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1 November 2004

TRAINING REPORT
COMPANY: - FANUC INDIA LTD.

PLACE: - ELECTRONIC CITY, BANGALORE PERSONS : Mr. N. S. Raut- Deputy Manager. Mr. S. R. Firange-Engineer. Mr. R. G. Bhilare Engineer. Mr. A. M. Rampure-Engineer. Mr. V. Nanekar-Engineer. FACULTY: - Yaseer Wajahet PURPOSE: - Training Program on Fanuc Robot, Controller Operation, Programming and Maintenance. DATE: - 26~29 October 2004 TIMING: - 9.30am to 4.30 pm

DATE: - 26/10/2004 Following points and Activities are done on this day. INTRODUCTION In morning Peoples from BFL and FANUC introduced each other. After introduction the purpose of training and schedule of training is given. VIDEO PRESENTATION ON FANUC, JAPAN. They give us Video Presentation on the company profile of Fanuc, Japan. In this video they had shown the facilities of robot manufacturing, servo Control factory, various R & D projects and CNC manufacturing. Total manufacturing and assembling of robot and servomotors is robotized. Fanuc India has facility of sales and service in India. ROBOT CLASSIFICATION: 1. Work Envelope The Work Envelope depends on the degree of freedom or no of axis. Work envelope varies from 0.5 to 2.6 m/ 3.2 m 2. Payload Payload capacity of robot is load carrying capacity at J6 in work envelope. Fanuc makes the robot from 5 Kg to 450Kg payload capacity robots. Recently they have made the robot with payload capacity of 650 kg. The capacity of model R200i A/F 165 which is ordered by BFL is 165 Kg. 3. Application The robots are also classified on application as follows Spot welding robot Material handling robot Arc welding robot Plasma cutting robots Spray painting robots

4. Degree of Freedom.

In this class robots are available from 4 DOF to 6 DOF. ROBOT: Robot can be divided in to two Parts: Mechanical parts: In this the main parts are Manipulator Body (yellow), Motors, Base, Balancing cylinder. The manipulator body is made of light metal i.e. Al alloys. The base of robot is made of heavy casting. Balancing cylinder is used for balance the robot while operation. Electrical Parts: This contains Controllers, Amplifier, CPU, and Power Supply Unit (PSU). The main controller is used to get signals from the system and gives the signal to robot to operate. Amplifier is used to convert the 415 Volt, 50 Hz supply to 200 Volts, 60 Hz because all the design of the robot is manufactured as per Japanese standards. The CPU contains the main processor, FRAM in which all data is saved ROBOT PROGRAMMING: Robot programming is nothing but a teaching a path, which should be followed by the robot by using the TEACH PENDANT. Then by selecting auto mode we can obtain the same motion repetitively. While teaching the robot the robot is kept in STEP mode and Speed of 10 %(by default). This is for safety point of view. After getting experience one can increase the speed. MODES OF MOTION OF ROBOT For movement of robot four modes are used, they are as follows: 1. JOINT In This mode we can get motion of every joint independently i.e.J1, J2, J3, ----, J6. 2. JGFRAM 3

In JOGFRAM mode the robot moves with reference to Cartesian coordinates with zero reference at middle of robot base. 3. TOOL In TOOL frame mode we can define coordinates of tool for reference. We can move axis according to tool reference position. For this we define zero reference at tool tip. 4. USER In this mode we can define the coordinates as per user requirement. INTERPOLATION In robot we can move to different points by three methods: 1. J (Arial / Joint) 2. L (Linear) 3. C (Circular) P1 * JOINT

P2 CIRCULAR P4

P3

P5 LINEAR

1: J P [2] 10% (Shortest path with min. energy consumption) 2: C P [3] FINE / CNT 100 P [4] 100 mm/sec 3: L P [5] 100 mm/sec (touch up) (Circular path) (Linear path)

We can change the recorded point by selecting new point and pressing (SHIFT + TOUCH UP) keys. TEACH PENDANT On teach pendant there are following options 1. Menu: In this option all menus are displayed like Alarm, Tool frame setup, I/Os, etc. 2. Select: All programs in the teach pendant are displayed using this option. We can create, delete, copy program in this option. 3. Edit: Using this option we can go to program editing screen 4. Data: In this we can get the data regarding the registers, position registers, timer and I/Os. 5. Function: this contains aux. Options like program abort, wait release, load, save, print etc. CREATE NEW PROGRAM For creating new program following steps are followed MENU SELECT CREATE After this write program name and other details like type (sub), comment, Group mask, write protection etc. Press END key. By using group masking we can control maximum 16 axes in four groups.

DATE: - 27/10/04 INSTRUCTIONS (INST) REGISTERS: Register is a variable for holding an integer or decimal fraction. There are 200 registers available and designated as R [i]; where i =1,2,3 Register instructions perform arithmetic operations on registers. The following register instructions are available: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. e.g. Register Instructions Registers I/O IF/SELECT WAIT JMP/LBL CALL PALLETIZING ----NEXT PAGE---R[1]= R[2]+R[3]

POSITION REGISTER: A position register is a variable for holding position data (x,y,z,w,p,r). Position register instructions performs an arithmetic operations on position registers. PR instruction can load position data, the sum of two values, or difference of two values, into specified register. There are 200 Position Registers available and designated as PR [i]; where i =1,2,3 PALLETIZING REGISTERS: Palletizing Registers are used for automatic palletizing. It holds data regarding rows, columns, and layers (1 to 127).

MENUS: 1. Utility-Displays information regarding FANUC robot model, software version. 2. Test cycle-It contains fuctions like DRY RUN, Robot Lock etc. 3. Set Up-Using this fuction we can change language, offset, tool offset, FRAMES, creating MACRO. 4. Reference Position-we can define a reference Position for robot

5. RSR/PNS- used to start the program automatically and operate a production line. 6. User Alarm- Alarms can be set to display certain conditions. 7. FILE-using this function files from Memory card can be routed to Teach Pendent vice versa. 8. User-we can create logins and passwords. FRAMES: The frames instruction is used to change the settings of the Cartesian coordinate system by which the robot works. There are two kinds in this instruction 1. 2. Frame setup instruction-The definition of the specified frame is changed. Frame select instruction-the frame no being selected is now changed.

1.Tool frame (Tool Coordinate system) A tool coordinate system is a Cartesian coordinate system that defines the positions of the tool center point (TCP) and the attitude of the tool. On this zero point is the TCP and Z-axis is tool axis. There are 3 methods to set up tool frame as follows: 1.1 Six point method 1.2 Three point method 1.3 Direct List method 1.1 SIX POINT METHOD MENU SET UP TYPE (F1 Key) FRAMES OTHER (F3 Key) Tool frame screen is displayed. Move the cursor to Tool frame number line you want to set.

Press DETAIL (F2 Key) The Tool Frame setup screen is displayed. Press F2, METHOD. The Six-point screen is displayed. Select any point Press Shift+F5 (RECORD) Similarly record the same point by five times more by different orientation Move the tool in X and Z direction and record the points at ends. To make this Tool Frame effective; press F5 SETIND Then enter frame no. 1.2 THREE POINT METHOD This method has same procedure as of Six Point Method ;only difference is to select three points. This method is less accurate than Six Point Method. 1.3 DIRECT LIST METHOD Display Tool frame List screen (refer 6 point method) Move the cursor to Tool frame number line you want to set. Press DETAIL (F2 Key) The Tool Frame setup screen is displayed Press F2, METHOD. Select direct entry. Tool frame set up is displayed. Add a comment Enter coordinates values of tool frame To make this Tool Frame effective; press F5 SETIND Then enter frame no. 2. USER FRAME (USER COORDINATE SYSTEM) A User Coordinate system is a Cartesian system defined for each workspace by the User. If the coordinate system is not defined, the world coordinate system substitutes it.

Define User coordinate system by (x,y,z) indicating the position of zero point and (w,p,r) indicating the angular displacement around X,Y, and Z axes. There are 3 methods to set up tool frame as follows: 2.1 Four point method 2.2 Three point method 2.3 Direct List method The procedure for above methods is same as the setting tool frame only difference is to select USER FRAME instead of TOOL FRAME. REFERENCE POSITION A reference position is a fixed (predetermined) position that is frequently used in program or when the robot is moved by jog feed. The reference position is safe position, which is usually distant from operating area of m/c tool. Three reference positions can be specified. MISCELLANEOUS INSTRUCTIONS. INST MISCELLENAEOUS 1. RSR: - This instruction is used for automatic program loading. 2. USER ALARM: - This instruction pauses program and displays alarm message as set in the program. 3. TIMER: - This instruction is used to start stop and reset the timer as per requirement. 4. COMMENT: - This instruction is used to write comment in the program. While execution this lines are eliminated. 5. OVERRIDE: - Using this instruction we can reduce the speed of selected movements. 6. MESSAGE: -The message instruction displays a specified message on the User screen.

DATE: - 28/10/04 INPUTS AND OUTPUTS (INTERFACING): Input/Outputs signals are electric signals that allow the controller to communicate with robot, end effector, external equipment, and other peripheral equipment of the system. MENU I/O TYPE LINK DEVICE: The I/O link screen is used to make setting related to FANUC I/O unit model and displays the Configuration of the I/O link units. The I/o link screen displays a list of I/O units in Slave Mode that are connected to the I/O link. It also displays the Rack and Slot numbers of each unit. DIGITAL I/O: It is a group of general-purpose signals that send or receive the data of the peripheral equipment via process I/O printed circuit board (or I/O module)The Digital signals is set ON or OFF. RACK: The rack indicates the kind of the hardware, which composes I/O module. 0= Process I/O PC board. 1 to 16= I/O unit

Rack 1,2, and so on are assigned to the base units of I/O model A and the interface units of I/O unit model B in order, which they are connected. SLOT: The slot indicates the number of I/O module parts which Composes RACK.

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CONFIGURING I/O: MENU I/O TYPE Digital IN/OUT CONFIG (F2 Key) MONITOR (F2 Key) Place the cursor on the Range and specify the range of signals to be assigned. Line division is performed automatically according to the specified range. Enter appropriate values for Rack and Slot and Start Point. When entered values are valid, :PEND is displayed in status. If entered values are invalid INVAL is displayed. Press MONITOR To set attributes of I/O , press NEXT, and DETAIL. Press PREV to return to selection key. TURN OFF CONTROLLER. TURN ON AGAIN. GROUP O/P: -group I/O is a general purpose signals that send or receive the data by using two or more signals lines as the same group. To configure the GROUP I/O ; The procedure is same as the DIGITAL I/O only difference is instead of selecting Digital; select Group. ROBOT I/O: Robot input signal (RDI) and robot output signal (RDO) are input/output signals that can be controlled by the user.

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AUTOMATIC SELECTION OF PROGRAM: Automatic operation is the function with which the remote controller starts a

program, using the peripheral I/O. The automatic operation includes the following functions. 1. The Robot Service Request (RSR) function selects and starts a program according to the robot service request signals (RSR1 to RSR8 inputs). When another program is being executed or is temporarily stopped, the selected program enters the wait state and is started once the program is currently being executed terminates. MENU SETUP TYPE RSR/PNS CHOICE (F4 Key) RSR DETAIL (F3 Key) Position the cursor to the target item and enter a value. After changing PNS to RSR, to enable the change; turn the power off, then on again. 2. The Program Number Selection (PNS) function selects or examines program, using the program number selection signals (PNS1 to PNS8) while a program is temporarily stopped or being executed, these signals are ignored. The procedure for setting PNS function is same as that of RSR. Program will run automatically when: -Robot is not in step mode. -Robot setup should be configured as REMOTE. -User operated signal CMD_enable -Teach pendant should be disable.

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MACRO: Macro instruction is a function for registering a program consisting of

sequence of instructions as one instruction and calling such a set of instructions for execution as required. Macro can be set of motion instructions or any non-motion instructions. The non-motion instructions consist of register instructions or any I/O instructions. These macros are called in main program by using CALL function whenever required. This instruction is very useful for small repetitive set of instructions. e.g. HOME POSITION MENU SELECT DETAIL SUBTYPE CHOICE MACRO A group mask can be set (*, *, *, *, *) for a program not including motion instruction. MENU SETUP TYPE Macro. Program Choice After program selected; assign a key from seven function keys provided on Teach Pendent.

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FILE SAVE (LOADING AND BACKUP) A program is a unit of data storage in the memory of the controller. This

program data can be copied to removal disks and used on computers for backup. This backup data can be reloaded on controller whenever required. MENU FILE TYPE FILE UTILITY. SET DEVICE-1. Floppy Disk 2. Auto Back Up 3. Memory Card. After selecting the device, press BACKUP. LOADING OF FILES. The files can be load externally through MEMORY CARD only. The file input/output device is set correctly. MENU SELECT LOAD (F3 Key) NAME OF PROGRAM To see all the files in the memory of controller use the function DIR

DATE: - 2910/04 SYSTEM VARIABLES: 14

All system variables can be seen with the system variable screen. Setting of the system is stored in the system variables. MENU SYSTEM TYPE (F1 Key) VARIABLES To change settings of system variables, move cursor to desired field and press ENTER. After changing settings turn power OFF then ON again. SOME IMPORTANT SYSTEM VARIABLES. $ DMR_GRP This variable shows the DMR values required for the mastering. $ MASTER_DONE This variable shows the mastering is done or not. $ MASTER_COUN Pulse coder count at zero degree position is stored. This value is calculated from current count at mastering and current position. MASTERING: Mastering associates with the angle of each axis of the robot with the pulse count of the absolute pulse coder connected to motor of each axis. More specifically, mastering is performed by obtaining the pulse cont read at zero degree position. Mastering data is factory set but it may be lost due to voltage drop of back up battery or any cable is cut etc. There are five types of mastering.

1. JIG MASTERING: -

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Mastering is performed by using a special Jig. Jig mastering is performed at the factory. MENU SYSTEM TYPE (F1 Key) Master/Cal Move the robot by jog feed to the mastering position. Then select the mastering type; press F4 key (YES) Then select 6 CALIBRATE; press F4 key (YES) Press F5 DONE. Turn power OFF then ON again.

2. ZERO POSITION MASTERING: Mastering is performed with axis of robot aligned with the zero degree position. The zero degree position mark attached to each axis of the robot is referenced. The procedure is same as for JIG MASTERING only difference is move the robot by jog feed to the ZERO DEGREE POSITIONS and choose ZERO POSITION MASTER; the rest of the same. 3. QUICK MASTERING: The mastering position can be set to any position. To do this reference points must be set in advance. Make System variable $MASTER_ENB ; 1 or 2. Display Master/Cal screen. Jog robot to quick mastering position and select QUICK MASTER. Rest of the procedure is same as above methods. 4. SINGLE AXIS MASTERING: -

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Single axis mastering is that the mastering is performed at every one axis. System variable $MASTER_ENB must be set to 1. Display Master/Cal screen. Select 4 SINGLE AXIS MASTER Enter the 1 to SEL setting field of the axis that you want to perform mastering. SEL can be specified for every one axis simultaneously. Press F5 EXEC. This causes SEL is to set 0 and ST to 2 or 1. Press PREV Select6 CALIBRATE Press F5 DONE. 5. SET QUICK MASTER REF: Mastering Data is set in Mastering counters directly. Select 6 SYSTEM from MENU. Select Variables. Select $ DMR_GRP. SELECT $MASTER_COUN. And Enter the mastering data. Press PREV key Set $MASTER_DONE to TRUE. Display Master/cal screen and select 6 CALIBRATE. Press F5 DONE.

MAINTENANCE OF ROBOT: -

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CHANGING PCB CARD: In control cabinet there are slots for PCB cards. We can add one PCB card for

each added group. For changing the PCB card this card is pulled out of the slot directly. ALARM SCREEN: This screen shows faults occurred. This alarm screen can be reset after specific time. CHANGING BATTERY: A battery is located in the base of the robot. This is used to store the pulse coder values when the robot power is OFF. If batteries of the robot get discharged it can be replaced. The capacitor in the circuit will give supply for half hour after removal of battery. So we get this time to change battery. If these batteries are not replaced all data regarding the pulse coder values will be lost and robot will require calibration. GREESING: The Greasing points/openings are provided on the robot manipulator. The Greasing gun is pressed at these points/openings until the new grease is come through another point/opening on the robot body. This is very easy method and does not require any adjustments to be done on the robot body.

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