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1. Diagram 1 shows the structure of a cell as seen using an electron microscope.

Diagram 1

(a) On Diagram 1, name the structures labelled K,L,M and N.


[4 marks]

(b) (i) Where could this cell be found?

___________________________________________________

(ii) Explain your answer in (b) (i).

____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
[2 marks]
(c) What is structure K made of?
__________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(d) State the function of

(i) a mitochondrion
__________________________________________________________

(ii) structure N

__________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
(e) (i) What is the most important constituent of structure M?

__________________________________________________________

(ii) State the function of structure M.


__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

(f) Explain the role of L in maintaining cell turgidity.


_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

2. Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2 show two different types of transport processes
across the plasma membrane. [10 marks]
(a) On Diagram 2.1, label the following structures:
•Phospholipid bilayer with letter X
•Pore protein with letter Y [2 marks]

(b) State two features of the phospholipid bilayer. [2 marks]


____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
___

(c) Name each transport process across the plasma membrane as shown in
Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2.(2 marks)
Process in Diagram 2.1: _________________________________________________
Process in Diagram 2.2:
_________________________________________________

(d) What is the characteristic displayed by the plasma membrane in both processes?

__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(e) If substance in diagram 2.2 are sodium ion. Describe how they are transported out
of the cell. [3 marks]
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
____
3. The Diagram 3 shows the organelles involved in the production of extracellular enzymes.

Diagram 3

By giving an example, explain the term extracellular enzyme.


___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

Based on the organelles shown, explain how extracellular enzymes are produced.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
[4 marks]

(b) The Diagram 3.2 shows the action of an enzyme and its substrate.

Diagram 3.2
(i) If the substrate used is lipid, name the part labelled P, Q and R.
P : _______________________________________________
Q : _______________________________________________
R : _______________________________________________
[3 marks]

(ii) What is the principles of enzymatic reaction shown in Diagram 3.2


______________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(iii) State three characteristic of enzyme shown in Diagram 3.2
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
[3 marks]

4. The Diagram 4.1 shows the various structures of protein.

Diagram 4.1

(a) Name the structure P, Q, R and S.


P : _____________________________________________________________________
Q : _____________________________________________________________________
R : _____________________________________________________________________
S : _____________________________________________________________________

[4 marks]

(b) Explain how

a dipeptide is formed.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
structure S is formed from structure R.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(c) Give one example of a substance for each of the protein structures of R & S.
R : _____________________________________________________________________
S : _____________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

What is denaturation?
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
What is the result of denaturation of proteins?
___________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(e) State the differences between essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids.

[2 marks]

5. Diagram 5.1 shows three stages of meiosis X, Y and Z in an animal cell.

X Y Z

Diagram 5.1

a) Name the stages X, Y and Z in diagram 1.1.


X:________________________________________________________________
Y:________________________________________________________________
Z:________________________________________________________________
(3 marks)
b) Explain what happens at stage Z
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
(3 marks)

c) State the chromosomal behavior at the following stages:


i) Stage X: ____________________________________________________
ii) Stage Y:____________________________________________________
(2
marks)
d) Explain the role of mitosis in the cloning of banana plant.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
(3 marks)
e) Diagram 5.2 shows a cell at a certain phase. If chromosome P is not separated,
draw the diagrams of two daughter cells which will be formed in the next phase in
the spaces provided below.

Daughter cell I Daughter cell II


Diagram 5.2
(2 marks)

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Paper 2 Scheme Biology

Question Suggested answer Score


number
1. (a) K: cell wall L: vacuole 4m
M: nucleus N: chloroplast

(b) (i) in plants 1m


(ii) The presence of the cell wall, chloroplasts and a 1m
large central vacuole clearly indicates that the
cell is a plant cell.

(c) Cellulose 1m

(d) (i) Supplies the cell with energy it requires to carry 1m


out cellular activities.
(ii) Contains chlorophyll which absorb sunlight to 1m
carry out photosynthesis

(e) (i) DNA 1m


(ii) It controls and regulates all cellular activities. 1m

(f) When water enters the cell by osmosis it fills up the 2m


vacuole causes it to expand. The vacuole and
cytoplasm press the plasma membrane against the
cell wall.

Total 13m
(a)
2
Y
2m
X

(b)
• the polar hydrophilic heads are contact with the extra
cellular environment and intracellular environment
• the non polar hydrophobic tail of both layer point
toward each other 2m

(c) Diagram 2.1: facilitated diffusion 1m


Diagram 2.2: active transport 1m

(d) The plasma membrane is partially permeable / semi-


permeable 1m

(e)
• sodium ion approach and bind it to the carrier protein 1m
• ATP molecules spilt to ADP and P, releasing the 1m
energy to carrier protein.
• Energy from the ATP changes the shape of the carrier 1m
protein, allowing the
• sodium ion to be transported out of the cell against
the concentration gradient/ from lower concentration
region to higher concentration region 1m

Max = 3 marks
10m
Total
3 (a) (i) An example is amylase. 1m
Extracellular enzyme is produced in a cell, then
packed and secreted from the cell. It catalyses its
reaction outside the cell. 1m

Total = 2m

(ii) -The instruction for making the extracellular 1m


enzyme is transcribed from the deoxyribonucleic
acid (DNA) to ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the
nucleus.
-The RNA then leaves the nucleus through the 1m
nuclear pore and attaches itself to the ribosome
located on the endoplasmic reticulum.
-When the synthesis of the enzymes is completed, 1m
it is encapsulated in a transport vesicle which fuses
with the Golgi Body. 1m
-In the Golgi Body, the enzyme is further modified
before being packed in a secretory vesicle.
- The secretory vesicle transports the enzyme to the 1m
plasma membrane, where it fuses with it and the
enzyme is released outside the cell. max=4

(b) (i) P : Lipase 1m


Q : Fatty acid/glycerol 1m
R : Glycerol/fatty acid 1m

(ii) Lock and key hypothesis 1m

(iii) - enzyme has specific site/active site to bind with 1m


specific substrate
- enzyme are not change or destroyed by the reaction 1m
- enzyme can be reused after enzyme catalysed 1m
Reaction.

Total 13m
4 (a) P : Primary 1m
Q : Secondary 1m
R : Tertiary 1m
S : Quaternary 1m

(b) (i) When two amino acids combine, a condensation


reaction takes place producing a dipeptide with the
formation of a peptide bond joining them and water is
given out. 1m

(ii) Two more structure R combine together to form


one large and complex protein molecule that is
structure S. 1m

(c) R : Enzymes, hormones or antibodies. 1m


S : Haemoglobin. 1m

(d) (i) Denaturation is a process to break down a peptide


bond causing the protein structure to change. This
is caused by heat, pH, ultraviolet rays. 1m

(ii) The protein becomes inactive and cannot function. 1m

(e) - Essential amino acids are amino acids that cannot be


synthesized by the body while non essential amino
acids are amino acids that can be synthesized by the
body. 1m

- Essential amino acids can only be obtained from a


healthy diet while non essential amino acids are
derived from other amino acids. 1m

Total 12m
5 a) 1m
X: Anaphase
Y: Metaphase 1m
Z: Prophase
(1m
b) Chromosome shorten. /Nuclear membrane disappears.
/The spindle fibres form.
2m

(
c) i) Stage X: The chromatids move towards the opposite
poles 1m
ii) Stage Y: The chromosome are arranged on the
metaphase plate
d) 1m
- Mitosis increases the number of cells.
- Mitosis maintains the genetic contents of parent cell from 1 1m
generation to the next. 1m
- Mitosis maintains the diploid number of chromosomes in a
species. 1m
Daughter cell I Daughter cell II

e)

Diagram 5.2

Students able to draw one daughter cell with chromosome P not

separated , and the other three chromosomes being separated

become chromatid in both daughter cell.


2m

12m
(2 marks)
Total