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CONCRETE

Pricing - 25% concrete - 25% steel reinforcement - 50% formwork Composition - Portland Cement 7-15% (limestone , gypsum, clay, silica) hydraulic binder - Water - 14 - 21% ( excessive impurities, efflorescence, stain, durability,corrosion - Aggregate -coarse ( gravel, Stones) 80% - fine (sand) - must be clean to allow proper bonding - Admixtures - obtain certain characteristics( accelerators, retarders, air entertainers , water reducers, corrosion) -Mixing ratio effects strength and workability 0.35 to 0.40 Types - Cement Concrete (1:1:2) (1:3:6) - Reinforced concrete ( high density and great strength) - Prestressed concrete ( concrete rod) bridges, girders - Precast Concrete - Shotcrete -Dry spraying - mixed first without water -Wet spraying- altogether mixed - Self placing/ leveling concrete- consistency, increase productivity, complex shapes, - Ultra high perf. concrete - high ductile, compresive, durable, presence of fibre - fibre rc, aerated concrete, foamed concrete

Defects- Improperly consolidated Honeycomb - excessive vibration, excessive drop height, horizontal movement Extensive reinforcement Cold Joint - first fill hardened before second fill Finishes - Bushammered , simulated stone form liner, - Formwork Joint and Blemishes, Form Tie Holes