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FORCE AND NEWTONS LAWS OF MOTION


EFFECTS OF FORCE
To define force first of all one has to see the effects of
force. By effects of force we mean what force can do
or what changes a force can bring about.
Effects of Force :
A force can produce the following effects :
(i) A force can move a stationary body.
(ii) A force can stop a moving body.
(iii) A force can change the speed of a moving body.
(iv) A force can change the direction of a moving body.
(v) A force can change the shape (and size) of a body.
Based on the effects of force, it may be defined as :
Force is a pull or push, which changes or tends to
change the state of rest or of uniform motion of a body
or changes its direction or shape.
(a) Mathematical Representation of Force :
Mathematically, force F is equal to the product of mass,
m of a body and acceleration a, produced in the body
due to that force.
i.e. F = ma
Where a = final velocity initial velocity/time
(b) Units of Force :
(i) In C.G.S. system :
F = ma gram cm/s
2
= dyne
If m = 1 gram, a = 1 cm/s
2
, then F = 1 dyne
When a force is applied on a 1 gram body and the
acceleration produced in the body is 1 cm/s
2
then the
force acting on the body will be one dyne.
(ii) In S.I. system :
F = ma kg m/s
2
= Newton
If m = 1 kg and a = 1 m/s
2
then by F = ma,
F = 1 1 = 1 kg m/s
2
= 1 Newton.
If a force is applied on a body of mass 1 kg and
acceleration produced in the body is 1 m/s
2
then the
force acting on the body will be one Newton.
Relationship between the newton and dyne
1 N = 1 kg 1 m s
2
= 1000 g 100 cm s
2
= 100000 g cm s
2
= 10
5
dyne
Thus 1 N = 10
5
dyne
ILLUSTRATIONS
1. A force produces an acceleration of 5.0 cm/s
2
in a body
of mass 20g. Then find out the force acting on the body
in Newton.
Sol. Acceleration of the body, a = 5 cm/s = 0.05 m/s
Mass of the body, m = 20 g = 0.02 kg
F = ma F = 0.05 0.02 = 10
3
N
2. A force of 15 N acts on a body of mass 5 kg for 2s. What
is the change in velocity of body ?
Sol. Given : F = 15 N , t = 2s , m = 5 kg
F = ma a =
m
F
=
5
15
= 3 m/s
2
a =
t
u v
v u = at = 3 2 = 6m/s
RESULTANT FORCE
Many forces may be simultaneously applied on a body,
for example- several persons may jointly make an effort
to move a heavy body, each person pushes it i.e. each
person applies a force on it. It is also possible that a
stronger man pushes that body hard enough and
produces same acceleration in it. If a single force
acting on a body produces the same acceleration as
produced by a number of forces, then that single force is
called the resultant force of these individual forces .
FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
All forces observed in nature such as muscular force,
tension, reaction, friction, weight, electric, magnetic,
nuclear, etc., can be explained in terms of only following
four basic interactions.
(a) Gravitational Force :
The force of interaction which exists between two
particles of masses m
1
and m
2
, due to their masses is
called gravitational force. The gravitational force acts
over long distances and does not need, any intervening
medium. Gravitational force is the weakest force of
nature.
(b) Electromagnetic Force :
Force exerted by one particle on the other because of
the el ectri c charge on the parti cl es i s cal l ed
el ectromagneti c force. Fol l owi ng are the mai n
characteristics of electromagnetic force
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2 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 2
(i) These can be attractive or repulsive.
(ii) These are long range forces.
(iii) These depend on the nature of medium between
the charged particles.
(iv) All macroscopic forces (except gravitational) which
we experience as push or pull or by contact are
electromagnetic, i.e., tension in a rope, the force
of friction, normal reaction, muscular force, and
force experienced by a deformed spring are
electromagnetic forces. These are manifestations
of the electromagnetic attractions and repulsions
between atoms/molecules.
(c) Nuclear Force :
It is the strongest force. It keeps nucleons (neutrons
and protons) together inside the nucleus inspite of
large electric repulsion between protons. Radioactivity,
fission, and fusion, etc. results because of unbalancing
of nuclear forces. It acts within the nucleus that too
upto a very small distance. It does not depends on
charge and acts equally between a proton and proton,
a neutron and neutron, and proton and neutron,
electrons does not experience this force. It acts for very
short distance order of 10
15
m.
(d) Weak Force :
It acts between any two elementary particles. Under its
action a neutron can change into a proton emitting an
electron and a particle called antineutrino. The range
of weak force is very small, in fact much smaller than
size of a proton or a neutron.
It has been found that for two protons at a distance of 1
fermi :
F
N
:F
EM
:F
W
:F
G
::1:10
2
:10
7
:10
38
On the basis of contact forces are classified into two
categories
(i) Contact forces
(ii) Non contact or field forces
(a) Contact force :
Forces which are transmitted between bodies by short
range atomic molecular interactions are called contact
forces. When two objects come in contact they exert
contact forces on each other. e.g. Normal, Tension etc.
( b) Field force :
Force which acts on an object at a distance by the
interaction of the object with the field produced by other
object is called field force. e.g. Gravitational force,
Electro magnetic force etc.
DETAILED ANALYSIS OF CONTACT FORCE
(a) Normal force (N) :
It is the component of contact force perpendicular to
the surface. It measures how strongly the surfaces in
contact are pressed against each other. It is the
electromagnetic force.
e.g.1 A table is placed on Earth as shown in figure
Here table presses the earth so normal force exerted
by four legs of table on earth are as shown in figure.
e.g.2 A boy pushes a block kept on a frictionless
surface.
Here, force exerted by boy on block is electromagnetic
interaction which arises due to simil ar charges
appearing on finger and contact surface of block, it is
normal force.
A block is kept on inclined surface. Component of its
weight presses the surface perpendicularly due to
which contact force acts between surface and block.
Normal force exerted by block on the surface of inclined
plane is shown in figure. Here normal force is a
component of weight of the body perpendicular to the
inclined surface i.e. N = mgsinu
Force acts perpendicular to the surface
3 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 3
3. Two blocks are kept in contact on a smooth surface as
shown in fi gure. Draw normal force exerted by
A on B.
Sol. In above problem, block A does not push block B, so
there is no molecular interaction between A and B.
Hence normal force exerted by A on B is zero.
Note :
Normal is a dependent force it comes in role when
one surface presses the other.
(b) Tension :
Tension is the magnitude of pulling force exerted by a
string, cable, chain, rope etc. When a string is
connected to a body and pulled out, the string said to
be under tension. It pulls the body with a force T, whose
direction is away from the body and along the length of
the string. Usually strings are regarded to be massless
and unstretchable, known as ideal string.
Note : (i) Tension in a string is an electromagnetic
force and it arises only when string is pulled. If a
massless string is not pulled, tension in it is zero.
(ii) String can not push a body in direct contact.
(c) Force Exerted by spring :
A spring is made of a coiled metallic wire having a
definite length. When it is neither pushed nor pulled
then its length is called natural length.
At natural length the spring does not exert any force on
the objects attached to its ends. If the spring is pulled
at the ends, its length becomes larger than its natural
length, it is known as stretched or extended spring.
Extended spring pulls objects attached to its ends.
A B
A B
A B
Normal spring
Stretched spring
Compressed spring
Spring force on A Spring force on B
Spring force on A Spring force on B
If the spring is pushed at the ends, its length becomes
less than natural length. It is known as compressed
spring. A compressed spring pushes the objects
attached to its ends.
F
x
F
F
x
F
F = 0 spring in natural
length does not exerts
any force on its ends
F = kx
x = compression in spring
F = kx ;k = spring
constant or stiffness
constant (unit = N/m)
x = extension in spring
F
ext
F
ext
Note : Spring force is also electromagnetic in nature :
(d) Friction force :
When a body is moving on a rough surface resistance
to the motion occurs because of the interaction
between the body and its surroundings. We call such
resi stance as force of fri cti on. Fri cti on i s al so
considered as component of contact force which acts
parallel to the surfaces in contact.
(i) Origin of friction : The frictional force arises due to
molecular interactions between the surfaces at the
points of actual contact. When two bodies are placed
one over other, the actual area of contact is much
smaller then the total surface areas of bodies. The
molecular forces starts operating at the actual points
of contact of the surfaces. Molecular bonds are formed
at these contact points. When one body is pulled over
the other, these bonds are broken, and the material
get deformed and new bonds are formed. The local
deformation sends vibrations into the bodies. These
Vibrations ul timately dumps out and energy of
vibrations appears as heat. Hence to start or carry on
the motion, there is a need of force.
Body 1
Body 2
Actual area of contact
(ii) Statics and Kinetic Frictions :
Experiment :
(A) Consider a block placed on a table, and a small
force F
1
is acted on it. The block does not move. It
indicates that the frictional force f
s
starts acting in
opposite direction of applied force and its magnitude
is equal of F
1
(figure b). That is for the equilibrium of
4 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 4
the block, we have
F
1
f
s
= 0 or F
1
= f
s
The force of friction when body is in state of rest over
the surface is called static friction (f
s
).
(B) As the applied force increases the frictional force
also increases. When the applied force is increased
up to a certain limit (F
2
) such that the block is on the
verge of motion. The value of frictional force at this
stage is called limiting friction f
lim
(figure c).
(C) Once the motion started, the smaller force is now
necessary to continue the motion (F
3
) and thus
frictional force decreases. The force of friction
when body is in state of motion over the surface is
called kinetic or dynamic friction f
k
(figure d).
(iii) More about frictional force :
(A) About static friction
1. The limiting friction depends on the materials
of the surfaces in contact and their state of
polish.
2. The magni tude of stati c fri cti on i s
independent of the apparent area of contact
so long as the normal reaction remains the
same.
3. The limiting friction is directly proportional to
the magni tude of the normal reacti on
between the two surfaces i.e. f
lim
=
S
N. Here

s
is coefficient of static friction.
We can write,
s
=
N
f
lim
(B) About kinetic friction :
1. The kinetic friction depends on the materials
of the surface in contact.
2. It is also independent of apparent area of
contact as long as the magnitude of normal
reaction remains the same.
3. Kinetic friction is almost independent of the
velocity, provided the velocity is not too large
not too small.
4. The kinetic friction is directly proportional to
the magni tude of the normal reacti on
between the surfaces.
f
k
=
k
N. Here
k
is coefficient of kinetic friction.
We can write,
k
=
N
f
k
There are two types of kinetic frictions:
(i) Sliding friction : The force of friction when one
body slides over the surface of the another body is
called sliding friction.
(ii) Rolling friction : When a wheel rolls without
slipping over a horizontal surface, there is no
relative motion of the point of contact of the wheel
with respect to the plane. Theoretically for a rolling
wheel the frictional force is zero. This can only
possible when bodies in contact are perfectly rigid
and contact of wheel with the surface is made
only at a point. But in practice no material body is
perfectly rigid and therefore bodies get deformed
when they pressed each other. The actual area of
their contact no longer remains a point, and thus
a small amount of friction starts acting between
the body and the surface. Here frictional force is
called rolling friction. It is clear from above
discussion that rolling friction is very much smaller
than sliding friction.
f
lim
> f
kinetic
> f
rolling
.
Note :
s
and
k
are dimensionless quantities and
independent of shape and area of contact . It is a
property of two contact surfaces.
s
will always be
greater than
k
.Theoretical value of can be o to but
practical value is 0 <
s
1.6
5 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 5
(a) Conservative Force :
A force is said to be conservative if the amount of work
done i n moving an obj ect against that force is
independent on the path. One important example of
conservative force is the gravitational force. It means
that amount of work done in moving a body against
gravity from location A to location B is the same
whichever path we may follow in going from A to B. This
is illustrated in figure.
A force is conservative if the total work done by the
force on an object in one complete round is zero,
i.e. when the object moves around any closed path
(returning to its initial position).
A force is conservative if there is no change in kinetic
energy in one complete round. AKE = 0
This definition illuminates an important aspect of a
conservative force viz. Work done by a conservative
force is recoverable. Thus in figure, we shall have to
do mgh amount of work in taking the body from A to B.
However, when body is released from B, we recover
mgh of work.
Other examples of conservative forces are spring force,
electrostatic force etc.
(b) Non-Conservative Force :
A force is non-conservative if the work done by that force
on a particle moving between two points depends on
the path taken between the points.
The force of friction is an example of non-conservative
force. Let us illustrate this with an instructive example.
Suppose we were to displace a book between two points
on a rough horizontal surface (such as a table). If the
book is displaced in a straight line between the two
points, the work done by friction is simply FS where :
F = force of friction ;
S = distance between the points.
However, if the book is moved along any other path
between the two points (such as a semicircular path),
the work done by friction would be greater than FS.
Finally, if the book is moved through any closed path,
the work done by friction is never zero, it is always
negative. Thus the work done by a non-conservative
force is not recoverable, as it is for a conservative force.
GALILEOS EXPERIMENTS
Experiment 1 :
It was observed by Galileo that when a ball is rolled
down on an inclined frictionless plane its speed
increases, whereas if it is rolled up an inclined
frictionless plane its speed decreases .If it is rolled on
a horizontal frictionless plane the result must be
between the cases describe above i.e. the speed
should remain constant. It can be explain as :


v
v
v = v
moving down : speed increases moving up : speed
decreases moving horizontal : speed remains constant
Experiments 2 :
When a ball is released on the inner surface of a
smooth hemisphere, it will move to the other side and
reach the same hei ght before comi ng to rest
momentarily. If the hemisphere is replaced by a surface
shown in figure(b) in order to reach the same height
the ball will have to move a larger distance.
(a)
h

(b)
h
(c)
v v
If the other side is made horizontal, the ball will never
stop because it will never be able to reach the same
height, it means its speed will not decrease. It will
have uniform velocity on the horizontal surface. Thus, if
unbalanced forces do not act on a body, the body will
either remain at rest or will move with a uniform velocity.
It will remain unaccelerated.
Newton concluded the idea suggested by Galileo and
was formulated in the laws by Newton.
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NEWTONS FIRST LAW OF MOTION
Every body remain in its state of rest or uniform motion
in a straight line unless it is compelled by some external
force.
It means a body remain unaccelerated if and only if,
the resultant force on it is zero.
In such a case the body is said to be in equilibrium.
INERTIA
(a) Definition of Inertia :
The tendency of the body to oppose the change its
states of rest or uniform motion in a straight line is
called inertia. Newtons first law of motion is also called
law of inertia.
(b) Description :
It follows from first law of motion that in absence of any
external force, a body continues to be in its state of rest
or in uniform motion along a straight line. In other
words, the body cannot change by itself its position of
rest or of uniform motion.
(c) Inertia Depends upon Mass :
We know that it is difficult to move a heavier body than
the lighter one. Similarly it is difficult to stop a moving
heavier body than a lighter body moving with the same
velocity. Thus, we conclude that mass of the body is
the measure of inertia, more the mass, more the
inertia.
TYPES OF INERTIA
There are three types of Inertia which are :
(a) Inertia of Rest :
The tendency of the body to oppose the change in its
state of rest when some external unbalance force is
applied on it, is called the inertia of rest.
Example based on Inertia of rest :
A person sitting in a bus falls backwards when the bus
suddenly starts. The reason is that lower part of his
body begins to move along with the bus but the upper
part of his body tends to remain at rest due to inertia of
rest.
(b) Inertia of Motion :
The tendency of the body to oppose its state of motion
when some unbalance forces are applied on it, is
called the inertia of motion.
Example based on Inertia of motion :
A man carelessly getting down a moving bus falls
forward, the reason being that his feet come to rest
suddenly, whereas the upper part of his body retains
the forward motion.
(c) Inertia of Direction :
The tendency of a body to oppose any change in its
direction of motion is known as inertia of direction.
Example based on Inertia of direction :
Tie a stone to one end of a string and holding other
end of the string in hand, rotate the stone in a horizontal
circle. If during rotation, the string breaks at certain
stage, the stone is found to fly off tangentially at that
point of the circle.
String
Breaks
String breaks, stone goes away
tangentially
Definition of force from first law of motion :
According to first law of motion, if there is no force, there
is no change in state of rest or of uniform motion. In
other words, if a force is applied, it may change the state
of rest or of uniform motion. If the force is not sufficient,
it may not produce a change but only try to do so. Hence
force is that which changes or tries to change the state
of rest or of uniform motion of a body in straight line.
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MOMENTUM
Definition :
Momentum of a particle may be defined as the quantity
of motion possessed by it and it is measured by the
product of mass of the particle and its velocity.
Momentum is a vector quantity and it is represented
by


= v m p
Unit of momentum :
(In C.G.S. system) p = mv gram cm/s = dyne s
(In M.K.S. system) p = mv kg m/s = Newton s
4. A ball of mass 100 gm. is moving with a velocity of
15 m/s. Calculate the momentum associated with the
ball.
Sol .
Mass of the ball = 100 gm. =
1000
100
kg.
= 0.1 kg.
Velocity of the ball = 15 m/s
So, momentum = mass of the ball velocity of
the ball
= 0.1 kg. 15 m/s
= 1.5 kg. m/s
NEWTONS SECOND LAW OF MOTION
The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly
proportional to the applied unbalanced forces i.e. Rate
of change of momentum Force applied
Let a body is moving with initial velocity u and after applying
a force F on it, its velocity becomes v in time t.
Initial momentum of the body p
1
= mu
Final momentum of the body p
2
= mv
Change in momentum in time t is mv mu
So rate of change of momentum =
t
mu mv
But according to Newtons second law,
t
mu mv
F
or F
t
) u v ( m
Here,
t
u v
= a (acceleration)
So Fma
or F = kma (Here k is proportionality constant.
If 1N force is applied on a body of mass 1 kg and the
acceleration produced in the body is 1 m/s
2
, then
1 = k 1 1 or k = 1
Hence, F = ma
So the magnitude of the resultant force acting on a
body is equal to the product of mass of the body and
the acceleration produced. Direction of the force is
same as that of the acceleration.
UNITS OF FORCE
(a) In C.G.S. System :
F = ma gm cm/s
2
= Dyne
Definition of one dyne :
If m = 1 gm, a = 1 cm/s
2
, then F = 1 dyne.
When a force is applied on a body of mass 1 gram and
the acceleration produced in the body is 1 cm/s
2
, then
the force acting on the body will be one dyne.
(b) In S.I. System :
F = ma kg m/s
2
= Newton
Definition of one Newton :
If m = 1 kg and a = 1 m/s
2
then by, F = ma
F = 1 1 = 1 kg m/s
2
= 1 N.
If a force is applied on a body of mass 1 kg and
acceleration produced in the body is 1 m/s
2
, then the
force acting on the body will be one Newton.
(c) Kilogram Force (kgf) :
Kilogram force (kgf) or Kilogram weight (kg. wt.) is force
with which a mass of 1 kg is attracted by the
earth towards its centre.
1kgwt = 1kgf = 9.8 N
(d) Gram Force (gf) :
Gram force or gram weight is the force with which a
mass of 1 gram is attracted by the earth towards
its centre.
1gwt = 1gf = 981 dyne
Abou both the units are called gravitational unit of force.
Relation between Newton and dyne.
We know :
1 N = 1kg 1ms
-2
or 1 N = 1000 g 100 cms
-2
or 1 N = 10
5
g cms
-2
= 10
5
dyne
1 N = 10
5
dyne
5. A force of 20N acting on a mass m
1
produces an
acceleration of 4 ms
2
. The same force is applied on
mass m
2
then the acceleration produced is 0.5 ms
2
.
What acceleration would the same force produce, when
both masses are tied together ?
Sol. For mass m
1
: F = 20N, a = 4 ms
2
then m
1
=
a
F
=
4
20
= 5 kg
For mass m
2
: F = 20N, a = 0.5 ms
2
8 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 8
then m
2
=
a
F
=
5 . 0
20
= 40 kg
When m
1
and m
2
are tied together :
Total mass = m
1
+ m
2
= 45 kg, F = 20N
then a =
) m m (
F
2 1
+
=
45
20
= 0.44 ms
2
IMPULSE OF FORCE
A large force acting for a short time to produce a finite
change in momentum is called impulsive force.
The product of force and time is called impulse of force.
i.e., Impulse = Force Time
or I = FAt
The S.I. unit of impulse is Newton-second (N-s) and
the C.G.S unit is dyne- second (dyne-s)
Impulse and Momentum :
From Newtons second law of motion
Force, F =
t
p p
1 2
A

or FAt = p
2
p
1
i.e., Impulse = Change in momentum
This relation is called impulse equation or momentum-
impulse theorem. It has an important application in
our everyday life.
IMPULSE DURING AN IMPACT OR COLLISION
The impulsive force acting on the body produces a
change in momentum of the body on which it acts. We
know, Ft = mv mu, therefore the maximum force
needed to produce a given impulse depends upon
time. If time is short, the force required in a given
impulse or the change in momentum is large and vice-
versa.
NEWTONS THIRD LAW
(a) Statement :
The law states that To every action there is an equal
and opposite reaction. Moreover, action and reaction
act on different bodies.
(b) Demonstration :
Two similar spring balances A and B joined by hook as
shown in the figure. The other end of the spring
balance B is attached to a hook rigidly fixed in a rigid
wall.
Demonstration- Newtons third law of motion
The other end of the spring balance A is pulled out to
the left. Both balances show the same reading (20 N)
for the force.
The pulled balance A exerts a force of 20N on the
balance B. It acts as action, B pulls the balance A in
opposite direction with a force of 20 N. This force is
known as reaction.
We conclude that action-reaction forces are equal and
opposite and act on two different bodies.
NO ACTION IS POSSIBLE WITHOUT REACTION
Examples :
(i) A nail cannot be fixed on a suspended wooden ball.
(ii) A paper cannot be cut by scissors of single blade.
(iii) A hanging piece of paper cannot be cut by blade.
(iv) Writing on a hanging page is impossible.
(v) Hitting on a piece of sponge does not produce
reaction. You do not enjoy hitting.
ACTION AND REACTION ARE NOT BALANCED
Action and reaction, though equal and opposite are
not balanced because they act on two different bodies.
In case when they act on two different bodies forming
a single system, they become balanced.
ANY PAIR OF EQUAL AND OPPOSITE FORCES IS
NOT AN ACTIONREACTION PAIR
Consider a book kept on a table. We have seen that
the table pushes the book in the upward direction. Then
why does not the book fly up? It does not fly up because
there is another force on the book pulling it down. This
is the force exerted by the earth on the book, which we
call the weight of the book. So, there are two forces on
the book the normal force, N acting upwards, applied
by the table and the force, W acting downwards,
applied by the earth. As the book does not accelerate,
we conclude that these two forces are balanced. In
other words, they have equal magnitudes but opposite
directions.
V V'
V
N
N=W
Can we call N the action and W the reaction ? We
cannot. This is because, although they are equal and
9 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 9
opposite, they are not forces applied by two bodies on
each other. The force N is applied by the table on the
book, its reaction will be the force applied by the book
on the table. Weight W is the force applied by the earth
on the book, its reaction will be the force applied by the
book on the earth.
So, although N and W are equal and opposite, they do
not form an actionreaction pair.
PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM
By Newtons second law, the rate of change of
momentum is equal to the applied force.
time
momentum in Change
= Force
Change in momentum = F t
If F = 0 then,
Change in momentum = 0
If the force applied on the body is zero then its
momentum wi l l be conserved, thi s l aw i s al so
applicable on the system. If in a system the momentum
of the objects present in the system are P
1
, P
2
, P
3
...........
and external force on the system is zero, then
P
1
+ P
2
+ P
3
+................. = Constant
NOTE : If only internal forces are acting on the system
then its linear momentum will be conserved.
(a) The Law of Conservation of Linear
Momentum by Third Law of Motion :
Suppose A and B are two objects of masses m
1
and
m
2
are moving in the same direction with velocity u
1
and u
2
respectively (u
1
> u
2
). Object A collides with object
B and after time t both move in their original direction
with velocity v
1
and v
2
respectively.
The change in momentum of object A = m
1
v
1
m
1
u
1
u1 u2
m1 m2
before collision (u > u ) 1 2
The force on B by A is F
1
=
time
momentum in Change
F
1
=
t
u m v m
1 1 1 1
.............(1)
The change in momentum of object B = m
2
v
2
m
2
u
2
The force on A by B is F
2
=
time
momentum in Change
=
t
u m v m
2 2 2 2
.............(2)
v1 v2
m1 m2
after collision
By Newtons third law, F
1
= F
2
t
u m v m
1 1 1 1
= |
.
|

\
|
t
u m v m

2 2 2 2
m
1
v
1
m
1
u
1
= m
2
v
2
+ m
2
u
2
or m
1
u
1
+ m
2
u
2
= m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2
or Initial momentum = Final momentum
6. Two ice hockey players, suitably padded collide directly
with each other and immediately become entangled.
One has a mass of 120 kg and is travelling at 2 m/s,
while the other has a mass of 80 kg and is travelling at
4 m/s towards the first player at what speed do they
travel after they become entangled?
Sol. m
1
u
1
+ m
2
u
2
= m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2
120 2 80 4 = (120 + 80)
240 320 = 200 V
80 = 200 V
V =
5
2
m/s
SOME ILLUSTRATION ON CONSERVATION
OF MOMENTUM
(a) Recoil of Gun :
A loaded gun (rifle) having bullet inside it forming one
system is initially at rest. The system has zero
initial momentum.
v
V
When the trigger (T) is pressed, the bullet is fired due to
internal force of explosion of powder in cartidge inside.
The bullet moves forward with a high velocity and the gun
move behind (recoils) with a lesser velocity.
Let the bullet and the gun have masses m and M
respectively. Let the bullet move forward with velocity v
and the gun recoils with velocity V.
Then final momentum of the gun and bullet is MV + mv
By the law of conservation of momentum
Initial momentum of the system = Final momentum of
the system.
0 = MV + mv
or V =
M
mv
Hence the recoil velocity of gun =
M
mv
and the velocity of the gun is =
M
mv
10 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 10
(b) The Working of a Rocket :
the momentum of a rocket before it is fired is zero.
When the rocket is fired, gases are produced. These
gases come out of the rear of the rocket with high speed.
The direction of the momentum of the gases coming
out of the rocket is in the downward direction. Thus, to
conserve the momentum of the system i.e., (rocket +
gases), the rocket moves upward with a momentum
equal to the momentum of the gases. So, the rocket
continues to move upward as long as the gases are
ejected out of the rocket. Thus a rocket works on the
basis of the law of conservation of momentum.
7. A bullet of mass 0.01 kg is fired from a gun weighing
5.0 kg. If the speed of the bullet is 250 m/s, calculate
the speed with which the gun recoils.
Sol. V =
5
250 1
= 50 m/s
SYSTEM
Two or more than two objects which interact with each
other form a system.
Classification of forces on the basis of boundary of
system :
(a) Internal Forces : Forces acting with in a system
among its constituents.
(b) External Forces : Forces exerted on the
consti tuents of a system by the outsi de
surroundings are called as external forces.
FREE BODY DIAGRAM
A free body diagram consists of a diagrammatic
representations of single body or a subsystem of
bodies isolated from surroundings showing all the
forces acting on it.
Steps for F.B.D.
Step 1 : Identify the object or system and isolate it from
other objects, clearly specify its boundary.
Step 2 : First draw non-contact external force in the
diagram, generally it is weight.
Step 3 : Draw contact forces which acts at the boundary
of the object of system. Contact forces are normal ,
friction, tension and applied force. In F.B.D, internal
forces are not drawn only external are drawn.
8. A block of mass m is kept on the ground as shown in
figure.
(i) Draw F.B.D. of block.
(ii) Are forces acting on block forms action- reaction
pair.
(iii) If answer is no, draw action reaction pair.
Sol.(i) F.B.D. of block
(ii) N and mg are not action -reaction pair. Since pair
act on different bodies, and they are of same
nature.
(iii) Pair of mg of block acts on earth in opposite
direction.
mg
earth
and pair of N acts on surface as shown in figure.
N
9. Two sphere A and B are placed between two vertical
walls as shown in figure. Draw the free body diagrams
of both the spheres.
A
B
Sol.F.B.D. of sphere A :
F.B.D. of sphere B :
(exerted by A)
Note : Here N
AB
and N
BA
are the action - reaction pair
(Newtons third law).
11 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 11
10. Draw F.B.D. for systems shown in figure below.

Sol.
TRANSLATORY EQUILIBRIUM
When several forces acts on a body simultaneously in
such a way that resultant force on the body is zero, i.e.,
F

= 0 with F

i
F
the body is said to be in translatory
equilibrium. Here it is worthy to note that :
(i) As if a vector is zero all its components must vanish
i.e. in equilibrium as -
F

= 0 with
F

i
F
= 0
x
F

= 0 ;
y
F
= 0 ;
z
F

= 0
So in equilibrium forces along x axes must balance
each other and the same is true for other directions.
If a body is in translatory equilibrium it will be either at
rest or in uniform motion. If it is at rest, equilibrium is
called static, otherwise dynamic.
Static equilibrium can be divided into following three
types :
(a) Stable equilibrium :
If on slight displacement from equilibrium position a
body has a tendency to regain its original position it is
said to be in stable equilibrium. In case of stable
equilibrium potential energy is minimum and so center
of gravity is lowest.
O
(b) Unstable equilibrium : If on slight displacement
from equilibrium position a body moves in the direction
of displacement, the equilibrium is said to be unstable.
In this situation potential energy of body is maximum
and so center of gravity is highest.
O
(c) Neutral equilibrium : If on slight displacement from
equilibrium position a body has no tendency to come
back to its original position or to move in the direction
of displacement, it is said to be in neutral equilibrium.
In this situation potential energy of body is constant
and so center of gravity remains at constant height.
.
(a) Newtons 2
nd
law of motion :
The rate of change of linear momentum of a body is
directly proportional to the applied force and the change
takes place in the direction of the applied force.
In relation

F =

ma the force

F stands for the net


external force. Any internal force in the system is not to
be included in

F
.
In S.I. the absolute unit of force is newton (N) and
gravitational unit of force is kilogram weight or kilogram
force (kgf.)
Note : The absolute unit of force remains the same
everywhere, but the gravitational unit of force varies
from place to place because it depends on the value of g.
( b) Applications of Newtons 2
nd
Law
(i) When objects are in equilibrium :
Steps to solve problem involving objects in
equilibrium :
Step 1 : Make a sketch of the problem.
Step 2 : Isolate a single object and then draw the free-
body diagram for the object. Label all external forces
acting on it.
Step 3 : Choose a convenient coordinate system and
resolve all forces into rectangular components along x
and Y direction.
Step 4 : Apply the equations

= 0 F
x
and

= 0 F
y
.
Step 5 : Step 4 will give you two equations with several
unknown quantities. If you have only two unknown
quantities at this point, you can solve the two equations
12 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 12
for those unknown quantities.
Step 6 : If step 5 produces two equations with more
than two unknowns, go back to step 2 and select
another object and repeat these steps. Eventually at
step 5 you will have enough equations to solve for all
unknown quantities.
11. A block of mass 10 kg is
suspended with string as
shown in figure.
Find tension in the string.
(g = 10 m/s
2
).
Sol.F.B.D. of block
For equilibrium of block along Y axis

= 0 F
y
T 10 g = 0
T = 100 N
12. The system shown in figure is in equilibrium. Find the
magnitude of tension in each string ; T
1
, T
2
, T
3
and T
4
.
(g = 10 m/s
2
).
Sol.F.B.D. of 10 kg block
For equilibrium of block along Y axis.
0 F
y
=


T
0
10g
T
0
= 10 g
T
0
= 100 N
F.B.D. of point A
0 F
y
=


30
T
2
T
1
x
T
0
A
y
T
2
cos 30 = T
0
= 100 N
T
2
=
3
200
N

= 0 F
x
T
1
= T
2
. sin 30
=
3
200
.
2
1
=
3
100
N.
F.B.D. of point of B
60
T
4
T
3
x
B
y
30
T
2
y
F = 0 T
4
cos 60 = T
2
cos 30
T
4
= 200 N
and
x
F = 0 T
3
+ T
2
sin30 = T
4
sin 60
T
3
=
3
200
N
13. Two blocks are kept in contact as shown in figure. Find :-
(a) forces exerted by surfaces (floor and wall) on
blocks.
(b) contact force between two blocks.
Sol. A : F.B.D. of 10 kg block
N
1
= 10 g = 100 N .......(1)
N
2
= 100 N .........(2)
F.B.D. of 20 kg block
N
2
= 50 sin 30 + N
3
N
3
= 100 25 = 75 N
& N
4
= 50 cos 30 + 20 g
N
4
= 243.30 N
14. Find magnitude of force exerted by string on pulley.
Sol B. F.B.D. of 10 kg block :
T = 10 g = 100 N
F.B.D. of pulley :
13 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 13
Since string is massless, so tension in both sides
of string is same.
So magnitude of force exerted by string on pulley
=
( ) ( )
2 2
100 100 +
= 100
2
N
Note : Since pulley is in equilibrium position, so net
forces on it is zero.
(ii) Accelerating Objects :
Steps to solve problems involving objects that are in
accelerated motion :
Step 1 : Make a sketch of the problem.
Step 2 : Isolate a single object and then draw the free
- body diagram for that object. Label all external forces
acting on it. Be sure to include all the forces acting on
the chosen body, but be equally careful not to include
any force exerted by the body on some other body.
Some of the forces may be unknown , label them with
algebraic symbols.
Step 3 : Choose a convenient coordinate system, show
location of coordinate axis explicitly in the free - body
diagram, and then determine components of forces
with reference to these axis and resolve all forces into
x and y components.
Step 4 : Apply the equations
x
F = ma
x
&
y
F = ma
y
.
Step 5 : Step 4 will give two equations with several
unknown quantities. If you have only two unknown
quantities at this point, you can solve the two equations
for those unknown quantities.
Step 6 : If step 5 produces two equations with more
than two unknowns, go back to step 2 and select
another object and repeat these steps. Eventually at
step 5 you will have enough equations to solve for all
unknown quantities.
15. A force F is applied horizontally on mass m
1
as shown
in figure. Find the contact force between m
1
and m
2
.
Sol.Considering both blocks as a system to find the
common acceleration.
Common acceleration
a =
( )
2 1
m m
F
+
.......(1)
m
1 m
2 F
a
To find the contact force between A and B we draw
F.B.D. of mass m
2
.
F.B.D. of mass m
2
x
F = ma
x
N = m
2
. a
N =
( )
2 1
2
m m
F m
+
(

+
=
2 1
m m
F
a ce sin
16. A 5 kg block has a rope of mass 2 kg attached to its
underside and a 3 kg block is suspended from the other
end of the rope. The whole system is accelerated
upward at 2 m/s
2
by an external force F
0
.
(a) What is F
0
?
(b) What is the net force on rope ?
(c) What is the tension at middle point of the rope ?
(g = 10 m/s
2
)
Sol.For calculating the value of F
0
.
F.B.D of whole system
(a) 2m/s
2
F
0
10 g = 100 N
F
0
100 = 10 2
F
0
= 120 N ........(1)
(b) According to Newtons second law, net force on
rope.
F = ma = 2 2
= 4N ............(2)
(c) For calculating tension at the middle point we draw
F.B.D. of 3 kg block with half of the rope (mass 1
kg) as shown.
T 4 g = 4 . 2
T = 48 N
17. A block of mass 50 kg is kept on another block of mass
1 kg as shown in figure. A horizontal force of 10 N is
applied on the 1Kg block. (All surface are smooth).
Find : (g = 10 m/s
2
)
(a) Acceleration of blocks A and B.
14 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 14
(b) Force exerted by B on A.
50 kg
1 kg A
B
Sol.(a) F.B.D. of 50 kg
N
2
= 50 g = 500 N
along horizontal direction, there is no force a
B
= 0
(b) F.B.D. of 1 kg block :
N
1
N
2
10 N
1g
along horizontal direction
10 = 1 a
A
.
a
A
= 10 m/s
2
along vertical direction
N
1
= N
2
+ 1g
= 500 + 10 = 510 N
18. One end of string which passes through pulley and
connected to 10 kg mass at other end is pulled by 100
N force. Find out the acceleration of 10 kg mass. (g
=9.8 m/s
2
)
Sol.Since string is pulled by 100 N force. So tension in the
string is 100 N
F.B.D. of 10 kg block
100 10 g = 10 a
100 10 9.8 = 10 a
a = 0.2 m/s
2
.
19. A man of mass m stands on a platform of equal
mass m and pulls himself by two ropes passing
over pulleys as shown. If he pulls each rope with a
force equal to half his weight, find hi s upward
acceleration ?
Sol. for (man + platform) system :
2mg 4T = 2m(a)
2mg 4
|
.
|

\
|
2
mg
= 2m (a) [ T =
2
mg
]
a = 0
WEIGHING MACHINE
A weighing machine does not measure the weight but
measures the force exerted by object on its upper
surface.
20. A man of mass 60 Kg is
standing on a wei ghing
machine placed on ground.
Calculate the reading of
machine (g = 10 m/s
2
).
weighing machine
Sol.For calculating the reading of weighing machine, we
draw F.B.D. of man and machine separately.
F.B.D of man
N
Mg
N = Mg
F.B.D of man taking
mass of man as M

weighing machine
N
N
1
Mg
F.B.D. of weighing machine
15 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 15
Here force exerted by object on upper surface is N
Reading of weighing machine
N = Mg
= 60 10
N = 600 N.
SPRING BALANCE
It does not measure the weight. It measures the force
exerted by the object at the hook. Symbolically, it is
represented as shown in figure.
A block of mass m is suspended at hook. When spring
balance is in equilibrium, we draw the F.B.D. of mass
m for calculating the reading of balance.
m
spring balance
hook
F.B.D. of m.
mg T = 0
T = mg
Magnitude of T gives the reading of spring balance.
21. A block of mass 20 kg is suspended through two light
spring balances as shown in figure . Calculate the :
(1) reading of spring balance (1).
(2) reading of spring balance (2).
Sol.For calculating the reading, first we draw F.B.D.of 20 kg
block.
F.B.D. 20 kg
T
20 g

mg T = 0
T = 20 g = 200 N
Since both the balances are light so, both the scales
will read 200 N.
22. (i) A 10 kg block is supported by a cord that runs to a
spring scale, which is supported by another cord
from the ceiling figure (a). What is the reading on
the scale ?
(ii) In figure (b) the block is supported by a cord that
runs around a pulley and to a scale. The opposite
end of the scale is attached by cord to a wall. What
is the reading of the scale.
(iii) In figure (c) the wall has been replaced with a
second 10 kg block on the left, and the assembly is
stationary. What is the reading on the scale now ?
spring balance
hook
10 kg
T
T
(a)
T
T T
(b)
10kg
T
T
T
T
10kg 10kg
(c)
Sol. In all the three cases the spring balance reads 10 kg.
To understand this let us cut a section inside the spring
as shown;
16 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 16
As each part of the spring is at rest, so F= T. As the
block is stationary, so T= 10g = 100N.
23. A block of mass m is placed on a weighing machine
and it is also attached with a spring balance. The
whole system is placed in a lift as shown in figure. Lift
is moving with constant acceleration 10 m/s
2
in upward
direction. The reading of the weighing machine is 500
N and the reading of spring balance is 300 N. Find the
actual mass of the block in kg. (Take g = 10 m/s
2
)

Sol. m = mass of the block
Applying Newton's Law on the block in vertical direction
T + N mg = ma ...............(1)
T = 300 N (given reading of spring balance)
N = 500 N (given reading of W.M.)
a = 10 m/s
2
m =
a g
N T
+
+
=
20
300 500 +
m = 40 kg Ans.
24. Pull is easier than push
Push : Consider a block of mass m placed on
rough horizontal surface. The coefficient of static
friction between the block and surface is . Let a
push force F is applied at an angle u with the
horizontal.

As the block is in equilibrium along y-axis, so we have

= ; 0 F
y
or N = mg + F sin u
To just move the block along x-axis, we have
F cos u = N = (mg + F sin u)
or F =
u u

sin cos
mg
.......(i)
Pull : Along y-axis we have ;

= ; 0 F
y
N = mg F sin u
To just move the block along x-axis, we have
F cos u = N = (mg F sin u)
or F =
|
|
.
|

\
|
u + u

sin cos
mg
. .......(ii)
It is clear from above discussion that pull force is
smaller than push force.
25. Discuss the direction of friction in the following cases :
(i) A man walks slowly, without change in speed.
(ii) A man is going with increasing speed.
(iii) When cycle is gaining speed.
(iv) When cycle is slowing down .
Sol. (i) Consider a man walks slowly without acceleration,
and both the legs are touching the ground as
shown in figure (a). The frictional force on rear leg
is in forward direction and on front leg will be on
backward direction of motion.
As a = 0,
F
net
= 0 or f
1
f
2
= 0
f
1
= f
2
& N
1
= N
2
.

N
1
N
2
(b)
Ground
f
1
f
2
f
1 f
2
N
1 N
2
(ii) When man is gaining the speed : The frictional
force on rear leg f
1
will be greater than frictional
force on front leg f
2
(fig. b).
acceleration of the man, a =
m
f f
2 1

.
17 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 17
(iii) When cycle is gaining speed : In this case torque
is applied on the rear wheel of the cycle by the
chain-gear system. Because of this the slipping
tendency of the point of contact of the rear wheel is
backward and so friction acts in forward direction.
The slipping tendency of point of contact of front
wheel is forward and so friction acts in backward
direction. If f
1
and f
2
are the frictional forces on rear
and front wheel, then acceleration of the cycle a =
M
f f
2 1
, where M is the mass of the cycle together
with rider (fig. a).
N
1
N
2
f
1 f
2
(a)

N
1
N
2
f
1
f
2
(b)
(iv) When cycle is slowing down : When torque is not
applied (cycle stops pedali ng), the sl ipping
tendency of points of contact of both the wheels
are forward, and so friction acts in backward
direction (fig. b). If f
1
and f
2
are the frictional forces
on rear and front wheel, then retardation
a =
M
f f
2 1
+
26. A block of mass 25 kg is raised by a 50 kg man in two
different ways as shown in fig.. What is the action on
the floor by the man in the two cases ? If the floor yields
to a normal force of 700 N, which mode should the
man adopt to lift the block without the floor yielding.
50g
50g
Sol. The FBD for the two cases are shown in figure.
In I
st
case, let the force exerted by the man on the floor is
N
1
. Consider the forces inside the dotted box, we have
N
1
= T + 50 g.
Block is to be raised without acceleration, so
T = 25 g.
N
1
= 25 g + 50 g
= 75 g = 75 9.8 = 735 N
In II
nd
case, let the force exerted by the man on the floor
in N
2
. Consider the forces inside the dotted box, we
have
N
2
= 50 g T
and T = 25 g
N
2
= 50 g 25 g
= 25 g = 25 9.8 = 245 N.
As the floor yields to a downward force of 700 N, so the
man should adopt mode II.
27. Figure shows a weighing machine kept in a lift is
moving upwards with acceleration of 5 m/s
2
. A block is
kept on the weighing machine. Upper surface of block
is attached with a spring balance. Reading shown by
weighing machine and spring balance is 15 kg and 45
kg respectively.
Answer the following questions. Assume that the
weighing machine can measure weight by having
negligible deformation due to block, while the spring
balance requires larger expansion. (take g = 10 m/s
2
)
(i) Find the mass of the object in kg and the normal
force acting on the block due to weighing machine?
(ii) Find the acceleration of the lift such that weighing
machine shows its true weight ?
Sol. (i)
T + N Mg = Ma
45 g + 15 g = M(g + a)
450 + 150 = M(10 + 5)
M = 40 kg
Normal force is the reaction applied by weighing
machine i.e. 15 10 = 150 N.
18 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 18
(ii)
T + N Mg = Ma
45 g + 40 g = 40(g + a)
450 + 400 = 400 +40 a
a =
40
450
=
4
45
m/s
2
EXERCISE
1. Two blocks of masses 2 kg and 1 kg are placed
on a smooth horizontal table in contact with
each other. A horizontal force of 3 newton is
applied on the first so that the blocks move with
a constant acceleration. The force between the
blocks would be :
(A) 3 Newton (B) 2 Newton
(C) 1 Newton (D) Zero
2. An object of mass 10 kg. moves at a constant
speed of 10ms
1
. A constant force acts for 4 s
on the object and gives it a speed of 2 ms
1
in
opposite direction. The force acting on the ob-
ject is : (A) 3N
(B) 30 N (C) 3 N
(D) 30 N
3. A machine gun has a mass 5kg. It fires 50 gram
bullets at the rate of 30 bullets per minute at a
speed of 400 ms
1
. What force is required to
keep the gun in position :
(A) 10 N (B) 5 N
(C) 15 N (D) 30N
4. A particle of mass m
1
moving with velocity v collides
with a mass m
2
at rest, then they get embedded.
Just after collision, velocity of the system :
(A) Increases
(B) Decreases
(C) remains constant
(D) becomes zero
5. When a car turns on a curved road, you are pushed
against one of the doors of the car because of :
(IJSO/Stage-I/2012)
(A) inertia
(B) the centripetal force
(C) the centrifugal force
(D) the frictionaI force
6. What is the reading of the spring balance shown
in the figure below? (IJSO/Stage-I/2012)
T
T T
0.2kg
(A) 0 (B) 2N
(C) 4N (D) 6N
7. Two blocks are in contact on a frictionless table.
One has mass m and the other 2m.A force F is
applied on 2m as shown in the figure. Now the
same force F is applied from the right on m. In the
two cases respectively, the ratio of force of contact
between the two blocks will be :
(A) Same (B) 1 : 2
(C) 2 : 1 (D) 1 : 3
8. Two forces of 6N and 3N are acting on the two blocks of
2kg and 1kg kept on frictionless floor. What is the force
exerted on 2kg block by 1kg block ?:
2kg
1kg
6N
3N
(A)1N (B) 2N
(C) 4N (D) 5N
9. There are two forces on the 2.0 kg box in the overhead
view of figure but only one is shown. The second force
is nearly :
y
30
F = 20 N
1
a = 12 m/s
2
x
(A) 20 j

N (B) 20
i
+ 20 j

N
(C) 32
i
12
3 j

N (D) 21
i
16 j

N
10. A dish of mass 10 g is kept horizontally in air by firing
bullets of mass 5 g each at the rate of 100 per second.
If the bullets rebound with the same speed, what is the
velocity with which the bullets are fired :
(A) 0.49 m/s (B) 0.098 m/s
(C) 1.47 m/s (D) 1.96 m/s
19 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 19
11. A block of metal weighing 2 kg is resting on a
frictionless plank. If struck by a jet releasing water at a
rate of 1 kg/s and at a speed of 5 m/s. The initial
acceleration of the block will be :
(A) 2.5 m/s
2
(B) 5.0 m/s
2
(C) 10 m /s
2
(D) none of the above
12. A constant force F is applied in horizontal direction as
shown. Contact force between M and m is N and
between m and M is N then
(A) N= N (B) N > N
(C) N> N
(D) cannot be determined
13. STATEMENT-1 : Block A is moving on horizontal surface
towards right under action of force. All surface are
smooth. At the instant shown the force exerted by block
A on block B is equal to net force on block B.
STATEMENT-2 : From Newtonss third law, the force
exerted by block A on B is equal in magnitude to force
exerted block B on A
(A) statement-1 is true, Statement 2 is true, statement-2
is correct explanation for statement-1.
(B) statement-1 is true, Statement 2 is true, statement-2
is NOT a correct explanation for statement-1.
(C) statement-1 is true, Statement 2 is false
(D) statement-1 is False, Statement 2 is True
14. A certain force applied to a body A gives it an acceleration
of 10 ms
2
. The same force applied to body B gives it
an acceleration of 15 ms
2
. If the two bodies are joined
together and same force is applied to the combination,
the acceleration will be :
(IJSO/Stage-I/2011)
(A) 6 ms
2
(B) 25 ms
2
(C) 12.5 ms
2
(D) 9 ms
2
-
15. Four blocks are kept in a row on a smooth horizontal
table with their centres of mass collinear as shown in
the figure. An external force of 60 N is applied from left
on the 7 kg block to push all of them along the table.
The forces exerted by them are :(IAO/Sr./Stage-I/2008)
7 kg 5 kg 2 kg 1 kg
60N
P Q R S
(A) 32 N by P on Q (B) 28 N by Q on P
(C) 12 N by Q on R (D) 4 N by S on R
16. A mass M is suspended by a rope from a rigid support
at A as shown in figure. Another rope is tied at the end
B, and it is pulled horizontally with a force F. If the rope
AB makes an angl e u wi th the verti cal i n
equilibrium,then the tension in the string AB is :
(A) F sin u (B) F /sin u
(C) F cos u (D) F / cos u
17. In the system shown in the figure, the acceleration of
the 1kg mass and the tension in the string connecting
between A and B is :
(A)
g
4
downward,
8g
7
(B)
g
4
upward,
g
7
(C)
g
7
downward,
6
7
g (D)
g
2
upward, g
18. A body of mass 8 kg is hanging from another body of
mass 12 kg. The combination is being pulled by a
string with an acceleration of 2.2 m s
2
. The tension T
1
and T
2
will be respectively :(Use g =9.8 m/s
2
)
(A) 200 N, 80 N (B) 220 N, 90 N
(C) 240 N, 96 N (D) 260 N, 96 N
19. Two masses M
1
and M
2
are attached to the ends of a
light string which passes over a massless pulley
attached to the top of a double inclined smooth plane
of angles of inclination o and |. If M
2
> M
1
then the
acceleration of block M
2
down the inclined will be :
(A)
2
1 2
M (sin )
M M
|
+
g (B)
1
1 2
Mg(sin )
M M
o
+
(C)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
o |
2 1
1 2
M M
sin M sin M
g (D) Zero
20 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 20
20. Three masses of 1 kg, 6 kg and 3 kg are connected to
each other by threads and are placed on table as
shown in figure. What is the acceleration with which
the system is moving ? Take g = 10 m s
2
:
(A) Zero (B) 1 ms
2
(C) 2 m s
2
(D) 3 m s
2
21. The pulley arrangements shown in figure are identical
the mass of the rope being negligible. In case I, the
mass m is lifted by attaching a mass 2m to the other
end of the rope. In case II, the mass m is lifted by
pulling the other end of the rope with a constant
downward force F= 2 mg, where g is acceleration due
to gravity. The acceleration of mass in case I is :
(A) Zero
(B) More than that in case II
(C) Less than that in case II
(D) Equal to that in case II
22. A 50 kg person stands on a 25 kg platform. He pulls
massless rope which is attached to the platform via
the frictionless, massless pulleys as shown in the
figure. The platform moves upwards at a steady velocity
if the force with which the person pulls the rope is :
(A) 500 N (B) 250 N
(C) 25 N (D) 50 N
23. Figure shows four blocks that are being pulled along a
smooth horizontal surface. The mssses of the blocks
and tension in one cord are given. The pulling force F is :
4kg
3kg 2kg 1kg
60
F
30N
(A) 50 N (B) 100 N
(C) 125 N (D) 200 N
24. A10 kg monkey climbs up a massless rope that runs
over a frictionless tree limb and back down to a 15 kg
package on the ground. The magnitude of the least
acceleration the monkey must have if it is to lift the
package off the ground is :
(A) 4.9 m/s
2
(B) 5.5 m/s
2
(C) 9.8 m/s
2
(D) none of these
25. Two blocks, each of mass M, are connected by a
massl ess stri ng, whi ch passes over a smooth
massless pulley. Forces
F

act on the blocks as shown.


The tension in the string is :
(A) Mg (B) 2 Mg
(C) Mg + F (D) none of these
26. Two blocks of mass m each is connected with the
string which passes over fixed pulley, as shown in figure.
The force exerted by the string on the pulley P is :
(A) mg (B) 2 mg
(C)
2
mg (D) 4 mg
21 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 21
27. One end of a massless rope, which passes over a
massless and frictionless pulley P is tied to a hook C
while the other end is free. Maximum tension that rope
can bear i s 360 N, wi th what mi ni mum safe
acceleration (in m/s
2
) can a monkey of 60 kg move
down on the rope :
P
C
(A) 16 (B) 6
(C) 4 (D) 8
28. Which figure represents the correct F.B.D. of rod of
mass m as shown in figure :
(A) (B)
(C) (D) None of these
29. Two persons are holding a rope of negligible weight
tightly at its ends so that it is horizontal. A 15 kg weight
is attached to the rope at the mid point which now no
longer remains horizontal. The minimum tension
required to completely straighten the rope is :
(A) 15 kg
(B) kg
2
15
(C) 5 kg
(D) Infinitely large (or not possible)
30. In the figure, the blocks A, B and C of mass each have
acceleration a
1
,

a
2
and a
3
respectively . F
1
and F
2
are
external forces of magni tudes 2 mg and mg
respectively then which of the following relations is
correct :
(A) a
1
= a
2
= a
3
(B) a
1
> a
2
> a
3
(C) a
1
= a
2
, a
2
> a
3
(D) a
1
> a
2
, a
2
= a
3
31. A weight is supported by two strings 1.3 and 2.0 m
long fastened to two points on a horizontal beam 2.0
m apart. The depth of this weight below the beam is :
(IAO/Jr./Stage-I/2007)
(A) 1.0 m (B) 1.23 m
(C) 0.77 m (D) 0.89 m
32. A fully loaded elevator has a mass of 6000 kg. The
tension in the cable as the elevator is accelerated
downward with an acceleration of 2ms
2
is (Take g = I0
ms
2
)
(A) 72 10
4
N (B) 4.8 10
4
N
(C) 6 10
4
N (D) 1.2 10
4
N
33. A light string goes over a frictionless pulley. At its one
end hangs a mass of 2 kg and at the other end hangs
a mass of 6 kg. Both the masses are supported by
hands to keep them at rest. When the masses are
released, they being to move and the string gets taut.
(Take g = 10 ms
2
) The tension in the string during the
motion of the masses is :
(A) 60 N (B) 30 N
(C) 20 N (D) 40 N
34. In the given figure. What is the reading of the spring
balance:
(A) 10 N (B) 20 N
(C) 5 N (D) Zero
35. Two bodies of masses M
1
and M
2
are connected to
each other through a light spring as shown in figure. If
we push mass M
1
with force F and cause acceleration
a
1
in mass M
1
what will be the acceleration in M
2
?
(A) F/M
2
(B) F/(M
1
+ M
2
)
(C) a
1
(D) (FM
1
a
1
)/M
2
36. A spring balance is attached to 2 kg trolley and is used
to pull the trolly along a flat surface as shown in the fig.
The reading on the spring balance remains at 10 kg
during the motion. The acceleration of the trolly is (Use
g= 9.8 m
2
) :
(A) 4.9 ms
2
(B) 9.8 ms
2
(C) 49 ms
2
(D) 98 ms
2
22 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 22
37. A body of mass 32 kg is suspended by a spring balance
from the roof of a vertically operating lift and going
downward from rest. At the instants the lift has covered
20 m and 50 m, the spring balance showed 30 kg & 36
kg respectively. The velocity of the lift is :
(A) Decreasing at 20 m & increasing at 50 m
(B) Increasing at 20 m & decreasing at 50 m
(C) Continuously decreasing at a constant rate
throughout the journey
(D) Continuously increasing at constant rate throughout
the journey
38. A ship of mass 3 10
7
kg initially at rest is pulled by a
force of 5 10
4
N through a distance of 3m. Assume
that the resistance due to water is negligible, the speed
of the ship is :
(A) 1.5 m/s (B) 60 m/s
(C) 0.1 m/s (D) 5 m/s
39. When a horse pulls a cart, the force needed to move
the horse in forward direction is the force exerted by :
(A) The cart on the horse
(B) The ground on the horse
(C) The ground on the cart
(D) The horse on the ground
40. A 2.5 kg block is initially at rest on a horizontal surface.
A 6.0 N horizontal force and a vertical force
P

are applied
to the block as shown in figure. The coefficient of static
friction for the block and surface is 0.4. The magnitude
of friction force when P = 9N : (g = 10 m/s
2
)
(A) 6.0 N (B) 6.4 N
(C) 9.0 N (D) zero
41. The upper half of an inclined plane with inclination | is
perfectly smooth while the lower half is rough. A body
starting from rest at the top will again come to rest at the
bottom, if the coefficient of friction for the lower half is :
(A) 2 tan | (B) tan |
(C) 2 sin | (D) 2 cos |
42. Minimum force required to pull the lower block is (take
g = 10 m/s
2
) :
(A) 1 N (B) 5 N
(C) 7 N (D) 10 N
43. N bullets each of mass m are fired with a velocity v m/
s at the rate of n bullets per sec., upon a wall. If the
bullets are completely stopped by the wall, the reaction
offered by the wall to the bullets is :
(A) N m v / n (B) n m v
(C) n N v / m (D) n v m / N
44. A vehicle of mass m is moving on a rough horizontal
road with momentum P. If the coefficient of friction
between the tyres and the road be , then the stopping
distance is :
(A)
mg 2
P

(B)
mg 2
P
2

(C)
g m 2
P
2

(D)
g m 2
P
2
2

45. What is the maximum value of the force F such that the
block shown in the arrangement, does not move :
F
60
1
2 3
m = 3kg
(A) 20 N (B) 10 N
(C) 12N (D) 15 N
46. A bock of mass 5 kg is held against wall by applying a
horizontal force of 100N. If the coefficient of friction
between the block and the wall is 0.5, the frictional
force acting on the block is : (g =9.8 m/s
2
)
5kg 100N
(A)100 N (B) 50 N
(C) 49 N (D) 24.9 N
47. A heavy roller is being pulled along a rough road as
shown in the figure. The frictional force at the point of
contact is : (IAO/Jr./Stage-I/2007)
F
(A) parallel to F (B) opposite to F
(C) perpendicular to F (D) zero
48. When a motor car of mass 1500 kg is pushed on a
road by two persons, it moves with a small uniform
velocity. On the other hand if this car is pushed on the
same road by three persons, i t moves wi th an
acceleration of 0.2 m/s
2
. Assume that each person is
producing the same muscular force. Then, the force of
friction between the tyres of the car and the surface of
the road is : (IAO/Jr./Stage-I/2009)
(A) 300 N (B) 600 N
(C) 900 N (D) 100 N
23 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 23
49. A block of mass M is at rest on a plane surface inclined
at an angle u to the horizontal The magnitude of force
exerted by the plane on the block is :
(A) Mg cosu (B) Mg sin u
(C) Mg tanu (D) Mg
50. A block of mass M rests on a rough horizontal table. A
steadily increasing horizontal force is applied such that
the block starts to slide on the table without toppling.
The force is continued even after sliding has started.
Assume the coefficients of static and kinetic friction
between the table and the block to be equal. The cor-
rect representation of the variation of the frictional
forces, , exerted by the table on the block with time t is
given by :
(A) (B)
(C) (D)
51. A small child tries to move a large rubber toy placed on
the ground. The toy does not move but gets deformed
under her pushing force
) F (

which is obliquely upward


as shown . Then
(A) The resultant of the pushing force
) F (

, weight of
the toy, normal force by the ground on the toy and the
frictional force is zero.
(B) The normal force by the ground is equal and oppo-
site to the weight of the toy.
(C) The pushing force
) F (

of the child is balanced by


the equal and opposite frictional force
(D) The pushing force
) F (

of the child is balanced by


the total internal force in the toy generated due to
deformation
52. On a horizontal frictional frozen lake, a girl (36 kg) and
a box (9kg) are connected to each other by means of a
rope. Initially they are 20 m apart. The girl exerts a
horizontal force on the box, pulling it towards her. How
far has the girl travelled when she meets the box ?
(A) 10 m
(B) Since there is no friction, the girl will not move
(C) 16 m
(D) 4m
53. Which of the following does NOT involve friction ?
(IJSO/Stage-I/2011)
(A) Writing on a paper using a pencil
(B) Turning a car to the left on a horizontal road.
(C) A car at rest parked on a sloping ground
(D) Motion of a satellite around the earth.
-
54. In the two cases shown below, the coefficient of kinetic
friction between the block and the surface is the same,
and both the blocks are moving with the same uniform
speed. Then, (IAO/Sr./Stage-I/2008)
F
1

F
2
(A) F
1
= F
2
(B) F
1
< F
2
(C) F
1
> F
2
(D) F
1
= 2F
2
if sinu = Mg/4F
2
55. The ratio of the weight of a man in a stationary lift and
when it is moving downward with uniform acceleration
a 3:2. The value of a is : (g = acceleration, due to
gravity)
(A) (3/2)g (B) g
(C) (2/3) g (D) g/3
56. A person standing on the floor of an elevator drops a
coin. The coin reaches the floor of the elevator in time
t
1
when elevator is stationary and in time t
2
if it is moving
uniformly. Then
(A) t
1
= t
2
(B) t
1
> t
2
(C) t
1
< t
2
(D) t
1
< t
2
or t
1
> t
2
depending
57. STATEMENT-1 : A man standing in a lift which is moving
upward, will feel his weight to be greater than when
the lift was at rest.
STATEMENT-2 : If the acceleration of the lift is a upward
then the man of mass m shall feel his weight to be
equal to normal reaction (N) exerted by the lift given N
= m(g+a) (where g is acceleration due to gravity
(A) statement-1 is true, Statement 2 is true, statement-
2 is correct explanation for statement 1.
(B) statement-1 is true, Statement 2 is true, statement-
2 is NOT a correct explanation for statement-1.
(C) statement-1 is true, Statement 2 is false
(D) statement-1 is False, Statement 2 is True
24 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 24
58. A beaker containing water is placed on the platform of
a digital weighing machine. It reads 900 g. A wooden
block of mass 300 g is now made to float in water in
the beaker (without touching walls of the beaker). Half
the wooden block is submerged inside water. Now,
the reading of weighing machine will be :
(IAO/Jr./Stage-I/2009)
(A) 750 g (B) 900 g
(C) 1050 g (D) 1200 g
59. An object will continue accelerating until :
(A) Resultant force on it begins to decreases
(B) Its velocity changes direction
(C) The resultant force on it is zero
(D) The resultant force is at right angles to its direction
of motion
60. In which of the following cases the net force is not zero ?
(A) A kite skillfully held stationary in the sky
(B) A ball freely falling from a height
(C) An aeroplane rising upward at an angle of 45 with
the horizontal with a constant speed
(D) A cork floating on the surface of water.
- 61. Figure shows the displacement of a particle going
along the X-axis as a function of time. The force acting
on the particle is zero in the region.
(A) AB (B) BC
(C) CD (D) DE
62. A 2 kg toy car can move along x axis. Graph shows force
F
x
, acting on the car which begins to rest at time t = 0. The
velocity of the car at t = 10 s is :
(A)
i
m/s (B) 1.5
i
m/s
(C) 6.5
i
m/s (D) 13
i
m/s
- 63. Figure shows the displacement of a particle going
along the x-axis as a function of time :
(A) The force acting on the particle is zero in the region AB
(B) The force acting on the particle is zero in the region BC
(C) The force acting on the particle is zero in the region CD
(D) The force is zero no where
64. A force of magnitude F
1
acts on a particle so as to
accelerate if from rest to velocity v. The force F1 is then
replaced by another force of magnitude F
2
which
decelerates it to rest.
(A) F
1
must be the equal to F
2
(B) F
1
may be equal to F
2
(C) F
1
must be unequal to F
2
(D) None of these
65. In a imaginary atmosphere, the air exerts a small force
F on any particle in the direction of the particles motion.
A particle of mass m projected upward takes a time t
1
in reaching the maximum height and t
2
in the return
journey to the original point. Then
(A) t
1
< t
2
(B) t
1
> t
2
(C) t
1
= t
2
(D) The relation between t
1
and t
2
depends on the mass
of the particle
66. A single force F of constant magnitude begins to act on
a stone that is moving along x axis. The stone continues
to move along that axis. Which of the following
represents the stones position ?
(A) x = 5t 3 (B) x = 5t
2
+ 8t 3
(C) x = 5t
2
+ 5t 3 (D) x = 5t
3
+ 4t
2
3
67. Three forces act on a particle that moves wi th
unchanging velocity
v

= (3
i
4 j

) m/s. Two of the


forces are
1
F

= (3
i
+ 2 j

4
k
) N and
2
F

= (5
i
+ 8 j

+ 3
k
) N. The third force is :
(A) (2
i
+ 10 j

7
k
) N
(B) (2
i
10 j

+
k
) N
(C) (7
i
2
k
+ 10 j

) N
(D) none of these
68. An 80 kg person is parachuting and experiencing a
downward acceleration of 2.5 m/s
2
. The mass of the
parachute is 5.0 kg. The upward force on the open
parachute from the air is :
(A) 620 N (B) 740 N
(C) 800 N (D) 920 N
25 PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE # 25
69. A block of mass m is pulled on the smooth horizontal
surface with the help of two ropes, each of mass m,
connected to the opposite faces of the block. The
forces on the ropes are F and 2F. The pulling force on
the block is :
(A) F (B) 2F
(C) F/3 (D) 3F/2
70. A body of mass 5 kg starts from the origin with an initial
velocity
u

= 30
i
+ 40 j

ms
1
. If a constant force
F

= (
i
+ 5 j

) N acts on the body, the time in which the


y-component of the velocity becomes zero is :
(A) 5 s (B) 20 s
(C) 40 s (D) 80 s
71. STATEMENT-1 :According to the newtons third law of
motion, the magnitude of the action and reaction force
is an action reaction pair is same only in an inertial
frame of reference.
STATEMENT-2 : Newtons l aws of moti on are
applicable in every inertial reference frame.
(A) statement-1 is true, Statement 2 is true, statement-
2 is correct explanation for statement 1.
(B) statement-1 is true, Statement 2 is true, statement-
2 is NOT a correct explanation for statement-1.
(C) statement-1 is true, Statement 2 is false
(D) statement-1 is False, Statement 2 is True
72. A body of mass 10 g moves with constant speed 2 m/
s along a regular hexagon. The magnitude of change
in momentum when the body crosses a corner is :
(IAO/Sr./Stage-I/2007)
(A) 0.04 kg-m/s (B) zero
(C) 0.02 kg-m / s (D) 0.4 kg-m/s
73. An object with uniform density is attached to a spring
that is known to stretch linearly with applied force as
shown below
When the spring object system is immersed in a
liquid of density
1
as shown in the figure, the spring
stretches by an amount x
1
( >
1
). When the experiment
is repeated in a liquid of density
2
<
1
. the spring is
stretched by an amount x
2
. Neglecting any buoyant force
on the spring, the density of the object is:
(A)
2 1
2 2 1 1
x x
x x


=
(B)
1 2
1 2 2 1
x x
x x


=
(C)
2 1
1 2 2 1
x x
x x
+
+
=
(D)
2 1
2 2 1 1
x x
x x
+
+
=
74. A body of 0.5 kg moves along the positive x - axis under
the influence of a varying force F (in Newtons) as shown
below :
3
3
1
F
(
N
)
0,0 2 4 6 8
10
x(m)
If the speed of the object at x = 4m is 3.16 ms
1
then its
speed at x = 8 m is :
(A) 3.16 ms
1
(B) 9.3 ms
1
(C) 8 ms
1
(D) 6.8 ms
1
75. A soldier with a machine gun, falling from an airplane
gets detached from his parachute. He is able to resist
the downward acceleration if he shoots 40 bullets a
second at the speed of 500 m/s. If the weight of a bullet
is 49 gm, what is the weight of the man with the gun ?
Ignore resi stance due to ai r and assume the
acceleration due to gravity g = 9.8 m/s
2
.
(A) 50 kg (B) 75 kg
(C) 100 kg (D) 125 kg
76. Blocks of mass M
1
and M
2
are connected by a cord
which passes over the pulleys P
1
and P
2
as shown
in the figure. If there is no friction, the acceleration
of the block of mass M
2
will be:
(A)
) (
2 1
2
M M 4
g M
+
(B)
) (
2 1
2
M M 4
g M 2
+
(C)
) M 4 M (
g M 2
2 1
1
+
(D)
) (
2 1
1
M M
g M 2
+
PAGE # 26
MOLE CONCEPT
ATOMS
All the matter is made up of atoms. An atom is the
smallest particle of an element that can take part in a
chemical reaction. Atoms of most of the elements
are very reactive and do not exist in the free state (as
single atom).They exist in combination with the atoms
of the same element or another element.
Atoms are very, very small in size. The size of an atom
is indicated by its radius which is called "atomic
radius" (radi us of an atom). Atomi c radi us is
measured in "nanometres"(nm).
1 metre = 10
9
nanometre or 1nm = 10
-9
m.
Atoms are so small that we cannot see them under
the most powerful optical microscope.
Note :
Hydrogen atom is the smallest atom of all , having an
atomic radius 0.037nm.
(a) Symbols of Elements :
A symbol is a short hand notation of an element which
can be represented by a sketch or letter etc.
Dalton was the first to use symbols to represent
elements in a short way but Dalton's symbols for
element were difficult to draw and inconvenient to
use, so Dalton's symbols are only of historical
importance. They are not used at all.
It was J.J. Berzelius who proposed the modern
system of representing an element.
The symbol of an element is the "first letter" or the
"first letter and another letter" of the English name or
the Latin name of the element.
e.g. The symbol of Hydrogen is H.
The symbol of Oxygen is O.
There are some elements whose names begin with
the same letter. For example, the names of elements
Carbon, Calcium, Chlorine and Copper all begin with
the letter C. In such cases, one of the elements is
given a "one letter "symbol but all other elements are
given a "first letter and another letter" symbol of the
English or Latin name of the element. This is to be
noted that "another letter" may or may not be the
"second letter" of the name. Thus,
The symbol of Carbon is C.
The symbol of Calcium is Ca.
The symbol of Chlorine is Cl.
The symbol of Copper is Cu (from its Latin name
Cuprum)
It should be noted that in a "two letter" symbol, the
first letter is the "capital letter" but the second letter is
the 'small letter'.

English Name of
the Element
Symbol
Hydrogen H
Helium He
Lithium Li
Boron B
Carbon C
Nitrogen N
Oxygen O
Fluorine F
Neon Ne
Magnesium Mg
Aluminium Al
Silicon Si
Phosphorous P
Sulphur S
Chlorine Cl
Argon Ar
Calcium Ca
Symbol Derived from English Names
Symbols Derived from Latin Names
English Name of
the Element
Symbol
Latin Name of
the Element
Sodium Na Natrium
Potassium K Kalium
(b) Significance of The Symbol of an
Element :
(i) Symbol represents name of the element.
(ii) Symbol represents one atom of the element.
(iii) Symbol also represents one mole of the element.
That is, symbol also represent 6.023 10
23
atoms of
the element.
(iv) Symbol represent a definite mass of the element
i.e. atomic mass of the element.
Example :
(i) Symbol H represents hydrogen element.
(ii) Symbol H also represents one atom of hydrogen
element.
(iii) Symbol H also represents one mole of hydrogen
atom.
(iv) Symbol H also represents one gram hydrogen
atom.
IONS
An ion is a positively or negatively charged atom or
group of atoms.
Every atom contains equal number of electrons
id11425968 pdfMachine by Broadgun Software - a great PDF writer! - a great PDF creator! - http://www.pdfmachine.com http://www.broadgun.com
PAGE # 27
(negatively charged) and protons (positively charged).
Both charges balance each other, hence atom is
electrically neutral.
(a) Cation :
If an atom has less electrons than a neutral atom,
then it gets positively charged and a positively
charged ion is known as cation.
e.g. Sodium ion (Na
+
), Magnesium ion (Mg
2+
) etc.
A cation bears that much units of positive charge as
there are the number of electrons lost by the neutral
atom to form that cation.
e.g. An aluminium atom loses 3 electrons to form
aluminium ion, so aluminium ion bears 3 units of
positive charge and it is represented as Al
3+
.
(b) Anion :
If an atom has more number of electrons than that of
neutral atom, then it gets negatively charged and a
negatively charged ion is known as anion.
e.g. Chloride ion (Cl

), oxide ion (O
2-
) etc.
An anion bears that much units of negative charge
as there are the number of electrons gained by the
neutral atom to form that anion.
e.g. A nitrogen atom gains 3 electrons to form nitride
ion, so nitride ion bears 3 units of negative charge
and it is represented as N
3-
.
Note :
Size of a cation is always smaller and anion is always
greater than that of the corresponding neutral atom.
(c) Monoatomic ions and polyatomic ions :
(i) Monoatomic ions : Those ions which are formed
from single atoms are called monoatomic ions or
simple ions.
e.g. Na
+
, Mg
2+
etc.
(ii) Polyatomic ions : Those ions which are formed
from group of atoms joined together are called
polyatomic ions or compound ions.
e.g. Ammonium ion (NH
4
+
) , hydroxide ion (OH

) etc.
which are formed by the joining of two types of atoms,
nitrogen and hydrogen in the first case and oxygen and
hydrogen in the second.
(d) Valency of ions :
The valency of an ion is same as the charge present
on the ion.
If an ion has 1 unit of positive charge, its valency is 1
and it is known as a monovalent cation. If an ion has
2 units of negative charge, its valency is 2 and it is
known as a divalent anion.
LIST OF COMMON ELECTROVALENT POSITIVE RADICALS

LIST OF COMMON ELECTROVALENT NEGATIVE RADICALS
Monovalent Electronegative
Bivalent
Electronegative
Trivalent
Electronegative
Tetravalent
Electronegative
1. Fluoride F

1. Sulphate SO
4
2-
1. Nitride N
3-
1. Carbide C
4-
2. Chloride Cl

2. Sulphite SO
3
2-
2. Phosphide P
3-
3. Bromide Br

3. Sulphide S
2-
3. Phosphite PO3
3-
4. Iodide
I
4. Thiosulphate S
2
O
3
2-
4. Phosphate PO
4
3-
5. Hydride H

5. Zincate ZnO
2
2-
6. Hydroxide OH

6. Oxide O
2-
7. Nitrite NO
2

7. Peroxide O2
2-
8.Nitrate NO
3

8. Dichromate Cr2O7
2-
9. Bicarbonate or Hydrogen carbonate HCO
3

9. Carbonate CO
3
2-
10. Bisulphite or Hydrogen sulphite HSO
3

10. Silicate SiO3


2-
11. Bisulphide or Hydrogen sulphide HS

12. Bisulphate or Hydrogen sulphate HSO


4

13. Acetate CH COO


3

Note :
Cation contains less no. of electrons and anion contains more no. of electrons than the no. of protons present in
them.
PAGE # 28
LAWS OF CHEMICAL COMBINATION
The l aws of chemi cal combi nati on are the
experi mental l aws whi ch l ed to the i dea of
atoms being the smallest unit of matter. The laws of
chemical combination played a significant role in the
development of Daltons atomic theory of matter.
There are two important laws of chemical combination.
These are:
(i) Law of conservation of mass
(ii) Law of constant proportions
(a) Law of Conservation of Mass or Matter :
This law was given by Lavoisier in 1774 . According to
the law of conservation of mass, matter can neither
be created nor be destroyed in a chemical reaction.
Or
The law of conservation of mass means that in a
chemical reaction, the total mass of products is equal
to the total mass of the reactants. There is no change
in mass during a chemical reaction.
Suppose we carry out a chemical reaction between A
and B and if the products formed are C and D then,
A + B C + D
Suppose 'a' g of A and 'b' g of B react to produce 'c' g of
C and 'd' g of D. Then, according to the law of
conservation of mass, we have,
a + b = c + d
Example :
When Calcium Carbonate (CaCO
3
) is heated, a
chemical reaction takes place to form Calcium Oxide
(CaO) and Carbon dioxide (CO
2
). It has been found
by experiments that if 100 grams of calcium carbonate
is decomposed completely, then 56 grams of Calcium
Oxide and 44 grams of Carbon dioxide are formed.

Since the total mass of products (100g ) is equal to
the total mass of the reactants (100g), there is no
change in the mass during this chemical reaction.
The mass remains same or conserved.
(b) Law of Constant Proportions / Law of
Definite Proportions :
Proust, in 1779, analysed the chemical composition
(types of elements present and percentage of
elements present ) of a large number of compounds
and came to the conclusion that the proportion of
each element in a compound is constant (or fixed).
According to the law of constant proportions: A
chemical compound always consists of the same
elements combined together in the same proportion
by mass.
Note :
The chemical composition of a pure substance is
not dependent on the source from which it is obtained.
Example :
Water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen. It can
be obtained from various sources (like river, sea, well
etc.) or even synthesized in the laboratory. From
whatever source we may get it, 9 parts by weight of
water is always found to contain 1 part by weight of
hydrogen and 8 parts by weight of oxygen. Thus, in
water, this proportion of hydrogen and oxygen always
remains constant.
Note :
The converse of Law of definite proportions that when
same elements combine in the same proportion, the
same compound will be formed, is not always true.
(c) Law of Multiple Proportions :
According to it, when one element combines with the
other element to form two or more different compounds,
the mass of one element, which combines with a
constant mass of the other, bears a simple ratio to
one another.
Simple ratio means the ratio between small natural
numbers, such as 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 3
e.g.
Carbon and oxygen when combine, can form two
oxides that are CO (carbon monoxide), CO
2
(carbon
dioxide).
In CO,12 g carbon combined with 16 g of oxygen.
In CO
2
,12 g carbon combined with 32 g of oxygen.
Thus, we can see the mass of oxygen which combine
with a constant mass of carbon (12 g) bear simple
ratio of 16 : 32 or 1 : 2
Note :
The law of multiple proportion was given by Dalton in
1808.
Sample Problem :
1. Carbon is found to form two oxides, which contain
42.8% and 27.27% of carbon respectively. Show that
these figures illustrate the law of multiple proportions.
Sol. % of carbon in first oxide = 42.8
% of oxygen in first oxide = 100 - 42.8 = 57.2
% of carbon in second oxide = 27.27
% of oxygen in second oxide = 100 - 27.27 = 72.73
For the first oxide -
Mass of oxygen in grams that combines with 42.8 g
of carbon = 57.2
Mass of oxygen that combines with 1 g of carbon =
1.34
42.8
57.2
=
g
For the second oxide -
Mass of oxygen in grams that combines with 27.27 g
of carbon = 72.73
Mass of oxygen that combines with 1 g of carbon =
2.68
27.27
72.73
= g
Ratio between the masses of oxygen that combine
with a fixed mass (1 g) of carbon in the two oxides
= 1.34 : 2.68 or 1 : 2 which is a simple ratio. Hence,
this illustrates the law of multiple proportion.
PAGE # 29
(d) Law of Reciprocal Proportions :
According to this law the ratio of the weights of two
element A and B which combine separately with a
fixed weight of the third element C is either the same
or some simple multiple of the ratio of the weights in
which A and B combine directly with each other.
e.g.
The elements C and O combine separately with the
third element H to form CH
4
and H
2
O and they combine
directly with each other to form CO
2
.
H 2 4
CH
4
H O
2
C O
16
12
12
CO
2
32
In CH
4
, 12 parts by weight of carbon combine with 4
parts by weight of hydrogen. In H
2
O, 2 parts by weight
of hydrogen combine with 16 parts by weight of
oxygen. Thus the weight of C and O which combine
with fixed weight of hydrogen (say 4 parts by weight)
are 12 and 32 i.e. they are in the ratio 12 : 32 or 3 : 8.
Now in CO
2
, 12 parts by weight of carbon combine
directly with 32 parts by weight of oxygen i.e. they
combine directly in the ratio 12 : 32 or 3 : 8 which is
the same as the first ratio.
Note :
The law of reciprocal proportion was put forward by
Ritcher in 1794.
Sample Problem :
2. Ammonia contains 82.35% of nitrogen and 17.65%
of hydrogen. Water contains 88.90% of oxygen and
11.10% of hydrogen. Nitrogen trioxide contains
63.15% of oxygen and 36.85% of nitrogen. Show that
these data illustrate the law of reciprocal proportions.
Sol
In NH
3
, 17.65 g of H combine with N = 82.35 g
1g of H combine with N =
17.65
82.35
g = 4.67 g
In H
2
O, 11.10 g of H combine with O = 88.90 g
1 g H combine with O =
11.10
88.90
g = 8.01 g
Ratio of the weights of N and O which combine
with fixed weight (=1g) of H
= 4.67 : 8.01 = 1 : 1.72
In N
2
O
3
, ratio of weights of N and O which combine
with each other = 36.85 : 63.15 = 1 : 1.71
Thus the two ratio are the same. Hence it illustrates
the law of reciprocal proportions.
(e) Gay Lussacs Law of Gaseous Volumes :
Gay Lussac found that there exi sts a defi ni te
relationship among the volumes of the gaseous
reactants and their products. In 1808, he put forward
a generalization known as the Gay Lussacs Law of
combining volumes. This may be stated as follows :
When gases react together, they always do so in
volumes which bear a simple ratio to one another
and to the volumes of the product, if these are also
gases, provided all measurements of volumes are
done under similar conditions of temperature and
pressure.
e.g.
Combination between hydrogen and chlorine to form
hydrogen chloride gas. One volume of hydrogen and
one volume of chlorine always combine to form two
volumes of hydrochloric acid gas.
H
2
(g) + Cl
2
(g) 2HCl (g)
1vol. 1 vol. 2 vol.
The ratio between the volume of the reactants and
the product in this reaction is simple, i.e., 1 : 1 : 2.
Hence it illustrates the Law of combining volumes.
(f) Avogadros Hypothesis :
This states that equal volumes of all gases under
similar conditions of temperature and pressure
contain equal number of molecules.
This hypothesis has been found to explain elegantly
al l the gaseous reacti ons and is now widel y
recognized as a law or a principle known as Avogadros
Law or Avogadros principle.
The reaction between hydrogen and chlorine can be
explained on the basis of Avogadros Law as follows :
Hydrogen + Chlorine Hydrogen chloride gas
1 vol. (By experiment)
1 vol. 2 vol.
n molecules. n molecules.
2n molecules.(By Avogadro's Law)
2
1
molecules. molecules.
1 molecules. (By dividing throughout by 2n)
1 Atom 1 Atom
1 Molecule (Applying Avogadro's hypothesis)
2
1
It implies that one molecule of hydrogen chloride gas
is made up of 1 atom of hydrogen and 1 atom of
chlorine.
(i) Applications of Avogadros hypothesis :
(A) In the calculation of atomicity of elementary
gases.
e.g.
2 volumes of hydrogen combine with 1 volume of
oxygen to form two volumes of water vapours.
Hydrogen + Oxygen Water vapours
2 vol. 1 vol. 2 vol.
PAGE # 30
Applying Avogadros hypothesis
Hydrogen + Oxygen Water vapours
2 n molecules n molecules 2 n molecules
or 1 molecule
2
1
molecule 1 molecule
Thus1 molecule of water contains
2
1
molecule of
oxygen. But 1 molecule of water contains 1 atom of
oxygen. Hence.
2
1
molecule of oxygen = 1 atom of
oxygen or 1 molecules of oxygen = 2 atoms of oxygen
i.e. atomicity of oxygen = 2.
(B) To find the relationship between molecular mass
and vapour density of a gas.
Vapour density (V.D.) =
hydrogen of Density
gas of Density
=
e pressur and temp. same the
at hydrogen of volume same the of Mass
gas the of volume certain a of Mass
If n molecules are present in the given volume of a gas
and hydrogen under similar conditions of temperature
and pressure.
V.D. =
hydrogen of molecules n of Mass
gas the of molecules n of Mass
=
hydrogen of molecule 1 of Mass
gas the of molecule 1 of Mass
=
hydrogen of mass Molecular
gas the of mass Molecular
=
2
mass Molecular
(since molecular mass of hydrogen is 2)
Hence, Molecular mass = 2 Vapour density
ATOMIC MASS UNIT
The atomic mass unit (amu) is equal to one-twelfth
(1/12) of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.The mass
of an atom of carbon-12 isotope was given the atomic
mass of 12 units, i.e. 12 amu or 12 u.
The atomic masses of all other elements are now
expressed in atomic mass units.
RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS
The atomic mass of an element is a relative quantity
and it is the mass of one atom of the element relative
to one -twelfth (1/12) of the mass of one carbon-12
atom. Thus, Relative atomic mass
=
atom 12 C one of mass
12
1
element the of atom one of Mass

[1/12 the mass of one C-12 atom = 1 amu,
1 amu = 1.66 10
24
g = 1.66 10
27
kg.]
Note :
One amu is also called one dalton (Da).
GRAM-ATOMIC MASS
The atomic mass of an element expressed in grams
is called the Gram Atomic Mass of the element.
The number of gram -atoms
=
element the of mass Atomic Gram
gram in element the of Mass
e.g.
Calculate the gram atoms present in (i) 16g of oxygen
and (ii) 64g of sulphur.
(i) The atomic mass of oxygen = 16.
Gram-Atomic Mass of oxygen (O) = 16 g.
No. of Gram-Atom =
16
16
= 1
(ii) The gram-atom present in 64 gram of sulphur.
=
sulphur of Mass Atomic Gram
64
=
32
64
= 2

Atomic
Number Element Symbol
Atomic
mass
1 Hydrogen H 1
2 Helium He 4
3 Lithium Li 7
4 Beryllium Be 9
5 Boron B 11
6 Carbon C 12
7 Nitrogen N 14
8 Oxygen O 16
9 Fluorine F 19
10 Neon Ne 20
11 Sodium Na 23
12 Magnesium Mg 24
13 Aluminium Al 27
14 Silicon Si 28
15 Phosphorus P 31
16 Sulphur S 32
17 Chlorine Cl 35.5
18 Argon Ar 40
19 Potassium K 39
20 Calcium Ca 40
RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS
The relative molecular mass of a substance is the
mass of a molecule of the substance as compared
to one-twelfth of the mass of one carbon -12 atom
i.e.,
Relative molecular mass
=
atom 12 C one of mass
12
1
substance the of molecule one of Mass

The molecular mass of a molecule, thus, represents
the number of times it is heavier than 1/12 of the
mass of an atom of carbon-12 isotope.
PAGE # 31
GRAM MOLECULAR MASS
The molecular mass of a substance expressed in
grams is called the Gram Molecular Mass of the
substance . The number of gram molecules
=
ance t subs the of mass molecular Gram
grams in tance subs the of Mass
e.g.
(i) Molecular mass of hydrogen (H
2
) = 2u.
Gram Molecular Mass of hydrogen (H
2
) = 2 g .
(ii) Molecular mass of methane (CH
4
) = 16u
Gram Molecular Mass of methane (CH
4
) = 16 g.
e.g. the number of gram molecules present in 64 g of
methane (CH
4
).
=
4
CH of mass molecular Gram
64
=
16
64
= 4.
(a) Calculation of Molecular Mass :
The molecular mass of a substance is the sum of
the atomic masses of its constituent atoms present
in a molecule.
Ex.1 Calculate the molecular mass of water.
(Atomic masses : H = 1u, O = 16u).
Sol. The molecular formula of water is H
2
O.
Molecular mass of water = ( 2 atomic mass of H)
+ (1 atomic mass of O)
= 2 1 + 1 16 = 18
i.e., molecular mass of water = 18 amu.
Ex.2 Find out the molecular mass of sulphuric acid.
(Atomic mass : H = 1u, O = 16u, S = 32u).
Sol. The molecular formula of sulphuric acid is H
2
SO
4
.
Molecular mass of H
2
SO
4
= (2 atomic mass of H) + ( 1 atomic mass of S)
+ ( 4 atomic mass of O)
= (2 1) + (1 32) + (416) = 2 + 32 + 64 = 98
i.e., Molecular mass of H
2
SO
4
= 98 amu.
FORMULA MASS
The term formula mass is used for ionic compounds
and others where discrete molecules do not exist,
e.g., sodium chloride, which is best represented as
(Na
+
Cl

)
n
, but for reasons of simplicity as NaCl or
Na
+
Cl

. Here, formula mass means the sum of the


masses of all the species in the formula.
Thus, the formula mass of sodium chloride = (atomic
mass of sodium) + (atomic mass of chlorine)
= 23 + 35.5
= 58.5 amu
EQUIVALENT MASS
(a) Definition :
Equivalent mass of an element is the mass of the
element which combine with or displaces 1.008 parts
by mass of hydrogen or 8 parts by mass of oxygen or
35.5 parts by mass of chlorine.
(b) Formulae of Equivalent Masses of different
substances :
(i) Equivalent mass of an element =
element the of Valency
element the of wt. Atomic
(ii) Eq. mass an acid =
acid the of Basicity
acid the of wt. Mol.
Basicity is the number of replaceable H
+
ions from
one molecule of the acid.
(iii) Eq. Mass of a base =
base the of Acidity
base the of wt. Mol.
Acidity is the number of replaceable OH

ions from
one molecule of the base
(iv) Eq. mass of a salt
=
metal of valency atoms metal of Number
salt the of wt. Mol.

(v) Eq. mass of an ion =


ion the on Charge
ion the of wt. Formula
(vi) Eq. mass of an oxidizing/reducing agent
=
substance the of atom / molecule
one by gained or lost electrons of No.
wt At. or wt. Mol
Equivalent weight of some compounds are given in
the table :

S.No. Compound
Equivalent
weight
1 HCl 36.5
2 H
2
SO
4
49
3 HNO
3
63
4 45
5
.2H
2
O
63
6 NaOH 40
7 KOH 56
8 CaCO
3
50
9 NaCl 58.5
10 Na
2
CO
3
53
COOH
COOH
PAGE # 32
In Latin, mole means heap or collection or pile. A
mole of atoms is a collection of atoms whose total
mass is the number of grams equal to the atomic
mass in magnitude. Since an equal number of moles
of different elements contain an equal number of
atoms, i t becomes conveni ent to express the
amounts of the elements in terms of moles. A mole
represents a definite number of particles, viz, atoms,
molecules, ions or electrons. This definite number is
called the Avogadro Number (now called the Avogadro
constant) which is equal to 6.023 10
23
.
A mole is defined as the amount of a substance that
contains as many atoms, molecules, ions, electrons
or other elementary particles as there are atoms in
exactly 12 g of carbon -12 (
12
C).
(a) Moles of Atoms :
(i) 1 mole atoms of any element occupy a mass which
is equal to the Gram Atomic Mass of that element.
e.g. 1 Mole of oxygen atoms weigh equal to Gram
Atomic Mass of oxygen, i.e. 16 grams.
(ii) The symbol of an element represents 6.023 x 10
23
atoms (1 mole of atoms) of that element.
e.g : Symbol N represents 1 mole of nitrogen atoms
and 2N represents 2 moles of nitrogen atoms.
(b) Moles of Molecules :
(i) 1 mole molecules of any substance occupy a mass
which is equal to the Gram Molecular Mass of that
substance.
e.g. : 1 mole of water (H
2
O) molecules weigh equal to
Gram Molecular Mass of water (H
2
O), i.e. 18 grams.
(ii) The symbol of a compound represents 6.023 x
10
23
mol ecul es (1 mol e of molecul es) of that
compound.
e.g. : Symbol H
2
O represents 1 mole of water
molecules and 2 H
2
O represents 2 moles of water
molecules.
Note :
The symbol H
2
O does not represent 1 mole of H
2
mol ecules and 1 mol e of O atoms. Instead, it
represents 2 moles of hydrogen atoms and 1 mole
of oxygen atoms.
Note :
The SI unit of the amount of a substance is Mole.
(c) Mole in Terms of Volume :
Volume occupied by 1 Gram Molecular Mass or 1
mol e of a gas under standard condi ti ons of
temperature and pressure (273 K and 1atm.
pressure) is called Gram Molecular Volume. Its value
is 22.4 litres for each gas.
Volume of 1 mole = 22.4 litre (at STP)
Note :
The term mole was introduced by Ostwald in 1896.
SOME IMPORTANT RELATIONS AND FORMULAE
(i) 1 mole of atoms = Gram Atomic mass = mass of
6.023 10
23
atoms
(ii) 1 mole of molecules = Gram Molecular Mass
= 6.023 x 10
23
molecules
(iii) Number of moles of atoms
=
element of Mass Atomic Gram
grams in element of Mass
(iv) Number of moles of molecules
=
substance of Mass Molecular Gram
grams in substance of Mass
(v) Number of moles of molecules
=
A
N
N
number Avogadro
element of molecules of No.
=
Ex.3 To calculate the number of moles in 16 grams of
Sulphur (Atomic mass of Sulphur = 32 u).
Sol. 1 mole of atoms = Gram Atomic Mass.
So, 1 mole of Sulphur atoms = Gram Atomic Mass of
Sulphur = 32 grams.
Now, 32 grams of Sulphur = 1 mole of Sulphur
So, 16 grams of Sulphur
= (1/32) x 16 = 0.5 moles
Thus, 16 grams of Sulphur constitute 0.5 mole of
Sulphur.
6.023 10
(N ) Atoms
23
A
6.023 10
(N ) molecules
23
A
1 Mole
1 gram atom
of element
1 gram molecule
of substance
1 gram formula
mass of substance
In terms of
particles
In terms of
mass
22.4 litre
In term of
volume
PROBLEMS BASED ON THE MOLE CONCEPT
Ex.4 Cal culate the number of moles in 5.75 g of
sodium. (Atomic mass of sodium = 23 u)
Sol. Number of moles
=
element of Mass Atomic Gram
grams in element the of Mass
=
23
5.75
= 0.25 mole
or,
1 mole of sodium atoms = Gram Atomic mass of
sodium = 23g.
23 g of sodium = 1 mole of sodium.
5.75 g of sodium =
23
5.75
mole of sodium = 0.25 mole
PAGE # 33
Ex.5 What is the mass in grams of a single atom of
chlorine ? (Atomic mass of chlorine = 35.5u)
Sol. Mass of 6.022 10
23
atoms of Cl = Gram Atomic
Mass of Cl = 35.5 g.
Mass of 1 atom of Cl =
23
10 6.022
g 35.5

= 5.9 10
23
g.
Ex.6 The density of mercury is 13.6 g cm
3
. How many
moles of mercury are there in 1 litre of the metal ?
(Atomic mass of Hg = 200 u).
Sol. Mass of mercury (Hg) i n grams = Densi ty
(g cm
3
) Volume (cm
3
)
= 13.6 g cm
3
1000 cm
3
= 13600 g.
Number of moles of mercury
=
mercury of Mass Atomic Gram
grams in mercury of Mass
=
200
13600
= 68
Ex.7 The mass of a single atom of an element M is
3.15 10
23
g . What is its atomic mass ? What
could the element be ?
Sol. Gram Atomic Mass = mass of 6.022 10
23
atoms
= mass of 1 atom 6.022 10
23
= (3.15 10
23
g) 6.022 10
23
= 3.15 6.022 g = 18.97 g.
Atomic Mass of the element = 18.97u
Thus, the element is most likely to be fluorine.
Ex.8 An atom of neon has a mass of 3.35 10
23
g.
How many atoms of neon are there in 20 g of the
gas ?
Sol. Number of atoms
=
atom 1 of Mass
mass Total
=
23
10 3.35
0 2

= 5.97 10
23
Ex.9 How many grams of sodium will have the same
number of atoms as atoms present i n 6 g of
magnesium ?
(Atomic masses : Na = 23u ; Mg =24u)
Sol. Number of gram -atom of Mg
=
Mass Atomic Gram
grams in Mg of Mass
=
24
6
=
4
1
Gram Atoms of sodium should be =
4
1
1 Gram Atom of sodium = 23 g
4
1
gram atoms of sodium = 23
4
1
= 5.75 g
Ex.10 How many moles of Cr are there in 85g of Cr
2
S
3
?
(Atomic masses : Cr = 52 u , S =32 u)
Sol. Molecular mass of Cr
2
S
3
=2 52 + 3 32 = 200 u.
200g of Cr
2
S
3
contains = 104 g of Cr.
85 g of Cr
2
S
3
contains =
200
85 104
g of Cr = 44.2g
Thus, number of moles of Cr =
52
44.2
= 0.85 .
Ex.11 What mass in grams is represented by
(a) 0.40 mol of CO
2
,
(b) 3.00 mol of NH
3
,
(c) 5.14 mol of H
5
IO
6
(Atomi c masses : C=12 u, O=16 u, N=14 u,
H=1 u and I = 127 u)
Sol. Weight in grams = number of moles molecular
mass.
Hence,
(a) mass of CO
2
= 0.40 44 = 17.6 g
(b) mass of NH
3
= 3.00 17 = 51.0 g
(c) mass of H
5
IO
6
= 5.14 228 = 1171.92g
Ex.12 Calculate the volume in litres of 20 g of hydrogen
gas at STP.
Sol. Number of moles of hydrogen
=
hydrogen of Mass Molecular Gram
grams in hydrogen of Mass
=
2
20
= 10
Volume of hydrogen = number of moles Gram
Molecular Volume.
= 10 22.4 = 224 litres.
Ex.13 The mol ecul ar mass of H
2
SO
4
i s 98 amu.
Calculate the number of moles of each element
in 294 g of H
2
SO
4
.
Sol. Number of moles of H
2
SO
4
=
98
294
= 3 .
The formula H
2
SO
4
indicates that 1 molecule of
H
2
SO
4
contains 2 atoms of H, 1 atom of S and 4
atoms of O. Thus, 1 mole of H
2
SO
4
will contain 2
moles of H,1 mole of S and 4 moles of O atoms
Therefore, in 3 moles of H
2
SO
4
:
Number of moles of H = 2 3 = 6
Number of moles of S = 1 3 = 3
Number of moles of O = 4 3 = 12
Ex.14 Find the mass of oxygen contained in 1 kg of
potassium nitrate (KNO
3
).
Sol. Since 1 molecule of KNO
3
contains 3 atoms of
oxygen, 1 mol of KNO
3
contai ns 3 mol es of
oxygen atoms.
Moles of oxygen atoms = 3 moles of KNO
3
= 3
101
1000
= 29.7
(Gram Molecular Mass of KNO
3
= 101 g)
Mass of oxygen = Number of moles Atomic
mass
= 29.7 16 = 475.2 g
Ex.15 You are asked by your teacher to buy 10 moles of
distilled water from a shop where small bottles
each containing 20 g of such water are available.
How many bottles will you buy ?
Sol. Gram Molecular Mass of water (H
2
O) = 18 g
10 mol of distilled water = 18 10 = 180 g.
Because 20 g distilled water is contained in 1
bottle,
180 g of distilled water is contained in =
20
180
bottles = 9 bottles.
Number of bottles to be bought = 9
PAGE # 34
Ex.16 6.022 10
23
molecules of oxygen (O
2
) is equal to
how many moles ?
Sol. No. of moles =
A
N
N
molecules of no. s Avogadro'
oxygen of molecules of No.
= =
23
23
10 6.023
10 6.023

=1
PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION
The percentage composi ti on of el ements i n a
compound is calculated from the molecular formula
of the compound.
The molecular mass of the compound is calculated
from the atomic masses of the various elements
present in the compound. The percentage by mass
of each element is then computed with the help of the
following relations.
Percentage mass of the element in the compound
=
mass Molecular
element the of mass Total
100
Ex.17 What is the percentage of calcium in calcium
carbonate (CaCO
3
) ?
Sol. Molecular mass of CaCO
3
= 40 + 12 + 3 16
= 100 amu.
Mass of calcium in 1 mol of CaCO
3
= 40g.
Percentage of calcium =
100
100 40
= 40 %
Ex.18 What is the percentage of sulphur in sulphuric
acid (H
2
SO
4
) ?
Sol. Molecular mass of H
2
SO
4
= 1 2 + 32 + 16 4 = 98 amu.
Percentage of sulphur =
98
100 32
= 32.65 %
Ex.19 What are the percentage composi ti ons of
hydrogen and oxygen in water (H
2
O) ?
(Atomic masses : H = 1 u, O = 16 u)
Sol. Molecular mass of water, H
2
O = 2 + 16 = 18 amu.
H
2
O has two atoms of hydrogen.
So, total mass of hydrogen in H
2
O = 2 amu.
Percentage of H =
18
100 2
= 11.11 %
Similarly,
percentage of oxygen =
18
100 16
= 88.88 %
The following steps are involved in determining the
empirical formula of a compound :
(i) The percentage composition of each element is
divided by its atomic mass. It gives atomic ratio of the
elements present in the compound.
(ii) The atomic ratio of each element is divided by the
minimum value of atomic ratio as to get the simplest
ratio of the atoms of el ements present i n the
compound.
(iii) If the simplest ratio is fractional, then values of
simplest ratio of each element is multiplied by
smallest integer to get the simplest whole number
for each of the element.
(iv) To get the empirical formula, symbols of various
elements present are written side by side with their
respective whole number ratio as a subscript to the
lower right hand corner of the symbol.
(v) The molecular formula of a substance may be
determined from the empirical formula if the molecular
mass of the substance is known. The molecular
formula is always a simple multiple of empirical
formula and the value of simple multiple (n) is
obtained by dividing molecular mass with empirical
formula mass.
n =
Mass Formula Empirical
Mass Molecular
Ex-20 A compound of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen
contains these elements in the ratio of 9:1:3.5 respectively.
Calculate the empirical formula. If its molecular mass is
108, what is the molecular formula ?
Sol.

Element
Mas
s
Atomi
c
Relative
Number
Simplest
Ratio
Carbon 9 12
Hydroge
n
1 1
Nitrogen 3.5 14
0.75
12
9
=
1
1
1
=
0.25
14
3.5
=
3
25 . 0
75 . 0
=
4
25 . 0
1
=
1
25 . 0
25 . 0
=
Empirical ratio = C
3
H
4
N
Empirical formula mass = (3 12) + (4 1) + 14 = 54
n =
Mass Formula Empirical
Mass Molecular
=
2
54
108
=
Thus, molecular formula of the compound
= (Empirical formula)
2
= (C
3
H
4
N)
2
= C
6
H
8
N
2
Ex.21 A compound on analysis, was found to have the
following composition :
(i) Sodium = 14.31%, (ii) Sulphur = 9.97%, (iii) Oxygen
= 69.50%, (iv) Hydrogen = 6.22%. Calculate the
molecular formula of the compound assuming that
whole hydrogen in the compound is present as water
of crystallisation. Molecular mass of the compound
is 322.
Sol.

Element Percentage
Atomic
mass
Relative Number
of atoms
Simplest ratio
Sodium 14.31 23 0.622
Sulphur 9.97 32 0.311
Hydrogen 6.22 1 6.22
Oxygen 69.50 16 4.34
2
0.311
0.622
=
1
0.311
0.311
=
20
0.311
6.22
=
14
0.311
4.34
=
=
23
31 . 14
=
1
22 . 6
=
16
50 . 69
=
32
97 . 9
PAGE # 35
The empirical formula = Na
2
SH
20
O
14
Empirical formula mass
= (2 23) + 32 + (20 1) + (14 16)
= 322
Molecular mass = 322
Molecular formula = Na
2
SH
20
O
14
Whole of the hydrogen is present in the form of water
of crystallisation. Thus, 10 water molecules are
present in the molecule.
So, molecular formula = Na
2
SO
4
. 10H
2
O
CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTIONS
(a) Strength in g/L :
The strength of a solution is defined as the amount of
the solute in grams present in one litre (or dm
3
) of the
solution, and hence is expressed in g/litre or g/dm
3
.
Strength in g/L =
litre in solution of Volume
gram in solute of Weight
(b) Molarity :
Molarity of a solution is defined as the number of
moles of the solute dissolved per litre (or dm
3
) of
solution. It is denoted by M. Mathematically,
M =
litre in solution the of Volume
solute of moles of Number
litre in solution of Volume
solute of Mass Molecular gram/Gram in solute of Mass
M can be calculated from the strength as given below :
M =
solute of mass Molecular
litre per grams in Strength
If w gram of the solute is present in V cm
3
of a given
solution , then
M =
mass Molecular
w

V
1000
e.g. a solution of sulphuric acid having 4.9 grams of it
dissolved in 500 cm
3
of solution will have its molarity,
M =
mass Molecular
w

V
1000
M =
98
4.9

500
1000
= 0.1
(c) Formality :
In case of ionic compounds like NaCl, Na
2
CO
3
etc.,
formality is used in place of molarity. The formality of
a solution is defined as the number of gram formula
masses of the solute dissolved per litre of the
solution. It is represented by the symbol F. The term
formula mass is used in place of molecular mass
because ionic compounds exist as ions and not as
molecules. Formula mass is the sum of the atomic
masses of the atoms in the formula of the compound.
litre in solution of Volume
solute of Mass la gram/Formu in solute of Mass
(d) Normality :
Normality of a solution is defined as the number of
gram equivalents of the solute dissolved per litre (dm
3
)
of given solution. It is denoted by N.
Mathematically,
N =
litre in solution the of Volume
solute of s equivalent gram of Number
N =
litre in solution the of Volume
solute of weight equivalent / gram in solute of Weight
N can be calculated from the strength as given below :
N =
solute of mass Equivalent
litre per grams in Strength
=
E
S
If w gram of the solute is present in V cm
3
of a given
solution.
N =
solute the of mass Equivalent
w

V
1000
e.g. A solution of sulphuric acid having 0.49 gram of
it dissolved in 250 cm
3
of solution will have its
normality,
N =
solute the of mass Equivalent
w

V
1000
N =
49
0.49

250
1000
= 0.04
(Eq. mass of sulphuric acid = 49).

Solution Semi
normal
Deci
normal
Centi
normal
Normality
10
1
100
1
2
1
Some Important Formulae :
(i) Milli equivalent of substance = N V
where , N normality of solution
V Volume of solution in mL
(ii) If weight of substance is given,
milli equivalent (NV) =
E
1000 w
Where, W Weight of substance in gram
E Equivalent weight of substance
(iii) S = N E
S Strength in g/L
N Normality of solution
E Equivalent weight
(iv) Calculation of normality of mixture :
Ex.22 100 ml of
10
N
HCl is mixed with 50 ml of
5
N
H
2
SO
4
.
Find out the normality of the mixture.
Sol. Milli equivalent of HCl + milli equivalent H
2
SO
4
= milli equivalent of mixture
N
1
V
1
+ N
2
V
2
= N
3
V
3
{ where, V
3
=V
1
+ V
2
)
= |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
50
5
1
100
10
1
N
3
150
N
3
=
150
20
=
15
2
= 0.133
PAGE # 36
Ex.23 100 ml of
10
N
HCl is mixed with 25 ml of
5
N
NaOH.
Find out the normality of the mixture.
Sol. Milli equivalent of HCl milli equivalent of NaOH
= milli equivalent of mixture
N
1
V
1
N
2
V
2
= N
3
V
3
{ where, V
3
=V
1
+ V
2
)
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
25
5
1
100
10
1
= N
3
125
N
3
=
25
1
Note :
1 milli equivalent of an acid neutralizes 1 milli
equivalent of a base.
(e) Molality :
Molality of a solution is defined as the number of
moles of the solute dissolved in 1000 grams of the
solvent. It is denoted by m.
Mathematically,
m =
gram in solvent the of Weight
solute the of moles of Number
1000
m can be calculated from the strength as given below :
m =
solute of mass Molecular
solvent of gram 1000 per Strength
If w gram of the solute is dissolved in W gram of the
solvent then
m =
solute the of mass Mol.
w

W
1000
e.g. A solution of anhydrous sodium carbonate
(molecular mass = 106) having 1.325 grams of it,
dissolved in 250 gram of water will have its molality -
m =
250
1000
106
1.325
= 0.05
Note :
Relationship Between Normality and Molarity of a
Solution :
Normality of an acid = Molarity Basicity
Normality of base = Molarity Acidity
Ex.24 Calculate the molarity and normality of a solution
containing 0.5 g of NaOH dissolved in 500 cm
3
of solvent.
Sol. Weight of NaOH dissolved = 0.5 g
Volume of the solution = 500 cm
3
(i) Calculation of molarity :
Molecular weight of NaOH = 23 + 16 + 1 = 40
Molarity =
litre in solution of Volume
solute of weight molecular solute/ of Weight
=
500/1000
0.5/40
= 0.025
(ii) Calculation of normality :
Normality
=
litre in solution of Volume
solute of weight equivalent solute/ of Weight
=
500/1000
0.5/40
= 0.025
Ex.25 Find the molarity and molality of a 15% solution
of H
2
SO
4
(density of H
2
SO
4
solution = 1.02 g/cm
3
)
(Atomic mass : H = 1u, O = 16u , S = 32 u)
Sol. 15% solution of H
2
SO
4
means 15g of H
2
SO
4
are
present in 100g of the solution i.e.
Wt. of H
2
SO
4
dissolved = 15 g
Weight of the solution = 100 g
Density of the solution = 1.02 g/cm
3
(Given)
Calculation of molality :
Weight of solution = 100 g
Weight of H
2
SO
4
= 15 g
Wt. of water (solvent) = 100 15 = 85 g
Molecular weight of H
2
SO
4
= 98
15 g H
2
SO
4
=
98
15
= 0.153 moles
Thus, 85 g of the solvent contain 0.153 moles .
1000 g of the solvent contain=
85
0.153
1000 = 1.8 mole
Hence ,the molality of H
2
SO
4
solution = 1.8 m
Calculation of molarity :
15 g of H
2
SO
4
= 0.153 moles
Vol. of solution =
solution of Density
solution of Wt.
=
1.02
100
= 98.04 cm
3
This 98.04 cm
3
of solution contain H
2
SO
4
= 0.153 moles
1000 cm
3
of solution contain H
2
SO
4
=
98.04
0.153
1000 = 1.56 moles
Hence the molarity of H
2
SO
4
solution = 1.56 M
(f) Mole Fraction :
The ratio between the moles of solute or solvent to
the total moles of solution is called mole fraction.
mole fraction of solute =
N n
n
solution of Moles
solute of Moles
+
=
=
W/M w/m
w/m
+
Mole fraction of solvent =
N n
N
solution of Moles
solvent of Moles
+
=
=
W/M w/m
W/M
+
where,
n number of moles of solute
N number of moles of solvent
m molecular weight of solute
M molecular weight of solvent
w weight of solute
W weight of solvent
PAGE # 37
Ex.26 Find out the mole fraction of solute in 10% (by weight)
urea solution.
weight of solute (urea) = 10 g
weight of solution = 100 g
weight of solvent (water) = 100 10 = 90g
mole fraction of solute =
solution of Moles
solute of Moles
=
W/M w/m
w/m
+
=
18 / 90 60 / 10
60 / 10
+
= 0.032
Note :
Sum of mole fraction of solute and solvent is always
equal to one.
STOICHIOMETRY
(a) Quantitative Relations in Chemical
Reactions :
Stoichiometry is the calculation of the quantities of
reactants and products involved in a chemical
reaction.
It is based on the chemical equation and on the
relationship between mass and moles.
N
2
(g) + 3H
2
(g) 2NH
3
(g)
A chemical equation can be interpreted as follows -
1 molecule N
2
+ 3 molecules H
2
2 molecules
NH
3
(Molecular interpretation)
1 mol N
2
+ 3 mol H
2
2 mol NH
3
(Molar interpretation)
28 g N
2
+ 6 g H
2
34 g NH
3
(Mass interpretation)
1 volume N
2
+ 3 volume H
2
2 volume NH
3
(Volume interpretation)
Thus, calculations based on chemical equations are
divided into four types -
(i) Calculations based on mole-mole relationship.
(ii) Calculations based on mass-mass relationship.
(iii) Calculations based on mass-volume relationship.
(iv) Cal cul ati ons based on vol ume -vol ume
relationship.
(i) Calculations based on mole-mole relationship :
In such calculations, number of moles of reactants
are given and those of products are required.
Conversely, if number of moles of products are given,
then number of moles of reactants are required.
Ex.27 Oxygen is prepared by catalytic decomposition
of potassi um chlorate (KCl O
3
). Decompositi on
of potassium chlorate gives potassium chloride
(KCl) and oxygen (O
2
). How many moles and how
many grams of KClO
3
are required to produce
2.4 mole O
2
.
Sol. Decomposition of KClO
3
takes place as,
2KClO
3
(s) 2KCl(s) + 3O
2
(g)
2 mole KClO
3
3 mole O
2
3 mole O
2
formed by 2 mole KClO
3
2.4 mol e O
2
wi l l be formed by
|
.
|

\
|
4 . 2
3
2
moles of KClO
3
= 1.6 mole KClO
3
Mass of KClO
3
= Number of moles molar mass
= 1.6 122.5 = 196 g
(ii) Calculations based on mass-mass relationship:
In making necessary calculation, following steps are
followed -
(a) Write down the balanced chemical equation.
(b) Write down theoretical amount of reactants and
products involved in the reaction.
(c) The unknown amount of substance is calculated
using unitary method.
Ex.28 Calculate the mass of CaO that can be prepared
by heating 200 kg of limestone CaCO
3
which is
95% pure.
Sol. Amount of pure CaCO
3
=
200
100
95

= 190 kg
= 190000 g
CaCO
3
(s) CaO(s) + CO
2
(g)
1 mole CaCO
3
1 mole CaO
100 g CaCO
3
56 g CaO
100 g CaCO
3
give 56 g CaO
190000 g CaCO
3
will give=
100
56
190000 g CaO
= 106400 g = 106.4 kg
Ex.29 Chlorine is prepared in the laboratory by treating
manganese di oxi de (MnO
2
) wi th aqueous
hydrochloric acid according to the reaction -
MnO
2
+ 4HCl MnCl
2
+ Cl
2
+ 2H
2
O
How many grams of HCl will react with 5 g MnO
2
?
Sol. 1 mole MnO
2
reacts with 4 mole HCl
or 87 g MnO
2
react with 146 g HCl
5 g MnO
2
will react with =
87
146
5 g HCl = 8.39 g HCl
Ex.30 How many grams of oxygen are required to burn
completely 570 g of octane ?
Sol. Balanced equation
2C H + 25O
8 18 2
16CO + 18H O
2 2
2 mole
2 114
25 mole
25 32
First method : For burning 2 114 g of the octane,
oxygen required = 25 32 g
For burning 1 g of octane, oxygen required =
114 2
32 25

g
Thus, for burning 570 g of octane, oxygen required
=
114 2
32 25

570 g = 2000 g
PAGE # 38
Mole Method : Number of moles of octane in 570
grams
114
570
= 5.0
For burning 2.0 moles of octane, oxygen required
= 25 mol = 25 32 g
For burning 5 moles of octane, oxygen required
=
0 . 2
32 25
5.0 g = 2000 g
Proportion Method : Let x g of oxygen be required for
burning 570 g of octane. It is known that 2 114 g of
the octane requires 25 32 g of oxygen; then, the
proportion.
e tan oc g 114 2
oxygen g 32 25


=
e tan oc g 570
x
x =
114 2
570 32 25


= 2000 g
Ex.31 How many kilograms of pure H
2
SO
4
could be
obtained from 1 kg of iron pyrites (FeS
2
) according to
the following reactions ?
4FeS
2
+ 11O
2
2Fe
2
O
3
+ 8SO
2
2SO
2
+ O
2
2SO
3
SO
3
+ H
2
O H
2
SO
4
Sol. Final balanced equation,
4FeS + 15O + 8H O
2 2 2
2Fe O + 8H SO
2 3 2 4
8 mole
8 98 g
4 mole
4 120 g
4 120 g of FeS
2
yield H
2
SO
4
= 8 98 g
1000 g of FeS
2
will yield H
2
SO
4
=
120 4
98 8

1000
= 1633.3 g
(iii) Calculations involving mass-volume relationship :
In such calculations masses of reactants are given
and volume of the product is required and vice-versa.
1 mole of a gas occupies 22.4 litre volume at STP.
Mass of a gas can be related to volume according to
the following gas equation -
PV = nRT
PV =
m
w
RT
Ex-32. What volume of NH
3
can be obtained from 26.75 g
of NH
4
Cl at 27C and 1 atmosphere pressure.
Sol. The balanced equation is -
NH Cl(s)
4 NH (g) + HCl(g)
3
1 mol
1 mol
53.5 g
53.5 g NH
4
Cl give 1 mole NH
3
26.75 g NH
4
Cl will give
5 . 53
1
26.75 mole NH
3
= 0.5 mole
PV = nRT
1 V = 0.5 0.0821 300
V = 12.315 litre
Ex-33 What quantity of copper (II) oxide will react with
2.80 litre of hydrogen at STP ?
Sol.
CuO + H
2
Cu + H O
2
1 mol
79.5 g
1 mol
22.4 litre at NTP
22.4 litre of hydrogen at STP reduce CuO = 79.5 g
2.80 litre of hydrogen at STP will reduce CuO
=
4 . 22
5 . 79
2.80 g = 9.93 g
Ex-34 Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide at STP
evolved by strong heating of 20 g calcium carbonate.
Sol. The balanced equation is -
CaCO
3
CaO + CO
2
1 mol
= 22.4 litre at STP
1 mol
100 g
100 g of CaCO
3
evolve carbon dioxide = 22.4 litre
20 g CaCO
3
will evolve carbon dioxide
=
100
4 . 22
20 = 4.48 litre
Ex.35 Calculate the volume of hydrogen liberated at 27C
and 760 mm pressure by heating 1.2 g of magnesium
with excess of hydrochloric acid.
Sol. The balanced equation is
Mg + 2HCl MgCl + H
2 2
1 mol

24 g
24 g of Mg liberate hydrogen = 1 mole
1.2 g Mg will liberate hydrogen = 0.05 mole
PV = nRT
1 V = 0.05 0.0821 300
V = 1.2315 litre
(iv) Calculations based on volume volume
relationship :
These calculations are based on two laws :
(i) Avogadros law (ii) Gay-Lussacs Law
e.g.
N (g) + 3H (g)
2 2 2NH (g) (Avogadro's law)
3
2 mol
2 22.4 L
1 mol
1 22.4 L
3 mol
3 22.4 L
(under si mi l ar condi ti ons of temperature and
pressure, equal moles of gases occupy equal
volumes)
N (g) + 3H (g)
2 2 2NH (g)
3
1 vol 3 vol
2 vol
(Gay- Lussac's Law)
(under si mi l ar condi ti ons of temperature and
pressure, ratio of coefficients by mole is equal to ratio
of coefficient by volume).
Ex-36 One litre mixture of CO and CO
2
is taken. This is
passed through a tube containing red hot charcoal.
The volume now becomes 1.6 litre. The volume are
measured under the same conditions. Find the
composition of mixture by volume.
Sol. Let there be x mL CO in the mixture , hence, there will
be (1000 x) mL CO
2
. The reaction of CO
2
with red
hot charcoal may be given as -
CO (g) + C(s)
2 2CO(g)
2 vol.
2(1000 x)
1 vol.
(1000 x)
Total volume of the gas becomes = x + 2(1000 x)
x + 2000 2x = 1600
x = 400 mL
volume of CO = 400 mL and volume of CO
2
= 600 mL
PAGE # 39
Ex-37 What volume of air containing 21% oxygen by volume
is required to completely burn 1kg of carbon containing
100% combustible substance ?
Sol. Combustion of carbon may be given as,
C(s) + O (g)
2
CO (g)
2
1 mol
12 g
1 mol
32 g
12 g carbon requires 1 mole O
2
for complete
combustion
1000 g carbon will require 1000
12
1
mole O
2
for
combustion, i.e. , 83.33 mole O
2
Volume of O
2
at STP = 83.33 22.4 litre
= 1866.66 litre
21 litre O
2
is present in 100 litre air
1866.66 litre O
2
will be present in
21
100
1866.66 litre air
= 8888.88 litre or 8.89 10
3
litre
Ex-38 An impure sample of calcium carbonate contains
80% pure calcium carbonate 25 g of the impure
sample reacted with excess of hydrochloric acid.
Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide at STP
obtained from this sample.
Sol. 100 g of impure calcium carbonate contains = 80 g
pure calcium carbonate
25 g of impure calcium carbonate sample will contain
=
100
80
25 = 20 g pure calcium carbonate
The desired equation is -
CaCO + 2HCl
3
CaCl + CO + H O
2 2 2
1 mol
100 g
22.4 litre
at STP
100 g pure CaCO
3
liberate = 22.4 litre CO
2
.
20 g pure CaCO
3
liberate =
20
100
4 . 22

= 4.48 litre CO
2
VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
The quantitative analysis in chemistry is primarily
carried out by two methods, viz, volumetric analysis
and gravimetric analysis.In the first method the mass
of a chemical species is measured by measurement
of volume, whereas in the second method it is deter-
mined by taking the weight.
The strength of a solution in volumetric analysis is
generally expressed in terms of normality, i.e., num-
ber of equivalents per litre but since the volume in the
volumetric analysis is generally taken in millilitres
(mL), the normality is expressed by milliequivalents
per millilitre.
USEFUL FORMULAE FOR
VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
(i) milliequivalents = normality volume in millilitres.
(ii) At the end point of titration, the two titrants, say 1
and 2, have the same number of milliequivalents,
i.e., N
1
V
1
= N
2
V
2
, volume being in mL.
(iii) No. of equivalents =
1000
. e . m
.
(iv) No. of equivalents for a gas =
) STP at . eq 1 of . vol ( volume equivalent
STP at Volume
(v) Strength in grams per litre = normality equivalent
weight.
(vi) (a) Normality = molarity factor relating mol. wt.
and eq. wt.
(b) No. of equivalents = no. of moles factor relat
ing mol. wt. and eq. wt.
Ex.39 Calculate the number of milli equivalent of H
2
SO
4
present in 10 mL of N/2 H
2
SO
4
solution.
Sol. Number of m.e. = normality volume in mL =
2
1
10 = 5.
Ex.40 Calculate the number of m.e. and equivalents of
NaOH present in 1 litre of N/10 NaOH solution.
Sol. Number of m.e. = normality volume in mL
=
10
1
1000 = 100
Number of equivalents =
1000
. e . m of . no
=
1000
100
= 0.10
Ex.41 Calculate number of m.e. of the acids present in
(i) 100 mL of 0.5 M oxalic acid solution.
(ii) 50 mL of 0.1 M sulphuric acid solution.
Sol. Normality = molarity basicity of acid
(i) Normality of oxalic acid = 0.5 2 = 1 N
m.e. of oxalic acid = normality vol. in mL = 1 100
= 100.
(ii) Normality of sulphuric acid = 0.1 2 = 0.2 N
m.e. of sulphuric acid = 0.2 50 = 10
Ex.42 A 100 mL solution of KOH contains 10 milliequiva
lents of KOH. Calculate its strength in normality and
grams/litre.
Sol. Normality =
mL in volume
. e . m of . no
=
1 . 0
100
10
=
strength of the solution = N/10
Again, strength in grams/litre = normality eq. wt.
= 56
10
1
= 5.6 gram/litre.
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = = 56
1
56
acidity
. wt molecular
KOH of . wt . eq
PAGE # 40
Ex.43 What is strength in gram/litre of a solution of H
2
SO
4
,
12 cc of which neutral ises 15 cc of
10
N
NaOH
solution ?
Sol. m.e. of NaOH solution =
10
1
15 = 1.5
m.e. of 12 cc of H
2
SO
4
= 1.5
normality of H
2
SO
4
=
12
5 . 1
Strength in grams/litre = normality eq. wt.
=
12
5 . 1
49 grams/litre
= 6.125 grams/litre.
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = = 49
2
98
basicity
wt. molecular
SO H of wt. eq.
4 2
Ex.44 What weight of KMnO
4
will be required to prepare
250 mL of its
10
N
solution if eq. wt. of KMnO
4
is 31.6 ?
Sol. Equivalent weight of KMnO
4
= 31.6
Normality of solution (N) =
10
1
Volume of solution (V) = 250 ml
1000
NEV
W =
; W =
1000
250 6 . 31
10
1

79 . 0
40
6 . 31
=
g
Ex.45 100 mL of 0.6 N H
2
SO
4
and 200 mL of 0.3 N HCl
were mixed together. What will be the normality of the
resulting solution ?
Sol. m.e. of H
2
SO
4
solution = 0.6 100 = 60
m.e. of HCl solution = 0.3 200 = 60
m.e. of 300 mL (100 + 200) of acidic mixture
= 60 + 60 = 120.
Normality of the resulting solution =
. vol total
. e . m
=
300
120
=
5
2
N.
Ex.46 A sample of Na
2
CO
3
. H
2
O weighing 0.62 g is added
to 100 mL of 0.1 N H
2
SO
4
. Will the resulting solution
be acidic, basic or neutral ?
Sol. Equivalents of Na
2
CO
3
. H
2
O =
62
62 . 0
= 0.01
|
.
|

\
|
= = 62
2
124
O H . CO Na of . wt . eq
2 3 2
m.e. of Na
2
CO
3
. H
2
O = 0.01 1000 = 10
m.e. of H
2
SO
4
= 0.1 100 = 10
Since the m.e. of Na
2
CO
3
. H
2
O is equal to that of H
2
SO
4
,
the resulting solution will be neutral.
(a) Introduction :
Volumetric analysis is a method of quantitative
analysis. It involves the measurement of the volume
of a known solution required to bring about the
completion of the reaction with a measured volume
of the unknown solution whose concentration or
strength is to be determined. By knowing the volume
of the known solution, the concentration of the solution
under investigation can be calculated. Volumetric
analysis is also termed as titrimetric analysis.
(b) Important terms used in volumetric
analysis :
(i) Titration : The process of addition of the known
solution from the burette to the measured volume of
solution of the substance to be estimated until the
reaction between the two is just complete, is termed
as titration. Thus, a titration involves two solutions:
(a) Unknown solution and (b) Known solution or stan-
dard solution.
(ii) Titrant : The reagent or substance whose solu-
tion is employed to estimate the concentration of un-
known solution is termed titrant. There are two types
of reagents or titrants:
(A) Primary titrants : These reagents can be
accurately weighed and their solutions are not to be
standardised before use. Oxalic acid, potassium
dichromate, silver nitrate, copper sulphate, ferrous
ammonium sulphate, sodium thiosulphates etc., are
the examples of primary titrants.
(B) Secondary titrants : These reagents cannot
accurately weighed and their solutions are to be
standardi sed before use. Sodi um hydroxi de,
potassium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sulphuric
acid, iodine, potassium permanganate etc. are the
examples of secondary titrants.
(iii) Standard solution : The solution of exactly known
concentration of the titrant is called the standard
solution.
(iv) Titrate : The solution consisting the substance to
be estimated is termed unknown solution. The
substance is termed titrate.
(v) Equivalence point : The point at which the reagent
(titrant) and the substance (titrate) under investigation
are chemically equivalent is termed equivalence point
or end point.
(vi) Indicator : It is the auxiliary substance used for
physical (visual) detection of the completion of titration
or detection of end point is termed as indicator.
Indicators show change in colour or turbidity at the
stage of completion of titration.
(c) Concentraion representation of solution
(A) Strength of solution : Grams of solute dissolved
per litre of solution is called strength of solution'
(B) Parts Per Million (ppm) : Grams of solute
di ssol ved per 10
6
grams of sol vent i s cal l ed
concentration of solution in the unit of Parts Per Million
(ppm). This unit is used to represent hardness of
water and concentration of very dilute solutions.
(C) Percentage by mass : Grams of solute dissolved
per 100 grams of solution is called percentage by
mass.
(D) Percentage by volume : Millilitres of solute per
100 mL of solution is called percentage by volume.
For example, if 25 mL ethyl alcohol is diluted with
water to make 100 mL solution then the solution thus
obtained is 25% ethyl alcohol by volume.
(E) Mass by volume percentage :Grams of solute
present per 100 mL of solution is called percentage
mass by volume.
For example, let 25 g glucose is dissolved in water to
make 100 mL solution then the solution is 25% mass
by volume glucose.
PAGE # 41
(d) Classification of reactions involved in
volumetric analysis
(A) Neutralisation reactions
The reaction in which acids and bases react to form
salt called neutralisation.
e.g., HCI + NaOH NaCI + H
2
O
H
+
(acid)
+ OH

(base)
H
2
O (feebly ionised)
The titration based on neutralisation is call ed
acidimetry or alkalimetry.
(B) Oxidation-reduction reactions
The reactions involving simultaneous loss and gain
of electrons among the reacting species are called
oxidation reduction or redox reactions, e.g., let us
consider oxidation of ferrous sulphate (Fe
2+
ion) by
potassium permanganate (MnO
4

ion) in acidic
medium.
MnO
4

+ 8H
+
+ 5e

Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O
(Gain of electrons or reduction)
5 [Fe
2+
Fe
3+
+ e

]
(Loss of electrons or oxidation)
MnO
4

+ 5Fe
2+
+ 8H
+
Mn
2+
+ 5Fe
3+
+ 4H
2
O
________________________________________________________________
In the above reaction, MnO
4

acts as oxidising agent


and Fe
2+
acts as reducing agent.
The titrations involving redox reactions are called redox
titrations. These titrations are also called according
to the reagent used in the titration, e.g., iodometric,
cerimetric, permanganometric and dichromometric
titrations
(C) Precipitation reactions :
A chemical reaction in which cations and anions
combine to form a compound of very low solubility (in
the form of resi due or preci pi tate), i s cal l ed
precipitation.
BaCl
2
+ Na
2
SO
4
BaSO
4
++ 2NaCl
(white precipitate)
The titrations involving precipitation reactions are
called precipitation titrations.
(D) Complex formation reactions :
These are ion combination reactions in which a
sol ubl e sl i ghtl y di ssoci ated compl ex i on or
compound is formed.
Complex compounds retain their identity in the
solution and have the properties of the constituent
ions and molecules.
e.g. CuSO
4
+ 4NH
3
[Cu(NH
3
)
4
]SO
4
(complex compound)
AgNO
3
+ 2KCN K[Ag(CN)
2
] + KNO
3
(complex compound)
2CuSO
4
+ K
4
[Fe(CN)
6
] Cu
2
[Fe(CN)
6
] + 2K
2
SO
4
(complex compound)
The titrations involving complex formation reactions
are called complexometric titrations.
The determination of concentration of bases by
titration with a standard acid is called acidimetry and
the determination of concentration of acid by titration
with a standard base is called alkalimetry.
The substances which give different colours with
acids and base are called acid base indicators. These
indicators are used in the visual detection of the
equivalence point in acid-base titrations.
The aci d-base i ndi cators are al so cal l ed pH
indicators because their colour change according to
the pH of the solution.
In the selection of indicator for a titration, following
two informations are taken into consideration :
(i) pH range of indicator
(ii) pH change near the equivalence point in the
titration.
The indicator whose pH range is included in the pH
change of the solution near the equivalence point, is
taken as suitable indicator for the titration.
(i) Strong acid-strong base titration : In the titration
of HCl with NaOH, the equivalence point lies in the
pH change of 410. Thus, methyl orange, methyl red
and phenolphthalein will be suitable indicators.
(ii) Weak acid-strong base titration : In the titration
of CH
3
COOH with NaOH the equivalence point lies
between 7.5 and 10. Hence, phenolphthalein (8.3
10) will be the suitable indicator.
(iii) Weak base-strong acid titration : In the titration
of NH
4
OH (weak base) against HCl (strong acid) the
pH at equivalence point is about 6.5 and 4. Thus,
methyl orange (3.14.4) or methyl red (4.26.3) will
be suitable indicators.
(iv) Weak acid-weak base titration : In the titration of
a weak acid (CH
3
COOH) with weak base (NH
4
OH)
the pH at the equivalence point is about 7, i.e., lies
between 6.5 and 7.5 but no sharp change in pH is
observed in these titrations. Thus, no simple indica-
tor can be employed for the detection of the equiva-
lence point.
(v) Titration of a salt of a weak acid and a strong
base with strong acid:
H
2
CO
3
+ 2NaOH Na
2
CO
3
+ 2H
2
O
Weak acid Strong base
Na
2
CO
3
when titrated with HCl, the following two
stages are involved :
Na
2
CO
3
+ HCl NaHCO
3
+ NaCl (First stage)
pH = 8.3, near equivalence point
NaHCO
3
+ HCl NaCl + H
2
CO
3
(Second stage)
pH = 4, near equivalence point
PAGE # 42
For first stage, phenolphthalein and for second stage,
methyl orange will be the suitable indicator.
Titration of mixture of NaOH, Na
2
CO
3
and NaHCO
3
by strong acid like HCl
In this titration the following indicators are mainly used :
(i) Phenolphthalein (weak organic acid) : It shows
colour change in the pH range (8 10)
(ii) Methyl orange (weak organic base) : It shows
colour change in the pH range (3.1 4.4). Due to
lower pH range, it indicates complete neutralisation
of whole of the base.

Let for complete neutralisation of Na
2
CO
3
, NaHCO
3
and NaOH, x,y and z mL of standard HCl are required. The
titration of the mixture may be carried by two methods as summarised below :
Mixture Phenlphthalein Methyl orange Methyl orange
from from after first end
beginning beginning point
1. NaOH z + (x/2) (x + z) x/2 (for remaining 50%
+ Na CO

Na CO )
2. NaOH z + 0 (z + y) y (for remaining 100%
+ NaHCO NaHCO
3. Na CO (x/2) + 0 (x + y) x/2 + y (for remaining 50%
+ NaHCO of Na CO and 100%
NaHCO are indicated)
2 3 2 3
3 3
2 3
3 2 3
3
Volume of HCl
used with
An indicator is a substance which is used to determine the end point in a titration. In acid-base titrations organic
substances (weak acids or weak bases) are generally used as indicators. They change their colour within a certain
pH range. The colour change and the pH range of some common indicators are tabulated below:
PAGE # 43
________________________________________
Indicator pH range Colour
change
________________________________________
Methyl orange 3.2 4.5 Orange to red
Methyl red 4.4 6.5 Red to yellow
Litmus 5.5 7.5 Red to blue
Phenol red 6.8 8.4 Yellow to red
Phenolphthalein 8.3 10.5 Colourless to pink
________________________________________
Theory of acid-base indicators : Two theories have
been proposed to explain the change of colour of
acid-base indicators with change in pH.
1. Ostwald's theory:
According to this theory
(a) The colour change is due to ionisation of the acid-
base indicator. The unionised form has different
colour than the ionised form.
(b) The ionisation of the indicator is largely affected in
acids and bases as it is either a weak acid or a weak
base. In case, the indicator is a weak acid, its
ionisation is very much low in acids due to common
ions while it is fairly ionised in alkalies. Similarly if the
indicator is a weak base, its ionisation is large in
acids and low in alkalies due to common ions.
Considering two important indicators phenolphtha-
lein (a weak acid) and methyl orange (a weak base),
Ostwald's theory can be illustrated as follows:
Phenolphthalein: It can be represented as HPh. It
ionises in solution to a small extent as:
HPh H
+
+ Ph

Colourless Pink
Applying law of mass action,
K =
] HPh [
] Ph ][ H [
+
The undissociated molecules of phenolphthalein are
colourless while ph

ions are pink in colour. In pres-


ence of an acid, the ionisation of HPh is practically
negligible as the equilibrium shifts to left hand side
due to high concentration of H
+
ions. Thus, the solu-
tion would remain colourless. On addition of alkali,
hydrogen ions are removed by OH

ions in the form of


water molecules and the equilibrium shifts to right
hand side. Thus, the concentration of ph

ions in-
creases in solution and they impart pink colour to the
solution.
Let us derive Henderson's equation for an indicator
HIn + H
2
O H
3
+
O + In

'Acid form' 'Base form'


Conjugate acid-base pair
K
In
=
] HIn [
] O H ][ In [
3
+
K
In
= Ionization constant of indicator
[H
3
+
O] = K
In

] In [
] HIn [

pH = log
10
[H
3
+
O] = log
10
[K
In
] log
10
] In [
] HIn [

pH = pK
In
+ log
10

] HIn [
] In [

(Henderson's equation for
indicator)
At equivalence point ;
[In

] = [HIn] and pH = pK
In
Methyl orange : It is a very weak base and can be
represented as MeOH. It is ionised in solution to give
Me
+
and OH

ions.
MeOH Me
+
+OH

Orange Red
Applying law of mass action,
K =
] MeOH [
] OH ][ Me [
+
In presence of an acid, OH

ions are removed in the


form of water molecules and the above equilibrium
shifts to right hand side. Thus, sufficient Me
+
ions are
produced which impart red colour to the solution. On
addition of alkali, the concentration of OH

ions in-
creases in the solution and the equilibrium shifts to
left hand side, i.e., the ionisation of MeOH is practi-
cally negligible. Thus, the solution acquires the colour
of unionised methyl orange molecules, i.e. orange.
This theory also explains the reason why phenol-
phthalein is not a suitable indicator for titrating a weak
base against strong acid. The OH

ions furnished by
a weak base are not sufficient to shift the equilibrium
towards right hand side considerably, i.e., pH is not
reached to 8.3. Thus, the solution does not attain
pink colour. Similarly, it can be explained why methyl
orange is not a suitable indicator for the titration of
weak acid with strong base.
SOLUBILITY
The solubility of a solute in a solution is always
expressed with respect to the saturated solution.
(a) Definition :
The maximum amount of the solute which can be
dissolved in 100g (0.1kg) of the solvent to form a
saturated solution at a given temperature.
Suppose w gram of a solute is dissolved in W gram
of a solvent to make a saturated solution at a fixed
temperature and pressure. The solubility of the solute
will be given by -
W
w
100 =
solvent the of Mass
solute the of Mass
100
For example, the solubility of potassium chloride in
water at 20C and 1 atm. is 34.7 g per 100g of water.
This means that under normal conditions 100 g of
water at 20C and 1 atm. cannot dissolve more than
34.7g of KCl.
PAGE # 44
(b) Effect of Temperature and Pressure on
Solubility of a Solids :
The solubility of a substance in liquids generally
increases with rise in temperature but hardly changes
with the change in pressure. The effect of temperature
depends upon the heat energy changes which
accompany the process.
Note :
If heat energy is needed or absorbed in the process,
it is of endothermic nature. If heat energy is evolved
or released in the process, it is of exothermic nature.
(i) Effect of temperature on endothermic dissolution
process : Most of the salts like sodium chloride,
potassium chloride, sodium nitrate, ammonium
chloride etc. dissolve in water with the absorption of
heat. In all these salts the solubility increases with
rise in temperature. This means that sodium chloride
becomes more soluble in water upon heating.
(ii) Effect of temperature on exothermic dissolution
process : Few salts like lithium carbonate, sodium
carbonate monohydrate, ceri um sul phate etc.
dissolve in water with the evolution of heat. This
means that the process is of exothermic nature. In
these salts the solubility in water decreases with rise
in temperature.
Note :
1. While expressing the solubility, the solution must
be saturated but for expressing concentration (mass
percent or volume percent), the solution need not to
be saturated in nature.
2. While expressing solubility, mass of solvent is
considered but for expressing concentration the
mass or volume of the solution may be taken into
consideration.
(c) Ef fect of Temperature on the Solubility
of a Gas
(i) The solubility of a gas in a liquid decreases with
the rise in temperature.
(ii) The solubility of gases in liquids increases on
increasing the pressure and decreases on decreas-
ing the pressure.
SAMPLE PROBLEMS
Ex.47 12 grams of potassium sulphate dissolves in
75 grams of water at 60C. What is the solubility
of potassium sulphate in water at that temperature ?
Sol. Solubility = 100
solvent of mass
solute of mass

=
75
12
100 = 16 g
Thus, the sol ubi l i ty of potassi um sul phate i n
water is 16 g at 60C.
Ex.48 4 g of a solute are dissolved in 40 g of water to
form a saturated solution at 25C. Calculate the
solubility of the solute.
Sol. Solubility =
solvent of Mass
solute of Mass
100
Mass of solute = 4 g
Mass of solvent = 40 g
Solubility =
40
4
100 = 10 g
Ex.49 (a) What mass of potassium chloride would be
needed to form a saturated solution in 50 g of
water at 298 K ? Given that solubility of the salt is
46g per 100g at this temperature.
(b) What will happen if this solution is cooled ?
Sol. (a) Mass of potassium chloride in 100 g of water
in saturated solution = 46 g
Mass of potassium chloride in 50 g of water in
saturated solution.
=
100
46
50 = 23 g
(b) When the solution is cooled, the solubility of
salt in water will decrease. This means, that upon
cooling, it will start separating from the solution
in crystalline form.
It is defined as the charge (real or imaginary ) which
an atom appears to have when it is in combination.
In the case of electrovalent compounds, the oxidation
number of an element or radical is the same as the
charge on the ion. This is the real charge and is
developed by the loss and gain of electron or
electrons.
For example, in the electrovalent compound , sodium
chloride (NaCl), the charge on sodium and chlorine
is +1 and 1, respectively.
The oxi dati on numbers of atoms i n coval ent
compounds can be derived by assigning the electrons
of each bond to the more electronegative atom of the
bonded atoms. For a molecule of HCl both the
electrons of the covalent bond are assigned to the
chlorine atom since it is more electronegative than
hydrogen.
H Cl
Thus, chlorine atom has one more electron than the
neutral chlorine atom which brings one unit negative
charge on chlorine. The oxidation number of chlorine
in the compound is 1. The hydrogen atom has lost
the only electron possessed by it, thus acquiring one
unit positive charge. The oxi dation number of
hydrogen is , therefore , +1 in this compound.
PAGE # 45
Counting of electrons in this fashion is not convenient
in many molecules and therefore the following
operational rules are followed which are helpful and
convenient in determining the oxidation numbers :
(i) The oxidation number (Ox. no.) of an atom in free
elements is zero, no matter how complicated the
molecule is, hydrogen in H
2
, or O
3
,all have zero value
of oxidation numbers.
(ii) The fluorine, which is the most electronegative
element, has oxidation number 1 in all of its
compounds.
(i i i ) Oxi dati on number of oxygen i s 2 i n al l
compounds except in peroxides, superoxides and
oxygen fluorides.
In peroxides (O
2
2
) oxygen has oxidation number 1,
in superoxide (O
2

) oxygen has oxidation number


and in OF
2
, the oxygen has an oxidation number +2.
(iv) The oxidation number of hydrogen is +1 in all of
its compounds except in metallic hydrides like NaH,
BaH
2
, etc. hydrogen is in 1 oxidation state in these
hydrides.
(v) The oxidation number of an ion is equal to the
electrical charge present on it.
(vi) The oxidation number of IA elements (Li, Na, K,
Rb, Cs and Fr) is +1 and the oxidation number of IIA
elements (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra) is +2.
(vii) For complex ions, the algebraic sum of oxidation
numbers of all the atoms is equal to the net charge
on the ion.
(viii) In the case of neutral molecules, the algebraic
sum of the oxidation numbers of all the atoms present
in the molecule is zero.
Ex.50 What is the oxidation number of Mn in KMnO
4
and of
S in Na
2
S
2
O
3
?
Sol. Let the ox. no. of Mn in KMnO
4
be x
We known that ox. no. of K = +1
ox. no. of O = 2
so ox. no. K + ox. no. Mn + 4 (ox. no. O) = 0
or +1 + x + 4(2) = 0
or +1 + x 8 = 0
or x = 8 1 = + 7
Hence, ox. no. of Mn in KMnO
4
is + 7.
Similarly for S in Na
2
S
2
O
3
,
2 (ox. no. Na) +2 (ox. no. S) +3(ox. no. O)= 0
x = +2
Hence ox. no. of S in Na
2
S
2
O
3
= +2
Ex.51 What is the oxidation number of Cr in K
2
Cr
2
O
7
?
Sol. Let the Ox.no. of Cr in K
2
Cr
2
O
7
be x.
We known that Ox. no. of K = + 1
Ox. no. of O = 2
So, 2(ox. no. K) + 2(ox. no. Cr) + 7 (ox. no. O) = 0
2(+1) + 2(x) + 7(2) = 0
or +2 + 2x 14 = 0
or 2x = + 14 2 = + 12
or x = +
2
12
= + 6
Hence, oxidation number of Cr in K
2
Cr
2
O
7
is + 6
Ex.52 Find the oxidation number of
(a) S in SO
4
2
(b) S in HSO
3

(c) Pt in [Pt Cl
6
]
2
(d) Mn in (MnO
4
)

ion
Sol. (a) Let the oxidation number of S be x.
we known that ox. no. of O = 2
so ox. no. S + 4 (ox. no. O) = 2
or x + 4 (2) = 2
or x 8 = 2
or x = + 8 2 = + 6
The oxidation number of S in SO
4
2
ions is +6.
(b) Let the oxidation number of S be x in HSO
3

ion.
we known that
ox. no. of H = + 1
ox. no. of O = 2
so ox. no. H + ox. no. S + 3 (ox. no. O) = 1
or +1 + x + 3(2) = 1
or +1 + x 6 = 1
x 5 = 1
or x = + 5 1 = + 4
The oxidation number of S in HSO
3

ion is + 4.
(c) Let oxidation number of Pt be x.
We know that Ox. no. of Cl = 1
So ox. no. Pt + 6(ox. no. Cl) = 2
or x + 6(1) = 2
or x 6 = 2
or x = + 6 2 = + 4
The oxidation number of Pt in [PtCl
6
]
2
ions is + 4.
(d) Let oxidation number of Mn be x.
We known that ox. no. of O = 2.
So Ox. no. Mn + 4 (ox. no. O) = 1
or x + 4(2) = 1
or x 8 = 1
or x = +8 1 = + 7
The oxidation number of Mn in [MnO
4

] ion is +7.
PAGE # 46
Note : (i) Oxidation state of chromium in CrO
5
.
CrO
5
has butterfly structure having two peroxo bonds.
Peroxo oxygen has (1) oxidation state
Let oxidation state of chromium be x
x + 4(1) + (2) = 0
x = + 6
(ii) Oxidation state of chlorine in bleaching powder :
Bleaching powder has two chlorine atoms having
different oxidation states.
(iii) Fractional values of oxidation numbers are
possible as in Na
2
S
4
O
6
, Fe
3
O
4
, N
3
H, etc.
(iv) Fe
0.94
O (Oxidation state of iron is to be determined) :
0.94x 2 = 0
x = 2/0.94 = 200/94
(v) Na
2
[Fe(CN)
5
NO] : In iron complex NO lies in NO
+
state ; thus oxidation state of Fe may be determined
as :
+2 + x 5 + 1 = 0
x = + 2
(vi) [Fe(NO)(H
2
O)
5
]SO
4
:
x + 1 + 5(0) 2 = 0
x = + 1
Balancing oxidation reduction reactions by
oxidation number method :
In a balanced redox reaction, total increase in oxidation
number must be equal to the decrease in oxidation
number. This equivalence provides the basis for
balancing redox reaction. This method is applicable
to both molecular and ionic equation. The general
procedure involves the following steps:
(i) Write the skeleton equation (if not given, frame it)
representing the chemical change.
(ii) Assign oxidation number to the atoms in the
equation and find out which atoms are undergoing
oxidation and reduction. Write separate equations for
the atoms undergoing oxidation and reduction.
(iii) Find the change in oxidation number in each
equati on. Make the change equal i n both the
equations by multiplying with suitable integers. Add
both the equations.
(iv) Complete the balancing by inspection. First
balance those substance which have undergone
change in oxidation number and then other atoms
except hydrogen and oxygen. Fi nal l y bal ance
hydrogen and oxygen by putting H
2
O molecules
wherever needed.
The final balanced equation should be checked to
ensure that there are as many atoms of each element
on the right as there are on the left.
(v) In ionic equations the net charges on both sides
of the equations must be exactly the same. Use H
+
ion/ions in acidic reactions and OH

ion/ions in basic
reactions to balance the charge and number of
hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
The following examples illustrate the above rules.
Ex.53 Balance the following equation by oxidation number
method :
Cu + HNO
3
Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ NO
2
+ H
2
O
Sol. Writing the oxidation number of all the atoms.
Change in ox. no. has occurred in copper and nitrogen.
Increasing in ox. no. of copper = 2 unit per molecule
Cu
decrease in ox. no. of nitrogen = 1 unit per molecule
HNO
3
To make increase and decrease equal eq. (ii) is
multiplied by 2.
Cu + 2HNO
3
Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 2NO
2
+ H
2
O
Balancing nitrate ions, hydrogen and oxygen, the
following equation is obtained.
Cu + 4HNO
3
Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 2NO
2
+ 2H
2
O
This is the balanced equation.
PAGE # 47
Ion - electron method for balancing redox
reactions:
The method for balancing redox reactions by ion
electron method was developed by Jette and LaMev
involves the following steps :
(i) Write down the redox reaction in ionic form.
(ii) Split the redox reaction into two half reactios, one
for oxidation and the other for reduction.
(iii) Balance each half reaction for the number of
atoms of each element . For this purpose.
(a) Balance the atoms other than H and O for each
half reaction using simple multiples.
(b) Add water molecules to the side deficient in oxygen
and H
+
to the side deficient in hydrogen. This is done
in acidic or neutral solutions.
(c) In alkaline solution, for each excess of oxygen,
add one water molecule to the same side and two
OH

ions to the other side. If hydrogen is still


unbalanced, add one OH

ion for each excess


hydrogen on the same side and one water molecule
to the other side.
(iv) Add electrons to the side deficient in electrons as
to equalise the charge on both sides.
(v) Multiply one or both the half reactions by a suitable
number so that the number of electrons become
equal in both the equations.
(vi) Add the two balanced half reaction and cancel any
term common to both sides.
The following solved problems illustrate the various
steps of ion electron method :
Ex.54 Balance the following equations by ion electrons
method :
(a) MnO
4

+ Fe
2+
+ H
+
Mn
2+
+ Fe
3+
+ H
2
O
(b) Cl
2
+ lO
3

+ OH

IO
4

+ Cl

+ H
2
O
Sol. (a) MnO
4

+ Fe
2+
+ H
+
Mn
2+
+ Fe
3+
+ H
2
O
Ist step : splitting into two half reactions.
MnO
4

Mn
2+
; Fe
2+
Fe
3+
(Reduction half reaction) (oxidation half
reaction)
2nd step : In first reaction add 4H
2
O in R.H.S. to
balance oxygen.
MnO
4

Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O
3rd Step : Adding hydrogen ions to the side deficient
in hydrogen.
MnO
4

+ 8H
+
Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O
4th steps : Adding electrons to the side deficient in
electrons.
MnO
4

+ 8H
+
+ 5e

Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O
Fe
2+
Fe
3+
+ e

5th step : Balancing electrons in both half reaction.


MnO
4

+ 8H
+
+ 5e

Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O
5Fe
2+
5Fe
3+
+ 5e

6th steps : Adding both the half reaction.


MnO
4

+ 5Fe
2+
+ 8H
+
Mn
2+
+ 5Fe
3+
+ 4H
2
O
Sol. (b) Cl
2
+ IO
3

+ OH

IO
4

+ Cl

+ H
2
O
Ist step : Splitting into two half reactions,
IO
3

IO

4
; Cl
2
Cl

(oxidation half reaction (Reduction half reaction)


2nd step : Adding 2OH

ions and H
2
O to balance H
and O
IO
3

+ 2OH

IO
4

+ H
2
O
3rd step : Adding electrons to the sides deficient in
electrons,
IO
3

+ 2OH

IO
4

+ H
2
O + 2e

Cl
2
+ 2e

2Cl

4th step : Adding both the half reaction.


IO
3

+ 2OH

+ Cl
2
IO
4

+ 2Cl

+ H
2
O

EXERCISE
1. The solubility of K
2
SO
4
in water is 16 g at 50C. The
minimum amount of water required to dissolve 4 g
K
2
SO
4
is -
(A) 10 g (B) 25 g
(C) 50 g (D) 75 g
2. Molarity of H
2
SO
4
(density 1.8g/mL) is 18M. The
molality of this solution is -
(A)36 (B) 200
(C) 500 (D) 18
3. 8g of sulphur are burnt to form SO
2
, which is oxidised
by Cl
2
water. The solution is treated with BaCl
2
solution. The amount of BaSO
4
precipitated is -
(A) 1.0 mole (B) 0.5 mole
(C) 0.75 mole (D) 0.25 mole
4. In a compound A
x
B
y
-
(A) Mole of A = Mole of B = mole of A
x
B
y
(B) Eq. of A = Eq. of B = Eq. of A
x
B
y
(C) X mole of A = y mole of B = (x + y) mole of A
x
B
y
(D) X mole of A = y mole of B
5. The percentage of sodium in a breakfast cereal
labelled as 110 mg of sodium per 100 g of cereal is -
(A) 11% (B) 1.10%
(C) 0.110% (D) 110%
6. Two elements A (at. wt. 75) and B (at. wt. 16) combine
to yield a compound. The % by weight of A in the
compound was found to be 75.08. The empirical
formula of the compound is -
(A) A
2
B (B) A
2
B
3
(C) AB (D) AB
2
7. No. of oxalic acid molecules in 100 mL of 0.02 N
oxalic acid are -
(A) 6.023 10
20
(B) 6.023 10
21
(C) 6.023 10
22
(D) 6.023 10
23
PAGE # 48
8. Which of the following sample contains the maximum
number of atoms -
(A) 1 mg of C
4
H
10
(B) 1 mg of N
2
(C) 1 mg of Na (D) 1 mL of water
9. The total number of protons, electrons and neutrons
in 12 g of C
12
6
is -
(A) 1.084 10
25
(B) 6.022 10
23
(C) 6.022 10
22
(D) 18
10. 4.4 g of CO
2
and 2.24 litre of H
2
at STP are mixed in a
container. The total number of molecules present in
the container will be -
(A) 6.022 10
23
(B) 1.2044 10
23
(C) 2 mole (D) 6.023 10
24
11. Which is not a molecular formula ?
(A) C
6
H
12
O
6
(B) Ca(NO
3
)
2
(C) C
2
H
4
O
2
(D) N
2
O
12. The hydrated salt, Na
2
SO
4
. nH
2
O undergoes 55.9%
loss in weight on heating and becomes anhydrous.
The value of n will be -
(A) 5 (B) 3
(C) 7 (D) 10
13. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng mode of expressi ng
concentration is independent of temperature -
(A) Molarity (B) Molality
(C) Formality (D) Normality
14. The haemoglobin of the red blood corpuscles of most
of the mammals contains approximately 0.33% of
iron by weight. The molecular weight of haemoglobin
is 67,200. The number of iron atoms in each molecule
of haemoglobin is (Atomic weight of iron = 56) -
(A) 2 (B) 3
(C) 4 (D) 5
15. An oxide of metal have 20% oxygen, the eq. wt. of
metal oxide is -
(A) 32 (B) 40
(C) 48 (D) 52
16. How much water is to be added to dilute 10 mL of 10
N HCl to make it decinormal ?
(A) 990 mL (B) 1010 mL
(C) 100 mL (D) 1000 mL
17. The pair of compounds which cannot exist in solution is -
(A) NaHCO
3
and NaOH
(B) Na
2
SO
3
and NaHCO
3
(C) Na
2
CO
3
and NaOH
(D) NaHCO
3
and NaCl
18. If 250 mL of a solution contains 24.5 g H
2
SO
4
the
molarity and normality respectively are -
(A) 1 M, 2 N (B) 1M,0.5 N
(C) 0.5 M, 1N (D) 2M, 1N
19. The mole fraction of NaCl, in a solution containing 1
mole of NaCl in 1000 g of water is -
(A) 0.0177 (B) 0.001
(C) 0.5 (D) 0.244
20. 3.0 molal NaOH solution has a density of 1.110 g/
mL. The molarity of the solution is -
(A) 2.9732 (B) 3.05
(C) 3.64 (D) 3.0504
21. How many atoms are contained in a mole of Ca(OH)
2
-
(A) 30 6.02 10
23
atoms/mol
(B) 5 6.02 10
23
atoms/mol
(C) 6 6.02 10
23
atoms/mol
(D) None of these
22. Insul i n contai ns 3.4% sul phur. The mi ni mum
molecular weight of insulin is -
(A) 941.176 u (B) 944 u
(C) 945.27 u (D) None of these
23. Number of moles present in 1 m
3
of a gas at NTP are -
(A) 44.6 (B) 40.6
(C) 42.6 (D) 48.6
24. Weight of oxygen in Fe
2
O
3
and FeO is in the simple
ratio of -
(A) 3 : 2 (B) 1 : 2
(C) 2 : 1 (D) 3 : 1
25. 2.76 g of silver carbonate on being strongly heated
yield a residue weighing -
(A) 2.16g (B) 2.48 g
(C) 2.32 g (D) 2.64 g
26. How many gram of KCl would have to be dissolved in
60 g of H
2
O to give 20% by weight of solution -
(A) 15 g (B) 1.5 g
(C) 11.5 g (D) 31.5 g
27. When the same amount of zinc is treated separately
with excess of H
2
SO
4
and excess of NaOH, the ratio
of volumes of H
2
evolved is -
(A) 1 : 1 (B) 1 : 2
(C) 2 : 1 (D) 9 : 4
28. Amount of oxygen required for combustion of 1 kg of a
mixture of butane and isobutane is -
(A) 1.8 kg (B) 2.7 kg
(C) 4.5 kg (D) 3.58 kg
29. Rakesh needs 1.71 g of sugar (C
12
H
22
O
11
) to sweeten
his tea. What would be the number of carbon atoms
present in his tea ?
(A) 3.6 10
22
(B) 7.2 10
21
(C) 0.05 10
23
(D) 6.6 10
22
30. The total number of AlF
3
molecule in a sample of AlF
3
containing 3.01 10
23
ions of F

is -
(A) 9.0 10
24
(B) 3.0 10
24
(C) 7.5 10
23
(D)10
23
PAGE # 49
31. The volume occupied by one molecule of water
(density 1 g/cm
3
) is -
(A) 18 cm
3
(B) 22400 cm
3
(C) 6.023 10
23
(D) 3.0 10
23
cm
3
32. 224 mL of a triatomic gas weigh 1 g at 273 K and 1
atm. The mass of one atom of this gas is -
(A) 8.30 10
23
g (B) 2.08 10
23
g
(C) 5.53 10
23
g (D) 6.24 10
23
g
33. The percentage of P
2
O
5
in diammonium hydrogen
phosphate is -
(A) 77.58 (B) 46.96
(C) 53.78 (D) 23.48
34. The mole fraction of water in 20% (wt. /wt.) aqueous
solution of H
2
O
2
is -
(A)
68
77
(B)
77
68
(C)
80
20
(D)
20
80
35. Which of the following has the maximum mass ?
(A) 25 g of Hg
(B) 2 moles of H
2
O
(C) 2 moles of CO
2
(D) 4 g atom of oxygen
36. Total mass of neutrons in 7mg of
14
C is -
(A) 3 10
20
kg (B) 4 10
6
kg
(C) 5 10
7
kg (D) 4 10
7
kg
37. Vapour density of a metal chloride is 66. Its oxide
contains 53% metal. The atomic weight of metal is -
(A) 21 (B) 54
(C) 26.74 (D) 2.086
38. The number of atoms in 4.25 g NH
3
is approximately -
(A) 1 10
23
(B) 1.5 10
23
(C) 2 10
23
(D) 6 10
23
39. The modern atomic weight scale is based on -
(A) C
12
(B) O
16
(C) H
1
(D) C
13
40. Amount of oxygen in 32.2g of Na
2
SO
4
. 10H
2
O is -
(A) 20.8 g (B) 22.4 g
(C) 2.24 g (D) 2.08 g
41. Which of the followings does not change on dilution ?
(A) Molarity of solution
(B) Molality of solution
(C) Millimoles and milli equivalent of solute
(D) Mole fraction of solute
42. Equal masses of O
2
, H
2
and CH
4
are taken in a
container. The respective mole ratio of these gases
in container is -
(A) 1 : 16 : 2 (B) 16 : 1 : 2
(C) 1 : 2 : 16 (D) 16 : 2 : 1
43. The number of molecules present in 11.2 litre CO
2
at
STP is -
(A) 6.023 10
32
(B) 6.023 10
23
(C) 3.011 10
23
(D) None of these
44. 250 ml of 0.1 N solution of AgNO
3
are added to 250
ml of a 0.1 N solution of NaCl. The concentration of
nitrate ion in the resulting solution will be -
(A) 0.1N (B) 1.2 N
(C) 0.01 N (D) 0.05 N
45. Amount of BaSO
4
formed on mixing the aqueous
solution of 2.08 g BaCl
2
and excess of dilute H
2
SO
4
is -
(A) 2.33 g (B) 2.08 g
(C) 1.04 g (D) 1.165 g
46. 2g of NaOH and 4.9 g of H
2
SO
4
were mixed and
volume is made 1 litre. The normality of the resulting
solution will be -
(A) 1N (B) 0.05 N
(C) 0.5 N (D) 0.1N
47. 1g of a metal carbonate neutralises completely 200
mL of 0.1N HCl. The equivalent weight of metal
carbonate is -
(A) 25 (B) 50
(C) 100 (D) 75
48. 100 mL of 0.5 N NaOH were added to 20 ml of 1N
HCl and 10 mL of 3 N H
2
SO
4
. The solution is -
(A) acidic (B) basic
(C) neutral (D) none of these
49. 1M solution of H
2
SO
4
is diluted from 1 litre to 5 litres ,
the normality of the resulting solution will be -
(A) 0.2 N (B) 0.1 N
(C) 0.4 N (D) 0.5 N
50. The volume of 7g of N
2
at S.T.P. is -
(A) 11.2 L (B) 22.4 L
(C) 5.6 L (D) 6.5 L
51. One mole of calcium phosphide on reaction with
excess of water gives -
(A) three moles of phosphine
(B) one mole phosphoric acid
(C) two moles of phosphine
(D) one mole of P
2
O
5
52. Mg (OH)
2
in the form of milk of magnesia is used to
neutralize excess stomach acid. How many moles of
stomach acid can be neutralized by 1 g of Mg(OH)
2
?
(Molar mass of Mg(OH)
2
= 58.33)
(A) 0.0171 (B) 0.0343
(C) 0.686 (D) 1.25
PAGE # 50
53. Cal ci um carbonate decomposes on heati ng
according to the following equation -
CaCO
3
(s) CaO(s) + CO
2
(g)
How many mol es of CO
2
wi ll be obtained by
decomposition of 50 g CaCO
3
?
(A)
2
3
(B)
2
5
(C)
2
1
(D) 1
54. Sulphur trioxide is prepared by the following two
reactions -
S
8
(s) + 8O
2
(g) 8SO
2
(g)
2SO
2
(g) + O
2
(g) 2SO
3
(g)
How many grams of SO
3
are produced from 1 mole
of S
8
?
(A) 1280 (B) 640
(C) 960 (D) 320
55. PH
3
(g) decomposes on heati ng to produce
phosphorous and hydrogen. The change in volume
when 100 mL of such gas decomposed is -
(A) + 50 mL (B) + 500 mL
(C) 50 mL (D) 500 mL
56. What amount of BaSO
4
can be obtained on mixing
0.5 mole BaCl
2
with 1 mole of H
2
SO
4
?
(A) 0.5 mol (B) 0.15 mol
(C) 0.1 mol (D) 0.2 mol
57. In the reaction , CrO
5
+ H
2
SO
4
Cr
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ H
2
O + O
2
one mole of CrO
5
will liberate how many moles of O
2
?
(A) 5/2 (B) 5/4
(C) 9/2 (D) None
58. Cal ci um carbonate decomposes on heati ng
according to the equation -
CaCO
3
(s) CaO(s) + CO
2
(g)
At STP the volume of CO
2
obtained by thermal
decomposition of 50 g of CaCO
3
will be -
(A) 22.4 litre (B) 44 litre
(C) 11.2 litre (D) 1 litre
59. When FeCl
3
is ignited in an atmosphere of pure
oxygen, the following reaction takes place-
4FeCl
3
(s) + 3O
2
(g) 2Fe
2
O
3
(s) + 6Cl
2
(g)
If 3 moles of FeCl
3
are ignited in the presence of 2
moles of O
2
gas, how much of which reagent is
present in excess and therefore, remains unreacted ?
(A) 0.33 mole FeCl
3
remains unreacted
(B) 0.67 mole FeCl
3
remains unreacted
(C) 0.25 mole O
2
remains unreacted
(D) 0.50 mole O
2
remains unreacted
60. The volume of CO
2
(in litres) liberated at STP when
10 g of 90% pure limestone is heated completely, is-
(A) 22.4 L (B) 2.24 L
(C) 20.16 L (D) 2.016 L
61. A metal oxide has the formula Z
2
O
3
. It can be reduced
by hydrogen to give free metal and water. 0.1596 g of
the metal requires 6 mg of hydrogen for complete
reduction. The atomic mass of the metal is -
(A) 27.9 (B) 159.6
(C) 79.8 (D) 55.8
Question number 62, 63, 64 and 65 are based on the
following information :
Q. Dissolved oxygen in water is determined by using a
redox reaction. Following equations describe the
procedure -
I 2Mn
2+
(aq) + 4OH

(aq) + O
2
(g) 2MnO
2
(s) + 2H
2
O( )
II MnO
2
(s)+2I

(aq)+4H
+
(aq) Mn
2+
(aq)+I
2
(aq) + 2H
2
O( )
III
2
3 2
O S 2 (aq) + I
2
(aq)
2
6 4
O S 2 (aq) + 2I

(aq)
62. How many moles of
2
3 2
O S are equivalent to each
mole of O
2
?
(A) 0.5 B) 1
(C) 2 (D) 4
63. What amount of I
2
will be liberated from 8 g dissolved
oxygen ?
(A) 127 g (B) 254 g
(C) 504 g (D) 1008 g
64. 3 10
3
moles O
2
is dissolved per litre of water, then
what will be molarity of I

produced in the given


reaction ?
(A) 3 10
3
M (B) 4 3 10
3
M
(C) 2 3 10
3
M (D)
3
10 3
2
1
M
65. 8 mg dissolved oxygen will consume -
(A) 5 10
4
mol Mn
+2
(B) 2.5 10
4
mol Mn
2+
(C) 10 mol Mn
2+
(D) 2 mol Mn
2+
66. 2 g of a base whose eq. wt. is 40 reacts with 3 g of an
acid. The eq. wt. of the acid is-
(A) 40 (B) 60
(C) 10 (D) 80
67. Normality of 1% H
2
SO
4
solution is nearly -
(A) 2.5 (B) 0.1
(C) 0.2 (D) 1
68. What volume of 0.1 N HNO
3
solution can be prepared
from 6.3 g of HNO
3
?
(A) 1 litre (B) 2 litres
(C) 0.5 litre (D) 4 litres
69. The volume of water to be added to 200 mL of
seminormal HCl solution to make it decinormal is -
(A) 200 mL (B) 400 mL
(C) 600 mL (D) 800 mL
PAGE # 51
70. 0.2 g of a sample of H
2
O
2
required 10 mL of 1N KMnO
4
in a titration in the presence of H
2
SO
4
. Purity of H
2
O
2
is-
(A) 25% (B) 85%
(C) 65% (D) 95%
71. Which of the following has the highest normality ?
(A) 1 M H
2
SO
4
(B) 1 M H
3
PO
3
(C) 1 M H
3
PO
4
(D) 1 M HNO
3
72. The molarity of 98% H
2
SO
4
(d = 1.8g/mL) by wt. is -
(A) 6 M (B) 18.74 M
(C) 10 M (D) 4 M
73. 0.7 g of Na
2
CO
3
. xH
2
O is dissolved in 100 mL. 20 mL
of which required to neutralize 19.8 mL of 0.1 N HCl.
The value of x is -
(A) 4 (B) 3
(C) 2 (D) 1
74. 0.45 g of an acid of molecular weight 90 was
neutralised by 20 mL of 0.5 N caustic potash. The
basicity of the acid is -
(A) 1 (B) 2
(C) 3 (D) 4
75. 1 litre of 18 molar H
2
SO
4
has been diluted to 100
litres. The normality of the resulting solution is -
(A) 0.09 N (B) 0.18
(C) 1800 N (D) 0.36
76. 150 ml of
10
N
HCl is required to react completely with
1.0 g of a sample of limestone. The percentage purity
of calcium carbonate is -
(A) 75% (B) 50%
(C) 80% (D) 90%
77. 50 ml of
10
N
HCl is treated with 70 ml
10
N
NaOH.
Resultant solution is neutral ized by 100 ml of
sulphuric acid. The normality of H
2
SO
4
-
(A) N/50 (B) N/25
(C) N/30 (D) N/10
78. 200 mL of
10
N
HCl were added to 1 g calcium car-
bonate, what would remain after the reaction ?
(A) CaCO
3
(B) HCl
(C) Neither of the two (D) Part of both
79. Equivalent mass of KMnO
4
, when it is converted to
MnSO
4
is -
(A) M/5 (B) M/3
(C) M/6 (D) M/2
80. A 3 N solution of H
2
SO
4
in water is prepared from
Conc. H
2
SO
4
(36 N) by diluting
(A) 20 ml of the conc. H
2
SO
4
to 240 ml
(B) 10 ml of the conc. H
2
SO
4
to 240 ml
(C) 1 ml of the conc. H
2
SO
4
to 36 ml
(D) 20 ml of the conc. H
2
SO
4
to 36 ml
81. The solubility curve of KNO
3
as a function of tempera-
ture is given below
0 20 40 60 80 100
0
50
100
150
200
250
Temperature (C)
S
o
l
u
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
g
/
1
0
0

m
l

w
a
t
e
r
)

The amount of KNO
3
that will crystallize when a satu-
rated solution of KNO
3
in 100 ml of water is cooled
from 90C to 30 C, is
(A) 16 g (B) 100 g
(C) 56 g (D)160 g
82. The volume of 0.5 M aqueous NaOH solution required
to neutralize 10 ml of 2 M aqueous HCl solution is :
(A) 20ml (B) 40ml
(C) 80ml (D) 120ml
83. 3.0110
23
molecules of elemental Sulphur will react
with 0.5 mole of oxygen gas completely to produce
(A) 6.02 10
23
molecules of SO
3
(B) 6.02 10
23
molecules of SO
2
(C) 3.01 10
23
molecules of SO
3
(D) 3.01 x 10
23
molecules of SO
2
84. The solubility of a gas in a solution is measured in
three cases as shown in the figure given below where
w is the weight of a solid slab placed on the top of the
cylinder lid. The solubility will follow the order :
gas
solution
w

gas
solution
w w

gas
solution
w w w
(A) a > b > c (B) a < b < c
(C) a = b = c (D) a >b < c
PAGE # 52
85. The density of a salt solution is1.13 g cm
3
and it
contains 18% of NaCI by weight. The volume of the
solution containing 36.0 g of the salt will be :
(A) 200 cm
3
(B) 217 cm
3
(C) 177 cm
3
(D) 157cm
3
86. One mole of nitrogen gas on reaction with 3.01 x 10
23
molecules of hydrogen gas produces -
(A) one mole of ammonia
(B) 2.0 x 10
23
molecules of ammonia
(C) 2 moles of ammonia
(D) 3.01 10
23
molecules of ammonia
87.
Solubility
g/I
20 40 60 80 100
KNO
3
KCl
Temperature (C)
50
100
150
200
250
Given the solubility curves of KNO
3
and KCl, which of
the following statements is not true ?
(A) At room temperature the solubility of KNO
3
and
KCI are not equal
(B) The solubilities of both KNO
3
and KCI increase
with temperature
(C) The solubility of KCI decreases with temperature
(D) The solubility of KNO
3
increases much more com-
pared to that of KCl with increase in temperature
88. 10 ml of an aqueous solution containing 222 mg of
calcium chloride (mol. wt. = 111) is diluted to 100 ml.
The concentration of chloride ion in the resulting so-
lution is -
(A) 0.02 mol/lit. (B) 0.01 mol/lit.
(C) 0.04 mol/lit (D) 2.0 mol/lit.
89. Aluminium reduces manganese dioxide to manga-
nese at high temperature. The amount of aluminium
required to reduce one gram mole of manganese
dioxide is -
(A) 1/2 gram mole (B) 1 gram mole
(C) 3/4 gram mole (D) 4/3 gram mole
90. One mole of oxalic acid is equivalent to -
(A) 0.5 mole of NaOH (B) 1 mole of NaOH
(C) 1.5 mole of NaOH (D) 2 mole of NaOH
91. 8 Grams of oxygen at NTP contain
[IJSO-Stage-I/2012]
(A) 1.5 10
23
molecules
(B) 3.0 10
23
molecules
(C) 6.023 10
23
molecules
(D) 1.5 10
22
molecules
92. When 1g of CaCO
3
reacts with 50 ml of 0.1 M HCI, the
volume of CO
2
produced is - [IJSO-Stage-I/2012]
(A) 11.2 mL (B) 22.4 mL
(C) 112 mL (D) 56 mL
93. Molality of a solution is the number of -
[IJSO-Stage-I/2012]
(A) moles of the solute per 1000 mL of the solution.
(B) moles of the solute per 1000 mL of the solvent.
(C) moles of the solute per 1000 g of the solvent.
(D) moles of the solute per 100g of the solvent.
94. The oxidation number of chlorine in CaOCI
2
is -
[IJSO-Stage-I/2012]
(A) 0 (B) 1
(C) +1 (D) +3
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
95. (a) Sachin was suffering from problem of acidity , so
he visited a physician who advised him to take 0.0025
dm
3
of milk of magnesia for a fast relief. He exactly
followed what the doctor told him to do. Out of curios-
ity he saw the label on milk of magnesia bottle and
he found that there were different ingredients written
on it and the concentration of milk of magnesia men-
tioned was 29 ppm. Assuming, the volume of milk of
magnesia required for neutralization of acid is equal
to intake of milk of magnesia, help Sachin to find out
the following
(i) How many moles of acid was produced in Sachins
stomach ?
(ii) Write down the neutralization reaction of this
process.
(iii)Calculate the concentration of acid produced in
mol/dm
3

53
PAGE # 53
(a) Definition :
An al gebrai c expressi on f(x) of the form
f(x) = a
0
+ a
1
x + a
2
x
2
+ ..........+ a
n
x
n
, Where a
0
,a
1
, a
2
.....a
n
are real numbers and all the indices of x are non
negative integers is called a polynomial in x and the
highest index n is called the degree of the polynomial,
if a
n
= 0. Here a
0
, a
1
x, a
2
x
2
.....,a
n
x
n
are called the terms
of the polynomial and a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, ...... a
n
are called various
co-efficients of the polynomial f(x). A polynomial in x is
said to be in its standard form when the terms are
written either in increasing order or decreasing order
of the indices of x in various terms.
EXAMPLES :
(i) 2x
3
+ 4x
2
+ x + 1 is a polynomial of degree 3.
(ii) x
7
+ x
5
+ x
2
+ 1 is a polynomial of degree 7.
(iii) x
3/2
+ x
2
+

1 is not a polynomial as the indices of x
are not all non negative integer
(iv) x
2
+
2
x + 1 is a polynomial of degree 2.
(v) x
2
+ x + 1 is not a polynomial as 2 is not non
negative.
(a) Polynomial Based on Degree :
There are five types of polynomials based on degree.
(i) Constant polynomial :
A polynomial of degree zero is called a zero degree
polynomial or constant polynomial.
e.g. f(x) = 4 = 4x
0
(ii) Linear polynomial :
A polynomial of degree one is called a linear polynomial.
The general form of a linear polynomial is ax + b, where
a and b are any real numbers and a = 0
e.g. 4x + 5, 2x + 3, 5x + 3 etc.
POLYNOMIALS
(iii) Quadratic polynomial :
A polynomial of degree two is called a quadratic
polynomial. The general form of a quadratic polynomial
is ax
2
+ bx + c where a = 0
e.g. x
2
+ x + 1, 2x
2
+ 1, 3x
2
+ 2x + 1 etc.
(iv) Cubic polynomial :
A pol ynomial of degree three is cal led a cubic
polynomial. The general form of a cubic polynomial is
ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + d, where a = 0
e.g. x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1, x
3
+ 2x + 1, 2x
3
+ 1 etc.
(v) Biquadratic polynomial :
A polynomial of degree four is called a biquadratic or
quartic polynomial. The general form of biquadratic
polynomial is ax
4
+ bx
3
+ cx
2
+ dx + e where a = 0
e.g. x
4
+ x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1 , x
4
+ x
2
+ 1 etc.
NOTE :
A polynomial of degree five or more than five does not
have any particular name. Such a polynomial is usually
called a polynomial of degree five or six or ..... etc.
(b) Polynomial Based on Terms :
There are three types of polynomial based on number
of terms.
(i) Monomial : A polynomial is said to be a monomial if
it has only one term.
For example, x, 9x
2
, 5x
2
are all monomials
(ii) Binomial : A polynomial is said to be a binomial if it
contains two terms.
For example 2x
2
+ 3x, 3 x + 5x
4
, 8x
3
+ 3 etc are all
binomials.
(iii) Trinomial : A polynomial is said to be a trinomial if
it contains three terms.
For example 3x
3
8x +
2
5
, 7 x
10
+ 8x
4
3x
2
etc are all
trinomials.
REMARKS :
(i) A polynomial having four or more than four terms
does not have any particular name. They are simply
called polynomials.
(ii) A polynomial whose coefficients are all zero is called
a zero polynomial, degree of a zero polynomial
is not defined.
id11651468 pdfMachine by Broadgun Software - a great PDF writer! - a great PDF creator! - http://www.pdfmachine.com http://www.broadgun.com
54
PAGE # 54
(a) Value of a Polynomial :
The value of a polynomial f(x) at x = is obtained by
substituting x = o in the given polynomial and is
denoted by f().
Consider the polynomial f(x) = x
3
6x
2
+ 11x 6,
If we replace x by 2 everywhere in f(x), we get
f( 2) = ( 2)
3
6( 2)
2
+ 11( 2) 6
f( 2) = 8 24 22 6
f( 2) = 60
=
0.
So, we can say that value of f(x) at x = 2 is 60.
(b) Zero or root of a Polynomial :
The real number is a root or zero of a polynomial
f(x), if f( = 0.
Consider the polynomial f(x) = 2x
3
+ x
2
7x 6,
If we replace x by 2 everywhere in f(x), we get
f(2) = 2(2)
3
+ (2)
2
7(2) 6
= 16 + 4 14 6 = 0
Hence, x = 2 is a root of f(x).
Let p(x) be any polynomial of degree greater than or
equal to one and a be any real number and If p(x) is
divided by (x a), then the remainder is equal to p(a).
Ex.1 Find the remainder, when f(x) = x
3
6x
2
+ 2x 4 is
divided by g(x) = 1 2x.
Sol. f(x) = x
3
6x
2
+ 2x 4
Let, 1 2x = 0
2x = 1
x =
2
1
Remainder =
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
f
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
f
=
4
2
1
2
2
1
6
2
1
2 3
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
4 1
2
3

8
1
+
=
8
35

8
32 8 12 1
=
+
.
FACTOR THEOREM
Let p(x) be a polynomial of degree greater than or equal
to 1 and a be a real number such that p(a) = 0, then
(x a) is a factor of p(x). Conversely, if (x a) is a factor
of p(x), then p(a) = 0.
Ex.2 Show that x + 1 and 2x 3 are factors of
2x
3
9x
2
+ x + 12.
Sol. To prove that (x + 1) and (2x 3) are factors of
2x
3
9x
2
+ x + 12 it is sufficient to show that p(1) and
|
.
|

\
|
2
3
p
both are equal to zero.
p ( 1) = 2 ( 1)
3
9 ( 1)
2
+ ( 1) + 12
= 2 9 1 + 12
= 12 + 12 = 0.
and
|
.
|

\
|
2
3
p
=
12
2
3
2
3
9
2
3
2
2 3
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 12
2
3
4
81

4
27
+ +
=
4
48 6 81 27 + +
=
4
81 81 +
= 0.
Hence, (x + 1) and (2x 3) are the factors
2x
3
9x
2
+ x + 12.
Ex. 3 Find the values of a and b so that the polynomials
x
3
ax
2
13x + b has (x 1) and (x + 3) as factors.
Sol. Let f(x) = x
3
ax
2
13x + b
Because (x 1) and (x + 3) are the factors of f(x),
f(1) = 0 and f( 3) = 0
f(1) = 0
(1)
3
a(1)
2
13(1) + b = 0
1 a 13 + b = 0
a + b = 12 .... (i)
f(3) = 0
( 3)
3
a( 3)
2
13( 3) + b = 0
27 9a + 39 + b = 0
9a + b = 12 ...(ii)
Subtracting equation (ii) from equation (i)
( a + b) ( 9a + b) = 12 + 12
a + 9a = 24
8a = 24
a = 3.
Put a = 3 in equation (i)
3 + b = 12
b = 15.
Hence, a = 3 and b = 15.
55
PAGE # 55
ALGEBRAIC IDENTITIES
Some important identities are
(i) (a + b)
2
= a
2
+ 2ab + b
2
(ii) (a b)
2
= a
2
2ab + b
2
(iii) a
2
b
2
= (a + b) (a b)
(iv) (a + b + c)
2
= a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
+ 2ab + 2 bc + 2ca
(v) a
3
+ b
3
= (a + b) (a
2
ab + b
2
)
(vi) a
3
b
3
= (a b) (a
2
+ ab + b
2
)
(vii) (a + b)
3
= a
3
+ b
3
+ 3ab (a + b)
(viii) (a b)
3
= a
3
b
3
3ab (a b)
(ix) a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
3abc = (a + b + c) (a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
ab bc ac)
Special case : if a + b + c = 0 then a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
= 3abc.
Value Form :
(i) a
2
+ b
2
= (a + b)
2
2ab, if a + b and ab are given.
(ii) a
2
+ b
2
= (a b)
2
+ 2ab, if a b and ab are given.
(iii) a + b =
( ) ab 4 b a
2
+
, if a b and ab are given.
(iv) a b =
( ) ab 4 b a
2
+
, if a + b and ab are given.
(v) a
2
+
2
a
1
=
2
a
1
a |
.
|

\
|
+ 2, if a +
a
1
is given.
(vi) a
2
+
2
a
1
=
2
a
1
a |
.
|

\
|

+ 2, if a
a
1
is given.
(vii) a
3
+ b
3
= (a + b)
3
3ab (a + b), if (a + b) and ab are
given.
(viii) a
3
b
3
= (a b)
3
+ 3ab (a b), if (a b) and ab are
given.
(ix)
3
3
a
1
a +
=
3
a
1
a |
.
|

\
|
+ 3 |
.
|

\
|
+
a
1
a , if a +
a
1
is given.
(x)
3
3
a
1
a =
3
a
1
a |
.
|

\
|
+ 3
|
.
|

\
|

a
1
a
, if a
a
1
is given.
(xi) a
4
b
4
= (a
2
+ b
2
) (a
2
b
2
) = [(a + b)
2
2ab](a + b) (a b).
Ex.4 Expand :
(i)
2
x 3
1
x 2 |
.
|

\
|

(ii)
( )
2
2
y 5 x 3 +
(iii) ( )( ) y 3 x 2 y 3 x 2 + (iv)
2
1 b
2
1
a
4
1
|
.
|

\
|
+
Sol. (i)
2
x 3
1
x 2 |
.
|

\
|

= (2x)
2
2(2x)
|
.
|

\
|
x 3
1
+
( )
2
x 3
1
= 4x
2

3
4
+
2
x 9
1
.
(ii) (3x
2
+ 5y)
2
= (3x
2
)
2
+ 2(3x
2
)(5y) + (5y)
2
= 9x
4
+ 30x
2
y + 25y
2
(iii) ( 2 x 3y)( 2 x + 3y)
= ( 2 x)
2
(3y)
2
= 2x
2
9y
2
(iv)
2
1 b
2
1
a
4
1
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
a
4
1
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
b
2
1
|
.
|

\
|

+ (1)
2
+ 2
|
.
|

\
|
a
4
1
|
.
|

\
|
b
2
1
+ 2
|
.
|

\
|
b
2
1
(1) + 2(1)
|
.
|

\
|
a
4
1
=
16
1
a
2
+
4
1
b
2
+ 1
4
ab
b +
2
a
.
Ex. 5 Simplify :
(i)
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|

4
4
2
2
x
1
x
x
1
x
x
1
x
x
1
x
(ii) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
y x 4 y x 2 y x 2 + +
Sol.
|
.
|

\
|

x
1
x |
.
|

\
|
+
x
1
x |
.
|

\
|
+
2
2
x
1
x |
.
|

\
|
+
4
4
x
1
x
=
|
.
|

\
|

2
2
x
1
x |
.
|

\
|
+
2
2
x
1
x |
.
|

\
|
+
4
4
x
1
x
=
(
(

|
.
|

\
|

2
2
2 2
x
1
) x (
|
.
|

\
|
+
4
4
x
1
x
=
|
.
|

\
|

4
4
x
1
x |
.
|

\
|
+
4
4
x
1
x
= (x
4
)
2

2
4
x
1
|
.
|

\
|
= x
8

8
x
1
.
(ii) (2x + y)(2x y)(4x
2
+y
2
)
= [(2x)
2
(y)
2
](4x
2
+ y
2
)
= (4x
2
y
2
)(4x
2
+ y
2
)
= (4x
2
)
2
(y
2
)
2
= 16x
4
y
4
.
Ex.6 Find the value of x y when x + y = 9 & xy = 14:
Sol. x + y = 9
On squaring both sides
x
2
+ y
2
+ 2xy = 81
Putting value of xy = 14
x
2
+ y
2
+ 28 = 81
x
2
+ y
2
= 81 28 = 53 ...(i)
(x y)
2
= x
2
+ y
2
2xy
Putting xy = 14 and (i)
(x y)
2
= 53 2 (14) = 53 28
(x y)
2
= 25
x y =
25
= 5
56
PAGE # 56
Ex.7 If x
2
+
2
x
1
= 23, find the values of
|
.
|

\
|
+
x
1
x
,
|
.
|

\
|

x
1
x
and
|
.
|

\
|
+
4
4
x
1
x
.
Sol. x
2
+
2
x
1
= 23 (i)
x
2
+
2
x
1
+ 2 = 25 [Adding 2 on both sides of (i)]
(x
2
) +
2
x
1
|
.
|

\
|
+ 2 x
x
1
= 25

2
x
1
x |
.
|

\
|
+
= (5)
2
x +
x
1
=

5
2
x
1
x |
.
|

\
|

= x
2
+
2
x
1
2

2
x
1
x |
.
|

\
|

= 23 2 = 21

|
.
|

\
|

x
1
x
=
21
.
2
2
2
x
1
x |
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
4
4
x
1
x
+ 2

|
.
|

\
|
+
4
4
x
1
x
=
2
2
2
x
1
x |
.
|

\
|
+
2

|
.
|

\
|
+
4
4
x
1
x
= (23)
2
2 = 529 2

|
.
|

\
|
+
4
4
x
1
x
= 527.
Ex. 8 Find the value of
(
(

+ ab a
b a
b 5 ab 6 a
ab 5 a
2
2 2
2 2
2
.
Sol.
2 2
2
b 5 ab 6 a
ab 5 a
+

ab a
b a
2
2 2
+
=
) b 5 a )( b a (
) b 5 a ( a

) b a ( a
) b a )( b a (
+
+
= 1
Ex. 9 Find the value of
96 . 5
02 . 2 02 . 2 98 . 7 98 . 7
Sol.
96 . 5
02 . 2 02 . 2 98 . 7 98 . 7
=
96 . 5
) 02 . 2 98 . 7 )( 02 . 2 98 . 7 ( +
=
96 . 5
96 . 5 10
= 10.
Ex.10 Simplify :
(i) (3x + 4)
3
(3x 4)
3
(ii)
3 3
x
2
x
x
2
x |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
Sol. (i)(3x + 4)
3
(3x 4)
3
= [(3x)
3
+ (4)
3
+ 3 (3x) (4) (3x + 4)] [(3x)
3
(4)
3
3 (3x)
(4) (3x 4)]
= [27x
3

+ 64 + 36x (3x + 4)] [27x
3
64 36x (3x 4)]
= [27x
3
+ 64 + 108x
2
+ 144x] [27x
3
64 108x
2
+ 144x]
= 27x
3
+ 64 + 108x
2
+ 144x 27x
3
+ 64 + 108x
2
144x
= 128 + 216x
2
.
(ii)
3
x
2
x |
.
|

\
|
+
+
3
x
2
x |
.
|

\
|

= x
3
+
3
x
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ 3(x)
|
.
|

\
|
x
2
|
.
|

\
|
+
x
2
x
+ x
3

3
x
2
|
.
|

\
|
3(x)
|
.
|

\
|
x
2
|
.
|

\
|

x
2
x
= x
3
+
3
x
8
+ 6x +
x
12
+ x
3

3
x
8
6x +
x
12
= 2x
3
+
x
24
.
Ex.11 Evaluate :
(i) (1005)
3
(ii) (997)
3
Sol. (i) (1005)
3
= (1000 + 5)
3
= (1000)
3
+ (5)
3
+ 3 (1000) (5) (1000 + 5)
= 1000000000 + 125 + 15000 (1000 + 5)
= 1000000000 + 125 + 15000000 + 75000
= 1015075125.
(ii) (997)
3
= (1000 3)
3
= (1000)
3
(3)
3
3 1000 3 (1000 3)
= 1000000000 27 9000 (1000 3)
= 1000000000 27 9000000 + 27000
= 991026973.
Ex.12 If x
x
1
= 5, find the value of x
3

3
x
1
.
Sol. We have, x
x
1
= 5 ...(i)

3
x
1
x |
.
|

\
|

= (5)
3
[Cubing both sides of (i)]
x
3

3
x
1
3x
x
1
|
.
|

\
|

x
1
x = 125
x
3

3
x
1
3
|
.
|

\
|

x
1
x
= 125
x
3

3
x
1
3 5 = 125 [Substituting
|
.
|

\
|

x
1
x
= 5]
x
3

3
x
1
15 = 125
x
3

3
x
1
= (125 + 15) = 140.
57
PAGE # 57
Ex.13 Find the products of the following expression :
(i) (4x + 3y) (16x
2
12xy + 9y
2
)
(ii) (5x 2y) (25x
2
+10xy + 4y
2
)
Sol. (i) (4x + 3y) (16x
2
12 xy + 9y
2
)
= (4x + 3y) [(4x)
2
(4x) (3y) + (3y)
2
]
= (a + b) (a
2
ab + b
2
) [Where a = 4x, b = 3y ]
= a
3
+ b
3
= (4x)
3
+ (3y)
3
= 64x
3
+ 27y
3
.
(ii) (5x 2y) (25x
2
+ 10xy + 4y
2
)
= (5x 2y) [(5x)
2
+ (5x) (2y) + (2y)
2
]
= (a b) (a
2
+ ab + b
2
) [Where a = 5x, b = 2y]
= a
3
b
3
= (5x)
3
(2y)
3
= 125x
3
8y
3
.
Ex. 14 If a + b + c = 9 and ab + bc + ac = 26, find the value of
a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
3abc.
Sol. We have a + b + c = 9 ...(i)
(a + b + c)
2
= 81 [On squaring both sides of (i)]
a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
+ 2(ab + bc + ac) = 81
a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
+ 2 26 = 81 [

ab + bc + ac = 26]
a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
= (81 52)
a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
= 29.
Now, we have
a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
3abc
= (a + b + c) (a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
ab bc ac)
= (a + b + c) [(a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
) (ab + bc + ac)]
= 9 [(29 26)]
= (9 3) = 27.
Ex.15 Simplify :
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3
3
2 2
3
2 2
3
2 2
a c c b b a
a c c b b a
+ +
+ +
.
Sol. Here, ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 a c c b b a
2 2 2 2 2 2
= + +

( ) ( ) ( )
3
2 2
3
2 2
3
2 2
a c c b b a + +
= ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
a c c b b a 3
Also, ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 a c c b b a = + +
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3
a c c b b a + + = ( )( )( ) a c c b b a 3
Given expression
=
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) a c c b b a 3
a c c b b a 3
2 2 2 2 2 2


=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) a c c b b a 3
a c a c c b c b b a b a 3

+ + +
= ( )( )( ) a c c b b a + + + .
Ex.16 Find the value of (28)
3
(78)
3
+ (50)
3
.
Sol. Let a = 28, b = 78, c = 50
Then, a + b + c = 28 78 + 50 = 0

a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
= 3abc.
So, (28)
3
+ (78)
3
+ (50)
3
= 3 28 (78) 50
= 327600.
1. Which of the following is a polynomial :
(A) x
2
+
2
x +
3
(B) x
2
+
x 2
+
3
(C) x
3/2
+ 2 x + 3 (D) 5x
2
+
x
2
+
3
x
2. The remainder obtained when t
6
+3t
2
+ 10 is divided by
t
3
+ 1 is :
(A) t
2
11 (B) 3t
2
+ 11
(C) t
3
1 (D) 1 t
3
3. If a
2
b
2
=21 and a
2
+ b
2
= 29, which of the following
could be the value of ab ?
I. 10 II. 5 2 III. 10
(A) I only (B) II only
(C) III only (D) I and III only
4. If
c
1
b
1
a
1
= +
and ab =c, what is the average (arithmetic
mean) of a and b ?
(A) 0 (B)
2
1
(C) 1 (D)
c 2
b a +
5. On simplifying (a + b)
3
+ (a b)
3
+ 6a(a
2
b
2
) we get :
(A) 8a
2
(B) 8a
2
b
(C) 8a
3
b (D) 8a
3
6. Find the value of
2 2 2
3 3 3
c b a ca bc ab
abc 3 c b a
+ +
+ +
, when
a = 5, b = 6, c = 10.
(A) 1 (B) 1
(C) 2 (D) 2
7. If (x + y + z) = 1, xy + yz + zx = 1, xyz = 1, then value of
x
3
+ y
3
+ z
3
is :
(A) 1 (B) 1
(C) 2 (D) 2
8. If (x + a) is a factor of x
2
+ px + q and x
2
+ mx + n then the
value of a is :
(A)
q n
p m
(B)
p m
q n
(C)
p m
q n
+
+
(D)
q n
p m
+
+
9. If x
2
4 is a factor of 2x
3
+ ax
2
+ bx + 12, where a and b
are constant. Then the values of a and b are :
(A) 3, 8 (B) 3, 8
(C) 3, 8 (D) 3, 8
10. If
3
1
3
1
3
1
z y x + + = 0 then which one of the following
expression is correct :
(A) x
3
+ y
3
+ z
3
= 0
(B) x + y + z = 3
3
1
3
1
3
1
z y x
(C) x + y + z = 3xyz
(D) x
3
+ y
3
+ z
3
= 3xyz
58
PAGE # 58
11. If x
51
+ 51 is divided by (x + 1) the remainder is :
(A) 0 (B) 1
(C) 49 (D) 50
12. If a
4
+
4
a
1
= 119, then find the value of a
3

3
a
1
.
(A) 11 (B) 36
(C) 33 (D) 12
13. Evaluate :
) c b )( b a (
) a c (
) a c )( b a (
) c b (
) a c )( c b (
) b a (
2 2 2
+ + .
(A) 0 (B) 1
(C) 2 (D) 3
14. The polynomials ax
3
+ 3x
2
3 and 2x
3
5x + a when
divided by (x 4) leaves remainders R
1
& R
2
respectively
then value of a if 2R
1
R
2
= 0.
(A)
127
18
(B)
127
18
(C)
127
17
(D)
127
17

15. A quadratic polynomial is exactly divisible by (x + 1) &


(x + 2) and leaves the remainder 4 after division by
(x + 3) then that polynomial is :
(A) x
2
+ 6x + 4 (B) 2x
2
+ 6x + 4
(C) 2x
2
+ 6x 4 (D) x
2
+ 6x 4
16. If x
2
4 is a factor of 2x
3
+ ax
2
+ bx + 12, where a and b
are constant. Then the values of a and b are :
(A) 3, 8 (B) 3, 8
(C) 3, 8 (D) 3, 8
17. The value of
24 . 0 24 . 0 24 . 0 76 . 0 76 . 0 76 . 0
24 . 0 24 . 0 24 . 0 76 . 0 76 . 0 76 . 0
+
+
is :
(A) 0.52 (B) 1
(C) 0.01 (D) 0.1
18. If x + y = 3 and xy = 2, then the value of x
3
y
3
is equal to
(A) 6 (B) 7
(C) 8 (D) 0
19. If x =
2
1
, then the value of x +
x
1
1
1
1
1
+
+
is :
(A)
4
5
(B)
5
4
(C)
4
3
(D) None of these
20. If (a
2
+ b
2
)
3
= (a
3
+ b
3
)
2
then
b
a
+
a
b
=
(A)
3
2
(B)
2
3
(C)
6
5
(D)
5
6
21. m
5
+ m
4
+ m
3
+ m
2
+ m + 1 = (m
3
+ 1) _______
(A) m
5
+ m
4
+ m
2
+ m (B) m
2
+ m
3
(C) m
3
+ m
3
+ m + 1 (D) m
2
+ m + 1
22. If x =
2 2 +
, then x
4
+
4
x
4
is :
(A) 2(3 2 ) (B) 6 2 2
(C) 6 2 (D) 12
23. If 4x 5z = 16 and xz = 12, 64x
3
125z
3
=
(A) 14512 (B) 15676
(C) 25833 (D) 15616
24.
1 3 2 1 3
3 3
x y ) xy ( y x
y x


+ +

(A) x + y (B) y x
(C)
x
1

y
1
(D)
x
1
+
y
1
25. If
( )
b a
ab 4 b a
2
+
=
3
5
, then the value of a : b is :
(A) 1 : 16 (B) 1 : 4
(C) 4 : 1 (D) 16 : 1
26. If x = 0.50, then the value of the expression

+ + +
x 1
x
) x x 1 (
3
2
is :
(A) 4 (B) 2
(C) 1.50 (D) 1
27. If p = 2
2/3
+ 2
1/3
, then :
(A) p
3
6p + 6 = 0 (B) p
3
3p 6 = 0
(C) p
3
6p 6 = 0 (D) p
3
3p + 6 = 0
28. The polynomial p(x) = 2x
4
x
3
7x
2
+ ax + b is divisible
by x
2
2x 3 for certain values of a and b. The value of
(a + b), is :
(A) 34 (B) 30
(C) 26 (D) 18
29. When the polynomial (6x
4
+ 8x
3
+ 17x
2
+ 21x + 7) is
divided by (3x
2
+ 4x + 1), the remainder is (ax b).
Therefore : [IJSO-2011]
(A) a = 1, b = 2 (B) a = 1, b = 2
(C) a = 2, b = 1 (D) a = 1, b = 2
30. If 2
2x1
+ 2
12x
= 2, then the value of x is : [IJSO-2011]
(A) 0.5 (B) 0.5
(C) 1 (D) 0
31. Given that a (a+b) = 36 and b (a + b) = 64, where a and
b are positive, (a b) equals : [IJSO-2011]
(A) 2.8 (B) 3.2
(C) 2.8 (D) 2.5
32. If a, b, c are positive,
c b
c a
+
+
is : [IJSO-2011]
(A) always smaller than
b
a
(B) always greater than
b
a
(C) greater than
b
a
only if a > b.
(D) greater than
b
a
only if a < b.
59
PAGE # 59
33. Find x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
if x
2
+ xy + xz = 135, y
2
+ yz + yx = 351
and z
2
+ zx + zy = 243. [IJSO-2012]
(A) 225 (B) 250
(C) 275 (D) 300
34. lf a + b + c = 1, a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
= 21 and abc = 8 then find
the value of (1 a)(1 b) (1 c). [IJSO-2012]
(A) 10 (B) 18
(C) 24 (D) 30

60 BIOLOGY_IJSO_PAGE # 60
NATURAL RESOURCES
It indicates the potential wealth of a country. The variety
of substances that man gets from earth and nature to
meet his basic needs are called natural resources.
The word resource means a source of supplying a
material generally held in reserve.
Natural resources are both living and non living.
Some of these resources are found in abundance,
while others are found in limited quantities & that too
in some restricted parts of our land. For this reason,
the natural resources have to be wi sely used.
However, in reality it is not so. They are being used
indiscriminately.
Types of Natural Resources :
(i) Based on availability : The natural resources are
categorized into two types i.e.
(a) nexhaustible natural resources
(b) Exhaustible natural resources
Natural
Resources
(i)
(ii)


Resources that are
in unlimited quantity.
Resources that are
not likely to be exhausted
by human activity
or their use.
Examples : Air, Water &
Solar Radiations.

(i)
(ii)
Resources that
are in limited quantity.
Resources that
are likely to be
exhausted
by human
activities.
Renewable
(i)

(ii)
(iii)
Can replenish
themselves by quick
recycling and replacement
within a reasonable time.
Not likely to be
exhausted.
Examples : Soil,
Forests and Wild life.
(i)

(ii)
(iii)
Cannot replenish
themselves by recycling
& replacement.
These may
be exhausted.
Example : Minerals,
Fossil fuels
NonRenewable
Exhaustible
Inexhaustible
(ii) Based on origin : On the basis of their origin
resources may be bi oti c (organi c) or abi oti c
(inorganic). Biotic resources are obtained from the
biosphere. Forest and forest products, crops, birds,
animal, fish and other marine life forms are examples
of biotic resources. Coal and mineral oil also belong
to this category since they originate from organic
matter. Some biotic resources like forest and livestock
are renewabl e, whereas coal and oi l are
nonrenewable. Resources composed of nonliving
inorganic matter are called abiotic resources. Land,
water and minerals like iron, copper, lead and gold
are abiotic resources.
(iii) Based on utility : Every resource has some utility.
For example, some are used as food, some as raw
materials and others as sources of energy.
AIR OR ATMOSPHERE
The multilayered, transparent and protective envelope
of gases surrounding the planet earth is called
atmosphere.
In other words atmosphere is the layer of air above
the earths surface and air is a mixture of several
gases. About 95% of total air is present up to the height
of 20 km above earth's surface, remaining 5% is up to
the height of 280 km.
(a) Composition of Air :
Gas Relative percentage / volume
Nitrogen 78.08 %
Oxygen 20.94 %
Argon 0.9 %
Carbon dioxide 0.03 %
He, Ne, Kr, Xe, in trace amounts.
Besi des these gaseous components ai r al so
possesses water vapour, industrial gases, dust,
smoke particles, microorganisms, pollen grains,
fungal spores etc.
(b) The Different Zones of Atmosphere or Air
(i) Troposphere : t is the basal part that extends about
8-16 km above the earth's surface. (upto 8 km on
poles). In this layer important climatic events occur
like cloud formation, lightning, thundering etc.In this
region air temperature gradually decreases with
height. Its upper limit is called Tropopause
(ii) Stratosphere : t lies next to troposphere and is
up to 50 km high. In this layer temperature rises. There
is a formation of ozone layer in this region which can
absorb the harmful ultra violet rays coming from sun.
(iii) Mesosphere : t lies next to stratosphere and is
up to 80km in height. Temperature decreases in this
region.
NATURAL RESOURCES
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61 BIOLOGY_IJSO_PAGE # 61
(iv) Ionosphere : t lies upto 400 km above earth's surface. In this layer gaseous components become ionized due
to sun's energy and remain there as ions.
S.No. Region Range of distance Density of air Importance
1. Troposphere 11 kms from the
surface of earth
Highest Most of the atmospheric air is
present here. It is a medium for
locomotion of flying animals,
helps in dispersal of seeds and
fruits; region of cloud formation.
2. Stratosphere 50 kms from the surface of earth Less than troposphere Contains ozone layer that traps
most of UV rays and cosmic rays
of the Sun.
3. Mesosphere 80 kms from the surface of earth Low --
4. Thermosphere 100 kms upwards Extremely low Reflect radio waves back to
earth, artificial satellites are
present here.
Different Regions of Atmosphere
ATMOSPHERIC REGIONS BASED ON TEMPERATURE
150
100
50
H
E
T
E
R
O
S
P
H
E
R
E
H
O
M
O
S
P
H
E
R
E
TEMPERATURE
INCREASING
WITH HEIGHT
THERMOSPHERE
MESOSPHERE
STRATOSPHERE
TROPOSPHERE
TEMPERATURE DECREASING
WITH HEIGHT
TEMPERATURE INCREASING
WITH HEIGHT
OZONOSPHERE
IONOSPHERE
0
0 100 200 300
H
E
I
G
H
T

I
N

K
I
L
O
M
E
T
E
R
S
TYPICAL TEMPERATURE IN DEGREE CELSIUS
Different Regions of Atmosphere
(c) Role of Air or Atmosphere :
It acts as medium for movement of insects, birds etc.
It protects the life on earth from harmful ultra violet rays.
It is a source of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen
required for various metabolic activities of living beings.
It helps in dispersal of spores, pollen grains etc.
t maintains temperature on earth required for life.
It transmits sound for communication.
Ionosphere reflects the radio waves back to earth for
long distance communication due to presence of ions
and free electrons.
62 BIOLOGY_IJSO_PAGE # 62
Burning (combustion) takes place in presence of
oxygen and produces carbon dioxide.
Specifi c cl imatic conditions and water cycle is
maintained due to circulation of air.
Eukaryotic cells and many prokaryotic cells require O
2
for break down of glucose to get energy through
respiration and release CO
2
.
(d) The Role of Atmosphere in Climate
Control :
Cl imate i s an average weather of an area.
Temperature, light and rainfall are important factors
that determine climate of an area. Atmosphere plays
a crucial role in its control :
It acts like a blanket covering the whole earth.
It keeps the temperature of earth steady.
It acts as bad conductor of heat thus prevents the
sudden increase in temperature during the day as
well as slows down the escape of heat into the outer
space during night.The temperature range on the
surface of moon 190C to 110C.
(e) Wind :
Air in motion is called wind. Speed of wind can be
determined by :
Heating of air
Formation of water vapour
Atmosphere can be heated from below by radiations,
such radiations are reflected back.
Convection currents appear in air on being heated.
Factors controlling movement of air
(A) Rotation of earth.
(B)n the path of wind, mountain ranges may come
across.
The general pattern of winds over earth is known as
general circulation and specific winds are named for
the direction from which they originate (e.g. wind
blowing from west to east is westerly).
Wind speeds are often classified according to
Beaufort scale.
(f) Rain :
The warm, moist and rising air cools and forms clouds
in the sky.
This happens due to heating of water bodies during
day time which get mixed with atmosphere.
The air rises, it expands and cools.
Cool air in the atmosphere sinks towards the ground.
Due to cooling water vapours present in air get
facilitated.
These tiny droplets become bigger and bigger due to
condensation.
When they become heavy, they fall down in the form of rain.
POLLUTION
Any undesirable change in physical, chemical or
biological characteristics in the air, water and land
which is harmful to the men directly or indirectly
through animals, plants, industrial units or raw
materials is called as pollution.
Pollution is man made. But it can also be natural.
99.95 % of pollution is natural only 0.05 % pollution is
manmade.
(a) Pollutants :
Any material or act of man, or nature which leads to
pollution is called as pollutants.
The pollution is usually brought about by the addition
to the environment of waste products of human activity.
When the waste products are not effi ci entl y
assimilated, decomposed or other wise removed by
natural, biological and physical processes (recycling)
and the system is unable to utilize them properly, so
that the balance of the system breaks down.
Therefore such type of pollutants can stimulate or
inhibit the biological reactions or change in their
capacity. Therefore changes also take place in the
ecosystem.
The amount, number and type of pollutants are
increasing with the growth of the population.
Difference between primary and secondary pollutants
Primary pollutants Secondary pollutants`
Pollutants which persist in the environment
in the form it is produced.
Pollutant formed from a primary one through change or reaction.
(No)
x
and hydrocarbons react photochemically to
produce PAN (Peroxyacetyl nitrate) and O
3
.
These include particulate matter, CO, CO
2
,
SO
2
, (NO)
x
and hydrocarbons.
Photochemical smog, O
3
and peroxy
acetyl nitrate are secondary pollutants.
These are less toxic.
These are more toxic than the primary pollutants
& this phenomenon is called synergism.
(b) Air Pollution :
Air pollution is caused due to the addition of the
unwanted substances or gases.
The atmospheric pollution is mainly caused by the
activities of man and concentrated to the inhabited
and the industrial complexes in cities.
There are two main categories of air pollutants.
(i) Gaseous : The gaseous materials include various
gases and vapours of volatile substances or the
compound with a boiling point below 200C.
(ii) Particulate : Dust particles , carbon particles,
particles of other metals etc.
63 BIOLOGY_IJSO_PAGE # 63
(c) Major air Pollutants and Their Effects :
(i) Carbon monoxide (CO) : This is the main air
pollutant.
Carbon monoxide is highly toxic & it is colourless and
odourless in nature.
It combines with haemoglobin of the blood and blocks
the transportati on of oxygen.Thus, i t i mpai rs
respiration and it causes death.
(ii) Unburnt hydrocarbons : Out of them 3, 4
benzpyrene is the main pollutant. This causes cancer
in lungs.
(iii) Ethylene : The falling of leaves without particular
reason, falling buds etc. effects are seen in plants are
due to ethylene.
(iv) Oxides of nitrogen : These oxides of nitrogen form
photochemical smog in the atmosphere and release
ozone.
Ozone causes harm to mucilagenous membrane.
The oxide pollutants of nitrogen are nitric oxide (NO),
and nitrogen di oxide (NO
2
).
These oxides and ozone are very harmful for the
plants.
The entry of these pollutants causes various diseases
i n ani mal s l i ke-respi ratory troubl e such as
emphysema, bronchitis, swelling of lungs and lung
cancer etc.
(v) Smoke : Many constituents are present in smoke
such as Sulphur dioxide (SO
2
), Sulphur trioxide
(SO
3
),Sulphuric acid (H
2
SO
4
), Ozone (O
3
), Carbon
dioxide (CO
2
), PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate), Arsenic and
Fluoride etc.
The distribution area of lichen and mosses are the
indicators of SO
2
pollution because lichen and mosses
cannot grow in the industrial regions or the regions
containing SO
2
pollutants.
The higher concentration of ozone produces harmful
effects.
Ozone layer absorbs U.V. rays which are harmful for
the living beings.
(vi) Aerosol : The aerosol like C.F.C. (Chloro fluoro
carbon) released into the atmosphere from the
refrigerators, air conditioners and jet planes, deplete
or reduce the ozone layer.
This thin layer of ozone is also known as ozone hole
results in the increase in temperature of the earth.
Secondary effect of Air pollution :
Green -House Effect : Usually carbon dioxide is not
considered as pollutant, but its higher concentration
forms the thick layer above the earth surface which
checks the radiation of the heat from the earth surface.
Because of this the temperature of the earth surface
increases.This is called as"Green house effect".
Sun light
G
r
e
e
n
H
o
u
s
e
G
a
s
e
s
Heat
Earth Surface
A
t
m
o
s
p
h
e
r
e
Heat
Radiant
heat trapped
by CO2
Green House Effect
The various green house gases are CO
2
(Warming
effect 60% ), CH
4
(warming effect 20%) , chlorofluoro
carbon or CFCs (14%) and nitrous oxide (N
2
O 6%)
Even 23 C rise in temperature will lead to melting of
glaciers & ice caps of polar regions and consequently
causes floods in rivers, rise in sea level and changes
in cycle of rain. Islands may be emerged in sea water.
Global Warming : Global warming is the increase in
average global temperature due to increase in amount
of GHGs in earths atmosphere.
Consequences of global warming :
(i) Increase in the sea level : Global warming will
melt polar ice caps.
If all the ice on the earth will melt water would be
added to surface of all oceans. Thus low lying coastal
cities like Shanghai, Kolkata, Bangkok, Dhaka, Venice,
etc. will be inundated.
(ii) Increase in global temperature : f present input
of GHGs wi ll be conti nued, the earth s gl obal
temperature will rise.
(iii) Effect on agriculture : Grain production will be
reduced. Indias annual monsoon rains may even
cease together. One third of global forest might be
swept away. Deserts are likely to increase
(iv) Chances of hurricanes, cyclones and floods will
be more.
64 BIOLOGY_IJSO_PAGE # 64
(v) Increased temperature and humidity caused by
global warming will lead to spread of diseases like
malaria, filariasis etc. due to spread of vectors.
Incidences of respiratory and skin diseases are likely
to increase.
Acid rain : The term was coined by Robert August
(1872). Acid rain is rainfall and other forms of
precipitation with a pH of less than 5. pH of normal
rain is 5.6 6.5. The most acidic rain has occured
over West Virginia U.S.A. with a pH of 1.5. Acids from
atmosphere are deposited over earth in two forms,
wet and dry. Wet deposition occurs through rain, snow
and fog. Dry deposition is settling down of wind blown
acidic gases and particles over trees, various articles
and soil. About 50% of acidity is passed to earth as
dry deposition. Rainfall will wash it down from trees
and other articles. Acid rain is caused by large scale
emission of acidic gases into the atmosphere from
thermal power plants, industries and automobiles.
The common ones are sulphur dioxide, nitrogen
oxides (NO
X
), volatile organic carbons (VOCs) and
hydrogen chl ori de. NO
X
are al so produced i n
atmosphere through lightning. Sulphur dioxide and
nitrogen oxides are changed in the atmosphere into
sulphuric acid and nitric acid by combining with oxygen
and water.
2SO
2
+ O
2
2SO
3
; SO
3
+ H
2
O H
2
SO
4
2NO + [O] N
2
O
5
; N
2
O
5
+ H
2
O 2HNO
3
Surface run off
Air Pollutants
SO , NOx
Acid Precursors
2
Transport and change,
Complex oxidation
reactions
Acid rain, snow or fog
Buildings
and
monuments
Urban
areas,
Pollution source
Direction of wind flow and acid rain path
H SO HNO
2 4
,
3
Acid rain, snow or fog
River
ecosystem Lake ecosystem
Forest ecosystem
Urban area,
power plants,
vehicles, etc
Clouds
Clouds
Acid rain formation
Acid rain damages plants by direct effect on foliage
and growi ng poi nts (eg chl orosi s, necrosi s,
defoliation, dieback.) It causes leaching of essential
minerals of soil. Toxic minerals left in the soil further
kill the plants. 50% of natural forests have been
destroyed by acid rain in Germany, Sweden, north east,
U.S.A., Romania, Poland, etc. Acid rain has also ruined
fresh water reservoirs of most industrialised countries.
Acidity dissolves toxic metals like Hg, Pb, Zn, Al. Both
acidity and toxic metals kill all types of aquatic life
except some algae and fungi. Acid rain corrodes
metals, marble, painted surfaces, slate, stone, etc.
The phenomenon is called stone leprosy.
OZONE DEPLETION
Between 20 and 26 km above the sea level it occurs
ozone layer and the part of atmosphere containing it
is called ozonosphere (Stratosphere).
This layer is established due to an equilibrium
between photo dissoci ati on of ozone by UV
radiations and regeneration of ozone.
The thickness of this ozonosphere averages 5 km.
The ozone layer acts as a shield and absorbs the
harmful UVradiations of the sunlight so protects the
earths biota from the harmful effects of strong UV
radiations. So this layer is very important for the survival
and existence of life on earth.
(a) Causes of Thinning of Ozone Layer :
The decline in spring layer thickness is called ozone
hole.
Ozone hole is largest over Antarctica and was just
short of 27 million sq. km. during Spetember 2003.
Main chemicals responsible for destruction of ozone
layer are : chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halogens
(used in fire extinguishers) methane and nitrous oxide.
Out of these, most damaging is the effect of CFCs
65 BIOLOGY_IJSO_PAGE # 65
which are a group of synthetic chemicals and are used
as coolants in refrigerators and air conditioners; as
cleaning solvents, propellants and sterilants etc.
These CFCs produce active chlorine (Cl and ClO
radicals) in the presence of UVradiations. These
active chlorine radicals catalytically destroy ozone and
convert it into oxygen.
Cl + O
3
ClO + O
2
ClO + O
3
Cl + 2O
2
Nitrous oxide : It is produced by industrial processes,
forest fi res, solid waste disposal , spraying of
insecticides and pesticides, etc. Methane and nitrous
oxide also cause ozone destruction.
(b) Effects of Ozone Depletion :
The thinning of ozone layer results in an increase in
the UV radiations (in the range of 290 320 nm)
reaching the earths surface. It is estimated that a 5
per cent loss of ozone results in a 10 per cent increase
in UV radiations. These UV radiations :
(i) Increase incidences of cataract and skin cancer.
(ii) Decrease the functioning of immune system : due
to killing of melanin producing cells of the skin.
(iii) nhibit photosynthesis in most of phytoplanktons
so adversely affect the food chai ns of aquatic
ecosystems.
(iv) Damage nucleic acids of the living organisms.
Ozone
shield
Atmosphere
Hole over Antarctica
Ultraviolet radiation
from sun
(c) Measures to Control Air Pollution :
Barium compounds should be mixed with petrol which
reduce the smoke.
It is also very essential to check the quality of gases
released from the factories.
Industries should not be established at one place.
The smoke should be released into the atmosphere
after filtration and purification (by cyclone collector or
electrostatic precipitators).
WATER (HYDROSPHERE)
It is a renewable resource which is essential for
sustainance of life.
It covers 3/4th of the earths surface.
Of the total water present in hydrosphere 97% is
present in oceans which is not utilizable by living
beings.
Only 3% water is fresh water. Among this 3%, 02.0%
in Ice caps, 0.68% in Ground Water, 0.009% in
Freshwater lakes, 0.009% in Salt lakes and 0.0019%
in Atmosphere is present.
(a) Types of Water Resources :
(i) Fresh water resource : t consists of ponds, lakes,
large rivers. t can be recycled. It is essential for life on
earth as well as for survival. It can be obtained by
three different types of natural resources.
(A) Rain water : ndia receives 3 trillion m
3
of water
from rainfall or precipitation. Its intensity is different in
different zones, on this basis zones are classified as :
Wet zone : with very high rainfall
ntermediate zone : with heavy rainfall
Semi arid zone : with moderate rainfall
Arid zone : with low rainfall.
(B) Surface water :
These are major river systems with plenty of lakes &
ponds etc.
(C) Ground water :
t is the water which percolate into the ground. There
is a certain level below the soil surface where the
rocks are saturated with water and this level is known
as the zone of saturation.
66 BIOLOGY_IJSO_PAGE # 66
The upper level of the zone of saturation is called the
water table. However, the vertical distance from the
surface of a region to the water table is called the
water level.
(ii) Salt water resource : t consists of oceans, seas
etc. It cannot be used by living beings for drinking.
(b) Role of Water or Hydrosphere :
Water is the main constituent of protoplasm.
It is the universal solvent. Through which mineral salts
are transported from one part of the plant to the other.
Various metabolic reactions take place in the medium
containing water.
It acts as a reactant in numerous metabolic reactions.
During photosynthesis, water releases oxygen.
Turgidity of the growing cells is maintained with water.
Various movements of plant organs like movements in
sensitive plant (touch-me-not) are controlled by water.
The growth of the cells during elongation phase mainly
depends upon absorption of water.
Metabolic end product of respiration is water.
It acts as a temperature buffer as its specific heat is
highest (only exception - liquid ammonia).
It shows the properties of cohesion and adhesion
which account for the capillary action of water.
(c) Water Pollution :
The water pollution is the addition of organic and
i norgani c chemi cal s as wel l as the bi ol ogi cal
materials which change the physical and chemical
properties of water.
The water pollution is caused by many sources such
as sewage matter, industrial wastage, agricultural
wastage, domestic wastage, hot water of thermal
plants and nuclear reactors etc. Water pollution can
be caused by the following man made sources :
(i) Household detergents : The household detergents
i ncl ude the compounds of phosphate, ni trate,
ammonium and alkylbenzene sulphonate etc. harmful
substances which are gathered in water. Alkyl benzene
sulphonate (ABS) is not degradable, so that its
concentration increases which is harmful for aquatic
life.
Control measures : For the control of this pollution
lime, ferric chloride etc. are used to precipitate the
phosphate. Zirconium is considered best for this
purpose.
(ii) Sewage : Sewage contains highest amount of
organic materials and biological materials.
These organic materials increase the number of
decomposers like bacteria and fungus.
The acceleration of microbial activity increases the
BOD of water. BOD is very less in pure water.
The higher BOD (Biological oxygen demand) is the
indication of water pollution and the water of polluted
reservoir can not be utilized and produces a very bad
smell spreading around the locality.
The infection or disease also takes place. Daphnia
and some fishes are sensitive to water pollution and
show the intensity of water pollution.
Control measures : To control the water pollution of
sewage water it should be left into reservoir after the
primary and secondary treatment.
The big particles are mainly separated in primary
treatment through floatation and sedimentation.
Micro organisms are used for secondary treatment
such as oxidation chamber or activated sludge
process.
Oxidation chamber is a shallow reservoir in which
the sewage is stored.
Algae and bacteria grow very well because of the
higher amount of organic materials in it.
Bacteria decomposes the organic materials and
produce CO
2
which is utilized by the algae in
photosynthesis.
Oxygen released by photosynthesis protects the water
pollution. Therefore oxidation pond is the good
example of symbiosis in between algae and bacteria.
The infectious bacteria are destroyed during the
activity (reactions) in the oxidation pond. So that the
simple substances are left after decomposition of
organic matter.
(iii) Industrial wastes : The wastes of industries are
discharged into the running water, rivers and canals,
Industrial wastes mainly contain inert suspended
particles such as dust, coal, toxins like acid, base,
phenols, cyanides, mercury, zinc etc., inorganic
materials like ferrous salts, sulphides, oils and other
residues of organic material and hot water.
The water polluted by mercury, lead etc. causes
disorganization of nervous system.
It means it produces insanity. The minamata disease
caused in Japan by eating of mercury polluted fishes.
So many people died because of this disease.
Control measures : The industrial wastes and toxic
components should be made pure before releasing
into rivers, lakes, ponds or sea .So that the water
pollution of industrial effluents can be controlled by
suitable treatment to remove the pollutants.
Bioaccumulation of pesticides : Pesticides like DDT
are poisonous chemicals sprayed on crops to protect
them from pests and diseases.
This increase in concentration of harmful non-
biodegradable chemical substances in the body of
living organisms at each trophic level of a food chain
is called biological magnification.
Eutrophication : The discharge of sewage water and
detergents in water bodies promotes excessive growth
of phytoplanktons (minute aquatic algae).
This excessive growth causes reduction in oxygen
level of water. The excessive growth of phytoplanktons
brings about a reduction in dissolved oxygen which
affects other aquatic organisms. Consequently
potential sources of food are highly reduced.
67 BIOLOGY_IJSO_PAGE # 67
LITHOSPHERE
Lithosphere is the main life supporting system. Top
layer of earth is called soil. It is the main natural
resource essential for survival and development.
(a) Structure and Formation of Soil :
Soil is formed due to interaction between weathering
of rocks, rai n, wi nd, temperature (physi cal
components) and plants, animals and microbes
(biological components).
It is formed by combined action of climatic factors such
as temperature, rainfall, light etc. and biotic factors
such as plants and microbes on earth crust.
(b) Constituents of Soil :
Soil contains :
(a) Inorganic constituents of parent rocks
(b) Organic products of living organisms
(c) Living organisms including microorganisms
(d) Air in the pores.
There are four important components of soil. They
are
(i) Mineral matter 5060%
(ii) Organic matter 10%
(A) Living organisms
(B) Decomposed matter
(iii) Soil water 25 35 %
(iv) Soil air 1525 %
(c) Types of Soil :
On the basis of its nature and composition, soil is
mainly of six types
(i) Alluvial soil : rich in loam and clay.
(ii) Black soil which has clay.
(iii) Red soil : which is sandy to loam.
(iv) Mountain soil which is a stony and sandy soil.
(v) Desert soil which is sandy.
(vi) Laterite soil which has porous clay.
Outer most layer of earth is called crust. Many types of
minerals are found in crust. They provide many types
of nutrients to living beings.
(d) Factors / Processes Responsible for
Formation of Soil :
(i) Sun : Rocks get expanded due to heat produced by
sun during day time. At night, the rocks cool down and
contract. Due to thi s unequal expansi on and
contraction of rocks, cracks in rocks appear. This leads
to formation of smaller pieces of rocks.
(ii) Water : Due to continuous movement of rain and
fast flowing river water, rock pieces collide and break
down in still finer particles due to their abrasive effect.
(iii) Wind : Wind has abrasive effect on rocks. Finer
rock particles are blown away and get deposited at
other distant places.
(iv) Living organisms : The step of weathering is
brought about by plants and animals. Lichens are
first to appear on bare rocks. They produce acids
which corrode the rocky surface to produce fine
particles. Now plants like mosses can appear on it. In
such type of soil, certain microbes, algae, insects and
worms appear and di e. Organi c matter gets
accumulated. Roots of some plants grow into the
cervices of rocks.
(e) Soil Pollution :
Soil is also polluted through the polluted water and air.
These pollutants are mixed into the soil through the
rainy water. Such as H
2
SO
4
acid is formed by mixing of
SO
2
with rainy water in the air.
The fertilizers are used to increase yield of the
crops.Various types of pesticides and weedicides etc.
are sprayed over the crops. All these mixed with soil
to produce harmful effects.
The growth of plants inhibited or reduced due to this
type of pollution and sometimes death also takes
place. Excluding to these soil pollution is also caused
by the disposal of house hold detergents, sewage,
flowing oils, radioactive substances and hot water etc.
The main substances of pesticides in soil pollutants
are D.D.T. and weedi cides 2, 4 D (2, 4 di
chlorophenoxy acetic acid) 2, 4, 5T (2, 4, 5, tri
chlorophenoxy acetic acid).
Control measures : Soil pollution can be controlled
through biological degradation of waste materials.
The various carbonic materials are of agricultural
waste, cattle dung etc.which can be minimized by the
use of biogas plants which can produce energy also.
Inspite all measures pesticides and weedicides
should be used in limited quantity only when they are
required.
Bhopal GasTragedy is the best example of human
hazard which took the life of many persons the tank of
methyl isocyanate burst during the manufacturing of
Savin insecticide on 3rd December 1984.
(f) Soil erosion :
Fertility of soil depends on
(A) Presence of organic matter (humus) and nutrients,
(B) Capacity of soil to retain water and air.A loamy soil
is the best - suited for plant growth.
The fertility of soil is threatened due to various activities
of humans. The main threat to the fertility of soil is
from soil erosion, which is the loss of soil due to wind
or water flow.
Methods of Preventing Soil Erosion : Prevention of
soil erosion can be brought about by controlling the
factors which cause soil erosion. The methods would
thus be as follows :
Deforestation should be stopped, rather, trees should
be planted (afforestation). Afforestation should be
undertaken not only in areas already cut , but additional
areas should be brought under plantation.
To reduce the effect of strong wind in the fields, the
boundaries of the fields should be planted with trees
in two or three rows.
To maintain the soil in its natural condition, it is
advisable to grow different crops. Crop rotation helps
to maintain the fertility of the soil. The water - holding
capacity of the soil is also maintained by this method.
Proper drainage and irrigation arrangements should
be made in the fields.
On the sloping areas in hills, strip cropping (means
the planting of crops in rows or strips to check flow of
water). should be practised, thereby reducing the
steepness of the slopes and checking soil erosion.
68 BIOLOGY_IJSO_PAGE # 68
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
These are the cyclic pathways through which chemical
elements move from environment to organisms and
back to the envi ronment. The earth and i ts
environment, with reference to these elements, are
considered as closed system and there is no inflow
of such elements from outside the earth and their
amount is limited.
Two types of biogeochemical cycles are :
1. Gaseous cycles 2. Sedimentary cycles
Characters Gaseous cycles
Sedimentary
Cycles
Reservoir pool Air or water Rocks
Speed Faster Slower
Examples
Carbon, nitrogen
& oxygen cycles
Calcium,
phosphorous
& sulphur cycles.
Differences between gaseous & sedimentary cycles.
(a) Water Cycle :
Water is the most abundant (6090%) component of
protoplasm.It acts as a habitat for hydrophytes & many
aquatic animals, a good ionizer, good solvent,
temperature, buffer and perform transportation of
materials. It also helps in digestion of organic
compounds & in photosynthesis of plants.
Water Cycle
Types of water cycles are :
(A) Global water cycle : It does not involve living
organisms and involves the interchange of water
between the earths surface and the atmosphere via
the processes of precipitation and evaporation.
Ocean is the biggest store house of water.
Evaporation involves the conversion of liquid and solid
forms of water into vapours and later form the clouds.
Precipitation involves the rainfall, hail, snow, etc.
Energy for global water cycle is provided by sunlight.
(B) Biological water cycle : t is the interchange of
water between abiotic and biotic components of
environment
e.g. the plants absorb water from water bodies and
soil while loose most of the water by the process of
transpiration, animals consume water from water
bodies or the food ingested, while release water via
the processes of respiration and excretion.
(b) Nitrogen Cycle :
Nitrogen is an essential component of amino acids,
protei ns, enzymes and nucl ei c aci ds of the
protoplasm.Reservoir pool of nitrogen is atmosphere
which contains about 78.08% of nitrogen in gaseous
state. But it cannot be used directly and is changed
into nitrites and nitrates and then utilized.
69 BIOLOGY_IJSO_PAGE # 69
Steps of nitrogen cycle are :
(A) Nitrogen fixation : It involves the conversion of free diatomic nitrogen (N
2
) into nitrites and nitrates.t occurs in
three ways :
Physical nitrogen fixation :
Atmospheric nitrogen fixation in the presence of
photochemical and electrochemical reactions induced
by thundering and lightning.
Industrial nitrogen fixation in the industries at high
temperature and high pressure.
Biological nitrogen fixation :
Biological nitrogen fixation occurs in the presence of
certain living organisms such as.
Rhizobium bacterium in the root nodules of legumes.
Azotobacter bacterium in the soil.
Anabaena (blue green algae) in water in the paddy
fields.
Azospirillum bacterium in loose association with the
roots of maize, sorghum, etc.
(B) Ammonification : t involves the decomposition of
proteins of dead plants and animals to ammonia in
the presence of ammonifying bacteria like Bacillus
ramosus.
(C) Nitrification : It involves the oxidation of ammonia
to nitrites (NO
2

) and nitrates (NO


3

) in the presence of
nitrifying bacteria like Nitrosomonas (Ammonia to
nitrite), Nitrobacter (Nitrite to nitrate), etc.Plants absorb
the nitrites and nitrates from the soil through their roots
and convert them into organic compounds (e.g.
proteins) of protoplasm by the process called nitrogen
assimilation.
(D) Denitrification : t involves reduction of ammonium
compounds, nitrites and nitrates to mol ecul ar
nitrogen in the presence of denitrifying bacteria like
Thiobacillus denitrificans.
Carbon Cycle : Carbon is the basic component of all
the organic compounds like carbohydrates, proteins,
lipids, enzymes and nucleic acid of the protoplasm.
In atmosphere, it is present as carbon dioxide.
It involves two types of processes, one involving CO
2
utilization and another involving CO
2
production.
They are expressed as follows :
70 BIOLOGY_IJSO_PAGE # 70
(i) CO
2
utilization : Carbon dioxide is utilized by the
photosyntheti c organi sms l i ke green pl ants,
photosynthetic bacteria, diatoms and blue green algae
in the process of photosynthesis, t occurs in the
presence of chl orophyll and radiant energy of
sunlight.Glucose synthesized in photosynthesis is
used to synthesize other organic compounds.
(ii) CO
2
production :
CO
2
is released during respiration of both producers
and consumers.
During decomposition of organic compounds of dead
bodies.
During burning of fossil fuels like wood, coal, petro
leum, etc.
Volcanic eruptions and hot springs.
During weathering of rocks by acids produced by
microorganisms and roots of higher plants.
(d) Oxygen Cycle :
Oxygen is present in water and forms 20% of air in
atmosphere.
All living beings need it for respiration. Oxygen content
of atmosphere has remained constant for the last
several million years.
Most of O
2
is replenished by photosynthesis. During
photosynthesis CO
2
is used by plants to form food
along with release of oxygen.
The oxides can be reduced both chemically and
biologically to produce oxygen. Microbial oxidation can
also occur.
Due to burning of materials oxygen form carbon
dioxide.
When oxygen combines with nitrogen, it forms oxides
of nitrogen, amino acids, proteins etc.
71 BIOLOGY_IJSO_PAGE # 71
OBJECTIVE DPP - 16.1
1. Soil is a part of
(A) atmosphere (B) lithosphere
(C) hydrosphere (D) ionosphere
2. Maximum air in which we breath is present at
(A) troposphere (B) stratosphere
(C) ionosphere (D) mesosphere
3. Corrosion of statues and monuments occurs due to :
(A) Photochemical smog (B) CO
(C) Acid rain (D) Methane
4. Lichens indicate pollution by :
(A) O
3
(B) SO
2
(C) NO
2
(D) CO
5. Pollutant released by jet planes is :
(A) Fog (B) Aerosol
(C) Smog (D) Colloid
6. Thickness of ozonosphere is -
(A) 3km. (B) 7km.
(C) 5cm. (D) 5km.
7. Soil erosion can be prevented by
(A) deforestation
(B) afforestation
(C) overgrazing
(D) removal of vegetation
8. A renewable source of energy is
(A) petroleum (B) coal
(C) nuclear fuel (D) trees
9. Percentage of nitrogen in air is
(A) 77.02 % (B) 78.09 %
(C) 76.08% (D) 74.09%
10. Ozone layer is present in atmosphere in
(A) troposphere (B) stratosphere
(C) mesosphere (D) thermosphere
11. Nodules in the roots of legume plants contain
(A) nitrogen fixing bacteria
(B) sulphur fixing bacteria
(C) potassium fixing bacteria
(D) none of the above
12. Which gas is mainly responsible for the depletion of
ozone layer ?
(A) Oxygen (B) CFC
(C) Nitrogen dioxide (D) All of the above
13. Acid rain mainly contains
(A) nitric acid (B) hydrochloric acid
(C) sulphuric acid (D) (A) and (C) both
14. Plants and animals are known as
(A) biotic resources (B) abiotic resources
(C) machines (D) none of these
15. Coal is an / a
(A) exhaustible resource
(B) inexhaustible resource
(C) potential resource
(D) none of these
16. Ozonosphere occurs at height of
(A) 8 10 km above poles
(B) 8 10 km above equator
(C) 20 26 km above the earth surface
(D) 11 16 km above equator
17. Biosphere is made of
(A) living beings and their remains
(B) living beings, lithosphere, hydrosphere and
atmosphere
(C) living beings and lithosphere
(D) living beings, lithosphere and hydrosphere.
18. Free living bacteria involve in nitrogen fixation
(A) Rhizobium (B) Azotobacter
(C) Anabaena (D) Azospirillum
19. Which one of the following is renewable resource ?
(A) Water (B) Metals
(C) Fossil fuel (D) All of these
20. Which gas is responsible for the global warming
(A) O
2
(B) N
2
(C) H
2
(D) CO
2
21. Biogeochemical cycles are also known as
(A) sedimentary cycles (B) gaseous cycles
(C) material cycles (D) cycles of water
22. Which of the following is a free living nitrogen fixing
bacteria present in soil ?
(A) Azotobacter (B) Nitrosomonas
(C) Rhizobium (D) Pseudomonas
23. CO
2
and O
2
balance in atmosphere is due to
(A) photosynthesis
(B) respiration
(C) leaf anatomy
(D) photorespiration
24. Nitrogen fixation is -
(A) Nitrogen Nitrite
(B) Nitrogen nitrates
(C) Nitrogen Amino acid
(D) Both A and B
25. Ozone depletion in stratosphere would result in :
(A) Forest fires
(B) Increased incidence of skin cancer
(C) Global warming
(D) None of the above

72
ANSWER KEY IJSO_PAGE # 72
ANSWER KEY
Force and Newtons law of motion
Que. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Ans. C D A C A B B C C B A B D A ACD
Que. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Ans.
B C C C C C B D A A A C C D B
Que. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
Ans. B B B A D C B C B A A C B D A
Que. 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
Ans.
C A B D A A D D CD D A A D C B
Que. 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75
Ans. A,C C A,B B A B B A C C D C B D C
Que. 76
Ans. A
MOLE CONCEPT(CHEMISTRY)
Ques. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Ans. B C D B C B A D A B B D B C B
Ques. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Ans. A A A A A B A A D A A A D A D
Ques. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
Ans. D C C B C B C D A B C A C D A
Ques. 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
Ans. B B C C C C B C B A A D C A D
Ques. 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75
Ans. C D A B A B C A D B C B C B D
Ques. 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
Ans. A A C A A D B D B C B C C D D
Ques. 91 92 93 94
Ans. A D C A
POLYNOMIALS (MATHEMATICS)
Q. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans. A B D B D A B B C B
Q. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans. D B D B B C B B A A
Q. 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Ans. D D D B D B C A B A
Q. 31 32 33 34
Ans. C D C B
NATURAL RESOURCES(BIOLOGY)
Q. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
A. B A C B B D B D B B A B D A A C B B A D
Q. 21 22 23 24 25
A. C A A D B
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