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Present Perfect Tense

The Present Perfect is used: To indicate completed activities in the immediate past. e.g. He has just gone out. It has just struck ten.

To express past action whose time is not given and not definite. e.g. Have you read Da Vinci Code? I have never known him to be angry. Giovanni has been to Japan.

To describe past events when we think more of their effect in the present than of the action itself. e.g. Silvia has eaten all the biscuits. (i.e. there arent any left for you). I have cut my finger. (and it is bleeding now). I have finished my work. (= now I am free).

To denote an action beginning from the past and continuing up to the present moment. e.g. I have known him for a long time. Francesca has been living in Modena all her life. He has been ill since last week. We have lived here for ten years. We havent seen Kelly for several months.

The following adverb or the adverb phrases can be used with the Present Perfect:

In questions only - just, often, never, ever In negatives and questions so far, till now, yet, already, since-phrases, for-phrases, today, this week, this month, etc.

Present Perfect is never used with adverbs of the past time. e.g. He has gone to Rome yesterday. (WRONG). He went to Rome yesterday. (CORRECT).