Sie sind auf Seite 1von 21

ANALYSIS OF MISSILE CONTROL SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION

1. Definition. The control system is that means by which any quantity of interest
in a machine, mechanism or other equipment is maintained or altered in accordance with
a desired manner. Control means measuring the value of the controlled variable of the
system and applying the manipulated variable to the system to correct or limit deviation
of the measured value from the desired value.
(a) Plant. A plant is a set of machine parts functioning together, the purpose
of which is to perform a particular operation (process).

(b) System. A system is a combination of components that act together


and perform a certain objective.

(c) Feedback Control System. A system that maintains a prescribed


relationship between the output and some reference input by comparing them and
using the difference as a means of control is called a feedback control system.

(d) A physical system is a collection of physical objects connected together to


serve an objective.

(e) An idealized physical system is called a physical model. No physical


system can be represented in its full physical intricacies and therefore idealizing
assumptions are always made for the purpose of analysis and synthesis of
systems. A physical system can be modeled in a number of ways depending upon
the specific problem to be dealt with and the desired accuracy.

(f) Once a physical model of a physical system is obtained, the next step is to
obtain a mathematical model that is the mathematical representation of the
physical model through use of appropriate physical laws e.g, Kirchhoff’s law for
electrical networks, Newton’s laws for mechanical systems.

(g) A control system may be modeled as a scalar differential equation


describing the system or state variable vector-matrix differential equation. A
mathematical model is linear, if the differential equation describing it has
coefficients, which are either functions only of the independent variable or are
constants.

(i) If the coefficients of the describing differential equations are


functions of time (independent variable), then the mathematical model is
linear time-varying.

(ii) If the coefficients are constants, the model is linear time-invariant.

(h) For transient response or frequency response analysis of single-input-


single-output linear systems, we use the transfer function representation, which is
called the classical control approach.

(j) When a system has multiple inputs and outputs, the vector-matrix notation
is convenient and this is called the modern control approach.

2. The effectiveness of a guided missile weapon system, in terms of accuracy and


probability of kill, depends greatly on the response characteristics of the complete
guidance, control, and airframe loop. Since the accuracy or effectiveness of a guided
missile depends greatly on the dynamics of the missile, particularly during the terminal
phase of its flight, it is often desirable to predict its flight dynamics in the early
preliminary-design phase to assure that a reasonably satisfactory missile configuration is
realized.

3. The cruciform configuration of missile will be considered. This can be of two


types: the plus(+)-type and the cross(X)-type.

(a) In case of plus type, the control surfaces are designated clockwise
from right as 1,2,3 & 4. Here, 1 & 3 will act as rudders or yaw
controls and when deflected ill maneuver the missile in a flat turn,
right or left.. 2 & 4, likewise, will act as elevators or pitch controls
and when deflected will maneuver the missile vertically, up or
down.

1
3

2
(b) In case of cross type, there is no such demarcation of control
surface pair for a particular maneuver. On the other hand all four
surfaces act together for any kind of maneuver i.e., pitch or yaw.
The control surfaces are in pairs (same hinge for cross surfaces).
Hence if both the sets of control surfaces are deflected by the same
attitude, then this will result in pitching action. If both sets are
1
deflected4in opposite directions then this will result in yawing
motion.

3
2
(i) Advantages of cross configuration: - If the control force Nc = x
newtons in + configuration of a particular missile and the same missile is
configured into x type, then Nc will be √2 times x; hence control
effectiveness has been increased by √2 times without changing the control
surfaces. Also, the magnitude of each set of control deflections is
approximately 0.7 of that required for the case of plus type.

(ii) Drawbacks: -Here there is a need to deflect all four control


surfaces; hence power consumption from the servos and the drag forces
due to the control surfaces will be higher than for plus type. Also for roll
control ailerons will have to be incorporated.

4. The plus type cruciform configuration of missile will be considered in this


analysis.

CLASSICAL CONTROL APPROACH

5. Definitions. In the plus type cruciform missile, the control surfaces are
designated clockwise from right as 1,2,3 & 4 and their deflections are designated ξ1, ξ2,
ξ3 & ξ4. The sign convention to be followed is that when right hand is holding the
respective control surface of the missile with thumb pointing away from the body of the
missile, then if the deflection is in the direction towards which the other fingers are
pointing then it is designated positive and if it is in the opposite direction of the fingers it
is negative.

(a) Elevator deflection can be given by the equation


η = ½(ξ1 – ξ3) ________________ (5.1)
(b) Rudder deflection can be given by the equation
ζ = ½(ξ2 – ξ4) ________________ (5.2)
(c) Aileron deflection can be given by the equation
ξ = ¼(ξ1 + ξ2 + ξ3 + ξ4)_____________ (5.3)
SIGN CONVENTIONS

TOP VIEW SIDE VIEW

3 4

1 2

CONTROL SURFACE CONTROL SURFACE


1 2

+ VE - VE

- VE +VE

CONTROL SURFACE CONTROL SURFACE


3 4

- VE + VE

+ VE - VE
ELEVATOR DEFLECTION η = ½(ξ1 – ξ3)
PITCH UP

CONTROL SURFACE CONTROL SURFACE


1 3

+ VE - VE

- VE +VE

RUDDER DEFLECTION ζ = ½(ξ2 – ξ4)


TURNING LEFT

CONTROL SURFACE CONTROL SURFACE


2 4

- VE + VE

+ VE - VE
AILERON DEFLECTION ξ = ¼(ξ1 + ξ2 + ξ3 + ξ4)
ROLLING LEFT

CONTROL SURFACE CONTROL SURFACE


1 2

+ VE - VE

- VE +VE

CONTROL SURFACE CONTROL SURFACE


3 4

- VE + VE

+ VE - VE

6. Sign Convention for moments. Here consider the right fist to be holding
either x, y or z-axis with the thumb pointing towards positive direction of respective axes.
Then, the direction in which the other fingers are pointing or facing decides positive
value of moments.
SIGN CONVENTION FOR MOMENTS

- VE
+ VE
+ VE

- VE

+ VE

- VE

7. Mathematical Analysis. Thus we have three equations for elevator, rudder


and aileron deflection as follows: -
(a) Elevator deflection can be given by the equation
η = ½(ξ1 – ξ3) ________________ (7.1)
(b) Rudder deflection can be given by the equation
ζ = ½(ξ2 – ξ4) ________________ (7.2)
(c) Aileron deflection can be given by the equation
ξ = ¼(ξ1 + ξ2 + ξ3 + ξ4)_____________ (7.3)

Since there are three equations and four unknown variables in them, there is no unique
solution for these three set of equations i.e., there is an infinite set of solutions. Hence we
can only choose the best (or unique) solution from this set of solutions depending on a
particular requirement (e.g., choose ξ1, ξ2, ξ3, ξ4 such that drag is to be kept minimum).
This is called optimization.
AERODYNAMIC DERIVATIVES

8. Aerodynamic derivatives are devices enabling control engineers to obtain transfer


functions defining the response of a missile to aileron, elevator or rudder inputs.

STATEMENTS

9. Positive aileron deflection will result into negative rolling moment.


L = Total rolling moment acting on missile
Ix p˙ = L
= Lξξ + Lpp
Lξ = roll moment derivative due to aileron deflection = (ð L/ ð ξ)ξ
This must have negative sign since moment generated by positive aileron
movement is negative. The same holds good for sign of Lp.
(a) Lξ which is the rolling moment, is not a linear function of ξ due to two
reasons
(i) Aileron effectiveness decreases with total incidence θ.
(ii) For a given θ, Lξ is not a linear function of ξ, although the graph
passes through origin.
(b) However, bearing in mind that in most applications ξ is unlikely to exceed
a few degrees we can consider Lξ as constant.

Yvv

x
v

l
Y
Yξ ξ
10. Yaw Derivative.
m(v˙ + rU) = Y _______________________(1)
Iz r˙ = N _______________________(2)

Y = Force in y direction
= Yv v + Yr r + Yζζ + ….
Yv = ð Y/ ð ξ = aerodynamic force derivative in y direction due to side slip
angle or side slip velocity v

Yr = ð Y/ ð r = aerodynamic force derivative in y direction due to yaw


Yζ = ð Y/ ð ζ = aerodynamic force derivative in y direction due to rudder
movement/deflection.

(a) In this situation, v is positive but force due to Yv is negative.


Hence the product Yv v is negative.
(b) The diagram is the top view of missile showing the control surface
no.4. Here the deflection of the control surface is –ve. So as per the
rudder deflection equation ζ = ½(ξ2 – ξ4) is positive.
Hence Yζ is also positive.
(c) Iz r˙ = N shows yaw movement is about z axis.
m(v˙ + rU) = Y shows force in Y direction only can cause moment
about Z direction. Hence the two equations are coupled.

N = Nv v + Nr r + Nζζ + ….

(i) For positive deflection of rudder (ξ4 = -ve) moment is opposite.


Hence sign of Nζ is negative.

(ii) Torque generated by control surface deflection is opposite to


direction of deflection of control surface and moment = force x distance,
Nv v = Yv v x x. Here Yv and x are negative. Hence Nv v is positive.

11. Rewriting force equation,


m(v˙ + rU) = Yv v + Yr r + Yζζ
mv˙ = Yv v + Yr r + Yζζ - mrU
v˙ = (Yv /m)v + ( Yr /m)r + (Yζ/m) ζ - rU
v˙ = yv v + (yr - U) r + yζ ζ _______________________(3)

12. Rewriting the moment equation,


Iz r˙ = Nv v + Nr r + Nζζ
r˙ = (Nv / Iz ) v + ( Nr / Iz ) r + ( Nζ/ Iz) ζ
r˙ = nv v + nr r + nζζ _______________________(4)

where yv , yr r, yζ ζ, nv v, nr r & nζζ are normalized values.


THE CONTROL EQUATIONS FOR A MISSILE

13. The control equations for a missile, omitting the force equation along the x axis as
this neither affects the roll, pitch or yaw motion and the gravity term and considering the
forces and moments which are purely of aerodynamic origin can be written down as
below: -
.
mf y  m(v  rU )  Y  Yv v  Yr r  Y 
.
i.e., f y  v  rU  yv v  yr r  y  ___________(1)
.
mf z  m( w qU )  Z  Z w w  Z q q  Z
.
i.e., f z  w qU  zw w  zq q  z __________(2)
.
A p  L  L p p  L  (taking.B ; C )
.
i.e., p  l p p  l  _______________________(3)
.
B q  M  M w w  M q q  M 
.
i.e., q  mw w  mq q  m __________________(4)
.
C r  N  N v v  N r r  N 
.
i.e., r  nv v  nr r  n  ___________________(5)

14. Roll Rate/Aileron p /  . This is the simplest aerodynamic transfer function.


.
p  l p p  l  ;
p l l / l
    p ____________(6)
 s  l p Ta s  1
where l / l p can be regarded as a steady state gain and Ta  1/  l p and can be
regarded as an aerodynamic constant.

15. Lateral Acceleration/Rudder f y /ζ : Eliminating r and v using equation (1) and


(5) yields: -
f y y s 2  y nr s  U (n yv  nv y )
 2 ________(7)
 s  ( yv  nr ) s  yv nr  Unv
It is seen that yr is omitted from this transfer function since it is a very small quantity.
yv nr  Unv is the square of the undamped natural frequency and is usually referred to as
the weathercock frequency; it reflects the tendency for a stable missile to return to the
unperturbed zero incidence position.
TRANSFER FUNCTION MODEL OF A MISSILE : YAW PLANE

16. Transfer function is defined as the ration of the Laplace Transform of the output
variable to the Laplace Transform of the input variable. Here the control model is the
missile under test and input is deflection, say, rudder while output is either lateral
acceleration in Y direction or velocity component in Y direction (side slip angle in steady
state) or yaw rate in Y direction.

v˙ = yv v + (yr - U) r + yζ ζ _______________________(6)
r˙ = nv v + nr r + nζζ _______________________(7)
Equations (6) and (7) are simultaneous equations.
Taking Laplace transform on both sides,
(1) = s v(s) = yv v(s) + (yr - U) r(s) + yζ ζ(s)
(2) = s r(s) = nv v (s) + nr r(s) + nζζ(s)
(s - yv )v(s) - (yr - U) r(s) = yζ ζ(s)
- nv v (s) + (s- nr ) r(s) = nζζ(s)

 (s - yv ) (yr - U)   v(s)   y 
     ( s)
 - nv (s- nr )   r(s)   n 

17. Solving this equation using Cramer’s rule or inverse of matrix, we get

v( s ) y (  nr )  n (U  yr )

 ( s ) ( s  yv )( s  nr )  nv (U  yr )
Similarly
r (s) n ( s  yv)  nvy

 ( s ) ( s  yv )( s  nr )  nv (U  yr )

(a) Equation 1.1 describes how sideslip angle acts on missile; while equation 1.2
describes how yaw-rate acts on missile.

18. m(v˙ + rU) = Y _______________________(4)


This equation is mass x acceleration = Force i.e.,
may = Y where ay = v˙ + rU. Hence
ay (s) = s v(s) + U r(s)
ay ( s ) v( s ) r ( s )
Dividing by ζ(s), s  U
 ( s)  ( s )  ( s)
Substituting eqns 1.1 and 1.2 in 1.3, we get lateral acceleration due to rudder deflection
as
ay ( s ) s 2 y  snry  sn yr  U (n yv  nvy )
 2
 ( s) s  (nr  yv ) s  yvnr  nvU  nvyr
19. Analogously, the same equations can be derived in pitch plane also (η) for the
w( s ) q ( s ) az ( s )
quantities , , .
 ( s)  ( s)  ( s)

20. Further analyzing the equation 1.4,


 v( s) 1 v( s)
β = v/u    .
 U  ( s) U  ( s)
.

Rate of change of flight path of missile as rudder function is  y



Flight path angle is angle with respect to a local vertical in yaw axis and with respect to a
local horizontal(ground) in pitch axis.
.
 y =  1 . v( s )
 U  (s)

TRANSFER FUNCTION MODEL OF A MISSILE : PITCH PLANE

21. Here the control model is the missile under test and input is deflection, say,
elevator while output is either lateral acceleration in Z direction or velocity component in
Z direction or pitch rate in Z direction.
.
mf z  m( w qU )  Z  Z w w  Z q q  Z
.
i.e., f z  w qU  zw w  zq q  z
.
I y q  M  M w w  M q q  M 
.
i.e., q  mw w  mq q  m

w˙ = zw w + (zq + U) q + zη η _______________________(6)
q˙ = mw w + mq q + mηη _______________________(7)
Equations (6) and (7) are simultaneous equations.
Taking Laplace transform on both sides,
(1) = s w(s) = zw w (s) + (zq + U) q(s) + zη η(s)
(2) = s q(s) = mw w(s) + mq q(s) + mηη(s)
(s - zw )w(s) - (zq + U) q(s) = zη η (s)
- mw w(s) + (s- mq ) q(s) = mη η (s)

 (s - z w ) - (z q + U)   w(s)   z 
    m  ( s )
 - mw (s- m q )   q(s)    

22. Solving this equation using Cramer’s rule or inverse of matrix, we get
 (s - z w ) - (z q + U)   w(s)   z 
    m  ( s)
 - mw (s- m q )   q(s)    
w( s ) z (s- m q )  m (z q + U)

 ( s) ( s  z w )( s  m q )  m w (z q + U)
Similarly
q(s) m ( s  z w )  z m w

 ( s ) ( s  z w )( s  m q )  m w (z q + U)

23. The angle of attack due to elevator deflection can be found from: -
w w
tan   ; for.small.angles.    ;
U u
 ( s) 1 w( s)  ( s ) 1 z (s- m q )  m (z q + U)
  ; 
 ( s ) U  ( s )  ( s ) U ( s  z w )( s  m q )  m w (z q + U)
The lateral acceleration due to elevator deflection can be derived as follows: -
.
m( w qU )  Z _______________________(4)
This equation is mass x acceleration = Force i.e.,
maz = Z where az = w˙ - qU. Hence
az (s) = s w(s) - U q(s)
az ( s) w( s ) q ( s)
Dividing by η(s), s  U
 (s)  ( s )  ( s)
Substituting eqns 1.1 and 1.2 in 1.3, we get lateral acceleration due to elevator deflection
as
az ( s) s z  smq z  sm zq  U (m zw  mw z )
2

 2
 (s) s  (mq  zw ) s  zw mq  mwU  mw zq

TRAJECTORY CONSIDERATIONS

24. We are basically interested in how we obtain forces and moments on a missile in
order to change its flight path direction.
(a) Consider a particle with velocity U and acted upon by a force
perpendicular to the velocity vector. There will be an acceleration f normal to the
velocity vector given by
.
2
f= f R
where R is the radius of turn of the velocity vector and
.
 f is the rate of turn of the velocity vector.
. .
(b) Since  f R = U then f =  f U
(c) The acceleration of a missile perpendicular to the flight path due to a force
Y on the missile can be found by resolving the total force on a missile into
components perpendicular and along the flight path; the latter component will
increase or decrease the speed of the missile but will not change its flight path.
Due to the incidence β of the missile the component normal to the flight path is Y
cos β. Hence
.
 f U = Y cos β /m = f

(d) The other component of the Y force is Y sin β and is usually called
induced drag and tends to reduce the speed of the missile. Since the Y force is
approximately proportional to incidence it is clear that induced drag is
approximately proportional to (incidence)2. This is the main reason why designers
usually aim to keep incidence low (say 10 - 15˚).

(e) In addition two other important forces have to be considered when


computing the missile’s trajectory.
(j) Firstly, the “zero incidence drag” X1 will act along the missile
axis. There will be a component X1 cos β which tends to reduce the speed
and a component – X sin β normal to the velocity vector.
(ii) Any propulsive force X2 has the converse effect.
(iii) Hence if the nett effect of propulsive force less total drag is to
accelerate the missile, it is clear that the propulsion motor helps the
missile to steer.
(iv) When extreme manoeuvrability is required, it is common for the
propulsion motor to provide a large boost (say 20 g) for 4-5 seconds. The
normal forces resulting from incidence provided by the control system
work together to produce maximum maneuverability.
. .
(f) The physical meaning of the terms v  rU and w qU is that the flight
. .
path direction is the body direction plus the incidence angle. v and w are the
incidence rates times U and r and q are the body rates. Therefore these terms are
the trajectory rate times U i.e., the normal accelerations. The reason for the
change in signs in the two equations is that there is no absolute symmetry in a
right-handed set of axes.

(g) There is a cos β in eqn 1.6 but none in 1.5 because our imaginary particle
had a velocity U defined as the velocity along the x axis; its velocity in the
direction of the velocity vector is U cos β.
ANALYSIS OF AERODYNAMIC TRANSFER FUNCTION: OPEN LOOP

1. The lateral acceleration due to rudder deflection is represented in the transfer


function form by
ay ( s ) s 2 y  snry  sn yr  U (n yv  nvy )
 2
 ( s) s  (nr  yv ) s  yvnr  nvU  nvyr

(a) The term involving yr can be omitted since it is a very small quantity.
Hence
ay ( s ) s 2 y  snry  U (n yv  nvy )

 ( s) s 2  (nr  yv ) s  yvnr  nvU
(b) The term ( yvnr  nvU ) is the (undamped natural frequency)2 and is usually
referred to as the weathercock frequency; it reflects the tendency for a stable
missile to return to the unperturbed zero incidence position.

2. Consider now a typical surface-to-air missile with rear controls whose main yaw
derivatives for M=1.4 and height 1500 m(U=567 m/s) are:

yv nv yζ nζ nr
-2.74 0.309 197 -534 -2.89

The missile is 2 m long and C = 13.8 kgm2 and m = 53 kg.

ANALYSIS

3. Static Margin (SM): The position of c.p. with respect to c.g. may be found by
calculating the static margin as follows:
N v v  Yv v  xsm
nv I z v  yv .m.v.xsm
nv I z (0.309)(13.8)
 xsm    0.029m
yv m (2.74)(53)
Hence c.p. is behind c.g. (negative value along x axis with c.g. as origin) and is equal to
29 mm or 2.9 cm (about 1.5% of the length).

4. The transfer function for lateral acceleration when substituted with respective
numerical values is given as
ay ( s ) 197 s 2  s (2.89)(197)  467((534)(2.74)  (0.309)(197))

 ( s) s 2  ((2.89)  ( 2.74)) s  ((2.74)(2.89)  (0.309)(467))
ay ( s ) 197 s 2  570 s  654868

 ( s) s 2  5.63s  152

(a) This is a second order differential equation where the order of numerator
and denominator are equal. Hence it is a proper transfer function. (If Nr
polynomial order>Dr polynomial order it is improper and when Nr<Dr
polynomial order then strictly proper).

(b) From the denominator (characteristic polynomial), we find that the


undamped natural frequency is ωn2 =152 and hence ωn = 12.4 rad/s.

(c) The damping ratio μ is given by 2μ ωn = 5.63 and hence μ = 0.23. This
damping ratio will decrease as the square root of the air density and therefore an
be very low at high altitudes; the damping terms vary with density, and so do the
force and moment terms, but the inertia remains the same.

(d) The settling time is normally taken as four times time constant
(=1/frequency) i.e.,
4 4
ts    1.4s
n (0.23)(12.4)

(e) The steady state gain is given by the Final Value Theorem for a unit step
input:
 1 a y ( s)   197 s 2  570 s  654868 
lim a y (t )  lim s.    lim  
t  s 0
 s  ( s )  s 0  s 2  5.63s  152 
654868
 ; 4300m / s 2
152
(i) This means that if the aerodynamics were linear 0.1 radians of
radar deflection would produce a lateral acceleration in the –y direction of
430 m/sec2 i.e., about 43g.(1 radian = 57º ).
(ii) This is a very high aerodynamic gain but is required as will be
discussed in autopilot design.

(f) The initial value of lateral acceleration at t = 0+ can be found by the Initial
Value Theorem for a unit step input as follows:
 1 a y ( s) 
lim a y (t )  lim s.  
t 0 s 
 s  (s) 
197 s 2  570 s  654868 s 2 (197  570 / s  654868 / s 2 )
lim a y (t )  lim  lim
t 0 s  s 2  5.63s  152 s  s 2 (1  5.63 / s  152 / s 2 )
197
 ; 197 m / s 2
1
(i) If we consider a unit step input then the lateral acceleration at t=0+
is given by the force from the rudder only divided by the missile mass i.e.,
fy = yζ. This is proved above by initial value theorem.

(ii) Thus for the final value of -4300m/sec2, the initial value is 197
2
m/sec which indicates a change of sign.
(iii) The numerator can be written as:
655000(.000301s 2  .00087 s  1)
 655000( s / 59.1  1)( s / 56.2  1)  197( s  59.1)( s  56.2)

(iv) Thus in the frequency domain, there are two zeros, one non-
minimum phase, of about the same value, whose phase contribution will
approximately cancel over a range of frequencies but whose amplitude
contribution will become reckonable in the range 60 rad/s and above.

(v) These terms can be a nuisance in an autopilot design as they


prevent the continuous attenuation with frequency associated with a
simple second order system.

(vi) Categories:
(aa) Stable if poles are in LH plane and min phase if zeros are in
LH plane.
(bb) Unstable if one pole in RH plane but still minimum phase if
zeros in LH plane
(cc) Stable if poles are in LH plane but non-minimum if even
one zero in RH plane
(dd) Unstable and non-minimum phase if poles and zeros (at
least one) in RH plane.

5. To Analyse the Effects if Missile is Forward Controlled. Assume all


aerodynamic derivatives are unchanged numerically; there will be a change in the
algebraic sign of nζ i.e., it is now +ve.
(a) Thus the last coefficient in the numerator will now have a value +710000
instead of -655000.

(b) The steady state gain will now be changed to 710000/152 = +4670 and
positive. Thus there is an increase by about 9% compared to the gain in rear
control configuration. Also, the sign change can be attributed to the fact that +ve
canard rudder deflection produces +ve incidence.

(c) The reason for the increase in gain is due to the fact that the canards,
wings and body are all producing normal force in the same sense.

(d) The initial value will be the same +197 m/sec2. Hence there is no change
in sign involved. Hence there is no lag involved in forward controlled missiles as
was seen in tail-controlled missiles.

(e) The two zeros in the numerator indicates minimum phase transfer
function.
6. To Analyse the Effects of Increasing Static Margin By a Factor of Four.
Consider the original rear controlled missile whose c.g. has moved forward
slightly to increase the small static margin by a factor of four. The larger the static margin
the missile becomes more sluggish thus affecting maneuvrability.
n2  yv nr  Unv
( yv  nr )

2n
(a) Static Margin (xsm).Yawing moment is equal to the product of force
and distance i.e.,
N v v  Yv v  xsm  nv I z v  yv mv  xsm
N   Y   lc
yv mv  xsm
 nv   n I z  yv m  lc
I zv
n I
 nv I z v   lc   z
 xsm   yv m
 yv mv 

(b) Thus it is seen that an increase in static margin four times increases nv by
four times. Since
'
nv'  4nv  n2  4Unv  2 Unv
'
 n  2n
Similarly, damping will be halved i.e., μ’=μ/2. Hence final settling time will
almost be the same.

(c) The value of lateral acceleration due to change in value of nv will be ayss ‘
= –973.2 instead of ayss = –4300 m/sec2. Thus the lateral acceleration has changed
by a ratio
a 'yss 973 1
 
a yss 4300 4.41
Thus increase in xsm has resulted in decrease in lateral acceleration or reduction in
maneuverability.

.
(d) Thus if  is considered the figure of merit of maneuverability, it is found
. .1
that  y  a yss   y 
xsm
(f) Thus a large static margin results in
(aa)A small steady state gain
(bb)A high weathercock frequency
(cc)A very low damping ratio
(g) A small static margin results in
(aa)A large steady state gain
(bb)A low weathercock frequency
(cc)A low or moderate damping ratio.
7. Relationship Between Body Rate And Flight Path Rate. Flight path rate and
lateral acceleration are essentially the same things. There is a difference in scale only. To
obtain flight path rate we divide fy by U. (Actually we must also multiply by the cosine of
missile incidence). First body rate occurs and then flight path rate takes place. Hence
flight path angle rate lags behind body rate. Mathematically this can be proved as
follows:
(a) The transfer function for flight path rate is given by:
.
mU  y  ma y
. .
U y 
ay 1 ay
    y 
   U 
.
 y 1 s 2 y  snry  sn yr  U (n yv  nvy )
 ________(1.12)
 U s 2  (nr  yv ) s  yvnr  nvU  nvyr

s 2  (nr  yv ) s  yvnr  nvU  nvyr 
(b) The transfer function for body rate is given as:
r n s  n yv  nv y
 ___________(1.13)
 

(c) Considering only the numerator,


 n s 
n s  n yv  nv y  nv y  n yv  1  
 n s  n yv 
n
Ti   nv y  n yv  1  Ti s 
n s  n yv
(d) Dividing equation 1.13 by 1.12 gives
r U (n s  n yv  nv y )


.
s 2 y  snry  sn yr  U (n yv  nvy )
y

r (n s  n yv  nv y )
den  u  
y
.
s 2 ( y / U )  s (nry / U )  s( n yr / U )  (n yv  nvy )

r (n s  n yv  nv y )
U ? 1 
y
.
(n yv  nvy )

n s
 1  1  Ti s
nvy  n yv
.

(e) Hence y  1
r 1  Ti s
(f) First Order Dynamics.In block diagram form this transfer function can be
represented as shown below: -
1 .
r
1  Ti s
y
.

(i) Equating y  1  k ; where.k  1
r 1  Ti s s  k Ti
the analysis for a unit step input can be derived as follows: -
.
y 1 . k A B 1 1
  y     
r 1  Ti s s( s  k ) s s  k s s  k
t
. 
TakingInverseLaplaceTransform   y (t )  1  e Ti

0 4T

.
(ii) When t = 4T,  (t )  1  e 4  0.9817 i.e., 98%. This value is
y
taken normally for deciding settling time. T decides how fast body will
turn after deflection of rudder. In particular it can be shown
mathematically that yv decides the time constant as follows: -
n 1 1
T  
nvy  n yv y
nv n  yv  nv y 
 yv  1  n 
 yv 
nv m
N v  Yv x  c.nv  myv x   .x
yv c
y 1 c
Similarly,   . ;
n lc m
1 1
Hence, T   ;
 nv y   x*
 yv  1  n   yv  1  
 yv   lc 
1
lc ? x*  T  ;
 yv