The available options are Not supported, TM7, and TM8.

UL RS Offset(dB) RB Number

Indicates the reference signal (RS) offset in the uplink direction. Indicates the number of resource blocks (RBs) supported by the terminal. This parameter is only applicable to prediction. Indicates the type of the receiver for a terminal. Indicates the antenna gain. Indicates the number of antennas at the transmitter for a terminal. Indicates the number of antennas at the receiver for a terminal.

Reception Equipment Gain(dBi) Number of Transmission Antenna Ports Number of Reception Antenna Ports

----End

4.6.5 Setting Environment Types


This section describes how to set environment types. You can modify the parameters of existing environment types, such as user, mobility type, and user density. If the existing environment types do not meet the requirements, you can create environment types.

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Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net sets environment types in the same way. For details, see 3.6.5 Setting Environment Types.

4.6.6 Setting User Types


You can modify the parameters of existing user types, such as user priority, service type, and user type. If the existing user types do not meet the requirements, you can create user types.

Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net sets user types in the same way. For details, see 3.6.6 Setting User Types.

4.6.7 Setting Mobility Types


This section describes how to set mobility types for terminals. You can modify the parameters of existing mobility types, such as the velocity. If the existing mobility types do not meet the requirements, you can create mobility types.

Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net sets mobility types in the same way. For details, see 3.6.7 Setting Mobility Types.

4.7 Setting LTE-TDD NE Parameters


You can import existing base station data to create base stations or use a base station template to automatically create base stations. You can also create sites, transmitters, or repeaters separately.

4.7.1 Importing Base Station Information


You can import a data file of base station to the U-Net. After that, the system automatically creates sites, cells, and transceivers according to the base station data. You can also export base station data in a project for easy viewing of site information, cell information, and transceiver information. For networks with different modes, the U-Net imports base station information in the same way.

Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net imports site information in the same way. For details, see 3.7.1 Importing Base Station Information.

4.7.2 Creating a Single Site


This section describes how to create a single site. You can create a site or modify the properties of an existing site to obtain a new one. For networks using different radio access technologies (RATs), you can use the U-Net to create a single site in the same way.
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Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a single site in the same way. For details, see 3.7.2 Creating a Single Site.

4.7.3 Setting an LTE-TDD Base Station Template


This section describes how to manage base station templates. You can create base stations by using the predefined templates of the U-Net. If the predefined templates do not meet your requirements, you can customize a base station template.

Procedure
l View base station templates. 1. Select Template Management from the drop-down list on the toolbar. The Station Template Properties dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 4-5.

Figure 4-5 Station Template Properties

2.

The Available Templates area displays the currently available base station templates. Select the default template from the drop-down list next to Default. The name of the default base station template will be displayed on the toolbar of the U-Net main window. The names of other base station templates are available in the drop-down list.

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For example, l Create a base station template. 1.

Click Add. The Station Template Properties dialog box is displayed. Alternatively, click Duplicate to duplicate the selected base station template. Then, a new base station template is generated on the basis of the selected template.

2. 3. l 1. 2. 3. 4. ----End

Set the properties in the base station template. For details, see Parameters for Setting LTE-TDD Base Station Templates. Click OK. Select a base station template in the Available Templates area. Click Properties. The Station Template Properties dialog box is displayed. View and modify the properties in the base station template. For details, see Parameters for Setting LTE-TDD Base Station Templates. Click OK.

View and modify properties of the base station template.

Follow-up Procedure
You can create base stations based on a predefined base station template or a customized base station template. When a base station template is not required, you can select the template in the Station Template Properties dialog box and then click Delete to delete it. You cannot delete the last base station template.

4.7.4 Creating Base Stations in Batches


The system supports creating a single site automatically or creating a series of base stations with the same property in batches. For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a base station automatically in the same way.

Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a base station automatically in the same way. For details, see 3.7.4 Creating Base Stations in Batches.

4.7.5 Creating Repeaters


This section describes how to create repeaters. A repeater receives, amplifies, and forwards the RF carriers launched or transmitted in the uplink and downlink. A repeater includes two sides, that is, the donor side and the serving cell side. The donor side of a repeater receives signals from the donor transmitter. The signals may be carried by links of different types, such as radio links or microwave links. The serving cell side forwards the received signals. For networks of different types, the U-Net creates a repeater in the same way.

Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a repeater in the same way. For details, see 3.7.5 Creating Repeaters.
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4.7.6 Creating a Transceiver


This section describes how to create a transceiver. The U-Net combines the transceiver with cells. Before setting a cell, you must set the transceiver parameters. A transceiver supports a multi-mode network, that is, a transceiver can cover multiple cells. For networks using different radio access technologies (RATs), you can use the U-Net to create a transceiver in the same way.

Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a transceiver in the same way. For details, see 3.7.6 Creating a Transceiver.

4.7.7 Setting LTE-TDD Cell Parameters


This section describes how to set LTE-TDD cell parameters. After a transceiver is set, the UNet automatically assigns a cell to the transceiver. After setting transceiver parameters, you can set cell parameters.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver > Sitex_x. Step 3 Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. Step 4 On the LTE-TDDCell tab page of the displayed dialog box, set the properties of the LTE-TDD cell, as shown in Figure 4-6. For parameter description, see Parameters of LTE-TDD Cells. Figure 4-6 LTE-TDDCell

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Step 5 Click OK. ----End

4.7.8 Interface Reference for Setting LTE-TDD NE Parameters


This section describes the parameters for setting LTE-TDD NE parameters by using the U-Net.

Parameters for Setting LTE-TDD Base Station Templates


This section describes the parameters for creating base station templates or modifying the properties of base station templates. You can refer to this section when managing base station templates in the Station Template Properties dialog box.

Site Tab Page


Parameter Name Support Type Description Indicates the name of a base station template. Indicates the base station type. Macro indicates a macro base station, and Micro indicates a micro base station. Use Altitude For Calculation Indicates whether to manually enter the altitude of a site for calculation. If this option is selected, you manually enter the altitude of a site for calculation. Indicates the radius of a cell. Description.

Hexagon Radius Comments

Transceiver Area on the LTE-TDD Tab Page


Parameter Transceivers Model Site Equipment Mechanical Downtilt Electrical Downtilt Height/Ground(m) First Sector Azimuth Transmission in the Number of Antennas area
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Description Indicates the number of transceivers in a site. Indicates the type of an antenna. Indicates the site equipment. Indicates the mechanical tilt angle. Indicates the electrical tilt angle. Indicates the height of an antenna. Indicates the azimuth of the first sector. Number of transmission antennas on a base station.

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Parameter Reception in the Number of Antennas area Transmission in the Number of Antenna Ports area Total Loss(DL) Total Loss(UL) Comments

Description Number of receive antennas on a base station. Number of transmission antenna ports.

Indicates the total downlink loss. Indicates the total uplink loss. Description.

General Tab Page in the Cell Area on the LTE-TDD Tab Page
Parameter Max Power(dBm) RS Power(dBm) Actual Load(DL) Actual Load(UL) Target IoT(UL)(dB) Actual IoT(UL)(dB) CCU IoT(dB) Description Indicates the maximum transmit power. The unit is dBm. Indicates the power of the reference signal on a subcarrier. The unit is dBm. Indicates the actual load on the downlink. The value ranges from 0 to 1. Indicates the actual load on the uplink. The value ranges from 0 to 1. Indicates the target ratio of the sum of interference and noise to the volume of increased noise on the uplink. Indicates the actual Interface Over Thermal (IoT) on the uplink. Indicates the IoT of users in the cell center. The value ranges from -100 to 100. The default value is 12.5. CEU IoT(dB) Indicates the IoT of users at the cell edge. The value ranges from -100 to 100. The default value is 10.5. Frequency Band Channel Index Reception Transmission Mode Indicates a frequency band. Indicates a channel index. Indicates a receiver. Indicates the transmission mode. For the details of the value, see Table 4-6. DwPTS-GP-UpPTS Ratio of special subframes such as DwPTS, GP, and UpPTS.

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Parameter Frame Configuration

Description Ratio of uplink and downlink subframes. l The ratio of uplink, downlink, and special subframes are included. l For example, the value of this parameter can be DSUUUDSUUU. D, S, and U indicate the downlink subframe, special subframe, and uplink subframe respectively.

Priority Channel Relativity

Indicates the cell priority. The smaller the value of a cell is, the higher the priority of the cell is. Indicates whether channel relativity is considered. By default, this option is not selected.

COMP

Indicates whether the macro diversity gain function is enabled on the base station. Enable the macro diversity gain function on the uplink for the base station to increase cell edge capacity and average cell throughput. By default, this option is not selected.

IRC

Indicates whether the interference rejection combining (IRC) function is enabled. If colored interference is strong, enable the IRC to suppress combining signal interference and increase uplink gain. By default, this option is not selected.

Advance Tab Page in the Cell Area on the LTE-TDD Tab Page
Parameter Downlink Description Indicates the downlink parameters. You can set downlink parameters in the text boxes in this area. Uplink Indicates the uplink parameters. You can set uplink parameters in the text boxes in this area. Frequency Selectivity Schedule Indicates whether to enable the frequency scheduling function. If this option is selected, the system allocates the proper network resources to users during capacity simulation. ICIC(UL) Indicates whether to perform inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) in the uplink. l If inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) is not enabled, the U-Net uses Actual IoT(UL) in the cell properties. l If ICIC is enabled, CCU IoT is used for the cell center and CEU IoT is used for the cell edge.
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Parameter ICIC(DL)

Description Indicates whether to perform ICIC in the downlink. l When this parameter is set to ICIC Off, the PA value set in cell attributes is used. l When this parameter is set to Static ICIC, ICIC is enabled. In this case, the CCU PA value is used for the cell center and the CEU PA value for the cell edge. l When this parameter is set to Adaptive ICIC, ICIC can be enabled automatically and edge band mode can be configured automatically. Users can plan the edge band modes and then deliver the band modes without having to configure the parameter for the cells one by one.

Edge Frequency Style(UL)

Indicates the method of allocating frequencies to edge users in the uplink. The Reuse3 state is supported (Style1, Style2, or Style3). Indicates the method of allocating frequencies to edge users in the downlink. l When ICIC(DL) is set to Static ICIC, the Reuse3 state is supported (Style1, Style2, or Style3). l When ICIC(DL) is set to Adaptive ICIC, the following 4 states and 11 modes are supported: Reuse3 (Style1, Style2, or Style3), Reuse6 (Style1a, Style1b, Style2a, Style2b, Style3a, or Style3b), full power Reuse1 (AllPowerReuse1), and low power Reuse1 (LowPowerReuse1). l When the parameter is set to the Reuse3 or Reuse6 state, the CCU PA value is used for the cell center for all users and the CEU PA value for cell edge. When the parameter is set to AllPowerReuse1, the PA value for all users in the cell is set to the value of PA. When the parameter is set to LowPowerReuse1, the PA value for all users in the cell is set to the value of CCU PA.

Edge Frequency Style(DL)

Power Control Target Load Control Channel Overhead

Indicates the power control in the downlink. Indicates the target load. l Uplink area: Indicates the number of resource blocks (RBs) on the uplink control channels. The value range is from 1 to N-1. The unit is RB. N indicates the number of RBs of the entire bandwidth. l Downlink area: Indicates the number of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) on the downlink PDCCH.

Max Schedule Users

Indicates the maximum number of scheduled subscribers on the uplink and downlink.

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Parameter RS SINR Access Threshold (DL)(dB) Schedule Policy

Description Indicates the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) access threshold of the downlink reference signal. The unit is dB. Indicates a scheduling policy. l RR: Indicates that the scheduling is based on the polling algorithm. l PF: Indicates that the scheduling is based on the polling algorithm and the maximum signal to interference ratio. l MAX_CI: Indicates that the scheduling is based on the maximum signal to interference ratio.

TTI Bundling VMIMO

Indicates whether TTI Bundling is considered. Indicates whether the virtual multiple-input multiple-output (VMIMO) is considered. By default, this option is not selected.

Power Offset Tab Page in the Cell Area on the LTE-TDD Tab Page
Parameter PBCH to RS(dB) Description Indicates the offset of the PBCH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value ranges from -15 to 15 and the unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the SCH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value ranges from -15 to 15 and the unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the downlink PCFICH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value range is from -15 to 15. The unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the downlink PDCCH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value range is from -15 to 15. The unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the PHICH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value range is from -15 to 15. The unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the transmit power on the PDSCH RE relative to that on the RS RE. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The default value is -3.

SCH to RS(dB)

PCFICH to RS(dB)

PDCCH to RS(dB)

PHICH to RS(dB)

PA(dB)

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Parameter CCU PA(dB)

Description Indicates the offset of the class A signal power received by users in the cell center on the PDSCH relative to the RS power. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The default value is -6.

CEU PA(dB)

Indicates the offset of the class A signal power received by users at the cell edge on the PDSCH relative to the RS power. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The default value is -1.77.

PB(dB)

Indicates the index for the offset of A symbols and B symbols of the RE relative to the RSRE power. The value can be 0, 1, 2, or 3.

Propagation Models Tab Page in the Cell Area on the LTE-TDD Tab Page
Parameter Propagation Model Description Indicates a propagation model. l When the parameter is present in the Main Matrix area, it indicates the main propagation model. l When the parameter is present in the Extended Matrix area, it indicates the extended propagation model. Radius(m) Resolution(m) Indicates the calculation radius of a propagation model. Indicates the calculation resolution of a propagation model.

Table 4-6 Description of Transmission Mode Values Value TM1 TM2 TM3 TM4 TM6 TM7 Description Indicates a single antenna port for eNodeBs. Indicates the open-loop transmit diversity, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R/8T8R configuration. Indicates the open-loop space reuse, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R configuration. Indicates the closed-loop space reuse, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R configuration. Indicates the closed-loop transmit diversity, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R configuration. Indicates the signal-stream beamforming. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network.

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Value TM8

Description Indicates the signal-stream and dual-stream beamforming. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network.

OL_Adaptive CL_Adaptive OL_CL_Adaptive TM7_MIMO_Adaptive

Indicates the open-loop adaptive handover between TM2 and TM3. Indicates the closed-loop adaptive handover between TM4 and TM6. Indicates the open-loop adaptive handover between TM2, TM3, TM4, and TM6. Indicates beamforming or MIMO adaptive. UEs that are compatible with the 3GPP R8 specification and do not support the selection of uplink transmit antenna can perform adaptive handovers between TM2, TM3, and TM7. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network.

TM8_MIMO_Adaptive

Indicates beamforming or MIMO adaptive. UEs that are compatible with the 3GPP R9 specification and support the selection of uplink transmit antenna can perform adaptive handovers between TM2, TM3, and TM8. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network.

Parameters of LTE-TDD Cells


This section describes the parameters for creating an LTE-TDD cell or modifying the properties of an LTE-TDD cell.

LTE-TDDCell Tab Page


Table 4-7 LTE-TDDCell tab page Parameter GCI Name Description Indicates the global cell identity of a cell. Indicates the name of a carrier. The U-Net enters the default name for each new carrier. Active Frequency Band Channel Index Indicates whether to activate the current carrier. Indicates a frequency band. Indicates a channel index.

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Parameter Target Load(UL) Target Load(DL) Actual Load(UL) Actual Load(DL) RS Power(dBm) PBCH to RS(dB) SCH to RS(dB) PCFICH to RS(dB)

Description Indicates the target load on the uplink. The value ranges from 0 to 1. Indicates the target load on the downlink. The value ranges from 0 to 1. Indicates the actual load on the uplink. The value ranges from 0 to 1. Indicates the actual load on the downlink. The value ranges from 0 to 1. Indicates the power of the reference signal on a subcarrier. The unit is dBm. Indicates the offset of the PBCH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the SCH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the downlink physical control format indicator channel (PCFICH) power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the downlink PDCCH power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The unit is dB. Indicates the offset of the downlink physical HARQ indicator channel (PHICH) power relative to the power of the reference signal. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The unit is dB. Indicates the maximum transmit power. The unit is dBm. Indicates the actual Interface Over Thermal (IoT) on the uplink. Indicates the speed in a cell. This parameter can be set to one of the following values: l LowSpeed l HighSpeed l HighwaySpeed

PDCCH to RS(dB)

PHICH to RS(dB)

Max Power(dBm) Actual IoT(UL)(dB) High Speed

Radius(m) Min Root Sequence Index

Indicates the radius of a cell. Indicates the minimum ZC sequence of a cell.

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Parameter Prach Reuse Tier(Neighbor)

Description Indicates the number of PRACH reuse tiers (depends on the neighbor relationship). The value of this parameter must be an integer larger than 0.

Preamble Format Reception RS SINR Access Threshold(DL) (dB) Priority PB(dB)

Preamble format. Indicates a receiver. Indicates the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) access threshold of the downlink reference signal. The unit is dB. Indicates the cell priority. The smaller the value of a cell is, the higher the priority of the cell is. Indicates the index for the offset of A symbols and B symbols of the RE relative to the RSRE power. The value can be 0, 1, 2, or 3. Indicates a scheduling policy. l RR: Indicates that the scheduling is based on the polling algorithm. l PF: Indicates that the scheduling is based on the polling algorithm and the maximum signal to interference ratio. l MAX_CI: Indicates that the scheduling is based on the maximum signal to interference ratio.

Schedule Policy

PCI PCI Reuse Distance(Km) PCI Reuse Tier(Neighbor) Scene MCC MNC CI DlEarfcn UlEarfcn TAC Local Cell ID Reselect Priority

Indicates the physical ID of a cell. Indicates the minimum PCI reuse distance. Indicates the minimum PCI reuse tiers (depends on the neighbor relationship). Indicates the scenario of a cell. Indicates the mobile country code (MCC). Indicates the mobile network code (MNC). Indicates the ID of a cell. Indicates a downlink ARFCN. Indicates an uplink ARFCN. Indicates the tracking area code (TAC). Indicates the internal code of a cell for differentiating the cell from other cells under the same eNodeB. Indicates the cell reselection priority.

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Parameter PA(dB)

Description Indicates the offset of the transmit power on the PDSCH RE relative to that on the RS RE. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The default value is -3.

CCU PA(dB)

Indicates the offset of the class A signal power received by users in the cell center on the PDSCH relative to the RS power. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The default value is -6.

CEU PA(dB)

Indicates the offset of the class A signal power received by users at the cell edge on the PDSCH relative to the RS power. The value ranges from -15 to 15. The default value is -1.77.

CCU IoT(dB)

Indicates the IoT of users in the cell center. The value ranges from -100 to 100. The default value is 12.5.

CEU IoT(dB)

Indicates the IoT of users at the cell edge. The value ranges from -100 to 100. The default value is 10.5.

Alpha Po(dBm) TTI Bundling

This is an open loop power control parameter and indicates the path loss compensation coefficient. This is an open loop power control parameter. Indicates whether TTI Bundling is considered. By default, this option is not selected.

Multi-user Beamforming VMIMO

Determines whether to enable the Multi-user Beamforming function during downlink scheduling. Indicates whether the virtual multiple-input multipleoutput (VMIMO) is considered. By default, this option is not selected.

IRC

Indicates whether the interference rejection combining (IRC) function is enabled. If colored interference is strong, enable the IRC to suppress combining signal interference and increase uplink gain. By default, this option is not selected.

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Parameter COMP

Description Indicates whether the macro diversity gain function is enabled on the base station. Enable the macro diversity gain function on the uplink for the base station to increase cell edge capacity and average cell throughput. By default, this option is not selected.

Channel Relativity

Indicates whether channel relativity is considered. By default, this option is not selected.

Transmission Mode

Indicates the transmission mode. For details, see Table 4-8.

VIP

For a VIP cell, the value of some LTE Cell parameters cannot be changed, including the azimuth, electrical tilt, and pilot power. Uplink throughput of a single subscriber. The value ranges from 0 to int.Max. The default value is 0.

Throughput(UL)

Throughput(DL)

Downlink throughput of a single subscriber. The value ranges from 0 to int.Max. The default value is 0.

Cell Throughput(UL)

Uplink throughput of a cell. The value ranges from 0 to int.Max. The default value is 0.

Cell Throughput(DL)

Downlink throughput of a cell. The value ranges from 0 to int.Max. The default value is 0.

Density

Density of subscribers. The value ranges from 0 to int.Max. The default value is 800.

Azimuth Locked Azimuth Min. Value

Whether the azimuth is locked. Minimum adjustment angle of the azimuth. The value ranges from -360 to 360. The default value is -20.

Azimuth Max. Value

Maximum adjustment angle of the azimuth. The value ranges from -360 to 360. The default value is 20.

Electronic Downtilt Locked

Whether the electrical tilt is locked.

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Parameter Electronic Downtilt Min. Value

Description Minimum adjustment angle of the electrical tilt. The value ranges from -90 to 90. The default value is -10.

Electronic Downtilt Max. Value

Maximum adjustment angle of the electrical tilt. The value ranges from -90 to 90. The default value is 14.

RsPower Locked RsPower Min. Value(dB)

Indicates whether the pilot power is locked. Minimum adjustment range of the pilot power. The value ranges from 0 to 46. The default value is 10.

RsPower Max. Value(dB)

Maximum adjustment range of the pilot power. The value ranges from 0 to 46. The default value is 20.

Fitness Threshold(%)

Fitness threshold. The value ranges from 0 to 100. The default value is 90.

Comments State

Description. Cell status, which is used to determine a cell in outage. The value can be Working or Outage. The default value is Working.

Status

Indicates the swapping status. l NONE: Indicates there is no cell in swapping state. l NEW: Indicates a new cell. l EXISTED: Indicates a live network cell. The default value is NONE.

Advance Parameters

Sets advanced parameters by clicking this button. For details, see Table 4-9.

DwPTS-GP-UpPTS Frame Configuration

Ratio of special subframes such as DwPTS, GP, and UpPTS. Ratio of uplink and downlink subframes. l The ratio of uplink, downlink, and special subframes are included. l For example, the value of this parameter can be DSUUUDSUUU. D, S, and U indicate the downlink subframe, special subframe, and uplink subframe respectively.

Neighbours list

Sets the list of neighboring cells by clicking this button. For details, see Table 4-10.

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Parameter Propagation Models

Description Sets the propagation model by clicking this button. For details, see Table 4-11.

Table 4-8 Description of Transmission Mode Values Value TM1 TM2 TM3 TM4 TM6 TM7 Description Indicates a single antenna port for eNodeBs. Indicates the open-loop transmit diversity, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R/8T8R configuration. Indicates the open-loop space reuse, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R configuration. Indicates the closed-loop space reuse, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R configuration. Indicates the closed-loop transmit diversity, which is used for the eNodeB 2T2R/4T2R/4T4R configuration. Indicates the signal-stream beamforming. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network. TM8 Indicates the signal-stream and dual-stream beamforming. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network. OL_Adaptive CL_Adaptive OL_CL_Adaptive TM7_MIMO_Adaptive Indicates the open-loop adaptive handover between TM2 and TM3. Indicates the closed-loop adaptive handover between TM4 and TM6. Indicates the open-loop adaptive handover between TM2, TM3, TM4, and TM6. Indicates beamforming or MIMO adaptive. UEs that are compatible with the 3GPP R8 specification and do not support the selection of uplink transmit antenna can perform adaptive handovers between TM2, TM3, and TM7. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network. TM8_MIMO_Adaptive Indicates beamforming or MIMO adaptive. UEs that are compatible with the 3GPP R9 specification and support the selection of uplink transmit antenna can perform adaptive handovers between TM2, TM3, and TM8. This transmission mode is unavailable in the LTE-FDD network.
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Table 4-9 Advance Parameters tab page Parameter Frequency Selectivity Schedule Description Indicates whether to enable the frequency scheduling function. If this option is selected, the system allocates the proper network resources to users during capacity simulation. ICIC(UL) Indicates whether to perform inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) on the uplink. l If inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) is not enabled, the U-Net uses Actual IoT(UL) in the cell properties. l If ICIC is enabled, CCU IoT is used for the cell center and CEU IoT is used for the cell edge. ICIC(DL) Indicates whether to perform ICIC in the downlink. l When this parameter is set to ICIC Off, the PA value set in cell attributes is used. l When this parameter is set to Static ICIC, ICIC is enabled. In this case, the CCU PA value is used for the cell center and the CEU PA value for the cell edge. l When this parameter is set to Adaptive ICIC, ICIC can be enabled automatically and edge band mode can be configured automatically. Users can plan the edge band modes and then deliver the band modes without having to configure the parameter for the cells one by one. Edge Frequency Style(UL) Indicates the method of allocating frequencies to edge users in the uplink. The Reuse3 state is supported (Style1, Style2, or Style3).

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Parameter Edge Frequency Style(DL)

Description Indicates the method of allocating frequencies to edge users in the downlink. l When ICIC(DL) is set to Static ICIC, the Reuse3 state is supported (Style1, Style2, or Style3). l When ICIC(DL) is set to Adaptive ICIC, the following 4 states and 11 modes are supported: Reuse3 (Style1, Style2, or Style3), Reuse6 (Style1a, Style1b, Style2a, Style2b, Style3a, or Style3b), full power Reuse1 (AllPowerReuse1), and low power Reuse1 (LowPowerReuse1). l When the parameter is set to the Reuse3 or Reuse6 state, the CCU PA value is used for the cell center for all users and the CEU PA value for cell edge. When the parameter is set to AllPowerReuse1, the PA value for all users in the cell is set to the value of PA. When the parameter is set to LowPowerReuse1, the PA value for all users in the cell is set to the value of CCU PA.

Power Control Edge Frequency Style Control Channel Overhead

Indicates the power control on the downlink. Indicates the method of allocating frequencies to edge users on the uplink and downlink. l Uplink area: Indicates the number of resource blocks (RBs) on the uplink control channels. The value range is from 1 to N-1. The unit is RB. N indicates the number of RBs of the entire bandwidth. l Downlink area: Indicates the number of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) on the downlink PDCCH.

Max Schedule Users Target IoT(UL)(dB)

Indicates the maximum number of scheduled subscribers on the uplink and downlink. Indicates the target ratio of the sum of interference and noise to the volume of increased noise on the uplink.

Table 4-10 Cell Neighbors tab page Parameter Intra-frequency Neighbors Inter-frequency Neighbors Inter-RAT Neighbors Description Indicates a list of intra-frequency neighboring cells. Indicates a list of inter-frequency neighboring cells. Indicates a list of inter-RAT neighboring cells.

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Table 4-11 Propagation tab page Parameter Propagation Model Radius(m) Resolution(m) Propagation Model Radius(m) Resolution(m) Description Indicates the main propagation model. Indicates the calculation radius of the main propagation model. Indicates the calculation precision of the main propagation model. Indicates the extension propagation model. Indicates the calculation radius of the extended propagation model. Indicates the calculation precision of the extended propagation model.

General Tab Page


Table 4-12 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Name Site Description Name of a transceiver. This parameter uniquely identifies a transceiver. Name of the site that a transceiver belongs to. You can click New to create a site. Hexagon Radius(m) Radius of the hexagon indicating the cell coverage. The value ranges from 1 to 100000. l If a transceiver is directly added in the main window, the radius of the hexagon is the value of Hexagon Radius (m) in the current site template by default. l If a transceiver is added under the Transceiver node in the navigation tree, the value of this parameter is empty by default. Transmission in the Number of Antennas area Reception in the Number of Antennas area Transmission in the Number of Antenna Ports area Comments Number of transmission antennas on a base station. Number of receive antennas on a base station. Number of transmission antenna ports. Comments on a transceiver.

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Antenna Config Tab Page


Table 4-13 Parameters on the Antenna Config tab page Parameter Antenna ID Description ID of an antenna for a transceiver. The ID of each antenna must be unique for a transceiver. Power Ratio Sector ID Dx(m) Dy(m) Longitude Latitude Main Antenna Power allocation ratio. The value ranges from 0 to 1. ID of a sector. This parameter uniquely identifies an antenna. Offset of the antenna relative to the site that the antenna belongs to in the X direction. The unit is meter. Offset of the antenna relative to the site that the antenna belongs to in the Y direction. The unit is meter. Longitude of an antenna. Latitude of an antenna. Main antenna of a transceiver. Each cell has only one main antenna. Azimuth Antenna Antenna azimuth. The value ranges from 0 to 360. The unit is degree. Type of an antenna. The default value is determined based on the configuration of the system antennas. In normal cases, the default antenna type is the type of the first antenna. Mechanical Downtilt Electrical Downtilt Height(m) RRU ID Mechanical downtilt of an antenna. The unit is degree. Electrical downtilt of an antenna. The unit is degree. Height of an antenna. The unit is meter. l ID of a remote radio unit (RRU). l The value ranges from 0 to 100. The default value is 0. l If the value of RRU ID differs among the antennas for a transceiver, the cell served by the transceiver is a single frequency network (SFN) cell. In this case, you can configure only one cell for this transceiver. Equipment Equipment properties. For details, see Table 4-14.

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Table 4-14 Parameters in the Equipment Configuration dialog box Parameter Input Total Loss Description l If you select the check box, you need to manually type the total loss. l If you clear the check box, the U-Net calculates the total loss. Site Equipment TMA Indicates the site equipment. Tower-mounted amplifier (TMA). You can click modify its properties. Antenna feeder. You can click to

Feeder Feeder Length(m) Miscellaneous Loss(dB) JumpLoss Ant-TMA(dB) JumpLoss Ant-BS(dB) JumpLoss TMA-BS(dB) Total Loss(dB)

to modify its properties.

Length of a feeder. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Miscellaneous loss. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Jumper loss between the TMA and the antenna port. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Jumper loss between the top of cabinet and the antenna port. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Jumper loss between the TMA and the top of cabinet. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Total loss, including the TMA, feeder, jumper, and miscellaneous loss. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink.

4.8 LTE-TDD Prediction


By calculating counters, U-Net can estimate network performance, such as cell coverage and channel quality.

4.8.1 Basic Knowledge of LTE-TDD Prediction


This chapter describes the basic knowledge of prediction, including the formula for calculating link loss, method for determining the calculation area, meaning of prediction counters, and prediction algorithm. You can develop a better understanding of the prediction function by learning the basic knowledge.

Basic Knowledge of LTE-TDD Prediction Counters


This section describes the meanings of LTE-TDD prediction counters supported by the U-Net.
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Certain counters are not displayed by default. To enable the U-Net to display these counters, select the corresponding network technology, right-click a counter type and then choose More Coverage from the shortcut menu.

Table 4-15 lists the LTE-TDD prediction counters supported by the U-Net. Table 4-15 Description of LTE-TDD prediction counters Category Coverage by Signal Level (DL) Counter Best Server DL RSRP DL BandWidth RSRP DL RSSI Meaning Cell with the highest DL RSRP among the cells that receive downlink signals. Strength of single downlink reference signal (RS) received from the primary serving cell. Indicates the strength of downlink reference signals on the entire bandwidth. Total power received by a UE on the entire bandwidth. The power includes the receive power of the serving cell, interference power of other cells, and the noise power of the UE. Indicates the received power of the traffic channel RE. Whether an area is a handover area. Downlink ICIC area, that is, the downlink central area and edge area that meet the downlink ICIC threshold. Determines whether a point has pilot pollution and check the number of cells producing pilot pollution. To obtain a more accurate result, you are advised to select With Shadow.
NOTE By analyzing the number of cells covering each spot that reaches the pilot pollution threshold, you can learn about pilot pollution in areas such as the poor coverage area intuitively.

PDSCH Signal Level Handover Area DL ICIC Zone

Pilot Pollution

Coverage by C/(I+N) Level(DL)

DL RS SINR

Signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) of the downlink reference signal that a UE receives. This counter reflects the quality of the downlink reference signal. Indicates the Signal Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR) of the traffic channel. This counter reflects the quality of the traffic channel. Quality of the received downlink reference signals. Indicates the PDCCH SINR.

PDSCH SINR

DL RSRQ PDCCH SINR

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Category Coverage by Signal Level (UL)

Counter UL RSRP PUSCH Signal Level UL User RB TxPower UL User BandWidth TxPower UL ICIC Zone

Meaning Strength of the uplink reference signal on an RE. Indicates the power that a cell receives on the PUSCH RE. Uplink transmit power on a resource block (RB). Indicates the uplink transmit power on the user bandwidth. Indicates the uplink ICIC area, that is, the uplink central area and edge area that meet the uplink ICIC threshold. SINR of the uplink reference signal. Indicates the SINR of the traffic channel. This counter reflects the quality of the traffic channel. The highest MCS supported by the uplink PUSCH. The highest MCS supported by the downlink PDSCH. Uplink peak throughput on the MAC layer. Uplink peak throughput on the application layer. Downlink peak throughput on the MAC layer. Downlink peak throughput on the application layer.

Coverage by C/(I+N) Level(UL) Coverage by MCS(UL) Coverage by MCS(DL) Coverage by Throughput (UL)

UL RS SINR PUSCH SINR PUSCH MCS PDSCH MCS UL MAC Peak Throughput UL Application Peak Throughput DL MAC Peak Throughput DL Application Peak Throughput

Coverage by Throughput (DL)

Procedure for Performing Prediction


This section describes the procedure for performing prediction through the U-Net. Figure 4-7 shows the procedure for performing prediction through the U-Net.

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Figure 4-7 Procedure of prediction

LTE-TDD Prediction Algorithm


By calculating counters, U-Net can estimate network performance, such as cell coverage and channel quality. This section describes the LTE-TDD prediction algorithm through a schematic diagram. Figure 4-8 shows the schematic diagram of the LTE-TDD prediction algorithm.

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Figure 4-8 LTE-TDD prediction algorithm

Table 4-16 describes the process of LTE-TDD prediction algorithm. Table 4-16 Description of the LTE-TDD prediction algorithm Step 1 Operation Traversing all the cells Description Determine whether the cells in the calculation area are activated. If a cell is not activated, the prediction counters of this cell are not calculated. l If the path loss matrix does not exist, calculate the path loss matrix. l If the path loss matrix exists, it can be obtained directly. 3 Querying the antenna gain, equipment loss, and penetration loss You can enable the U-Net to consider the antenna gain, equipment loss, and penetration loss during the calculation of link loss.

Obtaining the path loss matrix

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Step 4

Operation Predicting slow fading by using the shadowing margin

Description To ensure that a base station can cover cell edges with a certain probability. Certain power of the base station is reserved to prevent shadow fading. The reserved power is called shadowing margin. You can enable the U-Net to take the shadowing margin into account during the calculation of link loss.

Calculating the DL RSRP to determine the primary serving cell Calculating the power of interference noises to determine the handover area Determining the target RRU in the uplink Calculating counters of the traffic channel and common channel based on the BIN Displaying prediction results

The DL RSRP indicates the receive level at the downlink and it is a key counter in prediction. You can determine the primary serving cell based on this counter. You can calculate the power of interference noises and determine the handover area.

7 8

If a cell in the calculation area is an SFN cell, you must determine the target RRU of the cell in the uplink. Calculating counters of the traffic channel and common channel such as DL RS SINR, PDSCH SINR, UL RS SINR, and PUSCH SINR based on the BIN The U-Net displays the prediction results in different colors in the window and provides a prediction report.

Basic Knowledge of Link Loss


Link loss refers to the loss on the entire link from the transmitter to the receiver. When calculating link loss, the U-Net considers various loss factors such as path loss, equipment loss, and shadow fading. Loss factors of the uplink are different from loss factors of the downlink. The formulas for calculating uplink loss and downlink loss are as follows: l Uplink loss = Loss caused by the human body + Feeder loss of the terminal - Antenna gain of the terminal + Path loss + Shadow fading + Penetration loss - Antenna gain of the base station + Total loss of the base station Downlink loss = Loss caused by the human body + Feeder loss of the terminal - Antenna gain of the terminal + Path loss + Shadow fading + Penetration loss - Antenna gain of the base station + Total loss of the base station

The difference between the two formulas are as follows: The uplink has TMA gains which are included into the antenna gain of the base station in calculation. The downlink has TMA loss which is included into the total loss of the base station. Table 4-17 describes the meanings of factors in the formulas.

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Table 4-17 Meanings of factors in the formulas Factor Loss caused by the human body Feeder loss of a terminal Antenna gain of a terminal Path loss Shadow fading Meaning Loss of transmit or receive power of the mobile station (MS) due to the shielding or absorption of the human body. Loss of the feeder on a terminal. Gain of the antenna on a terminal. Loss on the path between the transmit antenna and the receive antenna, which excludes the antenna gain and shadow fading. When an electromagnetic wave is blocked by fluctuant terrains, buildings, or vegetation areas in the propagation path, the shadow of the magnetic field exits. When an MS travels through the shadow of different barriers, the received signal strength decreases, and the field strength at the receiving antenna changes. In this case, fading is generated. This fading is called shadow fading. Penetration loss Antenna gain of a base station Total loss of the base station Loss that is caused when signals travel through buildings, vehicles, and leaves. Gain of the antenna on a base station. Power loss that is caused when signals travel through all the TMAs, feeders (including the main feeder, jumpers, and lightning arresters), and connectors

4.8.2 Calculating Path Loss


The path loss refers to the loss of strength of signals transmitted from a TX end to an RX end. You must calculate the path loss because it is an input required for prediction. The U-Net automatically calculates the path loss and generates a .loss file for each cell. Alternatively, you can manually calculate the path loss before performing the prediction. This section describes how to manually calculate the path loss.

Prerequisites
l l Base stations (sites and cells) are available. Propagation models are assigned to cells.

Context
You can manually calculate the path loss in calculation or force calculation mode. l Calculation

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If you calculate the path loss for the first time, that is, if no path loss matrix file is available, the U-Net calculates the path loss matrix of each cell. Afterwards, the U-Net checks the validity of calculation results and updates the results. If path loss matrices are available but the parameters related to radio data and calculation area are modified, the path loss matrices of some cells may become invalid. In this case, the U-Net calculates only these invalid path loss matrices again. l Force calculation If path loss matrices are available, the U-Net deletes all the matrices regardless of the validity and calculates the path loss matrix of each cell again. Afterwards, the U-Net checks the validity of calculation results and updates the results.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. Step 3 Select a calculation mode to calculate the path loss of all cells on the Transceiver node. If you need to... Calculate Then... Right-click and choose Calculation > Calculate Path Loss Matrices from the shortcut menu. Right-click and choose Calculation > Force Calculate Path Loss Matrices from the shortcut menu.

Calculate forcibly

Step 4 If you have not saved the project file, save it as prompted. The U-Net automatically creates a Project Name.losses folder that saves the information about the path loss matrix and an .ipl project file in the specified save path. Afterwards, the U-Net starts calculating the path loss. Step 5 Query the calculation results After the calculation is complete, the calculation results will be automatically saved in the Project Name.losses folder that saves the project file. Click to stop ongoing calculations.

Step 6 Optional: Check the progress of path loss calculation In the Event Viewer docked window, query the start time and end time of path loss on the Event Viewer tab page and the progress of the path loss calculation on the Task tab page, as shown in Figure 4-9.

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Figure 4-9 Event Viewer

----End

Follow-up Procedure
The MCL with the default value of 70 dB indicates the minimum path loss between the base station and the terminal or between one terminal and another terminal. If you want to change the default value of the MCL, modify the LinkLossConfig.xml file in the U-Net installation directory.

4.8.3 Setting Shadow Fading Standard Deviation


During the network prediction, the standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for certain prediction counters.

Context
l In the LTE-FDD network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: DL RS SINR, DL RSRQ, Geometry, PBCH SINR, PCFICH SINR, PDCCH SINR, PRACH SINR, PUCCH SINR, SCH SINR, PDSCH SINR, PUSCH SINR, PHICH SINR, and UL RS SINR. l In the LTE-TDD network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: DL RS SINR, DL RSRQ, PDCCH SINR, PDSCH SINR, PUSCH SINR, UL RS SINR. In the GSM network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: Geometry, DL BCCH CIR, DL Service CIR, and UL Service CIR. l In the UMTS network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: CPICH Ec/Io, DL DPCH Eb/Nt, HS PDSCH Ec/Nt, UL DPCH Eb/Nt, and E DPDCH Ec/ Nt. l In the GSM/UMTS network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: Coverage By CIR.
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Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Map > Clutter. Step 3 Choose Parameter Management from the shortcut menu. The Clutter Parameters Display dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Perform the following operations as required. If ... The map information is not imported Then ... Click Default Value to change the default values of parameters under Model Standard Deviation and C/(I + N) Standard Deviation. Click Actual Value to change the actual values of parameters under Model Standard Deviation and C/(I + N) Standard Deviation.

The map information is imported

NOTE

For the meanings of parameters under Model Standard Deviation and C/(I + N) Standard Deviation, see Parameters for Setting the Clutter Class Layer.

Step 5 Click OK. ----End

4.8.4 Creating an LTE-TDD Prediction Group


The U-Net calculates the prediction as per prediction group. Each prediction group consists of one or more prediction items. You can create prediction groups and modify the properties.

Prerequisites
l l l A U-Net project is already created. The geographic data is imported. The calculation area is created. For details about calculation area knowledge and the method for creating a calculation area, see 3.3.9 Creating Vector Objects.

Procedure
Step 1 Optional: Setting common properties for prediction groups. Before creating coverage prediction groups, you need to set common properties for prediction groups so that new prediction groups have the common properties. 1. 2. 3.
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In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu.
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4.

In the displayed dialog box, set the precision of prediction on the Predictions tab page. You are advised to set the precision of prediction to be the same as that of the propagation model.

5. 6.

Set the height of receiver on the Receiver tab page. Click OK.

Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Predictions. Step 3 Choose New from the shortcut menu. Step 4 In the displayed dialog box, set prediction group name, whether to calculate immediately, and select prediction counters. For indicator description, see Basic Knowledge of LTE-TDD Prediction Counters. Step 5 Click Next. Step 6 In the displayed dialog box, set the prediction group properties. For parameter description, see 4.8.11 Parameters for Creating LTE-TDD Prediction Groups. Step 7 Click OK. Step 8 Optional: If you deselect Calculate Now in creating prediction groups, right-click the prediction group, and then choose Calculate from the shortcut menu after creating a prediction group. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
After the prediction calculation is complete, you can recalculate KPIs, add or delete KPIs, and view detailed KPI result reports. For details, see 3.8.6 Managing the Prediction Result.

4.8.5 Predicting Performance of a Single Cell


The U-Net can perform a single cell prediction in a specified area. In this case, other cells are deactivated by default. The single cell prediction enables you to effectively observe the prediction results of each cell in batches in the case that no interference to cells is caused.

Prerequisites
l l l The geographic data is imported. Base stations (sites and cells) are available. The calculation area is created. For details about calculation area knowledge and the method for creating a calculation area, see 3.3.9 Creating Vector Objects.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Predictions. Step 3 Choose New Single Cell Prediction from the shortcut menu. The New Prediction Group dialog box is displayed.
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Step 4 In the displayed dialog box, set prediction group name, whether to calculate immediately, and select prediction counters. For indicator description, see Basic Knowledge of LTE-TDD Prediction Counters. Step 5 Click Next. Step 6 In the displayed dialog box, set the prediction group properties. For parameter description, see 4.8.11 Parameters for Creating LTE-TDD Prediction Groups. Step 7 Click OK. Step 8 Optional: If you deselect Calculate Now in creating prediction groups, right-click the prediction group, and then choose Calculate from the shortcut menu after creating a prediction group. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
The number of prediction groups generated after a single-cell prediction is equal to the number of cells in the map window. You can expand the Predictions node in the navigation tree to view details.

4.8.6 Viewing Coverage Prediction Results


You can view the prediction result in the map window or view the statistics on various indicators by using the PDF or CDF diagram.

Procedure
l l View a prediction result in the map window. For details, see Querying Prediction Statistical Results (on a Map). View a prediction result by using the PDF or CDF diagram. For details, see Viewing Coverage Prediction Statistical Results (in a PDF/CDF Chart).

----End

4.8.7 Analyzing the Prediction Result


After calculation on prediction, you can further analyze the prediction result. For example, after improving network parameters, you can re-analyze the prediction result and compare the prediction results before and after parameter adjustment. Based on the overall result of prediction analysis, you can use the point-based analysis function to further analyze a focus object.

Context
The method of analyzing a prediction result for networks in the LTE-TDD mode is the same as that for networks in the LTE-FDD mode. For details, see 3.8.8 Analyzing the Prediction Result.

4.8.8 Exporting and Printing Prediction Results


You can export and print prediction results in batches or export the detailed prediction result by Bin point.
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Context
The methods of exporting and printing a prediction result for networks in the LTE-TDD mode are the same as those for networks in the LTE-FDD mode.

Procedure
l l l Export prediction results in batches. For details, see Exporting Prediction Results in Batches. Export the detailed prediction result by Bin point. For details, see Exporting the Detailed LTE-FDD Prediction Result by Bin Point. Print prediction results in batches. For details, see Printing Prediction Results in Batches.

----End

4.8.9 Verifying the Feature Database Based on DT Data


The DT data can be used to rectify the coverage prediction group after its calculation is complete in order to improve the origin authentication and simulation degree of feature database. This helps to improve the locating precision. The rectification is not required if DT data is unavailable, and this procedure can be ignored.

Context
The method of verifying the feature database based on DT data in LTE-TDD is similar to that in LTE-FDD. For detailed operations, see 3.8.10 Verifying the Feature Database Based on DT Data.

4.8.10 Exporting the Feature Database Data


You can export the feature database data after the prediction calculation is complete for geographical locating.

Context
The method of exporting the feature database in LTE-TDD is similar to that in LTE-FDD. For detailed operations, see 3.8.11 Exporting DT Feature Data.

4.8.11 Parameters for Creating LTE-TDD Prediction Groups


This section describes the parameters for creating a prediction group and setting the properties of a prediction group. You can refer to this section when creating a prediction group in the New Prediction Group dialog box or setting the properties of a prediction group in the Group Properties dialog box.

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Parameters in the New Prediction Group Dialog Box


Parameter Group Name Description Name of a prediction group. This parameter uniquely identifies a prediction group. The U-Net provides a default name for each created prediction group in this parameter field. Prediction Type Study Selected Calculate Now Prediction type. Prediction counter. Whether to calculate each prediction counter immediately.

Parameter in the Group Properties dialog box


Table 4-18 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Name Resolution(m) Intra-Frequency Handover(dB) Description Name of a prediction group. Precision of the prediction. Handover threshold of intra-frequency cells. This parameter is valid only after Handover Area is set. Inter-Frequency Handover(dB) Handover threshold of inter-frequency cells. This parameter is valid only after Handover Area is set. Polygon Neighbour PDSCH Load Calculation area for the prediction. Whether the load on the neighboring cell is taken into account in the calculation. The value ranges from 0 to 100. Neighbour PDCCH Load Whether the PDCCH load on the neighboring cell is taken into account in the calculation. The value ranges from 0 to 100. With Shadow Cell Edge Coverage Probability Whether the shadow fading is taken into account in the calculation. Probability of cell edge coverage, that is, the probability that the receive signal strength is stronger than the specified threshold at the edge of a cell.

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Parameter Indoor Coverage

Description Whether the penetration loss is taken into account.

Table 4-19 Parameters on the Condition tab page Parameter Signal Level(DL)(dBm) Signal Level(UL)(dBm) Interferer Reception Threshold(dBm) Terminal Service Mobility Description Receive threshold of the downlink reference signal. Receive threshold of the uplink reference signal. Interference threshold. Mobility type. Service type. Mobility type.

Table 4-20 Parameters on the Advanced tab page Parameter Frequency Name Channel Index Description Name of a frequency band. Frequency corresponding to a frequency band.

4.9 LTE-TDD Capacity Simulation


Capacity is important for radio network planning. The process of capacity simulation is as follows: The U-Net generates a certain number of subscribers based on the traffic map and allocate network resources to the generated subscribers. Then, the U-Net analyzes the overall network performance and collects the final capacity simulation results. Finally, the U-Net generates a statistical report.

Context
The method of capacity simulation for networks in the LTE-TDD mode is the same as that for networks in the LTE-FDD mode. For details, see 3.9 LTE-FDD Capacity Simulation.

4.10 Planning LTE-TDD Network Parameters


This section describes how to properly plan the frequencies, PCIs, and PRACH channels of the LTE-TDD network by using the U-Net.
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4.10.1 LTE PCI Planning


The physical cell IDs (PCIs) of an LTE network is limited. Therefore, reuse of PCIs is unavoidable in LTE networking. To reduce the downlink interference of intra-frequency and co-PCI cells, you must assign a proper PCI to each cell. On the U-Net, you can enable the system to automatically plan PCIs or you can manually plan a PCI for each cell. After the PCI planning is complete, you can check whether the PCI planning results are proper.

Context
For PCI planning, see 3.10.1 LTE PCI Planning.

4.10.2 LTE PRACH Planning


To ensure successful random access of the LTE-TDD network, you must plan the physical random access channel (PRACH) parameters for each cell in the LTE-TDD network. PRACH planning refers to the Zadoff-Chu Sequence (ZC) planning.

Context
The method of planning PRACH parameters for networks in the LTE-TDD mode is the same as that for networks in the LTE-FDD mode. For details, see 3.10.2 LTE PRACH Planning.

4.10.3 LTE-TDD Neighboring Cell Planning


After creating base stations, you must plan neighboring cells for the cells on the LTE network. You can automatically plan neighboring cells in batches or manually plan neighboring cells for each cell one by one.

Context
The method for planning neighboring cells in LTE-TDD network is the same as that in LTEFDD network. For details, see 3.10.3 LTE-FDD Neighboring Cell Planning.

4.10.4 LTE Frequency Planning


After base stations are created, you must assign EARFCNs to cells on the network. The U-Net provides three frequency reuse modes: 1x1+ICIC soft frequency, 1x1+ICIC downlink edge six frequency band, and 1x3 frequency reuse modes. When the frequency band is determined, you can enable the U-Net to plan EARFCNs automatically or you can manually plan EARFCNs for each cell.

Context
For frequency planning, see 3.10.4 LTE Frequency Planning.

4.10.5 LTE Cell Automatic Planning


This section describes how to perform LTE cell automatic planning. You can use this function to adjust the electrical downtilt and azimuth of an antenna and transmission power of a cell so that each prediction counter in the calculation area meets your configuration requirements. This reduces the dependence on network planning engineers' experience and the times of adjusting parameter settings.
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Context
For details about the LTE cell automatic planning, see 3.10.5 Automatically Planning LTE Cells.

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5
About This Chapter

GSM Network Planning

The U-Net supports the planning of the GSM network. You can model the actual network environment by importing geographic data, assigning propagation models, and creating base stations based on the imported geographic data. Then, you can plan the neighboring cell parameters, predict the network coverage range, and evaluate the network capacity to meet your network planning requirements. 5.1 Process of GSM Network Planning This section describes the process of GSM network planning. You can refer to this section when planning a GSM network by using the U-Net. 5.2 Creating a Project This section describes how to create a project. You can select different project templates for different network systems. The U-Net creates the project based on the selected template. Currently, the U-Net provides project templates for the following network systems: GSM, UMTS, CDMA, LTE-FDD, and LTE-TDD. 5.3 Importing Geographic Data You can import geographic data in various vector and grid formats and set coordinate systems. You can also add points, lines, or polygons to create vector objects.The method for importing geographic data for different network systems to the U-Net is the same. 5.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands The U-Net enables you to calculate path loss between a transmitter and a receiver based on a propagation model. Then you can use the calculated path loss matrix to perform prediction.The method for setting propagation models and frequency bands for different network systems on the U-Net is the same. 5.5 Adding a Device You can import or create antennas, create TMAs, feeders, or site equipment.The method for creating site equipment for different network systems on the U-Net is the same. 5.6 Setting GSM Traffic Parameters The U-Net obtains the average load of the network based on the simulation calculation of the detailed user distribution and therefore calculates various counters of the radio network. Traffic parameters refer to the parameters related to the user type, mobility, terminal, service,
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environment, and receiving devices. They are the basic data related to user distribution. You must ensure that the traffic parameters are defined before prediction. 5.7 Setting GSM NE Parameters You can import existing base station data to create base stations or use a base station template to automatically create base stations. You can also create sites, transmitters, or repeaters separately. 5.8 GSM Prediction By calculating counters, U-Net can estimate network performance, such as cell coverage and channel quality. 5.9 GSM Neighboring Cell Planning After creating BTSs, you need to plan neighboring cells for the cells on the GSM network. You can automatically plan neighboring cells in batches or manually plan neighboring cells for each cell one by one. 5.10 Interface Reference to GSM Network Planning This section describes the interfaces and parameters for GSM network planning by using the UNet. 5.11 TSC Planning This section describes the training sequence code (TSC) planning. After a base station is created, you can plan the TSCs at a GSM site. You can use the U-Net to perform common, IBCA-based, and VAMOS-based TSC planning. 5.12 Interface Reference to TSC Parameter Planning

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5.1 Process of GSM Network Planning


This section describes the process of GSM network planning. You can refer to this section when planning a GSM network by using the U-Net. Figure 5-1 shows the process of GSM network planning. Figure 5-1 Process of GSM network planning

Table 5-1 describes the detailed information about Figure 5-1.

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Table 5-1 Process of GSM network planning No. 1 2 Procedure Creating a project Importing geographic data Description For details, see 5.2 Creating a Project. You can import geographic data in various vector and grid formats and set coordinate systems. You can also add points, lines, or polygons to create vector objects.The method for importing geographic data for different network systems to the U-Net is the same.For details, see 3.3 Importing Geographic Data. The U-Net enables you to calculate path loss between a transmitter and a receiver based on a propagation model. Then you can use the calculated path loss matrix to perform prediction.The method for setting propagation models and frequency bands for different network systems on the U-Net is the same.For details, see 3.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands. You can import or create antennas, create TMAs, feeders, or site equipment.The method for creating site equipment for different network systems on the U-Net is the same.For details, see 3.5 Adding a Device. Set traffic parameters related to terminals and services, which are to be used during prediction.For details, see 5.6 Setting GSM Traffic Parameters. You can import existing base station data to create base stations or use a base station template to automatically create base stations. You can also create sites, transmitters, or repeaters separately.For details, see 5.7 Setting GSM NE Parameters. For details, see 3.8.2 Calculating Path Loss. For details, see 5.9 GSM Neighboring Cell Planning . The planning results can be applied to NEs. For details, see 5.8 GSM Prediction. For details, see 5.11 TSC Planning. For details, see Prediction and Neighboring Cell Planning.

Managing propagation models and bands

Adding a device

Setting traffic parameters Setting NE parameters

7 8

Calculating the path loss Planning neighboring cells Predicting network performance Planning TSC Exporting network planning results

9 10 11

5.2 Creating a Project


This section describes how to create a project. You can select different project templates for different network systems. The U-Net creates the project based on the selected template.
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Currently, the U-Net provides project templates for the following network systems: GSM, UMTS, CDMA, LTE-FDD, and LTE-TDD.

Context
l l Only one project can run on the U-Net at a time. In normal cases, one project corresponds to the network planning for an area or a city. One U-Net project may correspond to the network planning of multiple network systems. For example, a U-Net project can be created for the planning of a GSM/UMTS hybrid network.

Procedure
Step 1 Choose File > New. The Project Templates dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 5-2. Figure 5-2 Project Templates

Step 2 Select a project template. l Different network systems correspond to different project templates. You need to select an appropriate project template based on the actual network system. l If multiple network systems are involved, you need to select the required templates. For example, If you need to create a project for a GSM/UMTS hybrid network, you need to select project templates for both the GSM and the UMTS networks. l LTE-TDD and CDMA do not support hybrid networking with other network systems. Step 3 Click OK. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
l Save a project file. Choose File > Save or click file. to save all the information about the project in a project

You can save project files in .ipl format: .ipl or .ipl (with all data). In the former format, only NE's parameter planning configuration for the project is saved; in the latter format, all the planning calculation results are saved. The former format is selected by default.
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The U-Net automatically creates an .ipl project file and a project name.losses folder for saving the information about the path loss matrix and calculation results of capacity simulation, coverage prediction, and neighboring cell planning in the specified save path.
NOTE

Based on the save format, the U-Net determines whether to add the calculation result data in the project name.losses path to the project file in .ipl format.

Open an existing project file. Choose File > Open to open an existing .ipl project file.
NOTE

Alternatively, double-click an .ipl project file to start and open the project.

5.3 Importing Geographic Data


You can import geographic data in various vector and grid formats and set coordinate systems. You can also add points, lines, or polygons to create vector objects.The method for importing geographic data for different network systems to the U-Net is the same.

Context
The method for importing geographic data for different network systems to the U-Net is the same. For details, see 3.3 Importing Geographic Data.

5.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands


The U-Net enables you to calculate path loss between a transmitter and a receiver based on a propagation model. Then you can use the calculated path loss matrix to perform prediction.The method for setting propagation models and frequency bands for different network systems on the U-Net is the same.

Context
The method for setting propagation models and frequency bands for different network systems on the U-Net is the same. For details, see 3.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands. For details about the parameters for setting the frequency band information, see Parameters for Setting Bands.

5.5 Adding a Device


You can import or create antennas, create TMAs, feeders, or site equipment.The method for creating site equipment for different network systems on the U-Net is the same.

Context
The method for creating site equipment for different network systems on the U-Net is the same. For details, see 3.5 Adding a Device.
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5.6 Setting GSM Traffic Parameters


The U-Net obtains the average load of the network based on the simulation calculation of the detailed user distribution and therefore calculates various counters of the radio network. Traffic parameters refer to the parameters related to the user type, mobility, terminal, service, environment, and receiving devices. They are the basic data related to user distribution. You must ensure that the traffic parameters are defined before prediction.

5.6.1 Setting MOS


This section describes how to set the Mean Opinion Score (MOS). The MOS indicates the quality of calls in the current network status. You can refer to this section to modify the attributes of MOS as required. You can also create new MOS types if the existing MOS types do not meet your requirements.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Services > GSM. Step 3 Right-click and then choose MOS from the shortcut menu, as shown in Figure 5-3. The MOS Table dialog box is displayed Figure 5-3 MOS

Step 4 Set related parameters to create or modify MOS types by referring to Table 5-2. You can set the new MOS type in the blank line (marked with *) of the dialog box. Table 5-2 Description of parameters in the MOS Table dialog box Parameter Index
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Meaning Indicates the MOS index.


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Parameter Name Mobility C/(I+N)-MOS

Meaning Indicates the name of the speech coding scheme. Indicates the mobility type of a receiving device. Indicates the signal-to-noise ratio of the MOS.

Step 5 Click OK. ----End

5.6.2 Setting GSM Service Types


Set the service type such as the voice service and data service. You can modify the parameters of existing service types. If the existing service types do not meet the requirements, you can create service types.

Context
The U-Net provides three default GSM service types: GSMVoice, GSMMobile Internet Access, and GSMMultimedia Messaging Service.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 Set service type parameters. Option If... Create a service type Description Then... 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Services > GSM. 2. Choose New from the shortcut menu. See Figure 5-4. 3. Set parameters for the new service type by referring to Table 5-3. Modify an existing service type 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Services > GSM > An existing service type. 2. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. 3. Modify parameters for the existing service type by referring to Table 5-3.

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Figure 5-4 New

Table 5-3 Parameters for setting GSM services Parameter Name Type Meaning Indicates the name of a service type. Indicates a service type. l CSServie: CS services. l PSServie: PS services. Priority Indicates the weighting factor based on the scheduled services. The weighting factor is assigned depending on the service priority. The value 1 indicates the lowest priority. Body Loss(dB) Activity Indicates the loss due to the human body. Indicates the uplink/downlink activation factor. This parameter is required for only CS services. l Uplink: uplink activation factor. The value ranges from 0 to 1. l Downlink: downlink activation factor. The value ranges from 0 to 1. AMR Rate(kbit/s) Indicates the rate of CS services. The unit is kbit/s. The values are 4.75, 5.15, 5.9, 6.7, 7.4, 7.95, 10.2, and 12.2. FER(%) Indicates the frame error rate on the uplink and downlink.

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Parameter Max Throughput (kbit/s)

Meaning Indicates the maximum uplink/downlink throughput. l Uplink: maximum uplink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 104. l Downlink: maximum downlink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 104.
NOTE Minimum throughput Average throughput Maximum throughput

Min Throughput (kbit/s)

Indicates the minimum uplink/downlink throughput. l Uplink: minimum uplink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 104. l Downlink: minimum downlink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 104.
NOTE Minimum throughput Average throughput Maximum throughput

Average Throughput (kbit/s)

Indicates the average uplink/downlink throughput. l Uplink: average uplink throughput. l Downlink: average downlink throughput.
NOTE Minimum throughput Average throughput Maximum throughput

Transmission Efficiency

Indicates the uplink/downlink transmission rate. l Uplink: uplink transmission rate. The value ranges from 0 to 1. l Downlink: downlink transmission rate. The value ranges from 0 to 1.

IBLER(%) Offset(kbit/s)

Indicates the block error rate (BLER). The value ranges from 0 to 100. Indicates the fixed uplink/downlink overhead, which is the length added to an encapsulated packet during the transmission at the MAC or RLC layer. l Uplink: fixed uplink overhead. The value ranges from 0 to 100. l Downlink: fixed downlink overhead. The value ranges from 0 to 100.

Step 3 Click OK. ----End

5.6.3 Setting GSM Receivers


You can modify the parameters of existing receiver types. If the existing receiver types do not meet the requirements, you can create receiver types.

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Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > GSM. Step 3 Choose Reception Equipment from the shortcut menu. Step 4 Set the name of a receiver. If you need to... Create a receiver type. Then... Enter the name of a new receiver in a blank line (marked with *) in the dialog box. Set Link Type. Go to Step 5 directly.

Modify an existing receiver type.

Step 5 Double-click the first column of the receiver and set property parameters in the displayed dialog box. For detailed description of parameters, see Table 5-4. Step 6 Click OK. Table 5-4 Parameters for setting GSM receivers Parameter Name LinkType Mobility Meaning Indicates the name of a receiver. Indicates whether a receiver is on the uplink or downlink. Indicates the mobility type of a receiver. For details about how to create or modify a mobility type, see 3.6.7 Setting Mobility Types. IBLER(%) Demodulation Indicates the block error rate (BLER). l Indicates the demodulation threshold of PS services if this parameter is located in the PSService area. You can double-click the related cell to set this parameter. l Indicates the demodulation threshold of CS services if this parameter is located in the CSService area. You can double-click the related cell to set this parameter. FER(%) Voice Code Model C/(I+N) Threshold C/(I+N)-Throughput Indicates the frame error rate. Indicates a voice coding scheme. Indicates the threshold of the SINR for CS or PS services. Indicates the SINR throughput of CS or PS services.

----End
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5.6.4 Setting GSM Terminal Types


Set the terminal types used when a service is performed. You can modify the parameters of existing terminal types. If the existing terminal types do not meet the requirements, you can create terminal types.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 Set parameters of the terminal type. If you need to... Then...

Create a terminal 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > type GSM. 2. Choose New from the shortcut menu. 3. Set parameters for the new terminal type by referring to Table 5-5. Modify an 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > existing terminal GSM > An existing terminal type. type 2. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. 3. Modify parameters for the existing terminal type by referring to Table 5-5.

Table 5-5 Parameters for setting GSM terminal types Parameter Name Support Frequency Band Min Tx Power(dBm) Max Tx Power(dBm) Noise Figure(dB) Cable Loss(dB) Attenuation(dB) Gain(dBi) Reception Equipment Meaning Indicates the name of a terminal type. Indicates the main frequency used by a terminal. Indicates the minimum transmit power of a terminal. Indicates the maximum transmit power of a terminal. Indicates the noise figure of a terminal. Indicates the feeder loss of a terminal. Indicates the signal attenuation of a terminal. Indicates the antenna gain. Indicates the type of the receiver for a terminal. For details, see 5.6.3 Setting GSM Receivers. Number of Transmission Antennas Indicates the number of antennas at the transmitter for a terminal.

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Parameter Number of Reception Antennas Code Configuration Technology Number of TimeSlots(DL)

Meaning Indicates the number of antennas at the receiver for a terminal. Indicates a voice coding scheme. Indicates the technologies supported by a terminal. Indicates the maximum number of timeslots supported on the downlink. This parameter is invalid if Technology is set to GSM because a GSM user occupies only one channel.

Number of Timeslots(UL)

Indicates the maximum number of timeslots supported on the uplink. This parameter is invalid if Technology is set to GSM because a GSM user occupies only one channel.

Support Half-Rate Support DTX

Indicates whether the half rate is supported. Indicates whether DTX is supported.

----End

5.6.5 Setting Mobility Types


This section describes how to set mobility types for terminals. You can modify the parameters of existing mobility types, such as the velocity. If the existing mobility types do not meet the requirements, you can create mobility types.

Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net sets mobility types in the same way. For details, see 3.6.7 Setting Mobility Types.

5.7 Setting GSM NE Parameters


You can import existing base station data to create base stations or use a base station template to automatically create base stations. You can also create sites, transmitters, or repeaters separately.

5.7.1 Importing Base Station Information


You can import a data file of base station to the U-Net. After that, the system automatically creates sites, cells, and transceivers according to the base station data. You can also export base station data in a project for easy viewing of site information, cell information, and transceiver information. For networks with different modes, the U-Net imports base station information in the same way.

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Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net imports site information in the same way. For details, see 3.7.1 Importing Base Station Information.

5.7.2 Creating a Single Site


This section describes how to create a single site. You can create a site or modify the properties of an existing site to obtain a new one. For networks using different radio access technologies (RATs), you can use the U-Net to create a single site in the same way.

Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a single site in the same way. For details, see 3.7.2 Creating a Single Site.

5.7.3 Setting a GSM BTS Template


This section describes how to manage base station templates. You can create base stations by using the predefined templates of the U-Net. If the predefined templates do not meet your requirements, you can customize a base station template.

Procedure
l View base station templates. 1. dropOn the toolbar, select Template Management from the down list. The Station Template Properties dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 5-5.

Figure 5-5 Station Template Properties

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2.

The Available Templates area displays the currently available base station templates. Select the default template from the drop-down list next to Default. The name of the default base station template will be displayed on the toolbar of the U-Net main window. The names of other base station templates are available in the drop-down list. Such as .

Create a base station template. 1. Click Add. The Station Template Properties dialog box is displayed. Alternatively, click Duplicate to duplicate the selected base station template. Then, a new base station template is generated on the basis of the selected template. 2. 3. Set properties of the BTS template. For detailed description of parameters, see Parameter for Setting GSM Base Station Templates. Click OK. Select a base station template in the Available Templates area. Click Properties. The Station Template Properties dialog box is displayed. Query and modify properties of the base station template. For detailed description of parameters, see Parameter for Setting GSM Base Station Templates. Click OK.

View and modify properties of the base station template. 1. 2. 3. 4.

----End

Follow-up Procedure
You can create base stations based on a predefined base station template or a customized base station template. When a base station template is not required, you can select the template in the Station Template Properties dialog box and then click Delete to delete it. You cannot delete the last base station template.

5.7.4 Creating a Base Station Automatically


The system supports creating a single site automatically or creating a series of base stations with the same property in batches. For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a base station automatically in the same way.

Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a base station automatically in the same way. For details, see 3.7.4 Creating Base Stations in Batches.

5.7.5 Creating a Repeater


This section describes how to create repeaters. A repeater receives, amplifies, and forwards the RF carriers launched or transmitted in the uplink and downlink. A repeater includes two sides, that is, the donor side and the serving cell side. The donor side of a repeater receives signals
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from the donor transmitter. The signals may be carried by links of different types, such as radio links or microwave links. The serving cell side forwards the received signals. For networks of different types, the U-Net creates a repeater in the same way.

Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a repeater in the same way. For details, see 3.7.5 Creating Repeaters.

5.7.6 Creating a Transceiver


This section describes how to create a transceiver. The U-Net combines the transceiver with cells. Before setting a cell, you must set the transceiver parameters. A transceiver supports a multi-mode network, that is, a transceiver can cover multiple cells. For networks using different radio access technologies (RATs), you can use the U-Net to create a transceiver in the same way.

Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a transceiver in the same way. For details, see 3.7.6 Creating a Transceiver.

5.7.7 Setting GSM Cell Parameters


This section describes how to set LTE-FDD cell parameters. After a transceiver is set, the UNet automatically assigns a cell to the transceiver. After setting transceiver parameters, you can set cell parameters.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver > Sitex_x. Step 3 Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. See Figure 5-6. Figure 5-6 Properties

Step 4 Set the properties of GSM cells on the GSMTRX tab page. For detailed description of parameters, see Parameters for Setting the Parameters of GSM Cells.
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Step 5 Click OK. ----End

5.7.8 Interface Reference for Setting GSM NE Parameters


This section describes the parameters for setting GSM NE parameters by using the U-Net.

Parameter for Setting GSM Base Station Templates


This section describes the parameters for creating base station templates or modifying the properties of base station templates. You can refer to this section when managing base station templates in the Station Template Properties dialog box.

Site Tab Page


Parameter Name Support Type Description Indicates the name of a base station template. Indicates the base station type. Macro indicates a macro base station, and Micro indicates a micro base station. Use Altitude For Calculation Indicates whether to manually enter the altitude of a site for calculation. If this option is selected, you manually enter the altitude of a site for calculation. Indicates the radius of a cell. Description.

Hexagon Radius Comments

Transceiver Area on the GSM Tab Page


Parameter Transceivers Comments Model Site Equipment First Sector Azimuth Mechanical Downtilt Electrical Downtilt Height/Ground(m) Total Loss(DL)
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Description Indicates the number of transceivers in a site. Description. Indicates the type of the antenna on the transceiver. Indicates the site equipment. Indicates the azimuth of the first antenna. Indicates the mechanical downtilt. Indicates the electrical downtilt. Indicates the height of an antenna. Indicates the total downlink loss.
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Parameter Total Loss(UL)

Description Indicates the total uplink loss.

General Tab in the Cell Area on the GSM Tab Page


Parameter Max Power(dBm) IoT Target(UL) DTX TRX Power(dBm) Target Load(DL) Target Load(UL) Frequency Band Reception Description Indicates the maximum transmit power. Indicates the target Interfere Over Thermal (IoT) on the uplink. Indicates whether the discontinuous transmission (DTX) is used. Indicates the transmit power of a TRX. Indicates the target load on the downlink. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates the target load on the uplink. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates a frequency band. Indicates a receiver.

Propagation Models Tab in the Cell Area on the GSM Tab Page
Parameter Propagation Model Description Indicates a propagation model. l When the parameter is present in the Main Matrix area, it indicates the main propagation model. l When the parameter is present in the Extended Matrix area, it indicates the extended propagation model. Radius(m) Resolution(m) Indicates the calculation radius of a propagation model. Indicates the calculation resolution of a propagation model.

Parameters for Setting the Parameters of GSM Cells


This section describes the parameters for creating a GSM cell or modifying the properties of a GSM cell.

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Table 5-6 GSMCell tab page Parameter Name Active Frequency Band Target Load(DL) Target Load(UL) DTX IoT Target(UL) Max Power(dBm) Description Indicates the name of a cell. Indicates whether to activate the current cell. Indicates a frequency band. Indicates the target load in the downlink. The value ranges from 0 to 1. Indicates the target load in the uplink. The value ranges from 0 to 1. Indicates whether discontinuous transmission (DTX) is used. Indicates the target Interfere Over Thermal (IoT) in the uplink. Indicates the maximum transmit power of a transceiver. When the value of Max Power(dBm), Frequency Band, or PB(dB) is changed, the system automatically calculates the value of RS Power (dBm). MS Max Power(dBm) Reception SynchroRank TRX Power(dBm) Coverage Type Co-BCCH Signal Difference Mapping Cell Use In Capability Scene MCC MNC LAC CI Indicates the maximum transmit power of an MS. The unit is dBm. Indicates a receiver. Indicates the synchronization parameter. Indicates the transmit power of a TRX. Indicates the cell coverage type used during capacity planning. Indicates the signal strength difference between GSM900 and GSM1800. Indicates the indoor mapping cell. Indicates whether the cell is used for capacity absorption. Indicates the scenario of a cell. Indicates the mobile country code (MCC). Indicates the mobile network code (MNC). Indicates a location area code. Indicates the ID of a cell.

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Parameter CGI RAC BSC ID BTS ID Local Cell ID BSC Name Module Type Module Info TRX Number Max TRX Number Status

Description Indicates the cell global identification (CGI). Indicates the routing area code (RAC). Indicates the ID of the BSC that a cell belongs to. Indicates the ID of the BTS that a cell belongs to. Indicates the internal code of a cell for differentiating the cell from other cells under the same BSC. Indicates the name of a base station controller (BSC). Indicates the type of a module. Indicates the module information. Indicates the number of TRXs. Indicates the number of TRXs that can be configured in a cell. Indicates the swapping status. l NONE: Indicates there is no cell in swapping state. l NEW: Indicates a new cell. l EXISTED: Indicates a live network cell. The default value is NONE.

Hopping Mode

Indicates the hopping mode of a cell. This parameter can be set to one of the following values: l NO_FH l BaseBand_FH l Hybrid_FH l RF_FH

Frame Offset BSIC BCCH TCH MAIO AFPFreqNum

Indicates the frame offset. Indicates the base transceiver station identity code (BSIC). Indicates the absolute radio frequency channel number (ARFCN) of the BCCH TRX in a cell. Indicates the collection of ARFCNs of the TCH TRXs in a cell. Indicates the collection of mobile allocation index offsets (MAIOs) of TRXs in a cell. Indicates the number of GSM TRXs generated by one row of data when users import the engineering parameters.

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Parameter HSN MA MAIO Plan TSC VAMOS Main TSC VAMOS Sub TSC Vendor Comments Propagation Models

Description Indicates the hopping sequence number (HSN) of a cell. The value range is from 0 to 63. Indicates the collection of frequency hopping ARFCNs. Indicates the MAIO planning information. Indicates the training sequence code (TSC). Indicates the primary training sequence code for VAMOS. Indicates the secondary training sequence code for VAMOS. Indicates the device manufacturer. Description. Indicates a propagation model.

Table 5-7 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Name Site Description Name of a transceiver. This parameter uniquely identifies a transceiver. Name of the site that a transceiver belongs to. You can click New to create a site. Hexagon Radius(m) Radius of the hexagon indicating the cell coverage. The value ranges from 1 to 100000. l If a transceiver is directly added in the main window, the radius of the hexagon is the value of Hexagon Radius (m) in the current site template by default. l If a transceiver is added under the Transceiver node in the navigation tree, the value of this parameter is empty by default. Transmission in the Number of Antennas area Reception in the Number of Antennas area Transmission in the Number of Antenna Ports area Comments Number of transmission antennas on a base station. Number of receive antennas on a base station. Number of transmission antenna ports. Comments on a transceiver.

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Table 5-8 Parameters on the Antenna Config tab page Parameter Antenna ID Description ID of an antenna for a transceiver. The ID of each antenna must be unique for a transceiver. Power Ratio Sector ID Dx(m) Dy(m) Longitude Latitude Main Antenna Power allocation ratio. The value ranges from 0 to 1. ID of a sector. This parameter uniquely identifies an antenna. Offset of the antenna relative to the site that the antenna belongs to in the X direction. The unit is meter. Offset of the antenna relative to the site that the antenna belongs to in the Y direction. The unit is meter. Longitude of an antenna. Latitude of an antenna. Main antenna of a transceiver. Each cell has only one main antenna. Azimuth Antenna Antenna azimuth. The value ranges from 0 to 360. The unit is degree. Type of an antenna. The default value is determined based on the configuration of the system antennas. In normal cases, the default antenna type is the type of the first antenna. Mechanical Downtilt Electrical Downtilt Height(m) RRU ID Mechanical downtilt of an antenna. The unit is degree. Electrical downtilt of an antenna. The unit is degree. Height of an antenna. The unit is meter. l ID of a remote radio unit (RRU). l The value ranges from 0 to 100. The default value is 0. l If the value of RRU ID differs among the antennas for a transceiver, the cell served by the transceiver is a single frequency network (SFN) cell. In this case, you can configure only one cell for this transceiver. Equipment Equipment properties. For details, see Table 5-9.

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Table 5-9 Parameters in the Equipment Configuration dialog box Parameter Input Total Loss Description l If you select the check box, you need to manually type the total loss. l If you clear the check box, the U-Net calculates the total loss. Site Equipment TMA Indicates the site equipment. Tower-mounted amplifier (TMA). You can click modify its properties. Antenna feeder. You can click to

Feeder Feeder Length(m) Miscellaneous Loss(dB) JumpLoss Ant-TMA(dB) JumpLoss Ant-BS(dB) JumpLoss TMA-BS(dB) Total Loss(dB)

to modify its properties.

Length of a feeder. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Miscellaneous loss. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Jumper loss between the TMA and the antenna port. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Jumper loss between the top of cabinet and the antenna port. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Jumper loss between the TMA and the top of cabinet. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Total loss, including the TMA, feeder, jumper, and miscellaneous loss. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink.

5.8 GSM Prediction


By calculating counters, U-Net can estimate network performance, such as cell coverage and channel quality.

5.8.1 Basic Knowledge of GSM Prediction


This chapter describes the basic knowledge of prediction, including the formula for calculating link loss, method for determining the calculation area, meaning of prediction counters, and prediction algorithm. You can develop a better understanding of the prediction function by learning the basic knowledge.

Basic Knowledge of GSM Prediction Counters


This section describes the meanings of the GSM prediction counters. The U-Net can be used to predict multiple GSM counters.
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Certain counters are not displayed by default. To enable the U-Net to display these counters, select the corresponding network technology, right-click a counter type and then choose More Coverage from the shortcut menu.

Table 5-10 lists the GSM prediction counters supported by the U-Net. Table 5-10 Description of GSM prediction counters Category Coverage by Signal Level (DL) Counter DL BCCH Signal Level Best Server Description Indicates the strength of the downlink BCCH signals received by a terminal. Indicates the cell that has the strongest DL BCCH signal strength among the cells that receive downlink signals. Indicates the strength of the downlink traffic signals received by a terminal. Indicates the quality of received downlink BCCH signals. Indicates the receive quality of the downlink TCH/ PDCH. Indicates a geographical factor, which represents the difference between the highest receive power and the interference power. Indicates the receive quality of the uplink TCH/ PDCH. Indicates the best coding scheme that you can select according to channels. Indicates the mean opinion score (MOS), which is used for assessing voice quality. Indicates whether an area is a handover area. Indicates the coverage area of the current network. Indicates the peak throughput of the downlink PDCH at the MAClayer. Indicates the peak throughput of the downlink PDCH at the application layer. Indicates the peak throughput of the uplink PDCH at the MAC layer.

DL TCH Signal Level Coverage by C/(I+N) Level(DL) DL BCCH CIR DL Service CIR Geometry

Coverage by C/(I+N) Level(UL) Coverage Area Analysis

UL Service CIR

Coding Scheme MOS Handover Area Coverage Area

Coverage by Throughput (DL)

DL PDCH MAC Peak Throughput DL PDCH Application Peak Throughput UL PDCH MAC Peak Throughput

Coverage by Throughput (UL)

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Category

Counter UL PDCH Application Peak Throughput

Description Indicates the peak throughput of the uplink PDCH at the application layer.

Procedure for Performing Coverage Prediction


This section describes the procedure for performing prediction through the U-Net. Figure 5-7 shows the procedure for performing prediction through the U-Net. Figure 5-7 Procedure of prediction

GSM Prediction Algorithm


By calculating counters, U-Net can estimate network performance, such as cell coverage and channel quality. This section describes the GSM prediction algorithm through a schematic chart. Figure 5-8 shows the schematic chart of the GSM prediction algorithm.
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Figure 5-8 GSM prediction algorithm

Table 5-11 describes the process of GSM prediction algorithm. Table 5-11 Description of the GSM prediction algorithm Procedur e 1 Operation Traversing all the cells Description Determines whether the cells in the calculation area are activated. If a cell is not activated, the prediction counters of this cell are not calculated.

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Procedur e 2

Operation Obtaining the path loss matrix

Description l If the path loss matrix does not exist, it needs to be calculated. l If the path loss matrix already exists, it can be directly obtained.

Querying the antenna gain, equipment loss, and penetration loss Predicting slow fading by using the shadow fading margin

You can enable the U-Net to consider the antenna gain, equipment loss, and penetration loss during the calculation of link loss. To ensure that a base station can cover cell edges with a certain probability, certain power of the base station is reserved against the shadow fading. The reserved power is called shadowing margin. You can enable the U-Net to consider the shadowing margin during the calculation of link loss.

Calculating the DL BCCH to determine the primary serving cell Calculating the power of interference noises to determine the handover area Calculating counters of traffic channels and common channels based on the Bin points Displaying prediction results

DL BCCH indicates the receive level of the downlink broadcast frequency and it is a key counter in prediction. You can determine the primary serving cell based on this counter. You can calculate the power of interference noises and determine the handover area.

You can calculate the required counters and custom counters such as DL BCCH Rx Power, Best Server, power of interference noises, and handover area of Bin points. The U-Net displays the prediction results in different colors in a window and provides a prediction report.

Basic Knowledge of Link Loss


Link loss refers to the loss on the entire link from the transmitter to the receiver. When calculating link loss, the U-Net considers various loss factors such as path loss, equipment loss, and shadow fading. Loss factors of the uplink are different from loss factors of the downlink. The formulas for calculating uplink loss and downlink loss are as follows: l Uplink loss = Loss caused by the human body + Feeder loss of the terminal - Antenna gain of the terminal + Antenna attenuation of the terminal + Path loss + Shadow fading + Penetration loss - Antenna gain of the base station + Total loss of the base station Downlink loss = Loss caused by the human body + Feeder loss of the terminal - Antenna gain of the terminal + Antenna attenuation of the terminal + Path loss + Shadow fading + Penetration loss - Antenna gain of the base station + Total loss of the base station
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The difference between the two formulas are as follows: The uplink has TMA gains which are included into the antenna gain of the base station in calculation. The downlink has TMA loss which is included into the total loss of the base station. Table 5-12 describes the meanings of factors in the formulas. Table 5-12 Meanings of factors in the formulas Factor Loss caused by the human body Feeder loss of a terminal Antenna gain of a terminal Antenna fading of a terminal Path loss Shadow fading Meaning Loss of transmit or receive power of the mobile station (MS) due to the shielding or absorption of the human body. Loss of the feeder on a terminal. Gain of the antenna on a terminal. Fading of the antenna on a terminal. Loss on the path between the transmit antenna and the receive antenna, which excludes the antenna gain and shadow fading. When an electromagnetic wave is blocked by fluctuant terrains, buildings, or vegetation areas in the propagation path, the shadow of the magnetic field exits. When an MS travels through the shadow of different barriers, the received signal strength decreases, and the field strength at the receiving antenna changes. In this case, fading is generated. This fading is called shadow fading. Penetration loss Antenna gain of a base station Total loss of the base station Loss that is caused when signals travel through buildings, vehicles, and leaves. Gain of the antenna on a base station. Power loss that is caused when signals travel through all the TMAs, feeders (including the main feeder, jumpers, and lightning arresters), and connectors

5.8.2 Calculating Path Loss


The path loss refers to the loss of strength of signals transmitted from a TX end to an RX end. You must calculate the path loss because it is an input required for prediction. The U-Net automatically calculates the path loss and generates a .loss file for each cell. Alternatively, you can manually calculate the path loss before performing the prediction. This section describes how to manually calculate the path loss.

Prerequisites
l
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Base stations (sites and cells) are available.


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Propagation models are assigned to cells.

Context
You can manually calculate the path loss in calculation or force calculation mode. l Calculation If you calculate the path loss for the first time, that is, if no path loss matrix file is available, the U-Net calculates the path loss matrix of each cell. Afterwards, the U-Net checks the validity of calculation results and updates the results. If path loss matrices are available but the parameters related to radio data and calculation area are modified, the path loss matrices of some cells may become invalid. In this case, the U-Net calculates only these invalid path loss matrices again. l Force calculation If path loss matrices are available, the U-Net deletes all the matrices regardless of the validity and calculates the path loss matrix of each cell again. Afterwards, the U-Net checks the validity of calculation results and updates the results.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. Step 3 Select a calculation mode to calculate the path loss of all cells on the Transceiver node. If you need to... Calculate Then... Right-click and choose Calculation > Calculate Path Loss Matrices from the shortcut menu. Right-click and choose Calculation > Force Calculate Path Loss Matrices from the shortcut menu.

Calculate forcibly

Step 4 If you have not saved the project file, save it as prompted. The U-Net automatically creates a Project Name.losses folder that saves the information about the path loss matrix and an .ipl project file in the specified save path. Afterwards, the U-Net starts calculating the path loss. Step 5 Query the calculation results After the calculation is complete, the calculation results will be automatically saved in the Project Name.losses folder that saves the project file. Click to stop ongoing calculations.

Step 6 Optional: Check the progress of path loss calculation In the Event Viewer docked window, query the start time and end time of path loss on the Event Viewer tab page and the progress of the path loss calculation on the Task tab page, as shown in Figure 5-9.
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Figure 5-9 Event Viewer

----End

Follow-up Procedure
The MCL with the default value of 70 dB indicates the minimum path loss between the base station and the terminal or between one terminal and another terminal. If you want to change the default value of the MCL, modify the LinkLossConfig.xml file in the U-Net installation directory.

5.8.3 Setting Shadow Fading Standard Deviation


During the network prediction, the standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for certain prediction counters.

Context
l In the LTE-FDD network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: DL RS SINR, DL RSRQ, Geometry, PBCH SINR, PCFICH SINR, PDCCH SINR, PRACH SINR, PUCCH SINR, SCH SINR, PDSCH SINR, PUSCH SINR, PHICH SINR, and UL RS SINR. l In the LTE-TDD network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: DL RS SINR, DL RSRQ, PDCCH SINR, PDSCH SINR, PUSCH SINR, UL RS SINR. In the GSM network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: Geometry, DL BCCH CIR, DL Service CIR, and UL Service CIR. l In the UMTS network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: CPICH Ec/Io, DL DPCH Eb/Nt, HS PDSCH Ec/Nt, UL DPCH Eb/Nt, and E DPDCH Ec/ Nt. l In the GSM/UMTS network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: Coverage By CIR.
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Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Map > Clutter. Step 3 Choose Parameter Management from the shortcut menu. The Clutter Parameters Display dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Perform the following operations as required. If ... The map information is not imported Then ... Click Default Value to change the default values of parameters under Model Standard Deviation and C/(I + N) Standard Deviation. Click Actual Value to change the actual values of parameters under Model Standard Deviation and C/(I + N) Standard Deviation.

The map information is imported

NOTE

For the meanings of parameters under Model Standard Deviation and C/(I + N) Standard Deviation, see Parameters for Setting the Clutter Class Layer.

Step 5 Click OK. ----End

5.8.4 Creating a GSM Prediction Group


The U-Net calculates the prediction as per prediction group. Each prediction group consists of one or more prediction items. You can create prediction groups and modify the properties.

Prerequisites
l l l A U-Net project is already created. The geographic data is imported. The calculation area is created. For details about calculation area knowledge and the method for creating a calculation area, see 3.3.9 Creating Vector Objects.

Procedure
Step 1 Optional: Setting common properties for prediction groups. Before creating coverage prediction groups, you need to set common properties for prediction groups so that new prediction groups have the common properties. 1. 2. 3.
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In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu.
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4.

In the displayed dialog box, set the precision of prediction on the Predictions tab page. You are advised to set the precision of prediction to be the same as that of the propagation model.

5. 6.

Set the height of receiver on the Receiver tab page. Click OK.

Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Predictions. Step 3 Choose New from the shortcut menu. See Figure 5-10. Figure 5-10 New

Step 4 In the displayed dialog box, set prediction group name, whether to calculate immediately, and select prediction counters.For indicator description, see Basic Knowledge of GSM Prediction Counters. Step 5 Click Next. Step 6 In the displayed dialog box, set the prediction group properties.For parameter description, see 5.10.1 Parameters for Creating GSM Prediction Groups. Step 7 Click OK. Step 8 Optional: If you deselect Calculate Now in creating prediction groups, right-click the prediction group, and then choose Calculate from the shortcut menu after creating a prediction group. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
After the prediction calculation is complete, you can recalculate KPIs, add or delete KPIs, and view detailed KPI result reports. For details, see 3.8.6 Managing the Prediction Result.

5.8.5 Viewing the Prediction Result


You can view the prediction result in the map window or view the statistics on various indicators by using the PDF or CDF diagram.

Procedure
l View a prediction result in the map window. For details, see Querying Prediction Statistical Results (on a Map).
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View a prediction result by using the PDF or CDF diagram. For details, see Viewing Coverage Prediction Statistical Results (in a PDF/CDF Chart).

----End

5.8.6 Analyzing Prediction Results


The U-Net supports the function of comparing similar predictions to identify the differences. This helps you to quickly know the impact of changes on the network.

Procedure
Step 1 Create and calculate a prediction group. Step 2 View the prediction result and check whether any counter needs to be optimized. Step 3 Adjust the setting of the counter that needs to be optimized to improve the coverage. Step 4 Duplicate the prediction group. 1. 2. 3. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > first prediction group. Choose Duplicate from the shortcut menu.

Step 5 Calculate the duplicate prediction group. 1. 2. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > copied prediction group. Choose Calculate from the shortcut menu.

Step 6 Compare the original prediction result and the new prediction result. 1. 2. 3. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions. Choose Compare from the shortcut menu. The CDF Compare window is displayed. Select the counters from the drop-down list on the left.
NOTE

l Coverage Area: The area that is actually covered by the counters. It is the area rendered by colors on the map window. l Calculate Area: The Polygon area that you select when creating a new prediction group

4. 5.

Select the prediction groups from the pane on the left and the corresponding display colors. View the CDF comparison chart in the pane on the right.

----End

Example
This section takes the antenna downtilt as an example to describe the function of comparison. The coverage of a cell in a prediction group is not good. Based on the analysis, the antenna downtilt may be improperly set. Perform the following steps to adjust the antenna downtilt. 1. 2. 3. 4.
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In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver > Sitex_x. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. Click Antenna Config tab Page.
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5.

Modify the value of Mechanical Downtilt or Electrical Downtilt.

After the downtilt is adjusted, you can recalculate the prediction group but cannot compare the two coverage predictions, that is, the prediction before and the prediction after the adjustment. Therefore, duplicate the existing prediction group before the recalculation. After the recalculation, you can view the coverage change in the map window. To know the detailed change, compare the change of counters by referring to Step 6.

Follow-up Procedure
l l l To save the CDF comparison chart, right-click the chart and choose Save Image As from the shortcut menu. The chart can be saved in .emf, .png, .gif, .jpg, .tif, or .bmp format. To print the CDF comparison chart, right-click the chart and choose Print from the shortcut menu. To copy the CDF comparison chart, right-click the chart and choose Copy from the shortcut menu.

5.8.7 Exporting GSM Planning Results


You can export and print prediction results in batches or export the detailed prediction result by Bin point.

Exporting Prediction Results in Batches


After the prediction calculation is complete, you can select one or more counters and then export a statistical report on the prediction as a .csv file and a prediction map in .mif or .jpg format.

Context
The method for exporting statistics for prediction results in batches for different network systems from the U-Net is the same. For details, see Exporting Prediction Results in Batches.

Exporting the Detailed GSM Prediction Result by Bin Point


After the prediction calculation is complete, you can export detailed prediction results of the Bin points in a specified area. The prediction results include the information about the longitudinal and latitudinal coordinates and counter values of the Bin points.

Procedure
l Export the detailed prediction results of Bin points according to the specified area. You can specify a calculation area and export the detailed prediction results of all Bin points in this area. 1. 2. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Select the objects to be exported. If... Export the detailed prediction results of a prediction group
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Then... In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx.

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If... Export the detailed prediction results of a single counter in a prediction group

Then... In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx > counter item.

3. 4. 5. l

Choose Export BIN By > Polygon from the shortcut menu. In the displayed dialog box, select the area to be exported. Click Export.

Export the detailed result of a Bin point by pilot power. This function is applicable only to single-mode networks. You can specify the value range of the pilot power to export only the detailed result of a Bin point within the range. 1. 2. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Select the objects to be exported. If... Export the detailed prediction results of a prediction group Export the detailed prediction results of a single counter in a prediction group Then... In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx.

In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx > DL BCCH Signal Level or DL TCH Signal Level.

NOTE

You can also set interval values in the properties of each preceding indicator.

3.

Choose Export BIN By > DL BCCH Signal Level or DL TCH Signal Level from the shortcut menu. When you perform prediction calculation, select at least one of the preceding two indicators. Otherwise, you cannot export the result of a Bin point by pilot power. The dialog box displayed lists the value segments of the selected KPI, the coverage area of the selected value segment, the percentage of the coverage area, and the cumulative percentage of the coverage area.

4.

In the displayed dialog box, set the value range of the indicator. The U-Net exports only the detailed prediction result of a Bin point within the specified range.

5. l

Click Export.

Export the top N records of the reception levels in each Bin point. This function is applicable only to single-mode networks. 1. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab.
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2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx > DL BCCH Signal Level. Choose Export BIN By > Top Signal Level from the shortcut menu.The dialog box as shown in Figure 5-11 is displayed. Set the minimum exported value and the maximum reception level for the top N records to be exported. Click Export. After setting the export path, file name, and file format, export the data.
NOTE

l To implement this function successfully, the selected indicators must include DL BCCH Signal Level when you create a prediction project, as shown in Figure 5-12. l To export multiple maximum reception levels in a Bin point, you need to set the value of TopNSignalLevel when creating a prediction project, as shown in Figure 5-13. This value specifies the number of top records for which the maximum reception level is calculated.

Figure 5-11 Export By Top Signal Level dialog box

Figure 5-12 Indicator selection

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Figure 5-13 Property setting

----End

Follow-up Procedure
You can navigate to the export path to view the exported contents. The exported contents mainly include: l l X-coordinate and Y-coordinate: If no geographic data is imported, the geodetic coordinates are exported. Indicator values: It refers to the values of the selected indicators.

Printing Prediction Results in Batches


After the prediction calculation is complete, you can print the prediction results of counters in batches. The results include prediction chart, geographic data, and base station data.

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Context
The method for printing prediction results in batches for different network systems on the UNet is the same. For details, see Printing Prediction Results in Batches.

5.8.8 Verifying the Feature Database Based on DT Data


The DT data can be used to rectify the coverage prediction group after its calculation is complete in order to improve the origin authentication and simulation degree of feature database. This helps to improve the locating precision. The rectification is not required if DT data is unavailable, and this procedure can be ignored.

Prerequisites
l l l The base station information involving the site, transceiver, and cell has been imported or created. The coverage prediction for DL BCCH Signal Level is complete. The DT data file has been imported.

Context
The method of rectifying the DT feature database in UMTS is similar to that in LTE-FDD. For detailed operations, see 3.8.10 Verifying the Feature Database Based on DT Data.

5.8.9 Exporting the Feature Database Data


You can export the feature database data after the prediction calculation is complete for geographical locating.

Context
For detailed operations of exporting the feature database in GSM, see Export the top N records of the reception levels in each Bin point in Exporting the Detailed GSM Prediction Result by Bin Point.

5.9 GSM Neighboring Cell Planning


After creating BTSs, you need to plan neighboring cells for the cells on the GSM network. You can automatically plan neighboring cells in batches or manually plan neighboring cells for each cell one by one.

5.9.1 Basic Knowledge of Neighboring Cell Planning


This section describes basic knowledge of neighboring cell planning. Proper neighbor relationships ensure that a UE at the edge of a serving cell can be handed over in time and that the handover gain is obtained. This helps to reduce intra-RAT interference, improve the QoS of the network, and ensure stable network performance. The purpose of neighboring cell planning is to properly configure neighbor relationships during the construction or expansion of a network. Planning neighboring cells is mandatory during initial construction of a network. Whether neighboring cells are properly planned has direct impacts on the network performance. Traditionally, neighboring cells are manually planned, which features low work efficiency.
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Currently, neighboring cells are automatically planned, which greatly improves work efficiency, reduces network construction cost, and accelerates network construction. Manual adjustments to the results of automatic planning can be made based on the actual situation. The U-Net provides the function of automatically planning neighboring cells. It supports neighboring cell planning for special scenarios that require repeaters or remote RF units. These features of U-Net ensure reliable planning results. The U-Net determines the neighbor relationships of a serving cell from the following aspects: l l l l If a cell is covered by the same base station as the serving cell, it is considered as a neighboring cell of the serving cell. If a cell in the candidate neighboring cells has the highest score, it is considered as a neighboring cell of the serving cell. The existing neighboring cell relationships are not changed. Whether a cell is configured as a neighboring cell of the serving cell to ensure bidirectional neighbor relationship.

The U-Net provides the following neighboring cell planning algorithms: l l l Topology: algorithm based on topology Prediction: algorithm based on coverage prediction Topology + Prediction: algorithm based on topology and coverage prediction The U-Net determines neighboring cells using the algorithm based on coverage prediction. If the neighbor relationships between the serving cell and some cells cannot be determined according to the algorithm based on coverage prediction, the U-Net determines neighboring cells using the algorithm based on topology. Take UMTS as an example, neighboring cell planning and optimization of U-Net applies to the following scenarios: l l l l 6.9.3 Initial Neighboring Cell Planning for a New Network 6.9.4 Neighboring Cell Replanning for a Partially Expanded Network 6.9.5 Replanning of Neighboring Cells from 2G Network to 3G Network 6.9.6 Checking and Optimizing Neighboring Cell Configuration
NOTE

For CDMA networks, the U-Net supports only the algorithm based on topology for planning neighboring cells.

5.9.2 Importing Neighboring Relations


This section describes how to import neighbor relationships. The U-Net provides the function of importing neighbor relationships, through which the existing neighbor relationships on the network can be imported into the U-Net. This helps to plan neighboring cells according to the actual situation of the network.

Prerequisites
l Base station information has been created or imported, including sites, transceivers, and cells.
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The neighbor relationships to be imported must be collected into a neighbor relationship template. You can obtain the neighbor relationship template by exporting neighbor relationships.

Context
l l l l l Neighbor relationships of an LTE-FDD or LTE-TDD network are matched by the cell name. Neighbor relationships of a GSM network are matched by cell name, LAC, and CI. Neighbor relationships of a UMTS network are matched by cell name, RNC ID, and CI. Neighbor relationships of a CDMA network are matched by MSC ID, BSC ID, BTS ID, Cell ID, Sector ID, ARFCN, and BNDCLS. Neighbor relationships of a multi-mode network must be imported separately by network technology.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose neighbor planning > RAT. Step 3 Choose Import Neighbor Relations from the shortcut menu. The Import Neighbor Relations dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Select Update Blind Handover Flag as required. If Update Blind Handover Flag is selected, blind handover flags of cells are updated when the neighbor relationships are imported.
NOTE

Update Blind Handover Flag is unavailable in GSM/CDMA, and therefore you do not need to select it.

Step 5 Click Browse to choose a neighbor relationship file. Step 6 Click OK. ----End

5.9.3 Planning GSM Neighboring Cells


The U-Net provides the function of automatically planning neighboring cells. You can enable the U-Net to configure neighboring relationships for each cell automatically to reduce handover problems resulting from inappropriate neighboring cell configuration.

Prerequisites
l l Base station information has been created or imported, including sites, transceivers, and cells. In the case of capacity expansion, the existing neighboring relationships have been imported into the U-Net.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab.
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Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Neighbor Planning > GSM. Step 3 Choose Automatic Allocation from the shortcut menu. See Figure 5-14. Figure 5-14 Neighbor Automatic Allocation

Step 4 Set planning parameters in the displayed dialog box. For details about the parameters, see 5.10.2 Parameters for Planning GSM Neighboring Cells. Step 5 Click Run. After the planning is complete, the planning results are displayed in the lower pane of the U-Net main window. For details about the parameters, see 5.10.5 Parameters for Viewing Neighboring Cell Planning Results. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
l Set the mode and colors for displaying neighboring relationships in the map window. 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Neighbor Planning > GSM. Choose Display Option from the shortcut menu. In the displayed dialog box, set the mode and colors for displaying neighboring relationships in the map window. For details about the parameters, see 5.10.3 Parameters for Setting the Display Properties of Neighboring Cells. Click OK.

5. l

Export the other vendors' neighboring cell planning results. 1. 2. 3. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Neighbor Planning > GSM. Right-click and choose Export Other Vendor's Neighbor Relations > file export format from the shortcut menu.

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NOTE

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The file can be saved in .xls or .xlsx format. For the other vendors' neighboring cell planning results, U-Net exports one file for each vendor to the specified directory.

5.9.4 Managing the Result of Neighboring Cell Planning


This section describes how to manage the result of neighboring cell planning. After the planning is complete, you can view, filter, remove the filter effect on, audit, export, and modify neighboring cell relationships of all the cells in the network.

Prerequisites
The neighboring cell planning is complete.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose neighbor planning > RAT.
NOTE

You need to select the check box of RAT in the navigation tree so that neighboring cell relationships can be displayed in the map window.

Step 3 Choose Open Neighbor Relations from the shortcut menu. Step 4 Perform the following operations as required. If you need to... View neighboring cell relationships Then... In the main window of the U-Net, click a cell in the Cell Name area. Alternatively, click a certain cell in the map window, as shown in Figure 5-15. The neighboring cell relationships of the selected cell are displayed in the table in the Cell Name area and in the map window simultaneously. Filter neighboring cells 1. In the Cell Name area of the main window, Choose Filter from the shortcut menu.. 2. Set filter criteria in the displayed dialog box. For details, see 5.10.4 Parameters for Setting the Audit and Filter Conditions Based on Neighboring Relations. 3. Select the box in front of Highlighted on Geographic. The filtered cells are displayed in green in the map window, as shown in Figure 5-16.
NOTE If you select the None option in the Filter dialog box, the color of filtered cells in the map window is cleared.

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If you need to... Remove the filter effect on neighboring cells

Then... Right-click in the Cell Name area of the main window and choose Remove Filter from the shortcut menu. The table in the Cell area switches back to the state when no filter criterion is used, and the color of filtered cells in the map window is cleared.
NOTE Remove Filter is available only after filter criteria are used.

Audit neighboring cell relationships

1. In the Cell Name area of the main window, right-click the table and choose Statistic from the shortcut menu. 2. Set audit conditions in the displayed dialog box. For details, see 5.10.4 Parameters for Setting the Audit and Filter Conditions Based on Neighboring Relations. 3. Click OK. The check report is exported to an XLS file. The exported file contains multiple sheets, and each sheet shows the result that meets certain audit conditions.

Export the result of neighboring cell planning

1. In the Cell Name area of the main window, Choose Export from the shortcut menu.. 2. In the displayed Export Neighbor dialog box, select an export mode. l Incremental Export: Export only the changed neighboring cell relationships. l Full Export: Export all neighboring cell relationships. 3. Click Export.
NOTE In the exported file of neighboring cell relationships, you can refer to the values in the CellPCI and NeighborCellPCI columns for the LTE network when creating MML scripts.

Delete neighboring cell relationships

1. In the Cell Name area of the main window, select a cell whose neighboring cell relationships need to be adjusted. 2. Clear the check box for the selected cell in the Confirm column of the table in the right pane.

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If you need to... Modify neighboring cell relationships

Then... 1. Select a source cell on the map. 2. Hold down Ctrl and click the cells except the source cell to add or delete unidirectional neighboring cell relationships. 3. Hold down Shift and click the cells except the source cell to add or delete bidirectional neighboring cell relationships.
NOTE l If an added or deleted neighboring cell relationship is the same as an existing one, the check box for the selected cell in the Confirm column of the table in the right pane is automatically selected or cleared. l If an added neighboring cell relationship is different from the existing ones, the neighboring cell relationship is added to the neighboring cell list and the value of Cause for the cell is force in the Cause column. l If the number of neighboring cells for a cell reaches the maximum number, a confirmation dialog box is displayed when more neighboring cells are added. You can click Yes to add these neighboring cells, or click No to cancel the operation.

Export the X2 interface relationship data

This function is available only for the LTE-FDD network. The X2 interface relationship data can be exported only after the planning result is applied to each cell. 1. In the navigation tree, choose Neighbor Planning > LTE. 2. Right-click and choose Export X2 Relations from the shortcut menu. The Export X2 Relations dialog box is displayed. 3. In the Area area, set the area whose X2 interface relationship data needs to be exported. 4. Specify an export path. 5. Click OK.

Clear the result of neighboring cell planning

1. Right-click in the Cell Name area of the main window and choose Clear Existed Neighbors from the shortcut menu. 2. In the displayed U-Net dialog box, click Y. The existing result of neighboring cell planning is cleared.
NOTE You can clear the existing result of neighboring cell planning so that the planning of neighboring cells next time will not be affected.

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Figure 5-15 Clicking a cell in the map window

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Figure 5-16 Filter

----End

5.10 Interface Reference to GSM Network Planning


This section describes the interfaces and parameters for GSM network planning by using the UNet.

5.10.1 Parameters for Creating GSM Prediction Groups


This section describes the parameters for creating a prediction group and setting the properties of a prediction group. You can refer to this section when creating a prediction group in the New Prediction Group dialog box or setting the properties of a prediction group in the Group Properties dialog box.

Parameters in the New Prediction Group Dialog Box


Parameter Group Name Description Name of a prediction group. This parameter uniquely identifies a prediction group. The U-Net provides a default name for each created prediction group in this parameter field. Prediction Type Study Selected Prediction type. Prediction counter.

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Parameter Calculate Now

Description Whether to calculate each prediction counter immediately.

Parameters in the GSM Group Properties Dialog Box


Table 5-13 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Name Resolution(m) Handover Threshold(dB) Polygon Cell Edge Coverage Probability Description Indicates the name of a prediction group. Indicates the prediction precision. Indicates the handover area threshold. Indicates the area calculated in prediction. Indicates the probability of cell edge coverage, that is, the probability that the receive signal strength is stronger than the specified threshold at the edge of a cell. Indicates whether shadow fading is considered in the calculation. Indicates whether penetration loss is considered in the calculation.

With Shadow Indoor Coverage

Table 5-14 Parameters on the Condition tab page Parameter Signal Level(dBm) Terminal Service Mobility Description Indicates the receive threshold of the downlink reference signal. Indicates a terminal type. Indicates a service type. Indicates a mobility type.

Table 5-15 Parameters on the Advance tab page Parameter TopNSignalLevel Description Indicates the number of top receive levels to be ranked.

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Parameter TrxDTXFactor

Description Indicates the DTX factor.

5.10.2 Parameters for Planning GSM Neighboring Cells


This section describes the parameters for planning GSM neighboring cells. Table 5-16 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Methods Select Description Indicates a network planning scenario to be selected. l Topology: Plans neighboring cells on the basis of network topology. l Prediction: Plans neighboring cells on the basis of prediction results. This method applies only to outdoor base stations. l Topology + Prediction: Plans neighboring cells on the basis of both the network topology and the prediction results. Max Neighbor Distance (km) Indicates the maximum neighboring cell distance. If the distance between two cells exceeds the specified value, the two cells cannot be planned as neighboring cells. Plan neighboring cells based on the existing neighboring relationships. If this option is not selected, the existing neighboring relationships are deleted and neighboring cells are replanned. Force Co-Site As Neighbor Co-Site Distance(m) Indicates that internal cells are forcibly configured as bidirectional neighboring cells. Configures the two cells as bidirectional neighboring cells when the distance between the two cells is smaller than the value of this parameter. Indicates whether swapped-out cells need to be planned. Indicates whether existing neighboring cells need to be referred.

Planning Neighbor based on existed Neighbors

Swapped out cells taken into planning Reference Existed Neighbors

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Parameter Reference Rules

Description Click Reference Rules and configure reference rules in the displayed window. l Source Cell Frequency Band: Indicates the frequency band to be planned. l Neighbor Cell Frequency Band: Indicates the frequency band of the neighboring cell. l Referenced Cell Frequency Band: Indicates the frequency band of the referenced cell. l Reference Neighbor Cell Frequency Band: Indicates the frequency band of the neighboring cell of the referenced cell.

Azimuth Difference() Reference Site Distance (m) Consider Handover Statistics Planning Weight Handover Statistics Weight Resolution(m)

Indicates the azimuth difference between the cells to be planned and the cells used for reference. Indicates the distance difference between the site of the cells to be planned and the site of the cells used for reference. Indicates whether to consider the handover data and the path for saving the handover data. Indicates the weight of the planning result upon neighboring cell ranking. Indicates the weight of the handover data upon neighboring cell ranking. Indicates the precision for the calculation. You can set this parameter in the Prediction Parameter Setting window after you click Setting when the network planning scenario is set to Prediction or Topology + Prediction.

Handover Area Percent (%)

Indicates the handover area proportion. You can set this parameter in the Prediction Parameter Setting window after you click Setting when the network planning scenario is set to Prediction or Topology + Prediction. Indicates whether shadow fading is considered in the calculation. You can set this parameter in the Prediction Parameter Setting window after you click Setting when the network planning scenario is set to Prediction or Topology + Prediction.

Compute Shadowing

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Parameter Cell Edge Coverage Probability(%)

Description Indicates the probability of the cell edge coverage. This parameter is valid only when shadow fading is considered. The value of this parameter is directly proportional to the value of shadowing fading. You can set this parameter in the Prediction Parameter Setting window after you click Setting when the network planning scenario is set to Prediction or Topology + Prediction.
NOTE This parameter is valid when you select Compute Shadowing.

Compute Indoor Loss

Indicates whether the penetration loss is considered in the calculation. You can set this parameter in the Prediction Parameter Setting window after you click Setting when the network planning scenario is set to Prediction or Topology + Prediction.

Min Signal Level(dBm)

Indicates the minimum signal receive level. You can set this parameter in the Prediction Parameter Setting window after you click Setting when the network planning scenario is set to Prediction or Topology + Prediction.

Handover Threshold(dB)

Indicates the handover area threshold. You can set this parameter in the Prediction Parameter Setting window after you click Setting when the network planning scenario is set to Prediction or Topology + Prediction.

Automatic generate Planning Cells Area

Automatically generates cells to be planned.


NOTE You can select new cells and related cells as cells to be planned.

Indicates the planning area. l You can select all the cells in an area or click Filter to select only the cells to be planned in the area. l In the Filter dialog box, you can specify the contents to be found, set the search direction, and set whether to match cases.

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Table 5-17 Parameters on the Intra-Technology tab page Parameter Force Symmetry Description Indicates whether to forcibly configure unidirectional neighboring cells as bidirectional neighboring cells. If this option is selected during network capacity expansion, the unidirectional neighboring cells are configured as bidirectional neighboring cells, adjusting the original neighbor relationship table. New Cell-Indoor Cell-Max Outdoor Neighbor Number New Cell-Indoor Cell-Max Indoor Neighbor Number New Cell-Outdoor Cell-Max Outdoor Neighbor Number New Cell-Outdoor Cell-Max Indoor Neighbor Number Existed Cell-Indoor Cell-Max Outdoor Neighbor Number Existed Cell-Indoor Cell-Max Indoor Neighbor Number Existed Cell-Outdoor CellMax Outdoor Neighbor Number Existed Cell-Outdoor CellMax Indoor Neighbor Number Indicates the maximum number of outdoor neighboring cells planned for a newly established indoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of indoor neighboring cells planned for a newly established indoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of outdoor neighboring cells planned for a newly established outdoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of indoor neighboring cells planned for a newly established outdoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of outdoor neighboring cells planned for an existing indoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of indoor neighboring cells planned for an existing indoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of outdoor neighboring cells planned for an existing outdoor cell. Indicates the maximum number of indoor neighboring cells planned for an existing outdoor cell.

Table 5-18 Parameters on the Inter-RAT tab page (available only in multi-mode neighboring cell planning) Parameter Total Max Number ARFCN Description Indicates the maximum number of neighboring cells. Indicates the UTRA absolute radio frequency channel number (UARFCN) to be handed over when the RAT is switched to UMTS. Indicates the minimum signal receive level. Indicates the handover area threshold.

Min Signal Level(dBm) Handover Threshold(dB)

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5.10.3 Parameters for Setting the Display Properties of Neighboring Cells


This section describes the parameters for setting the display properties of neighboring cells. Table 5-19 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Display Links Display Cell Color Fit Neighbor Cell Visible Description Identifies neighbor relationships by using lines. Identifies neighbor relationships in cell colors. Displays the neighbor relationships of a cell on the map after you select the cell in the neighbor relationship table. Displays the neighboring cells that are available on the live network but are currently deleted from the U-Net. Sets the color of the source cell. Displays intra-frequency neighboring cells. Displays inter-frequency neighboring cells. Displays inter-RAT neighboring cells. Displays intra-RAT neighboring cells.

Display Deleted Existed Neighbor Selected Cell Color Intra Frequency Neighbors Inter Frequency Neighbors Inter-RAT Neighbors Intra Technology Neighbors

Table 5-20 Parameters on the Neighbor Display Color tab page Legend Confirm Intra Frequency Confirm Inter Frequency Confirm Inter-RAT Deleted Intra Frequency Description Sets the display color of unidirectional intra-frequency neighboring cells on the map. Sets the display color of unidirectional inter-frequency neighboring cells on the map. Sets the display color of unidirectional inter-RAT neighboring cells on the map. Sets the display color of unidirectional intra-frequency neighboring cells that are deleted from the live network on the map. Sets the display color of unidirectional inter-frequency neighboring cells that are deleted from the live network on the map. Sets the display color of unidirectional inter-RAT neighboring cells that are deleted from the live network on the map.

Deleted Inter Frequency

Deleted Iner-RAT

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Legend Add To Legend Transparency

Description Displays the neighbor relationships on the map. Sets the transparency of the color.

NOTE

The neighboring cell types displayed on the U-Net may be different in different network systems. You can view the meaning of the displayed neighboring cell type.

5.10.4 Parameters for Setting the Audit and Filter Conditions Based on Neighboring Relations
This section describes the parameters for setting the conditions for checking neighbor relationships and filtering neighboring cells. Table 5-21 Parameter for setting the conditions for checking neighbor relationships and filtering neighboring cells Parameter Source Cell Intra-Frequency Inter-Frequency Intra-Technology Inter-RAT Average No. of Neighbors Empty List Missing Co-Site Missing Symmetry List > No: Percentage of Reference Neighbors Same PCI With Deleted Existed Neighbor None Description Selects the source cell. Filters the intra-frequency neighboring cells. Filters the inter-frequency neighboring cells. Filters the intra-RAT neighboring cells. Filters the inter-RAT neighboring cells. Indicates the average number of neighboring cells. Filters the unconfigured neighboring cells. Filters the neighboring cells that belong to different sites. Filters the unconfigured bidirectional neighboring cells. Filters the neighboring cells whose number of neighboring cells is greater than the specified number. Indicates the percentage of UMTS cells that share neighbor relationships with the GSM cells at the same site as the UMTS cells. Filters the neighboring cells that use the same PCI. This parameter is available only for the LTE network. Collects cells whose existing neighboring cells have been deleted. Sets no filter criterion.

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Parameter Highlighted on Geographic Interface

Description Determines whether to highlight filtered cells on the map.

This table provides all the parameters for checking neighbor relationships and filtering neighboring cells in each network system. Some parameters may be available only in a specific network system. Check the parameter description based on site conditions.

5.10.5 Parameters for Viewing Neighboring Cell Planning Results


This section describes the parameters for viewing neighbor relationships. You can refer to this section when viewing neighboring cell planning results after the neighboring cell planning is complete. Table 5-22 Tab page description Parameter Intra-Technology Inter-RAT Description Indicates intra-technology neighboring cells. Indicates inter-RAT neighboring cells.

The tab page name varies according to the network technology. Read the description on the actual tab page. Table 5-23 Parameter description Parameter Neighbor Name Frequency Band Cause Description Indicates the name of a neighboring cell. Indicates a frequency band. Indicates the reason for configuring a cell as the neighboring cell of the serving cell. l existed: Indicates the existing neighbor relationships on the network. l planned: Indicates the planned neighbor relationships. l force: Indicates the neighbor relationships manually added by users. l inherited: Indicates the inherited neighbor relationships. Confirm Indicates whether a cell is configured as the neighboring cell of the serving cell. If the option is selected, the cell is configured as the neighboring cell of the serving cell. If the option is not selected, the cell is not configured as the neighboring cell of the serving cell.

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5.11 TSC Planning


This section describes the training sequence code (TSC) planning. After a base station is created, you can plan the TSCs at a GSM site. You can use the U-Net to perform common, IBCA-based, and VAMOS-based TSC planning. The VAMOS feature increases the GSM network capacity when the network cannot be expanded due to restricted frequency. The IBCA feature improves voice quality and network performance without new hardware. In the VAMOS-based TSC planning, orthogonal TSCs are used to multiplex two subscribers to the same timeslot to increase voice capacity, but the voice quality decreases accordingly. The orthogonal TSCs need to be configured in pair to avoid intra-frequency interference when two VAMOS subscribers are using the same timeslot of the same frequency. In the IBCA-based TSC planning, the IBCA algorithm is used to search interference calls and allocate the channels with the minimum interference to subscribers. In this way, network performance can be improved. The IBCA feature improves channel quality by reducing the interference traffic. Therefore, TSCs need to be configured to ensure the minimum of interference traffic of the same TSC station. Manual configuration of TSCs is complicated. In this case, the U-Net is required.

5.11.1 Planning TSC


This section describes how to perform TSC planning for the allocation of TSCs in cells and at sites in GSM networks. The planning result can be used for the VAMOS and IBCA features.

Prerequisites
Base station information has been created and imported, including sites, transceivers, and cells.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 On the displayed Operation tab page, click GSM TSC Planning in the navigation tree. Step 3 Right-click GSM TSC Planning and choose Automatic Allocation from the shortcut menu, as shown in Figure 5-17.

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Figure 5-17 Automatic Allocation

Step 4 Set planning parameters in the displayed dialog box. For details, see 5.12.1 Parameters for TSC Planning. Step 5 Click Run. l You can right-click GSM TSC Planning on the Operation tab page and choose Stop from the shortcut menu to stop the planning of TSCs. l The planning result is displayed in the lower area in the main window of the U-Net. For details, see 5.12.2 Parameters for Viewing the TSC Planning Result. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
l Set the color of cells displayed in the map window for different TSC planning modes. 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. On the displayed Operation tab page, click GSM TSC Planning in the navigation tree. Right-click TSC Planning and choose GSM Display Option from the shortcut menu. In the displayed TSC Display Options dialog box, set the color of cells displayed in the map window for different TSC planning modes. For details, see 5.12.5 Parameters for Setting the TSC Display Effect. Click OK.

5.

5.11.2 Managing the TSC Planning Result


This section describes how to manage the TSC planning result. After the TSC planning is complete, you can apply and export the planning result.

Prerequisites
The TSC planning is complete.

Procedure
Step 1 Click the Operation tab in the Explorer window.
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Step 2 On the displayed Operation tab page, select GSM TSC Planning in the navigation tree. Step 3 Right-click GSM TSC Planning and choose Open Table from the shortcut menu, as shown in Figure 5-18. Figure 5-18 Open TSC Table

Step 4 Perform the following operations as required. If you need to... Export the TSC planning result Then... 1. Right-click in the TSC Planning Display window and choose Export from the shortcut menu. 2. Set parameters in the displayed Data Export dialog box. For details, see Parameters in the Data Export Dialog Box. 3. Click Export. 4. Set the file format and file name and specify the saving path. Then, click Save. After the data is exported successfully, you can open it to view and modify the data. Enable the map window and the planning result table to display the TSC planning result simultaneously 1. In the TSC Planning Display window, click a row heading. Alternatively, click a certain cell in the map window. 2. Information about the selected cell is displayed in the map window and the planning result table in the right pane of the TSC Planning Display window simultaneously, as shown in Figure 5-19.
NOTE You need to select GSM TSC Planning in the navigation tree so that the selected cell can be displayed in the map window.

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If you need to... Enable the U-Net to display or hide certain columns

Then... 1. In the right pane of the TSC Planning Display window, right-click a certain table heading and choose Display Columns from the shortcut menu. 2. In the displayed Columns to be displayed dialog box, select or clear the check boxes of columns to be displayed or hidden.
NOTE You can right-click a certain table heading in the TSC Planning Display window and choose Hide Columns from the shortcut menu to hide the selected column.

Figure 5-19 Display

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----End

5.11.3 IBCA Interference Neighboring Cell Planning


This section describes how to perform IBCA interference neighboring cell planning. The IBCA feature improves voice quality and network performance in GSM networks. The configuration data of interference neighboring cells is required for the IBCA feature, which can be obtained after the interference neighboring cell planning is complete.

Prerequisites
l l Base station information has been created and imported, including sites, transceivers, and cells. The parameters MA and MAIO Plan have been configured for the cells.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 On the displayed Operation tab page, select GSM IBCA Interference Neighbor in the navigation tree. Step 3 Right-click GSM IBCA Interference Neighbor and choose Automatic Allocation from the shortcut menu, as shown in Figure 5-20. Figure 5-20 Automatic Allocation

Step 4 Set planning parameters in the displayed dialog box. For details, see 5.12.3 Parameters for IBCA Interference Neighboring Cell Planning. Step 5 Click Run. l You can right-click GSM IBCA Interference Neighbor on the Operation tab page and choose Stop from the shortcut menu to stop the planning of IBCA interference neighboring cells. l The planning result is displayed in the lower area in the main window of the U-Net. For details, see 5.12.4 Parameters for Viewing the Result of IBCA Interference Neighboring Cell Planning. ----End
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5.11.4 Managing the Result of IBCA Interference Neighboring Cell Planning


This section describes how to manage the result of IBCA interference neighboring cell planning. After the planning is complete, you can export the planning result.

Prerequisites
The planning of IBCA interference neighboring cells is complete.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 On the displayed Operation tab page, select GSM IBCA Interference Neighbor in the navigation tree.
NOTE

You need to select GSM IBCA Interference Neighbor so that the IBCA interference neighboring cell relationships can be displayed in the map window.

Step 3 Right-click IBCA Interference Neighbor and choose Open Table from the shortcut menu. The IBCA Interference Neighbor window is displayed. Step 4 Perform the following operations as required. If... You want to export the result of IBCA interference neighboring cell planning Then... 1. In the IBCA Interference Neighbor window, right-click in the left pane and choose Export from the shortcut menu, as shown in Figure 5-21. 2. Set parameters in the displayed Data Export dialog box. For details, see Parameters in the Data Export Dialog Box. 3. Click Export. 4. Set the file format and file name and specify the saving path. Then, click Save. After the data is exported to a file, you can open it to view and modify the data. You want to enable the map window to display the result of IBCA interference neighboring cell planning together with that in the planning result table 1. In the IBCA Interference Neighbor window, click a cell in the left pane. Alternatively, click a certain cell in the map window. 2. In the right pane of the IBCA Interference Neighbor window, the interference neighboring cells of the selected cell is displayed in the map window and the planning result table at the same time, as shown in Figure 5-22.
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Figure 5-21 Export

Figure 5-22 IBCA Interference Neighbor

----End

5.12 Interface Reference to TSC Parameter Planning


5.12.1 Parameters for TSC Planning
This section describes the parameters used for TSC planning in GSM networks. You can refer to this section when setting planning parameters in the TSC Parameter Setting dialog box.
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Parameter Planning on

Description Network planning scenario l Common asynchronous network: TSC planning is performed on a common asynchronous network. l IBCA network: TSC planning is performed on an IBCA network. l VAMOS asynchronous network: TSC planning is performed on a VAMOS asynchronous network. l VAMOS synchronization network: TSC planning is performed on a VAMOS synchronization network.

Planning based on

l Site: TSC planning is performed based on sites. l Cell: TSC planning is performed based on cells.

Planning TSC based on existed TSC Data

If this item is selected, TSC planning is performed based on existing TSCs. l Interference Matrix Path: directory of the interference matrix file to be imported.
NOTE Set parameters in the Data Import dialog box. For details, see Parameters in the Data Import Dialog Box.

l The count of interference: maximum number of interference neighboring cells. The value ranges from 1 to 10. Area Planning area You can select all the cells in an area or click Filter and select only the cells to be planned in the area. If you select Full Map, all the cells on the map are to be planned. You can set filter criteria such as Direction and Match case in the Filter dialog box.

5.12.2 Parameters for Viewing the TSC Planning Result


This section describes the parameters for viewing the TSC planning result. You can refer to this section when viewing the TSC planning result in the TSC Planning Display area after the TSC planning is complete.

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Parameter Site Name Site ID Cell Name CI Existed TSC Existed VamosMainTSC Existed VamosSubTSC Existed TSC Group Suggest TSC

Description Name of a site. ID of a site. Name of a cell. ID of a cell. Existing TSC. Existing VAMOS main TSC. Existing VAMOS sub-TSC. Existing VAMOS TSC group. Suggested TSC, that is, the TSC planning result. Suggest indicates that the obtained data after the TSC planning has not been applied to NEs.

Suggest VamosMainTSC Suggest VamosSubTSC Suggest TSC Group Confirm TSC

Obtained VAMOS main TSC after the planning. Obtained VAMOS sub-TSC after the planning. Obtained VAMOS TSC group after the planning. Confirmed TSC. By default, the value of Confirm TSC is the same as that of Suggest TSC. You can change the value manually. You submit the value of Confirm TSC as the TSC planning result.

Confirm VamosMainTSC Confirm VamosSubTSC Confirm TSC Group

Confirmed VAMOS main TSC. Confirmed VAMOS sub-TSC. Confirmed VAMOS TSC group.

5.12.3 Parameters for IBCA Interference Neighboring Cell Planning


The section describes the parameters used for IBCA interference neighboring cell planning in GSM networks. You can refer to this section when setting planning parameters in the IBCA Interference Neighbor dialog box.

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Parameter Data

Description l Interference Matrix Path: directory of the interference matrix file to be imported.
NOTE Set planning parameters in the Data Import dialog box. For details, see Parameters in the Data Import Dialog Box.

l The count of interference: maximum number of interference neighboring cells. The value ranges from 1 to 64. Interference sort strategy Mode for ranking interference neighboring cells. l Interferenced traffic to others: ranking interference neighboring cells by interference traffic of other cells caused by an interference neighboring cell. l Interferenced traffic by others: ranking interference neighboring cells by interference traffic of an interference neighboring cell caused by other cells. l Total Interference: Interference neighboring cells are ranked based on the sum of the interference traffic of other cells caused by an interference neighboring cell and the interference traffic of an interference neighboring cell caused by other cells. Area Planning area. You can select all the cells in an area or click Filter and select only the cells to be planned in the area. If you select Full Map, all the cells on the map are to be planned. You can set filter criteria such as Direction and Match case in the Filter dialog box.

5.12.4 Parameters for Viewing the Result of IBCA Interference Neighboring Cell Planning
This section describes the parameters in the IBCA Interference Neighbor window. You can refer to this section when viewing the result of IBCA interference neighboring cell planning. Parameter Cell Name Description Name of an interference neighboring cell.

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Parameter CI Co Traffic Adj Traffic Interference Relation

Description ID of a cell. Co-frequency interference traffic. Adjacent frequency interference traffic. Interference relationship. This parameter is used to determine cofrequency and adjacent frequency interference, co-frequency interference, and adjacent frequency interference based on interference probability.

5.12.5 Parameters for Setting the TSC Display Effect


This section describes the parameters used for setting the TSC display effect in the TSC Display Options dialog box. Parameter TSC Vamos TSC Selected Cell Color Co-TSCCell Color Description Indicates the rendering effect for common TSCs. Indicates the rendering effect for the VAMOS TSCs. Indicates the color of the source cell. Indicates the color of cells with the same TSC value as that of the source cell in the TSC planning. Indicates the color of cells with the value of VamosMainTSC being the same as that of VamosMainTSC in the source cell in the VAMOS-based TSC planning. Indicates the color of cells with the value of VamosMainTSC being the same as that of VamosSubTSC in the source cell in the VAMOS-based TSC planning.

Co-TSCPair Cell

Related-TSC Cell

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6
About This Chapter

UMTS Network Planning

The U-Net supports the planning of the UMTS network. You can model the actual network environment by importing geographic data, assigning propagation models, and creating base stations based on the imported geographic data. Then, you can plan the neighboring cells and scrambling codes, predict the network coverage range, and evaluate the network capacity to meet you network planning requirements. 6.1 Process of UMTS Network Planning This section describes the process of UMTS network planning. You can refer to this section when planning a UMTS network by using the U-Net. 6.2 Creating a Project This section describes how to create a project. You can select different project templates for different network systems. The U-Net creates the project based on the selected template. Currently, the U-Net provides project templates for the following network systems: GSM, UMTS, CDMA, LTE-FDD, and LTE-TDD. 6.3 Importing Geographic Data You can import geographic data in various vector and grid formats and set coordinate systems. You can also add points, lines, or polygons to create vector objects.The method for importing geographic data for different network systems to the U-Net is the same. 6.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands The U-Net enables you to calculate path loss between a transmitter and a receiver based on a propagation model. Then you can use the calculated path loss matrix to perform prediction.The method for setting propagation models and frequency bands for different network systems on the U-Net is the same. 6.5 Adding a Device You can import or create antennas, create TMAs, feeders, or site equipment.The method for creating site equipment for different network systems on the U-Net is the same. 6.6 Setting UMTS Traffic Parameters Traffic parameters refer to the parameters related to the user type, mobility, terminal, service, environment, MCS, and receiving devices. They are the basic data related to user distribution. Traffic parameters can be used to generate a specific traffic map. 6.7 Setting UMTS NE Parameters
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You can import existing base station data to create base stations or use a base station template to automatically create base stations. You can also create sites, transmitters, or repeaters separately. 6.8 UMTS Prediction By calculating counters, U-Net can estimate network performance, such as cell coverage and channel quality. 6.9 Planning UMTS Neighboring Cells After creating NodeBs, you need to plan neighboring cells for the cells on the UMTS network. You can automatically plan neighboring cells in batches or manually plan neighboring cells for each cell one by one. 6.10 UMTS Scrambling Code Planning This section describes UMTS scrambling code planning. Scrambling codes used for differentiating cells and users are important resources in the UMTS system. Scrambling code planning of the U-Net supports multiple grouping functions such as horizontal grouping and vertical grouping. In addition, the scrambling code planning is applicable to multiple scenarios such as scrambling code check and network deployment. 6.11 UMTS Measurement Reports Analysis This chapter describes how to analyze UMTS measurement reports by creating measurement report analysis groups. The U-Net geographically displays each counter, helping users analyze the live network. 6.12 UMTS Network Capacity Expansion Analysis Using the policy of network capacity expansion by splitting sectors, the U-Net can expand the UMTS network capacity to meet increasing capacity requirements. 6.13 Interface Reference to UMTS Network Planning This section describes the interfaces and parameters for UMTS network planning by using the U-Net.

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6.1 Process of UMTS Network Planning


This section describes the process of UMTS network planning. You can refer to this section when planning a UMTS network by using the U-Net. Figure 6-1 shows the process of UMTS network planning. Figure 6-1 Process of UMTS network planning

Table 6-1 describes the detailed information about Figure 6-1. Table 6-1 Description of the UMTS network planning process No. 1
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Procedure Creating a project

Description For details, see 3.2 Creating a Project.


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No. 2

Procedure Importing geographic data

Description You can import geographic data in various vector and grid formats and set coordinate systems. You can also add points, lines, or polygons to create vector objects.The method for importing geographic data for different network systems to the U-Net is the same.For details, see 3.3 Importing Geographic Data. The U-Net enables you to calculate path loss between a transmitter and a receiver based on a propagation model. Then you can use the calculated path loss matrix to perform prediction.The method for setting propagation models and frequency bands for different network systems on the U-Net is the same.For details, see 3.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands. You can import or create antennas, create TMAs, feeders, or site equipment.The method for creating site equipment for different network systems on the U-Net is the same.For details, see 3.5 Adding a Device. Set traffic parameters related to terminals and services, which are to be used during prediction.For details, see 6.6 Setting UMTS Traffic Parameters. You can import existing base station data to create base stations or use a base station template to automatically create base stations. You can also create sites, transmitters, or repeaters separately.For details, see 6.7 Setting UMTS NE Parameters. For details, see 3.8.2 Calculating Path Loss. For details, see 6.10 UMTS Scrambling Code Planning and 6.9 Planning UMTS Neighboring Cells. The planning results can be applied to NEs. For details, see 6.12 UMTS Network Capacity Expansion Analysis and 6.11 UMTS Measurement Reports Analysis.

Managing propagation models and bands

Adding a device

Setting traffic parameters Setting NE parameters

7 8

Calculating the path loss Planning scrambling codes/ Planning neighboring cells Analyzing Network Capacity Expansion/ Analyzing Measurement Reports Predicting network performance Exporting network planning results

10 11

For details, see 6.8 UMTS Prediction. For details, see Prediction and Neighboring Cell Planning.

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6.2 Creating a Project


This section describes how to create a project. You can select different project templates for different network systems. The U-Net creates the project based on the selected template. Currently, the U-Net provides project templates for the following network systems: GSM, UMTS, CDMA, LTE-FDD, and LTE-TDD.

Context
l l Only one project can run on the U-Net at a time. In normal cases, one project corresponds to the network planning for an area or a city. One U-Net project may correspond to the network planning of multiple network systems. For example, a U-Net project can be created for the planning of a GSM/UMTS hybrid network.

Procedure
Step 1 Choose File > New. The Project Templates dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 6-2. Figure 6-2 Project Templates

Step 2 Select a project template. l Different network systems correspond to different project templates. You need to select an appropriate project template based on the actual network system. l If multiple network systems are involved, you need to select the required templates. For example, If you need to create a project for a GSM/UMTS hybrid network, you need to select project templates for both the GSM and the UMTS networks. l LTE-TDD and CDMA do not support hybrid networking with other network systems. Step 3 Click OK. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
l Save a project file. Choose File > Save or click file.
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You can save project files in .ipl format: .ipl or .ipl (with all data). In the former format, only NE's parameter planning configuration for the project is saved; in the latter format, all the planning calculation results are saved. The former format is selected by default. The U-Net automatically creates an .ipl project file and a project name.losses folder for saving the information about the path loss matrix and calculation results of capacity simulation, coverage prediction, and neighboring cell planning in the specified save path.
NOTE

Based on the save format, the U-Net determines whether to add the calculation result data in the project name.losses path to the project file in .ipl format.

Open an existing project file. Choose File > Open to open an existing .ipl project file.
NOTE

Alternatively, double-click an .ipl project file to start and open the project.

6.3 Importing Geographic Data


You can import geographic data in various vector and grid formats and set coordinate systems. You can also add points, lines, or polygons to create vector objects.The method for importing geographic data for different network systems to the U-Net is the same.

Context
The method for importing geographic data for different network systems to the U-Net is the same. For details, see 3.3 Importing Geographic Data.

6.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands


The U-Net enables you to calculate path loss between a transmitter and a receiver based on a propagation model. Then you can use the calculated path loss matrix to perform prediction.The method for setting propagation models and frequency bands for different network systems on the U-Net is the same.

Context
The method for setting propagation models and frequency bands for different network systems on the U-Net is the same. For details, see 3.4 Setting Propagation Models and Bands. For details about the parameters for setting the frequency band information, see Parameters for Setting Bands.

6.5 Adding a Device


You can import or create antennas, create TMAs, feeders, or site equipment.The method for creating site equipment for different network systems on the U-Net is the same.

Context
The method for creating site equipment for different network systems on the U-Net is the same. For details, see 3.5 Adding a Device.
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6.6 Setting UMTS Traffic Parameters


Traffic parameters refer to the parameters related to the user type, mobility, terminal, service, environment, MCS, and receiving devices. They are the basic data related to user distribution. Traffic parameters can be used to generate a specific traffic map.

6.6.1 Setting MIMO Types


You can modify the parameters of existing MIMO types. If the existing MIMO types do not meet the requirements, you can create MIMO types.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Services > UMTS. Step 3 Right-click Traffic Parameters > Services > UMTS and choose MIMO from the shortcut menu, as shown in Figure 6-3. The MIMO Configuration dialog box is displayed. Figure 6-3 MIMO

Step 4 Modify the parameters of an existing MIMO type. Alternatively, click a blank line marked with an asterisk (*) in the dialog box to set parameters for the new MIMO type. For detailed description of parameters of MIMO types, see Table 6-2.
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Table 6-2 Parameters for setting MIMO types Parameter Name TX_ANTENNAS RX_ANTENNAS SM_SUPPORTED SM_GAIN(dB) Meaning Indicates the name of the MIMO. Indicates the number of transmit antennas. Indicates the number of receive antennas. Indicates whether space division multiplexing is supported. Indicates the MIMO gain. The SM_GAIN(dB) takes effect only after the SM_SUPPORTED is selected.

Step 5 Click ----End

to close MIMO Configuration.

6.6.2 Setting UMTS Service Types


Set the service type such as the voice service and data service. You can modify the parameters of existing service types. If the existing service types do not meet the requirements, you can create service types.

Context
The U-Net provides six default UMTS service types: UMTSVideo Conferencing, UMTSVoice, UMTSHSDPA, UMTSHSUPA, UMTSMobile Internet Access, and UMTSMultimedia Messaging Service.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 Set service type parameters. If you need to... Create a service type Then... 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Services > UMTS. 2. Choose New from the shortcut menu. See Figure 6-4. 3. Set parameters for the new service type by referring to Table 6-3. Modify an existing service type 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Services > UMTS > An existing service type. 2. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. 3. Modify parameters for the existing service type by referring to Table 6-3.

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Figure 6-4 New

Table 6-3 Parameters for setting UMTS services Parameter Name Body Loss Priority Meaning Indicates the name of a service type. Indicates the loss due to the human body. Indicates the weighting factor based on the scheduled services. The weighting factor is assigned depending on the service priority. The value 1 indicates the lowest priority. Type Indicates a service type. l CSServie: CS services. l PSServie: PS services. Is VOIP Indicates whether the voice over IP (VoIP) is used. This parameter is available only for the PS services. R99 Bearer Soft Handoff Allowed HSDPA HSUPA Indicates the R99 bearer table assigned to a service type. Indicates whether a soft handoff is supported. Indicates whether the HSDPA service is supported. Indicates whether the HSUPA service is supported.

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Parameter Activity

Meaning Indicates the uplink/downlink activation factor. This parameter is required for only voice services. l Uplink: uplink activation factor. The value ranges from 0 to 1. l Downlink: downlink activation factor. The value ranges from 0 to 1.

FER(%)

Indicates the frame error rate on the uplink and downlink. This parameter is available only for the CS services.

Max Throughput(kbit/s)

Indicates the maximum uplink/downlink throughput. l Uplink: maximum uplink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 107. l Downlink: maximum downlink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 107.
NOTE Minimum throughput Average throughput Maximum throughput

Min Throughput(kbit/s)

Indicates the minimum uplink/downlink throughput. l Uplink: minimum uplink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 107. l Downlink: minimum downlink throughput. The value ranges from 0 to 107.
NOTE Minimum throughput Average throughput Maximum throughput

Average Throughput(kbit/ s)

Indicates the average uplink/downlink throughput. l Uplink: average uplink throughput. l Downlink: average downlink throughput.
NOTE Minimum throughput Average throughput Maximum throughput

Transmission Efficiency

Indicates the uplink/downlink transmission rate. l Uplink: uplink transmission rate. The value ranges from 0 to 1. l Downlink: downlink transmission rate. The value ranges from 0 to 1.

IBLER(%) Offset(kbit/s)

Indicates the block error rate (BLER). The value ranges from 0 to 100. Indicates the fixed uplink/downlink overhead, which is the length added to an encapsulated packet during the transmission at the MAC or RLC layer. l Uplink: fixed uplink overhead. The value ranges from 0 to 107. l Downlink: fixed downlink overhead. The value ranges from 0 to 107.

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Step 3 Click OK. ----End

6.6.3 Setting UMTS Receivers


You can modify the parameters of existing receiver types. If the existing receiver types do not meet the requirements, you can create receiver types.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > UMTS. Step 3 Choose Reception Equipment from the shortcut menu. Step 4 Set the name of a receiver. If you need to... Create a receiver type. Then... Enter the name of a new receiver in a blank line (marked with *) in the dialog box. Select Bearer Selection Table. Go to Step 5.

Modify an existing receiver type.

Step 5 Double-click the heading of the receiver and set properties in the displayed dialog box. For detailed description of parameters, see Table 6-4. Step 6 Click OK. Table 6-4 Parameters for setting UMTS receivers Parameter Name Bearer Selection Table Mobility Meaning Indicates the name of a receiver. Indicates the bearer table. Indicates the mobility type of a receiver. For detailed description of parameters, see 3.6.7 Setting Mobility Types. MIMO IBLER(%) Retransmission Gain(dB) Indicates the efficiency of adjusting codes by the receiver. Indicates the block error rate (BLER). The value ranges from 0 to 100. Indicates the retransmission gain.

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Parameter Demodulation

Meaning l Indicates the demodulation threshold of PS services if this parameter is located in the PSService area. You can double-click the related cell to set this parameter. l Indicates the demodulation threshold of CS services if this parameter is located in the CSService area. You can double-click the related cell to set this parameter.

Bearer Index Ec/Nt(dB)

Indicates the index of the HSDPA or HSUPA bearer table. Indicates the demodulation threshold.

----End

6.6.4 Setting UMTS Terminal Types


Set the terminal types used when a service is performed. You can modify the parameters of existing terminal types. If the existing terminal types do not meet the requirements, you can create terminal types.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 Set parameters of the terminal type. If you need to... Then...

Create a terminal 1. In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > UMTS. type 2. Choose New from the shortcut menu. 3. Set parameters for the new terminal type by referring to Table 6-5. Modify an 1. Choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > UMTS > Existing existing terminal Terminal from the navigation tree. type 2. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. 3. Modify parameters for the existing terminal type by referring to Table 6-5.

Table 6-5 Parameters for setting UMTS terminal types Parameter Name Min Tx Power(dBm) Max Tx Power(dBm)
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Meaning Indicates the name of a terminal type. Indicates the minimum transmit power of a terminal. Indicates the maximum transmit power of a terminal.
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Parameter Gain(dBi) Cable Loss(dB) Compressed Mode Noise Figure(dB) Attenuation(dB) Active Set Size Rake Factor(DL) Reception Equipment

Meaning Indicates the antenna gain. Indicates the feeder loss of a terminal. Indicates whether to use the compressed mode. Indicates the noise figure of a terminal. Indicates the signal attenuation of a terminal. Indicates the threshold for the number of cells in an active set. The value ranges from 1 to 6. Indicates the efficiency factor of the Rake receiver on the downlink. The value ranges from -32768 to 32768. Indicates the type of the receiver for a terminal. For details, see 3.6.3 Setting LTE-FDD Receivers.

Frequency Band Technology HSDPA UE Category

Indicates the frequency band. Indicates the technologies supported by a terminal. Indicates the UE category supported by the HSDPA. The value range is relevant to the value range of HSDPA UE Category. Indicates the UE category supported by the HSUPA. The value range is relevant to the value range of HSUPA UE Category. Indicates whether the space division multiplexing is supported on the downlink. Indicates whether the space division multiplexing is supported on the uplink. Indicates the number of antennas at the receiver for a terminal. Indicates the number of antennas at the transmitter for a terminal.

HSUPA UE Category

Space Multiplexing Supported (DL) Space Multiplexing Supported (UL) Number of Reception Antennas Number of Transmission Antennas

----End

6.6.5 Setting Mobility Types


This section describes how to set mobility types for terminals. You can modify the parameters of existing mobility types, such as the velocity. If the existing mobility types do not meet the requirements, you can create mobility types.

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Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net sets mobility types in the same way. For details, see 3.6.7 Setting Mobility Types.

6.6.6 Setting the HSUPA Bearer Table


The U-Net needs to access the HSUPA bearer table in UMTS prediction. Therefore, before the prediction, you must set the HSUPA bearer table.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Services > UMTS. Step 3 Right-click and choose HSUPA Bearer from the shortcut menu. The HSUPA Bearer Table window is displayed. Step 4 Set parameters by referring to Table 6-6. Table 6-6 Description of the parameters in the HSUPA bearer table Parameter Radio Bearer Index TTI Duration (ms) Number of EDPDCH codes Min Spreading Factor Number of CEs Used Transport Block Size (bits) RLC Peak Rate (bps) Highest modulation Description Indicates the index of the HSUPA bearer table. Its value is greater than 0. Indicates the duration of TTI scheduling. Its value is either 10 ms or 2 ms. Indicates the number of traffic channel codes. The value ranges from 1 to 32767. Indicates the minimum spreading factor. The value ranges from 2 to 32767. Indicates the total CEs of the bearer service. Indicates the size of a transported block at the physical layer. Indicates the peak rate at the RLC layer. Indicates a modulation mode.

Step 5 Click ----End

to close the table.

6.6.7 Setting the HSDPA Bearer Table


The U-Net needs to access the HSDPA bearer table in UMTS prediction. Therefore, before the prediction, you must set the HSDPA bearer table.
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Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Services > UMTS. Step 3 Right-click and choose HSDPA Bearer from the shortcut menu. The HSDPA Bearer Table window is displayed. Step 4 Set parameters by referring to Table 6-7. Table 6-7 Description of the parameters in the HSDPA bearer table Parameter Index CQI Transport Block Size (bits) Number of Used HSPDSCH Channels RLC Peak Rate (bps) Highest Modulation Description Indicates the index. Indicates the channel quality indicator. Indicates the size of a transported block at the physical layer. The unit is bit. The default value is 0. Indicates the number of traffic channel codes. The default value is 1. Indicates the peak rate at the RLC layer. The unit is bit/s. The default value is 0. Indicates a modulation mode. Its value is QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM. The default value is QPSK.

Step 5 Click ----End

to close the table.

6.6.8 Setting the R99 Bearer Table


The U-Net needs to access the R99 bearer table in UMTS prediction. Therefore, before the prediction, you must set the R99 bearer table.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Services > UMTS. Step 3 Right-click and choose R99 Bearer from the shortcut menu. The UMTS R99 Bearer Table window is displayed. Step 4 Set parameters by referring to Table 6-8. Table 6-8 Description of the parameters in the R99 bearer table Parameter Name
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Description Indicates the name of the R99 bearer service.


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Parameter Nominal Rate(UL) Nominal Rate(DL) Min TCH Power (dBm) Max TCH Power (dBm) CE Used Num(UL) CE Used Num(DL) Spreading Factor (UL) Spreading Factor (DL)

Description Indicates the nominal rate of the uplink bearer service. Indicates the nominal rate of the downlink bearer service. Indicates the allowed lowest power of the downlink traffic channel. The unit is dBm. Indicates the allowed highest power of the downlink traffic channel. The unit is dBm. Specifies the total CEs of the uplink bearer service. Specifies the total CEs of the downlink bearer service. Indicates the spreading factor corresponding to the uplink nominal rate. Indicates the spreading factor corresponding to the downlink nominal rate.

Step 5 Double-click the column heading of the bearer table to open the UMTS Service Quality dialog box. Then, set relevant parameters, and click OK.
NOTE

l Each bearer service in the R99 bearer table must be set. That is, each row in the table must be set. l Mobility: set mobility. l UL Target Eb/No: set the value of Eb/No of the uplink traffic channel for the related mobility. l DL Target Eb/No: set the value of Eb/No of the downlink traffic channel for the related mobility.

Step 6 Click ----End

to close the table.

6.6.9 Setting the HSUPA UE Category Table


The U-Net needs to access the HSUPA UE Category table in UMTS prediction. Therefore, before the prediction, you must set the HSUPA UE Category table.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > UMTS. Step 3 Right-click and choose HSUPA UE Category from the shortcut menu. The HSUPA UE Category Table window is displayed. Step 4 Set parameters by referring to Table 6-9.

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Table 6-9 Description of parameters in the HSUPA UE Category table Parameter Category Description Indicates the power level of the UPA terminal. The value must be unique and cannot be empty. It must be greater than or equal to 1. Max Number of E-DPDCH Codes TTI 2ms Min Spreading Factor Indicates the maximum number of traffic channel codes. Its value is greater than or equal to 1. Indicates whether to support TTI scheduling of 2 ms. Indicates the minimum spreading factor. Its value is greater than or equal to 1. Max Block Size for a 2ms TTI (bits) Indicates the maximum size of blocks transferred during TTI scheduling of 2 ms. Its value is greater than or equal to 0. Max Block Size for a 10ms TTI (bits) Indicates the maximum size of blocks transferred during TTI scheduling of 10 ms. Its value is greater than or equal to 0. Highest Modulation Indicates the highest modulation mode. Its value is either QPSK or 16QAM.

Step 5 Click ----End

to close the table.

6.6.10 Setting the HSDPA UE Category Table


The U-Net needs to access the HSDPA UE Category table in UMTS prediction. Therefore, before the prediction, you must set the HSDPA UE Category table.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Data tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > UMTS. Step 3 Right-click and choose HSDPA UE Category from the shortcut menu. The HSDPA UE Category Table window is displayed. Step 4 Set parameters by referring to Table 6-10.

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Table 6-10 Description of parameters in the HSDPA UE Category table Parameter Category Description Indicates the power level of the DPA terminal. The value must be unique and cannot be empty. It must be greater than or equal to 1. Max Number of HS-PDSCH Codes Min Inter-TTI interval Indicates the maximum number of traffic channel codes. Its value is greater than or equal to 1. Indicates the minimum interval between the TTI scheduling. Its value is greater than or equal to 1. Max Transport Block Size(bits) Indicates the maximum size of a transported block. Its value is greater than or equal to 0. Highest Modulation Indicates the highest modulation mode. Its value is QPSK, 16QAM, or 64QAM. MIMO Support Indicates whether MIMO is supported.

Step 5 Click ----End

to close the table.

6.7 Setting UMTS NE Parameters


You can import existing base station data to create base stations or use a base station template to automatically create base stations. You can also create sites, transmitters, or repeaters separately.

6.7.1 Importing Base Station Information


You can import a data file of base station to the U-Net. After that, the system automatically creates sites, cells, and transceivers according to the base station data. You can also export base station data in a project for easy viewing of site information, cell information, and transceiver information. For networks with different modes, the U-Net imports base station information in the same way.

Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net imports site information in the same way. For details, see 3.7.1 Importing Base Station Information.

6.7.2 Creating a Single Site


This section describes how to create a single site. You can create a site or modify the properties of an existing site to obtain a new one. For networks using different radio access technologies (RATs), you can use the U-Net to create a single site in the same way.
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Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a single site in the same way. For details, see 3.7.2 Creating a Single Site.

6.7.3 Setting UMTS Base Station Templates


This section describes how to manage base station templates. You can create base stations by using the predefined templates of the U-Net. If the predefined templates do not meet your requirements, you can customize a base station template.

Procedure
l View base station templates. 1. dropOn the toolbar, select Template Management from the down list. The Station Template Properties dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 6-5.

Figure 6-5 Station Template Properties

2.

The Available Templates area displays the currently available base station templates. Select the default template from the drop-down list next to Default. The name of the default base station template will be displayed on the toolbar of the U-Net main window. The names of other base station templates are available in the drop-down list.

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Such as l Create a base station template. 1.

Click Add. The Station Template Properties dialog box is displayed. Alternatively, click Duplicate to duplicate the selected base station template. Then, a new base station template is generated on the basis of the selected template.

2. 3. l 1. 2. 3. 4. ----End

Set properties of the base station template. For detailed description of parameters, see Parameter for Setting UMTS Base Station Templates. Click OK. Select a base station template in the Available Templates area. Click Properties. The Station Template Properties dialog box is displayed. Query and modify properties of the base station template. For detailed description of parameters, see Parameter for Setting UMTS Base Station Templates. Click OK.

View and modify properties of the base station template.

Follow-up Procedure
You can create base stations based on a predefined base station template or a customized base station template. When a base station template is not required, you can select the template in the Station Template Properties dialog box and then click Delete to delete it. You cannot delete the last base station template.

6.7.4 Creating Base Stations in Batches


The system supports creating a single site automatically or creating a series of base stations with the same property in batches. For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a base station automatically in the same way.

Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a base station automatically in the same way. For details, see 3.7.4 Creating Base Stations in Batches.

6.7.5 Creating Repeaters


This section describes how to create repeaters. A repeater receives, amplifies, and forwards the RF carriers launched or transmitted in the uplink and downlink. A repeater includes two sides, that is, the donor side and the serving cell side. The donor side of a repeater receives signals from the donor transmitter. The signals may be carried by links of different types, such as radio links or microwave links. The serving cell side forwards the received signals. For networks of different types, the U-Net creates a repeater in the same way.

Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a repeater in the same way. For details, see 3.7.5 Creating Repeaters.
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6.7.6 Creating a Transceiver


This section describes how to create a transceiver. The U-Net combines the transceiver with cells. Before setting a cell, you must set the transceiver parameters. A transceiver supports a multi-mode network, that is, a transceiver can cover multiple cells. For networks using different radio access technologies (RATs), you can use the U-Net to create a transceiver in the same way.

Context
For networks with different modes, the U-Net creates a transceiver in the same way. For details, see 3.7.6 Creating a Transceiver.

6.7.7 Setting UMTS Cell Parameters


This section describes how to set UMTS cell parameters. After a transceiver is set, the U-Net automatically assigns a cell to the transceiver. After setting transceiver parameters, you can set cell parameters.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver > Sitex_x. Step 3 Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. Step 4 Set the properties of UMTS cells on the UMTSCell tab page in the displayed dialog box, as shown in Figure 6-6. For detailed description of parameters, see Parameters for Setting the Parameters of UMTS Cells.

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Figure 6-6 UMTSCell

Step 5 Click OK. ----End

6.7.8 Interface Reference for Setting UMTS NE Parameters


This section describes the parameters for setting UMTS NE parameters by using the U-Net.

Parameter for Setting UMTS Base Station Templates


This section describes the parameters for creating base station templates or modifying the properties of base station templates. You can refer to this section when managing base station templates in the Station Template Properties dialog box.

Site Tab Page


Parameter Name Support Type Description Indicates the name of a base station template. Indicates the base station type. Macro indicates a macro base station, and Micro indicates a micro base station.
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Parameter Use Altitude For Calculation

Description Indicates whether to manually enter the altitude of a site for calculation. If this option is selected, you manually enter the altitude of a site for calculation. Indicates the radius of a cell. Description.

Hexagon Radius Comments

Transceiver area on the UMTS tab page


Parameter Transceivers Comments Model Site Equipment First Sector Azimuth Mechanical Downtilt Electrical Downtilt Height/Ground(m) Transmission in Number of Antennas area Reception in Number of Antennas area Transmission in Number of Antenna Ports area Total Loss(DL) Total Loss(UL) Description Indicates the number of transceivers in a site. Description. Indicates the type of an antenna. Indicates the site equipment. Indicates the azimuth of the first antenna. Indicates the mechanical downtilt. Indicates the electrical downtilt. Indicates the height of an antenna. Number of transmission antennas on a base station. Number of receive antennas on a base station. Number of transmission antenna ports. Indicates the total downlink loss. Indicates the total uplink loss.

General tab in the Cell area on the UMTS tab page


Parameter Max Power(dBm) Pilot Power(dBm) CCH Power(dBm) Description Indicates the maximum transmit power. Indicates the transmit power of pilot channels. Indicates the transmit power of the CCH.

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Parameter Available HSDPA Power (dBm) Actual Power(dBm) HS-SCCH Power(dBm) Target Load(DL) Target Load(UL) Max Load(DL) Max Load(UL) SHO Threshold(dB) SHO Reserve Ratio

Description Indicates the maximum available power of HSDPA. Indicates the actual transmit power. Indicates the power of the HS-SCCH. Indicates the target load on the downlink. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates the target load on the uplink. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates the maximum load of HSDPA on the downlink. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates the maximum load of HSUPA on the uplink. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates the threshold of the soft handover. Indicates the soft handoff reserve ratio. The value range is from 0 to 1. Uplink: the ratio of load reserved for soft handoff to the total uplink load. Downlink: the ratio of load reserved for soft handoff to the total downlink load.

Max Noise Rise UL Rake Factor Frequency Band ARFCN Reception Cell Type

Indicates the upper limit of the noise rise. Indicates the combination efficiency of a Rake transceiver. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates a frequency band. Indicates the downlink ARFCN. Indicates a receiver. Indicates the type of a cell. The parameter value can be R99, HSUPA, HSDPA, R99AndHSUPA, or R99AndHSDPA.

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Propagation Models Tab in the Cell Area on the UMTS Tab Page
Parameter Propagation Model Description Indicates a propagation model. l When the parameter is present in the Main Matrix area, it indicates the main propagation model. l When the parameter is present in the Extended Matrix area, it indicates the extended propagation model. Radius(m) Resolution(m) Indicates the calculation radius of a propagation model. Indicates the calculation resolution of a propagation model.

Parameters for Setting the Parameters of UMTS Cells


This section describes the parameters for creating a UMTS cell or modifying the properties of a UMTS cell. Table 6-11 Parameters on the UMTSCell tab page Parameter Name Active Frequency Band ARFCN Target Load(DL) Target Load(UL) Cell Type Description Indicates the name of a cell. Indicates whether to activate the current cell. Indicates a frequency band. Indicates the downlink ARFCN. Indicates the target load on the downlink. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates the target load on the uplink. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates the type of a cell. The cell type can be R99, HSUPA, HSDPA, R99 And HSUPA, or R99 And HSDPA. Available HSDPA Power(dBm) CCH Power(dBm) Code Allocation Ratio Dynamic HSDPA Power HSDPA Code Allocation Indicates the maximum available power of HSDPA. Indicates the transmit power of the CCH. Indicates the static allocation ratio of codes of a cell. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates whether dynamically allocated power is used for the HSDPA. Indicates the allocation mode of codes of a cell.
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Parameter HS-SCCH Power(dBm) Max Load(DL) Max Noise Rise Max Power(dBm) Max Load(UL) Pilot Power(dBm) Power Allocation Ratio Reception SHO Reserve Ratio

Description Indicates the power of the HS-SCCH. Indicates the maximum load of HSDPA on the downlink. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates the upper limit of the noise rise. Indicates the maximum transmit power. Indicates the maximum load of HSDPA on the uplink. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates the transmit power of pilot channels. Indicates the static power allocation ratio of a cell. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates a receiver. Indicates the soft handoff reserve ratio. The value range is from 0 to 1. Uplink: the ratio of load reserved for soft handoff to the total uplink load. Downlink: the ratio of load reserved for soft handoff to the total downlink load.

SHO Threshold(dB) Actual Power(dBm) UL Rake Factor

Indicates the threshold of the soft handover. Indicates the actual transmit power. Indicates the combination efficiency of a Rake transceiver. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates the total uplink load. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates the HSUPA uplink load. The value range is from 0 to 1. Indicates the scrambling code assigned to a cell. Indicates the reuse distance of a scrambling code. Indicates the number of reuse layers of a scrambling code. Indicates a forbidden scrambling code. Indicates the scenario of a cell. Indicates the mobile country code (MCC).

Load Factor(UL) HSUPA Load(UL) Scrambling Code Scrambling Code Reuse Distance(km) Scrambling Code Reuse Tier Forbidden Scrambling Code Scene MCC

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Parameter MNC CI CGI RNC ID LAC RNC Name Status

Description Indicates the mobile network code (MNC). Indicates the ID of a cell. Indicates the cell global identification (CGI). Indicates the ID of an RNC. Indicates a location area code. Indicates the name of a radio network controller. Indicates the swapping status. l NONE: Indicates there is no cell in swapping state. l NEW: Indicates a new cell. l EXISTED: Indicates a live network cell. The default value is NONE.

Vendor Comments Neighbors list Propagation Models

Indicates the device manufacturer. Remarks Indicates a list of neighboring cells. Indicates a propagation model.

Table 6-12 Parameters on the General tab page Parameter Name Site Description Name of a transceiver. This parameter uniquely identifies a transceiver. Name of the site that a transceiver belongs to. You can click New to create a site. Hexagon Radius(m) Radius of the hexagon indicating the cell coverage. The value ranges from 1 to 100000. l If a transceiver is directly added in the main window, the radius of the hexagon is the value of Hexagon Radius (m) in the current site template by default. l If a transceiver is added under the Transceiver node in the navigation tree, the value of this parameter is empty by default. Transmission in the Number of Antennas area Number of transmission antennas on a base station.

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Parameter Reception in the Number of Antennas area Transmission in the Number of Antenna Ports area Comments

Description Number of receive antennas on a base station. Number of transmission antenna ports. Comments on a transceiver.

Table 6-13 Parameters on the Antenna Config tab page Parameter Antenna ID Description ID of an antenna for a transceiver. The ID of each antenna must be unique for a transceiver. Power Ratio Sector ID Dx(m) Dy(m) Longitude Latitude Main Antenna Power allocation ratio. The value ranges from 0 to 1. ID of a sector. This parameter uniquely identifies an antenna. Offset of the antenna relative to the site that the antenna belongs to in the X direction. The unit is meter. Offset of the antenna relative to the site that the antenna belongs to in the Y direction. The unit is meter. Longitude of an antenna. Latitude of an antenna. Main antenna of a transceiver. Each cell has only one main antenna. Azimuth Antenna Antenna azimuth. The value ranges from 0 to 360. The unit is degree. Type of an antenna. The default value is determined based on the configuration of the system antennas. In normal cases, the default antenna type is the type of the first antenna. Mechanical Downtilt Electrical Downtilt Height(m) RRU ID Mechanical downtilt of an antenna. The unit is degree. Electrical downtilt of an antenna. The unit is degree. Height of an antenna. The unit is meter. l ID of a remote radio unit (RRU). l The value ranges from 0 to 100. The default value is 0. l If the value of RRU ID differs among the antennas for a transceiver, the cell served by the transceiver is a single frequency network (SFN) cell. In this case, you can configure only one cell for this transceiver.
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Parameter Equipment

Description Equipment properties. For details, see Table 6-14.

Table 6-14 Parameters in the Equipment Configuration dialog box Parameter Input Total Loss Description l If you select the check box, you need to manually type the total loss. l If you clear the check box, the U-Net calculates the total loss. Site Equipment TMA Indicates the site equipment. Tower-mounted amplifier (TMA). You can click modify its properties. Antenna feeder. You can click to

Feeder Feeder Length(m) Miscellaneous Loss(dB) JumpLoss Ant-TMA(dB) JumpLoss Ant-BS(dB) JumpLoss TMA-BS(dB) Total Loss(dB)

to modify its properties.

Length of a feeder. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Miscellaneous loss. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Jumper loss between the TMA and the antenna port. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Jumper loss between the top of cabinet and the antenna port. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Jumper loss between the TMA and the top of cabinet. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink. Total loss, including the TMA, feeder, jumper, and miscellaneous loss. You need to set this parameter for the uplink and downlink.

6.8 UMTS Prediction


By calculating counters, U-Net can estimate network performance, such as cell coverage and channel quality.

6.8.1 Basic Knowledge of UMTS Prediction


This chapter describes the basic knowledge of prediction, including the formula for calculating link loss, method for determining the calculation area, meaning of prediction counters, and
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prediction algorithm. You can develop a better understanding of the prediction function by learning the basic knowledge.

Basic Knowledge of UMTS Prediction Counters


The U-Net can be used to predict multiple UMTS counters. This section describes the meanings of the UMTS prediction counters.
NOTE

Certain counters are not displayed by default. To enable the U-Net to display these counters, select the corresponding network technology, right-click a counter type and then choose More Coverage from the shortcut menu.

Table 6-15 lists the UMTS prediction counters supported by the U-Net. Table 6-15 Description of UMTS prediction counters Category Coverage by Signal Level (DL) Counter CPICH RSCP Best Server UE RSSI Coverage Area Analysis Handover Area Pilot Pollution Number Of Service DL Noise Rise Ec/Io Eb/Nt(UL) Eb/Nt(DL) HSDPA Coverage CPICH Ec/Io UL DPCH Eb/Nt DL DPCH Eb/Nt HS PDSCH Ec/Nt HSDPA CQI HSDPA Peak Throughput HSUPA Coverage E DPDCH Ec/Nt HSUPA Peak Throughput Description Indicates Received Signal Code Power (RSCP) of the Common Pilot Channel (CPICH). Indicates the best serving cell that has the highest CPICH RSCP on a specified frequency. Indicates the total receive power of a UE on the entire bandwidth. Indicates whether an area is a handover area. Indicates the pilot pollution Indicates the number of cells that can be added to the active set. Indicates the downlink noise rise. Indicates the Ec/Io of the pilot signal received by a UE. Indicates the Eb/Nt of the uplink DPCH. Indicates the Eb/Nt of the downlink DPCH. Indicates the Ec/Nt of the signals received on the HSPDSCH. Indicates the HSDPA channel quality indicator. Indicates the HSDPA peak throughput. Indicates the Eb/Nt of the E-DPDCH. Indicates the HSUPA peak throughput.

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Procedure for Performing Prediction


This section describes the procedure for performing prediction through the U-Net. Figure 6-7 shows the procedure for performing prediction through the U-Net. Figure 6-7 Procedure of prediction

UMTS Prediction Algorithm


By calculating counters, U-Net can estimate network performance, such as cell coverage and channel quality. This section describes the UMTS prediction algorithm through a schematic chart. Figure 6-8 shows the schematic chart of the UMTS prediction algorithm.

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Figure 6-8 UMTS prediction algorithm

Table 6-16 describes the processes shown in Figure 6-8. Table 6-16 Description of the UMTS prediction algorithm Procedur e 1 Operation Traversing all the cells Obtaining the path loss matrix Description Determine whether the cells in the calculation area are activated. If a cell is not activated, the counters of this cell are not calculated. l If the path loss matrix does not exist, calculate the path loss matrix. l If the path loss matrix already exists, it can be obtained directly. 3 Querying the antenna gain, equipment loss, and penetration loss You can enable the U-Net to consider the antenna gain, equipment loss, and penetration loss during the calculation of link loss.
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Procedur e 4

Operation Predicting slow fading by using the shadow fading margin

Description To ensure that a base station can cover cell edges with a certain probability. A certain amount of power of the base station is reserved to prevent shadow fading. The reserved power is called shadow fading margin. During the calculation of link loss, you can enable the U-Net to take the shadow fading margin into account.

Calculating the CPICH RSCP to determine the primary serving cell Calculating the power of interference noise to determine the handover area. Calculating counters of traffic channels and common channels based on the Bin points Displaying prediction results

CPICH RSCP indicates the Received Signal Code Power (RSCP) of the Common Pilot Channel (CPICH). It is an important counter used for prediction. You can determine the primary serving cell based on this counter. You can calculate the power of interference and noise and determine the handover area.

You must calculate the mandatory counters and custom counters based on the BIN.

The U-Net displays the prediction results in different colors in the window and provides a prediction report.

Basic Knowledge of Link Loss


Link loss refers to the loss on the entire link from the transmitter to the receiver. When calculating link loss, the U-Net considers various loss factors such as path loss, equipment loss, and shadow fading. Loss factors of the uplink are different from loss factors of the downlink. The formulas for calculating uplink loss and downlink loss are as follows: l Uplink loss = Loss caused by the human body + Feeder loss of the terminal - Antenna gain of the terminal + Antenna attenuation of the terminal + Path loss + Shadow fading + Penetration loss - Antenna gain of the base station + Total loss of the base station Downlink loss = Loss caused by the human body + Feeder loss of the terminal - Antenna gain of the terminal + Antenna attenuation of the terminal + Path loss + Shadow fading + Penetration loss - Antenna gain of the base station + Total loss of the base station

The difference between the two formulas are as follows: The uplink has TMA gains which are included into the antenna gain of the base station in calculation. The downlink has TMA loss which is included into the total loss of the base station. Table 6-17 describes the meanings of factors in the formulas.

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Table 6-17 Meanings of factors in the formulas Factor Loss caused by the human body Feeder loss of a terminal Antenna gain of a terminal Antenna fading of a terminal Path loss Shadow fading Meaning Loss of transmit or receive power of the mobile station (MS) due to the shielding or absorption of the human body. Loss of the feeder on a terminal. Gain of the antenna on a terminal. Fading of the antenna on a terminal. Loss on the path between the transmit antenna and the receive antenna, which excludes the antenna gain and shadow fading. When an electromagnetic wave is blocked by fluctuant terrains, buildings, or vegetation areas in the propagation path, the shadow of the magnetic field exits. When an MS travels through the shadow of different barriers, the received signal strength decreases, and the field strength at the receiving antenna changes. In this case, fading is generated. This fading is called shadow fading. Penetration loss Antenna gain of a base station Total loss of the base station Loss that is caused when signals travel through buildings, vehicles, and leaves. Gain of the antenna on a base station. Power loss that is caused when signals travel through all the TMAs, feeders (including the main feeder, jumpers, and lightning arresters), and connectors

6.8.2 Calculating Path Loss


The path loss refers to the loss of strength of signals transmitted from a TX end to an RX end. You must calculate the path loss because it is an input required for prediction. The U-Net automatically calculates the path loss and generates a .loss file for each cell. Alternatively, you can manually calculate the path loss before performing the prediction. This section describes how to manually calculate the path loss.

Prerequisites
l l Base stations (sites and cells) are available. Propagation models are assigned to cells.

Context
You can manually calculate the path loss in calculation or force calculation mode.
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Calculation If you calculate the path loss for the first time, that is, if no path loss matrix file is available, the U-Net calculates the path loss matrix of each cell. Afterwards, the U-Net checks the validity of calculation results and updates the results. If path loss matrices are available but the parameters related to radio data and calculation area are modified, the path loss matrices of some cells may become invalid. In this case, the U-Net calculates only these invalid path loss matrices again.

Force calculation If path loss matrices are available, the U-Net deletes all the matrices regardless of the validity and calculates the path loss matrix of each cell again. Afterwards, the U-Net checks the validity of calculation results and updates the results.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Network tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver. Step 3 Select a calculation mode to calculate the path loss of all cells on the Transceiver node. If you need to... Calculate Then... Right-click and choose Calculation > Calculate Path Loss Matrices from the shortcut menu. Right-click and choose Calculation > Force Calculate Path Loss Matrices from the shortcut menu.

Calculate forcibly

Step 4 If you have not saved the project file, save it as prompted. The U-Net automatically creates a Project Name.losses folder that saves the information about the path loss matrix and an .ipl project file in the specified save path. Afterwards, the U-Net starts calculating the path loss. Step 5 Query the calculation results After the calculation is complete, the calculation results will be automatically saved in the Project Name.losses folder that saves the project file. Click to stop ongoing calculations.

Step 6 Optional: Check the progress of path loss calculation In the Event Viewer docked window, query the start time and end time of path loss on the Event Viewer tab page and the progress of the path loss calculation on the Task tab page, as shown in Figure 6-9.

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Figure 6-9 Event Viewer

----End

Follow-up Procedure
The MCL with the default value of 70 dB indicates the minimum path loss between the base station and the terminal or between one terminal and another terminal. If you want to change the default value of the MCL, modify the LinkLossConfig.xml file in the U-Net installation directory.

6.8.3 Setting Shadow Fading Standard Deviation


During the network prediction, the standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for certain prediction counters.

Context
l In the LTE-FDD network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: DL RS SINR, DL RSRQ, Geometry, PBCH SINR, PCFICH SINR, PDCCH SINR, PRACH SINR, PUCCH SINR, SCH SINR, PDSCH SINR, PUSCH SINR, PHICH SINR, and UL RS SINR. l In the LTE-TDD network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: DL RS SINR, DL RSRQ, PDCCH SINR, PDSCH SINR, PUSCH SINR, UL RS SINR. In the GSM network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: Geometry, DL BCCH CIR, DL Service CIR, and UL Service CIR. l In the UMTS network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: CPICH Ec/Io, DL DPCH Eb/Nt, HS PDSCH Ec/Nt, UL DPCH Eb/Nt, and E DPDCH Ec/ Nt. l In the GSM/UMTS network, the C/(I + N) standard deviation of shadow fading needs to be set for the following predication counters: Coverage By CIR.
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Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the GEO tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Map > Clutter. Step 3 Choose Parameter Management from the shortcut menu. The Clutter Parameters Display dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Perform the following operations as required. If ... The map information is not imported Then ... Click Default Value to change the default values of parameters under Model Standard Deviation and C/(I + N) Standard Deviation. Click Actual Value to change the actual values of parameters under Model Standard Deviation and C/(I + N) Standard Deviation.

The map information is imported

NOTE

For the meanings of parameters under Model Standard Deviation and C/(I + N) Standard Deviation, see Parameters for Setting the Clutter Class Layer.

Step 5 Click OK. ----End

6.8.4 Creating a UMTS Prediction Group


The U-Net calculates the prediction as per prediction group. Each prediction group consists of one or more prediction items. You can create prediction groups and modify the properties.

Prerequisites
l l l A U-Net project is already created. The geographic data is imported. The calculation area is created. For details about calculation area knowledge and the method for creating a calculation area, see 3.3.9 Creating Vector Objects.

Procedure
Step 1 Optional: Setting common properties for prediction groups. Before creating coverage prediction groups, you need to set common properties for prediction groups so that new prediction groups have the common properties. 1. 2. 3.
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In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu.
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4.

In the displayed dialog box, set the precision of prediction on the Predictions tab page. You are advised to set the precision of prediction to be the same as that of the propagation model.

5. 6.

Set the height of receiver on the Receiver tab page. Click OK.

Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Predictions. Step 3 Choose New from the shortcut menu. See Figure 6-10. Figure 6-10 New

Step 4 In the displayed dialog box, set prediction group name, whether to calculate immediately, and select prediction counters. For counter descriptions, see Basic Knowledge of UMTS Prediction Counters. Step 5 Click Next. Step 6 In the displayed dialog box, set the prediction group properties. For detailed description of parameters, see 6.13.1 Parameters for Creating UMTS Prediction Groups. Step 7 Click OK. Step 8 Optional: If you deselect Calculate Now in creating prediction groups, right-click the prediction group, and then choose Calculate from the shortcut menu after creating a prediction group. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
After the prediction calculation is complete, you can recalculate KPIs, add or delete KPIs, and view detailed KPI result reports. For details, see 3.8.6 Managing the Prediction Result.

6.8.5 Viewing Coverage Prediction Results


You can view the prediction result in the map window or view the statistics on various indicators by using the PDF or CDF diagram.

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Procedure
l l View a prediction result in the map window. For details, see Querying Prediction Statistical Results (on a Map). View a prediction result by using the PDF or CDF diagram. For details, see Viewing Coverage Prediction Statistical Results (in a PDF/CDF Chart).

----End

6.8.6 Analyzing Prediction Results


The U-Net supports the function of comparing similar predictions to identify the differences. This helps you to quickly know the impact of changes on the network.

Procedure
Step 1 Create and calculate a prediction group. Step 2 View the prediction result and check whether any counter needs to be optimized. Step 3 Adjust the setting of the counter that needs to be optimized to improve the coverage. Step 4 Duplicate the prediction group. 1. 2. 3. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > first prediction group. Choose Duplicate from the shortcut menu.

Step 5 Calculate the duplicate prediction group. 1. 2. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > copied prediction group. Choose Calculate from the shortcut menu.

Step 6 Compare the original prediction result and the new prediction result. 1. 2. 3. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions. Choose Compare from the shortcut menu. The CDF Compare window is displayed. Select the counters from the drop-down list on the left.
NOTE

l Coverage Area: The area that is actually covered by the counters. It is the area rendered by colors on the map window. l Calculate Area: The Polygon area that you select when creating a new prediction group

4. 5.

Select the prediction groups from the pane on the left and the corresponding display colors. View the CDF comparison chart in the pane on the right.

----End

Example
This section takes the antenna downtilt as an example to describe the function of comparison. The coverage of a cell in a prediction group is not good. Based on the analysis, the antenna downtilt may be improperly set. Perform the following steps to adjust the antenna downtilt. 1.
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In the Explorer window, click the Network tab.


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2. 3. 4. 5.

In the navigation tree, choose Transceiver > Sitex_x. Choose Properties from the shortcut menu. Click Antenna Config tab Page. Modify the value of Mechanical Downtilt or Electrical Downtilt.

After the downtilt is adjusted, you can recalculate the prediction group but cannot compare the two coverage predictions, that is, the prediction before and the prediction after the adjustment. Therefore, duplicate the existing prediction group before the recalculation. After the recalculation, you can view the coverage change in the map window. To know the detailed change, compare the change of counters by referring to Step 6.

Follow-up Procedure
l l l To save the CDF comparison chart, right-click the chart and choose Save Image As from the shortcut menu. The chart can be saved in .emf, .png, .gif, .jpg, .tif, or .bmp format. To print the CDF comparison chart, right-click the chart and choose Print from the shortcut menu. To copy the CDF comparison chart, right-click the chart and choose Copy from the shortcut menu.

6.8.7 Exporting UMTS Planning Results


You can export and print prediction results in batches or export the detailed prediction result by Bin point.

Exporting Coverage Prediction Statistical Results in Batches


After the prediction calculation is complete, you can select one or more counters and then export a statistical report on the prediction as a .csv file and a prediction map in .mif or .jpg format.

Context
The method for exporting statistics for prediction results in batches for different network systems from the U-Net is the same. For details, see Exporting Prediction Results in Batches.

Exporting the Detailed UMTS Prediction Result by Bin Point


After the prediction calculation is complete, you can export detailed prediction results of the Bin points in a specified area. The prediction results include the information about the longitudinal and latitudinal coordinates and counter values of the Bin points.

Procedure
l Export the detailed prediction results of Bin points according to the specified area. You can specify a calculation area and export the detailed prediction results of all Bin points in this area. 1. 2.
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In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Select the objects to be exported.
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If... Export the detailed prediction results of a prediction group Export the detailed prediction results of a single counter in a prediction group

Then... In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx.

In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx > counter item.

3. 4. 5. l

Choose Export BIN By > Polygon from the shortcut menu. In the displayed dialog box, select the area to be exported. Click Export.

Export the detailed result of a Bin point by pilot power. This function is applicable only to single-mode networks. You can specify the value range of the pilot power to export only the detailed result of a Bin point within the range. 1. 2. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Select the objects to be exported. If... Export the detailed prediction results of a single counter in a prediction group Export the detailed prediction results of a single counter in a prediction group Then... In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx.

In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx > CPICH RSCP.

NOTE

You can also set interval values in the properties of each preceding indicator.

3.

Choose Export BIN By > CPICH RSCP from the shortcut menu. When you do not select the CPICH RSRP indicator when performing prediction calculation, you cannot export the detailed result of a Bin point by pilot power. The dialog box displayed lists the value segments of the selected KPI, the coverage area of the selected value segment, the percentage of the coverage area, and the cumulative percentage of the coverage area.

4.

In the displayed dialog box, set the value range of the indicator. The U-Net exports only the detailed prediction result of a Bin point within the specified range.

5.
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Click Export.
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Export the top N records of the reception levels in each Bin point. This function is applicable only to single-mode networks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Predictions > Groupx > CPICH RSCP. Choose Export BIN By > Top Signal Level from the shortcut menu. The dialog box as shown in Figure 6-11 is displayed. Set the minimum exported value and the maximum reception level for the top N records to be exported. Click Export. After setting the export path, file name, and file format, export the data.
NOTE

l To implement this function successfully, the selected indicators must include CPICH RSCP when you creating a prediction project, as shown in Figure 6-12. l To export multiple maximum reception levels in a Bin point, you need to set the value of TopNSignalLevel when creating a prediction project, as shown in Figure 6-13. This value specifies the number of top records for which the maximum reception level is calculated.

Figure 6-11 Export By Top Signal Level dialog box

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Figure 6-12 Indicator selection

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Figure 6-13 Property setting

----End

Follow-up Procedure
You can navigate to the export path to view the exported contents. The exported contents mainly include: l l X-coordinate and Y-coordinate: If no geographic data is imported, the geodetic coordinates are exported. Indicator values: It refers to the values of the selected indicators.

Printing Coverage Prediction Results in Batches


After the prediction calculation is complete, you can print the prediction results of counters in batches. The results include prediction chart, geographic data, and base station data.

Context
The method for printing prediction results in batches for different network systems on the UNet is the same. For details, see Printing Prediction Results in Batches.
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6.8.8 Verifying the Feature Database Based on DT Data


The DT data can be used to rectify the coverage prediction group after its calculation is complete in order to improve the origin authentication and simulation degree of feature database. This helps to improve the locating precision. The rectification is not required if DT data is unavailable, and this procedure can be ignored.

Prerequisites
l l l The base station information involving the site, transceiver, and cell has been imported or created. The coverage prediction for CPICH RSCP is complete. The DT data file has been imported.

Context
The method of rectifying the DT feature database in UMTS is similar to that in LTE-FDD. For detailed operations, see 3.8.10 Verifying the Feature Database Based on DT Data.

6.8.9 Exporting the Feature Database Data


You can export the feature database data after the prediction calculation is complete for geographical locating.

Context
For detailed operations of exporting the feature database, see Export the top N records of the reception levels in each Bin point in Exporting the Detailed UMTS Prediction Result by Bin Point.

6.9 Planning UMTS Neighboring Cells


After creating NodeBs, you need to plan neighboring cells for the cells on the UMTS network. You can automatically plan neighboring cells in batches or manually plan neighboring cells for each cell one by one.

6.9.1 Basic Knowledge of Neighboring Cell Planning


This section describes basic knowledge of neighboring cell planning. Proper neighbor relationships ensure that a UE at the edge of a serving cell can be handed over in time and that the handover gain is obtained. This helps to reduce intra-RAT interference, improve the QoS of the network, and ensure stable network performance. The purpose of neighboring cell planning is to properly configure neighbor relationships during the construction or expansion of a network. Planning neighboring cells is mandatory during initial construction of a network. Whether neighboring cells are properly planned has direct impacts on the network performance. Traditionally, neighboring cells are manually planned, which features low work efficiency. Currently, neighboring cells are automatically planned, which greatly improves work efficiency, reduces network construction cost, and accelerates network construction. Manual adjustments to the results of automatic planning can be made based on the actual situation.
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The U-Net provides the function of automatically planning neighboring cells. It supports neighboring cell planning for special scenarios that require repeaters or remote RF units. These features of U-Net ensure reliable planning results. The U-Net determines the neighbor relationships of a serving cell from the following aspects: l l l l If a cell is covered by the same base station as the serving cell, it is considered as a neighboring cell of the serving cell. If a cell in the candidate neighboring cells has the highest score, it is considered as a neighboring cell of the serving cell. The existing neighboring cell relationships are not changed. Whether a cell is configured as a neighboring cell of the serving cell to ensure bidirectional neighbor relationship.

The U-Net provides the following neighboring cell planning algorithms: l l l Topology: algorithm based on topology Prediction: algorithm based on coverage prediction Topology + Prediction: algorithm based on topology and coverage prediction The U-Net determines neighboring cells using the algorithm based on coverage prediction. If the neighbor relationships between the serving cell and some cells cannot be determined according to the algorithm based on coverage prediction, the U-Net determines neighboring cells using the algorithm based on topology. Take UMTS as an example, neighboring cell planning and optimization of U-Net applies to the following scenarios: l l l l 6.9.3 Initial Neighboring Cell Planning for a New Network 6.9.4 Neighboring Cell Replanning for a Partially Expanded Network 6.9.5 Replanning of Neighboring Cells from 2G Network to 3G Network 6.9.6 Checking and Optimizing Neighboring Cell Configuration
NOTE

For CDMA networks, the U-Net supports only the algorithm based on topology for planning neighboring cells.

6.9.2 Importing Neighboring Relations


This section describes how to import neighbor relationships. The U-Net provides the function of importing neighbor relationships, through which the existing neighbor relationships on the network can be imported into the U-Net. This helps to plan neighboring cells according to the actual situation of the network.

Prerequisites
l l Base station information has been created or imported, including sites, transceivers, and cells. The neighbor relationships to be imported must be collected into a neighbor relationship template. You can obtain the neighbor relationship template by exporting neighbor relationships.

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Context
l l l l l Neighbor relationships of an LTE-FDD or LTE-TDD network are matched by the cell name. Neighbor relationships of a GSM network are matched by cell name, LAC, and CI. Neighbor relationships of a UMTS network are matched by cell name, RNC ID, and CI. Neighbor relationships of a CDMA network are matched by MSC ID, BSC ID, BTS ID, Cell ID, Sector ID, ARFCN, and BNDCLS. Neighbor relationships of a multi-mode network must be imported separately by network technology.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose neighbor planning > RAT. Step 3 Choose Import Neighbor Relations from the shortcut menu. The Import Neighbor Relations dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Select Update Blind Handover Flag as required. If Update Blind Handover Flag is selected, blind handover flags of cells are updated when the neighbor relationships are imported.
NOTE

Update Blind Handover Flag is unavailable in GSM/CDMA, and therefore you do not need to select it.

Step 5 Click Browse to choose a neighbor relationship file. Step 6 Click OK. ----End

6.9.3 Initial Neighboring Cell Planning for a New Network


This section describes how to perform neighboring cell planning for a new network. The U-Net provides the function of automatically planning neighboring cells. This function helps to plan the neighboring cells for each cell automatically, which reduces the number of handover problems due to improper neighboring cell configuration.

Prerequisites
Base station information has been created or imported, including sites, transceivers, and cells.

Context
On a new network, neighboring cell relationships do not exist. All neighboring cells are planned initially. The initial planning of neighboring cells includes intra-frequency neighboring cell planning, inter-frequency neighboring cell planning, and inter-RAT neighboring cell planning.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab.
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Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose Neighbor Planning > UMTS. Step 3 Choose Automatic Allocation from the shortcut menu. See Figure 6-14. Figure 6-14 Neighbor Automatic Allocation

Step 4 Set planning parameters in the displayed dialog box. For details, see 6.13.2 Parameters for Planning Neighboring UMTS Cells. Step 5 Click Run.
NOTE

You can right-click UMTS and choose Stop Neighbor Allocation from the shortcut menu to stop the current neighboring cell planning.

After the planning is complete, the planning results are displayed in the lower pane of the U-Net main window. For details, see 6.13.5 Parameters for Viewing Neighboring Cell Planning Results. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
l Set the mode and colors for displaying neighboring relationships in the map window. 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Neighbor Planning > UMTS. Choose Display Option from the shortcut menu. In the displayed dialog box, set the mode and colors for displaying neighboring relationships in the map window. For details about the parameters, see 6.13.3 Parameters for Setting the Display Properties of Neighboring Cells. Click OK. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Neighbor Planning > GSM. Right-click and choose Export Other Vendor's Neighbor Relations > file export format from the shortcut menu.
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5. l 1. 2. 3.

Export the other vendors' neighboring cell planning results.

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The file can be saved in .xls or .xlsx format. For the other vendors' neighboring cell planning results, U-Net exports one file for each vendor to the specified directory.

After the neighboring cell planning is complete, You can check and optimize neighboring cell configuration. For details, see6.9.6 Checking and Optimizing Neighboring Cell Configuration.

6.9.4 Neighboring Cell Replanning for a Partially Expanded Network


This section describes how to replan neighboring cells for an expanded network. The capacity of a network may reach a limit after the network works for a long period of time. Therefore, the network needs to be expanded. The neighboring cells in the expanded areas and adjacent areas need to be replanned.

Prerequisites
Base station information has been created or imported, including network information before the expansion and added site information after the expansion.

Procedure
Step 1 Import neighboring cell relationships on the network before the expansion. 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Neighbor Planning > UMTS. Choose Import Neighbor Relations from the shortcut menu. The Import Neighbor Relations dialog box is displayed. Select the Update Blind Handover Flag check box as required. If Update Blind Handover Flag is selected, blind handover flags of cells are updated when neighboring cell relationships are being imported. 5. Click Browse to select a neighboring cell relationship file.
NOTE

l Select and import neighboring cell relationship files containing neighboring cell relationships that are in the Added and No Change status. l The values of CellName and NeighborCellName need to be the same as the names of cells and neighboring cells on NEs respectively. The names of intra-RAT cells on NEs must be unique.

6.

Click OK.

Step 2 Set neighboring cell replanning parameters. 1. 2. 3. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Neighbor Planning > UMTS. Choose Automatic Allocation from the shortcut menu. See Figure 6-15.

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Figure 6-15 Neighbor Automatic Allocation

4. 5.

Set planning parameters in the displayed dialog box. For details, see 6.13.2 Parameters for Planning Neighboring UMTS Cells. Click Run.

After the planning is complete, the planning results are displayed in the lower pane of the U-Net main window.You can check and optimize neighboring cell configuration. For details, see6.9.6 Checking and Optimizing Neighboring Cell Configuration. ----End

6.9.5 Replanning of Neighboring Cells from 2G Network to 3G Network


This section describes how to plan neighboring cells on a 3G network based on neighboring cell information on the 2G network after creating a 3G network.

Prerequisites
l l A GSM/UMTS network has been created. Base station information has been imported or created and the Cell Table files of 2G network and 3G network have been imported respectively.

Context
The coverage area of 3G network is the same as that of the 2G network and the addresses of sites on the 3G network are the same as those on the 2G network. Therefore, neighboring cells on the 2G network are inherited on the 3G network. For the expansion of a 3G network, see 6.9.4 Neighboring Cell Replanning for a Partially Expanded Network.

Procedure
Step 1 Import neighboring cell relationships on the 2G network. 1. 2.
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In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Neighbor Planning > GSM.
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3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3.

Choose Import Neighbor Relations from the shortcut menu. The Import Neighbor Relations dialog box is displayed. Click Browse to select a neighboring cell relationship file. Click OK. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose Neighbor Planning > UMTS. Choose Automatic Allocation from the shortcut menu. See Figure 6-16. Figure 6-16 Neighbor Automatic Allocation

Step 2 Set planning parameters.

4. 5.

Set planning parameters in the displayed dialog box. For details, see 6.13.2 Parameters for Planning Neighboring UMTS Cells. Click Run.

After the planning is complete, the planning results are displayed in the lower pane of the U-Net main window.You can check and optimize neighboring cell configuration. For details, see6.9.6 Checking and Optimizing Neighboring Cell Configuration. ----End

6.9.6 Checking and Optimizing Neighboring Cell Configuration


This section describes how to check and optimize neighboring cell configuration. When the neighboring cell planning in a scenario is complete, you can view, modify, export, filter, and collect the neighboring cell planning data. Based on the result of neighboring cell planning, you can create neighboring cell planning scripts and check missing neighboring cell relationships.

Prerequisites
The neighboring cell planning is complete.

Procedure
Step 1 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab.
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Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose neighbor planning > RAT.


NOTE

You need to select RAT in the navigation tree so that neighboring cell relationships can be displayed in the map window, as shown in Figure 6-17.

Figure 6-17 Selecting the RAT

Step 3 Choose Open Neighbor Relations from the shortcut menu. Step 4 Perform the following operations as required. If you need to... View neighboring cell relationships Then... In the main window of the U-Net, click a cell in the Cell Name area. Alternatively, click a certain cell in the map window, as shown in Figure 6-18. The neighboring cell relationships of the selected cell are displayed in the table in the Cell Name area and in the map window simultaneously.

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If you need to... Manually adjust neighboring cell relationships

Then... 1. Select a source cell on the map. 2. Hold down Ctrl and click the cells except the source cell to add or delete unidirectional neighboring cell relationships. 3. Hold down Shift and click the cells except the source cell to add or delete bidirectional neighboring cell relationships.
NOTE l If an added or deleted neighboring cell relationship is the same as an existing one, the check box in the Confirm column of the neighboring cell list is automatically selected or cleared. l If an added neighboring cell relationship is different from the existing ones, the neighboring cell relationship is added to the neighboring cell list and force is displayed in the Cause column. l If the number of neighboring cells for a cell reaches the maximum number, a confirmation dialog box is displayed when more neighboring cells are added. You can click Yes to add these neighboring cells, or click No to cancel the operation.

Export the result of neighboring cell planning

1. In the Cell Name area of the main window, Choose Export from the shortcut menu.. 2. In the displayed Export Neighbor dialog box, select an export mode. l Incremental Export: Export only the changed neighboring cell relationships. l Full Export: Export all neighboring cell relationships. 3. Click Export.

Delete neighboring cell relationships

1. In the Cell Name area of the main window, select a cell whose neighboring cell relationships need to be adjusted. 2. Clear the check boxes in the Confirm column for the selected cells in the table in the right pane.

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If you need to... Filter neighboring cell relationships

Then... 1. In the Cell Name area of the main window, Choose Filter from the shortcut menu.. 2. Set filter criteria in the displayed dialog box. For details, see 6.13.4 Parameters for Setting the Audit and Filter Conditions Based on Neighboring Relations. 3. Click OK. The filtered cells are displayed in green in the map window, as shown in Figure 6-19.
NOTE If you select the None option in the Filter dialog box, the color of filtered cells in the map window is cleared.

Remove the filter effect on neighboring cells

Right-click in the Cell Name area of the main window and choose Remove Filter from the shortcut menu. The table in the right pane switches back to the state when no filter criterion is used, and the color of filtered cells in the map window is cleared.
NOTE Remove Filter is available only after filter criteria are used.

Audit neighboring cell relationships

1. In the Cell Name area of the main window, right-click the table and choose Statistic from the shortcut menu. 2. Set audit conditions in the displayed dialog box. For details, see Parameters for Setting Conditions for Checking Neighbor Relationships and Filtering Neighboring Cells. 3. Click OK. The neighboring cell relationship check report is exported to an XLS file. The exported file contains multiple sheets, and each sheet shows the result that meets certain audit conditions.

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If you need to... Check missing neighboring cell relationships

Then... 1. In the Cell Name area of the main window, Choose Export from the shortcut menu.. 2. In the displayed Export Neighbor dialog box, select Incremental Export. l Incremental Export: Export only the changed neighboring cell relationships. 3. Click Export. Check the status of exported neighboring cell relationships. The neighboring cell relationships in the Added state are missing neighboring cell relationships.

Clear the neighboring cell planning result

1. Right-click in the Cell Name area of the main window and choose Clear Existed Neighbors from the shortcut menu, as shown in Figure 6-20. 2. In the displayed U-Net dialog box, click Y. The existing neighboring cell relationships are cleared.
NOTE You can clear the existing result of neighboring cell planning so that the planning of neighboring cells next time will not be affected.

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Figure 6-18 Clicking a cell in the map window

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Figure 6-19 Filter

Figure 6-20 clear existed neighbors

NOTE

You can create neighboring cell planning scripts based on the result of neighboring cell planning. The UNet is applicable to the planning of intra-frequency and inter-frequency neighboring cells under different RNCs. If inter-RNC neighboring cells are involved in the planning, type the RNC ID of each cell in the RNCID column in the table in the Cell area.

----End

6.10 UMTS Scrambling Code Planning


This section describes UMTS scrambling code planning. Scrambling codes used for differentiating cells and users are important resources in the UMTS system. Scrambling code
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planning of the U-Net supports multiple grouping functions such as horizontal grouping and vertical grouping. In addition, the scrambling code planning is applicable to multiple scenarios such as scrambling code check and network deployment.

6.10.1 Basic Knowledge of Scrambling Code Planning


This section describes basic knowledge of scrambling code planning. The scrambling code planning is performed to allocate a primary scrambling code for each cell and different scrambling codes for the cells adjacent to this cell. The scrambling code planning ensures that no interference is generated between downlink signals of cells that are allocated the same frequency and scrambling code. Scrambling codes in the UMTS system are classified into uplink scrambling codes and downlink scrambling codes. Uplink scrambling codes are classified into long scrambling codes and short scrambling codes. The uplink scrambling codes are allocated randomly by the RNC for differentiating users. Therefore, the planning of uplink scrambling codes is not required. Downlink scrambling codes are used on UEs. Only long scrambling codes are used for differentiating cells. Downlink scrambling codes are divided into 512 groups. Each group consists of 16 scrambling codes. The first scrambling code in each group is the primary scrambling code. The other 15 scrambling codes in the same group are secondary scrambling codes. Secondary scrambling codes must be used together with the primary scrambling code. Figure 6-21 shows the procedure for scrambling code planning.

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Figure 6-21 Procedure for scrambling code planning

The planning and optimization of UMTS scrambling codes are applicable to the following scenarios. Figure 6-22 shows the operation procedure. l l 6.10.2 Scrambling Code Planning for a New or Expanded Network 6.10.3 Checking and Optimizing Scrambling Code Configuration

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Figure 6-22 Operation procedure for scenario-based scrambling code planning and optimization

6.10.2 Scrambling Code Planning for a New or Expanded Network


This section describes how to use the U-Net to plan scrambling codes for a simple new network by setting the rules of reusing scrambling codes.

Context
On the UMTS network, the U-Net supports the allocation of scrambling codes based on tier reuse, distance reuse, and maximum-usage or average allocation principles. The U-Net also provides multiple grouping functions such as horizontal grouping, vertical grouping, and customized grouping. Users can use the U-Net to allocate scrambling code groups based on cell types.

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l Scrambling code planning based on tier reuse is available after neighboring cell planning is complete. l Maximum-usage allocation maximizes the reuse of scrambling code resources to increase the usage of scrambling codes. l Average allocation ensures that all scrambling codes are equally used.

Procedure
Step 1 Optional: Check the allocation of scrambling codes in the existing cells. 1. 2. 3. In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. In the navigation tree, choose UMTS Scrambling Code Planning. Choose Open Scrambling Codes. The Scrambling Code Display dialog box is displayed.View the scrambling codes of existing cells.

Step 2 In the navigation tree, choose UMTS Scrambling Code Planning. Step 3 Choose Set Scrambling Code Resource from the shortcut menu. See Figure 6-23. Figure 6-23 Set Scrambling Code Resource

Step 4 Set scrambling code resource in the displayed dialog box. For details, see 6.13.6 Parameters for Planning UMTS Scrambling Codes. Step 5 Click OK. Step 6 In the navigation tree, choose UMTS Scrambling Code Planning. Step 7 Choose Automatic Identify High-Site from the shortcut menu. Step 8 After the Height of High-Site is set, click Identify. The U-Net automatically selects the cells that meet the height requirement from the Normal cells and High_Site cells. The Scene of selected cells is set to High_Site, and the Scene of the other cells is set to Normal. Cells in the two scenarios are displayed in the Cell area.
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The Scene parameter in cell properties indicates the scenario of a cell. Step 9 Click OK. Step 10 Repeat Step 2. Step 11 Choose Scanning from the shortcut menu to check the usage of any scrambling code in cells of the entire network. Step 12 In the displayed dialog box, set the value of Scrambing Code from the drop-down list box. The value range is from 0 to 511. Step 13 Repeat Step 2. Step 14 Choose Automatic Allocation from the shortcut menu. Step 15 Set parameters in the displayed Scrambling Code Plan dialog box. For details, see 6.13.6 Parameters for Planning UMTS Scrambling Codes. Step 16 Click Run. After the planning is complete, the planning results are displayed in the lower pane of the U-Net main window.. For details, see 6.13.7 Parameters for Viewing Planning Results of UMTS Scrambling Codes .
NOTE

You can right-click UMTS Scrambling Code Planning and choose Stop Scrambling Codes Planning from the shortcut menu to stop the current scrambling code planning.

----End

6.10.3 Checking and Optimizing Scrambling Code Configuration


After UMTS scrambling codes are planned, you can view, manually adjust, export, filter, and collect statistics about the planning results.

Prerequisites
UMTS scrambling codes have been planned.

Context
The scrambling code plan changes frequently on the live network due to causes such as network expansion. Therefore, the distribution of the current scrambling codes needs to be checked periodically to ensure that scrambling codes are properly distributed. The scrambling code planning is a process of checking whether scrambling codes are reused based on preset reuse tier and distance. The requirements of reuse tier and distance vary based on scenarios. Suburbs and rural areas require more reuse tiers and longer reuse distance.

Procedure
Step 1 If the Scrambling Code Display window has been opened, go to Step 5. Otherwise, proceed to Step 2. Step 2 In the Explorer window, click the Operation tab. Step 3 In the navigation t