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# Scientific Method

## What is the scientific method?

It is a process that is used to find answers to questions about the world around us.

The steps of the scientific method will vary from one situation to the next and are not always done in a specific order.

Is there only one scientific method? No, there are several versions of the
scientific method. Some versions have more steps, while others may have only a few. However, they all begin with the identification of a problem or a question to be answered based on observations of the world around us and provide an organized method for conducting and analyzing an experiment.

## It is an educated guess based on observations and your knowledge of the topic.

Before forming a hypothesis, its a good idea to make observations by looking, smelling and touching things you can make your observations
optical worksheet

What is a hypothesis?

## What are variables?

The object or thing that you are trying to measure. 2 types: independent and dependent variables

## What are variables?

***The (independent variable) causes a change in (dependent variable) and it isnt possible that the (dependent variable) could cause a change in (independent variable)*** SpongeBob example:

Sponge Bob notices that his pal Gary is suffering from slimotosis, which occurs when the shell develops a nasty slime and gives off a horrible odor. His friend Patrick tells him that rubbing seaweed on the shell is the perfect cure, while Sandy says that drinking Dr. Kelp will be a better cure. SpongeBob decides to test this cure by rubbing Gary with seaweed for 1 week and having him drink Dr. Kelp. After a week of treatment, the slime is gone and Garys shell smells better.
What was the initial observation? Slimatosis on Garys shell

## Cures (seaweed and Dr. Kelp) 2. What is the independent variable?

3. What is the dependent variable? Slime and odor 4. What should Sponge Bobs conclusion be? Although Grays symptoms have disappeared, it is not known which cure helped. He should redo the experiment with a control group and two different tested groups

What is a control?
The part of the experiment that is NOT tested but it is used for comparison. Example:
Krusty was told that a certain itching powder was the newest best thing on the market; it even claims to cause 50% longer lasting itches. Interested in this product, he buys the itching powder and compares it to his usual product. One test subject (A) is sprinkled with the original itching powder, and another test subject (B) was sprinkled with the Experimental itching powder. Subject A reported having itches for 30 minutes. Subject B reported to have itches for 45 minutes. Identify the1. Control Group

2. Independent Variable

What is data?
It is information gathered during an experiment.
Patrick believes that fish that eat food exposed to microwaves will become smarter and would be able to swim through a maze faster. He decides to perform an experiment by placing fish food in a microwave for 20 seconds. He has the fish swim through a maze and records the time it takes for each one to make it to the end. He feeds the special food to 10 fish and gives regular food to 10 others. After 1 week, he has the fish swim through the maze again and records the times for each.

## Identify the Problem

What do you want to know or explain? Use observations you have made to write a question that addresses the problem or topic you want to investigate.

Form a Hypothesis
What do you think will happen? Predict the answer to your question or the outcome of the experiment.

Create an Experiment
How will you test your hypothesis? Develop a procedure for a reliable experiment and address safety rules.

Perform an Experiment

## Analyze the Data

Is the data reliable? Does your data and observations from the experiment support your hypothesis? no yes Is your data inaccurate or the experiment flawed? no yes

## Communicate the Results

Write a conclusion that summarizes the important parts of your experiment and the results

## Mythbusters-No Fly Zone

1. What warnings do they give to viewers at the beginning of the show? 2. What myth or legend are they investigating? Pick one if there are more than one in the clip you are viewing. 3. What did they know before they began investigating? 4. What did they do to investigate the myth/legend? (Use another sheet of paper if needed) 5. What did they learn from their investigation - confirmed or busted? Why? 6. Identify any controls and variables involved in the investigation. 7. Identify the safety measures they used to prevent accidents and/or injuries. 8. Are their results reliable? Explain.
T. Trimpe 2008 http://sciencespot.net/

## Penny Cup Game

Two Heads are better than one, but what about two eyes? (will you get more or fewer pennies in the cup with one eye closed?)

Hypothesis:__________________________ _________________________________ _

## Penny Cup Game

Materials Needed Short glass cup (well use plastic) At least 8 pennies Paper and pencil for charting data Table and chair

Instructions
1. To test whether two eyes Are better than one, try to see how many pennies you get into a cup with both eyes open and with one eye open.

2. Sit at a table across from your partner. Have him/her hold a penny in their hand and. You will move the cup around the table under the penny. 3. When you say drop it, your partner should drop the penny. Did it get in the cup? Try it 8 times and write down how many times the penny landed in the cup.
4. How do you think youll do if you close one eye? Predict whether youll get more or fewer pennies in the cup.

Data Chart
Name Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2

(2 eyes)

(1 eye)

After the first player is done, switch and try again. -conclusion questions When everyone has had a chance with both eyes and one eye, compare your results. Do you see a pattern? Which way seemed easier? What is the independent variable? The dependent variable? Is there a control in this experiment? If so, what is it? Would there be a difference if you changed which eye you closed?

Scientific Method Comprehension Worksheet-Classwork Read the paragraphs below and fill in the blanks with the words that make the most sense. You will find the word that matches best in each of the word groups below.
senses controls solutions solvents variable factor hypothesis conclusion theories experiments properties none of the above data hypotheses structures expressions meeting consideration laboratory conclusion solvent control deduction theory

## variable scientific control biological conclusion data experiment problem

The ______________________method is a process that scientists use to help them test new ideas. The first step in this process usually involves defining the ____________. The next step involves gathering information and making observations of natural phenomena. A way in which this can be done is by using one or more of the five ______________________. After initial observations have been made, the following step usually involves the scientist making an educated guess or a ________________________. This is a possible explanation of how or why the phenomena that have been observed occur.